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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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lists of online resources. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. and services. Amy Davey. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. will be available in early 2007. Carlos Oliveira. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. have supported this research from the beginning. Operitel’s CEO. the second in the series. Thanks. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. Pamela Fragomeli. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. Jennifer McDowell. Karen Anderson. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. Grant Hamilton. Pierre Cahorn. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report. Lise Bye.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. along with an index. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. I have provided links to online learning examples. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. The first report. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. technology. Karen. editing. None of this would have been possible if my wife. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. and support at all points of my career. A third report.

A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision.” Starting in the first century AD. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. many different ways to learn. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. to quote Donald Norman (1993). visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. detentions. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. even if the originator of the words is not present. “things that make us smart.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. and recess. material. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. or device that extends human abilities. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. or “reader. Schools were started to teach accounting. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Technologies are any technique. with rows. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. that lecturing. With these reforms. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. class periods. in fact. is a 2000 year old “technology. Learning became standardized and linear.just the ability to follow an example. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. for example. A third way to learn is by seeing. Medieval universities followed the same practice. There are. They are. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. and language for communication. the raising of hands.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. The modern classroom. fire for warmth and cooking. linear teaching techniques online. the classroom became industrialized. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. still used in many institutions of higher education. Do not reproduce 3 . But learning technologies have a much longer history. We tend to forget. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. as books were scarce.

Sadly. However. and standards. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. When a new technology is introduced. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Thomas Watson. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires.” Similarly. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. and reciting. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. At the same time. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. frameworks. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Rather than pages.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. 2006). It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. moving pictures (films). For example.” In 1970. Eventually. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). it needs to adhere to architectures. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. as this is a non-technical guide. in 1876 someone at Western Union. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. chairman of IBM. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. memorizing. When a new technology first comes into use.Students in these schools learned by reading. 2006). stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. changing the practice of teaching. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. the early days of computer networking. Like all new technologies. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking.

> > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. 2005. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. Do not reproduce 5 .free. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.org). The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. For example.org) has a number of published documents that. January. Number 3.imsglobal. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. presentation and interactive environments. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.fr/publication. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. In particular. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable.accessgrid. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. php). They provide location independence. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.

oclc. http://purl. interactive learning components. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.taken together. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. http://www.is based on open. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.ieee.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. This is especially true for adult education.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . Instead. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .” In late 2005. Major specifications for e-learning. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. http://sourceforge. In Europe. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. and education administration. research.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. In business.aicc. Instead of just providing courses. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). and makes extensive use of XML. Rather. They noted that “…in education. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. http://imsproject.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). enabling the search for content. While packaged courses still have a place. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. Bollier says.elframework. reinforces this theme. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.adlnet. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. http://ltsc. At the same time. “[a] pull economy . could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. http://www.

and Votis. M. mobile devices. R.. Bryan (2006). Ahmad. R. Italy. For example. M. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. Z. (2005).. ambient networks. McClatchey. Weiss. 2005).. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. October. and a bibliography. Chrysostalis. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.. those learners are now keeping their own records. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.. Montreal. New York: Hyperion. Ali.com/wired/archive/12. Zanichelli... http://ewic. Bertolazzi. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Umer. A.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. G. along with selected examples. 2004). Bibliography Abbas. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners.. and wearable computers. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. UK. 19. 16. F.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. http://www. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.ntnu. Moreover. M. Switzerland. I hope you will find it useful. David (2005). Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. http://www. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Odeh. S.. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. http://www.pdf Anderson. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. 2004. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. User-created content. Wales. Chris (2004).educause. K. As Anderson (2004. The Long Tail. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . 41(2). N. Chris (2006). Sept. and McGinnis (2004). online resources. the reader can approach any topic in any order. often placed in repositories as open source content or software.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Milan. M.. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Web 2.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.cscsi. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Thus.amazon. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. is becoming commonplace. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. and Conte. (2002). In the last chapter. Giotopoulos.DC/0502051 Alexander. M. June 2005. M. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1.. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.bcs. http://www. March/April 2006. Nov. 2006) has argued. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Five years ago. F.org/abs/cs. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments...idi. http://arxiv. Lausanne. (2005). Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. T.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Wired Magazine. K. http://www. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. Cardiff. From this.1 0/tail.html Anderson.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. 2002. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies.wired. Reggiani.htm Bollier.pdf Bogonikolos. Likothanassis.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 12(10).

amazon. 13. Web Services ..asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. of Education and Training. Portugal. R.cancore. 4-36. Education. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Madison. Lausanne. J.ICALT 2001. January 2005. Australia. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.. 2.cti.xml. 2004. and McGreal.gov. Tsiatsos. L.html Hagel.. and Borck. J. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.virtual. Oct. http://www. Proceedings. Online.act. Dec. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). 2002 http://ewic.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . NJ: Prentice-Hall. N. Infoworld. I.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa.. http://www.html Hockemeyer. March 2002. Green.gmu.aspeninstitute. Stephen (2004). 1026-1032. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Perth. 30. C. (2001). (2005). Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. for the Australian Dept.ascilite. American Jrnl. of Distance Education 10..1109/CIT. J. Working paper. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .html Kong. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. J. G. (1996).devshed.pdf Millea. 2003. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. http://www.bcs. Sept. 14-16. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.com. WI.. http://www.org/celda2005/index. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. (2005).ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. Porto. http://cde.. Athabasca University. Luo.computer.Dev Shed..iadis.au Limited.pdf Erl. 13-16.edu/pdf/ajde. Erlanger. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1.pdf Friesen. 6-8.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.S.networking technology. International E-Learning Specifications. 2001. C. Norm (2006). USA. ThoughtWorks White paper.johnhagel.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.2005.xml&DOI=10. http://ru6. and Putland.det. A field guide to software as a service.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.asp Chatarji. Aug. http://www. http://www. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.athabascau. Triantafillou. Switzerland. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. T. and Zhang. 2005.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. http://www. Jagadish (2004). E. Sept. and Brown. (2005). V.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Thomas (2004). and Albert.htm Hohpe. W.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research .org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Upper Saddle River. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. http://www. J. http://www. (2002).infoworld. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.xml. Centre for Distance Ed. D. http://www. http://www. G. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. T. (2002). (2005).5 6 Marshall. http://csdl2.org. Gregor (2005). C. http://www.pdf Knorr. Stefano (2005).ca/protocols_en. pdf He.pdf Cerri.co m/docs/SOA_World. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. April 18.com/paper_pushpull. Hao (2003). Hornig.

V. C. (2003).. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. H. Research report. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid.acten. April 26-27.R. (2006). e-portfolios.bcs. Learning Solutions. http://www.ac. (2004). J. Library+information Show. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. pp.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. Aalderink. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology.pdf Werkhoven. http://www. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. http://www. http://www.): Proceedings.astd. http://www. M. (Eds. In W. and Weggen. M.pdf Norman.. April 1. Samuel (2006). Reflective learning. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. T. R. ICWL 2003.alt.com/publications. and Jarke..pdf Pierre. http://www-i5.alt. J. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. May 15. V. Birmingham.aifb. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.aspx Yang. ACTeN E-Content Report No.unikarlsruhe. Mashups. (2005).rwthaachen. and Geys.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. C. http://www. 2006. SCORM and the Learning Grid..28 April 2004. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. 193–205..org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2. Donald (1993). and Vossen.Neumann.edu. Rhonda (2006). 2006. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. Stuttgart.iis. Hambrecht and Co.sinica. (2000). Cambridge.. UK. and Oliveira. M.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. G.informatik. 27 . C. Berlin: Springer. G.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. W. http://www. Harvey. R.pdf Urdan. future thinking: digital repositories.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.amazon. 9. http://www. W. MA: Perseus.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. (2005). Feijen.pdf Spaniol. G. Peter (2004). Germany.pdf Roberts. F. http://ewic. and Wade. 911-928.pdf Do not reproduce 9 .amazon. Klamma. Dublin. Cook. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. 21. (2003). 2005.pdf Woodill.ac. Zhou et al. and Ho.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. S. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Trinity College.operitel. Lee. http://www.

Included are related terms. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . online resources to learn more about each technology.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. and a bibliography for each section. selected elearning related examples. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.

http://www.. UK.sricbi.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. Without the ability to understand emotions. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. posture. too.cs.co. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.bham. accuracy.” http://www. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. http://www. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. gestures.mit.” (Anolli.html Do not reproduce 11 .it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. In online therapy. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. or sad. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. speech patterns mainstream. For example. keystroke patterns.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.ac. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling.media. understand. in Italy. privacy. facial recognition. et al.convo. and react to human emotions..edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. and legality.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. emotions. SRI Consulting (http://www. emotional design. security. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. confused.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. 2005). 2005). Affective Computing.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. and to respond to them effectively.myself-proj. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.

Brave.pdf Goren-Bar. Oregon. CHI 2005 conference. with many resources. and Waterworth. V. (2005).sics. http://www.doc Chateau.. Y. C. UK. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences.. Mantovani. and Morishima. Nakajima. Lee.. I.. J.. (2005). including studies of emotions in computers. Pianesi. Portland. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.. bibliographies. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Balestra. Issue 11/12. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. M.html In Germany. Iwamura.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau.1 2/love. http://www. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. http://www.sics. H.pdf Maldonado.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. and Laaksolahti. CHI 2005 conference. B.org. D. Oregon. April 2-7... C. 2005.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. The Love Machine: building computers that care. P.. and Zouinar. CHI 2005.arizona. Agliati. (2005).informatik. 2005. October 22-24. Yamada. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Pachoud. April 2-7. http://www. K.. (2005). China. N..doc Hook.sics. F..se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye.pdf Diamond. are available online: http://www. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.de/link/affective_port al.wired. (2005). University of Hertfordshire. CHI 2005 conference.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. David (2003). Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. J. Wired Magazine.. September 13. April 2-7. Portland. Bouraoui.dis.. M. Realdon. April 2-7. and Merisol. http://www. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. 2005 http://www.. J. (2005).. Oregon.sics. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. December. April 12-15. Z. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Nass. Vescovo. A. O. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. April 2-7. Zurloni. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. R. A. S.edu/emotion. Portland. Graziola. http://emotion-research.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. H. Isbister. Portland. Nortillaro. Oregon. http://www.pdf Kaye.. I Like It .it/~lhci/009. Hatfield.bartneck.aisb.html Fallman. Rocchi. F. http://www...com/wired/archive/11. Portland. C. Brassac. Oregon. CHI 2005 conference.nsma. Salembier..unitrier.. Joseph (2005).unige. L. listing many links to interesting resources. 2005. B.pdf Interfaces.sics. and Zancanaro. Dr. Portland. Vermersch.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. http://emotion. Stock. April 2-7. and Confalonieri (2005). 2005. D.uniroma1.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. 2005.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. P.. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. K. Oregon. O. J. CHI 2005. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.sics.pdf Cahour. K.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research .

Berlin: Springer. (2005). S. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.ac.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. OR.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. Affective Computing.iste. Ian (1997). Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. Emotional Agents.ruebenstrunk. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.cs.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. University of Birmingham. Affective Computing vs.amazon. April 2-7. R. Oregon. Helena (2005). http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.utokyo. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.pdf Mentis. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.pdf Norman.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. Cambridge.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. http://www. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. (2004). (2005). Paper for WEBIST 2005. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.bham.pdf Ruebenstrunk.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. Portland. Tan. (2005).. Rosalind (1997). http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. CHI 2005 conference. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.uk/research/cogaff /Wright.sics. Miami. and Picard.doc Wright. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M. 2005.HTM Steele.t. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. Oregon. New York: Basic. ACII 2005. http://www. May 26. Gerd (1998).amazon.pdf Masum. CHI 2005. Portland. and Daily.miv. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Oregon. http://www. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. April 2-7. MA: MIT.elearningreviews. 2005. http://www. and Steele. CHI 2005 conference. J. October 22-24. http://www. April 2-7. NJ. (2002). Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.sics.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Donald A. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Erlbaum. Charlotte (2005).ac. http://www. Dec. R.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. CHI 2005. 35(2). http://www. Beijing.stanford. 2005.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. 2005. Regan (2005). S.htm Tao.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. and Ishizuka. L.pdf Mandryk. T. Portland. 2002. http://www. E-book http://www. M. J. 22.thesis. China.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.sics.de/emeocomp/co ntent.sics.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

benevolence. not only about environments. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. 2004) and are. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Third. However. veracity. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online.. 2004). and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. and. et al. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Fourth. In such situations. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. First. useful in educational simulations. and both may be found in the same http://w3. Second.informatik. Agents have beliefs. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. 1999). of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. and many of them can actually learn. see the paper by Far et al. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. 2005). software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. In this context. autonomous agents. proactive (goal directed). Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. but Do not reproduce 15 . Dick Stenmark. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. learning/adaptation. 1999). software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. She made mistakes. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. For example. rationality. 2005.gu. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Mentor. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Viswanath. Katzlberger. A second agent in the simulation. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. therefore. intelligent agents program (for example. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. and the students had to continue to teach her. avatars.

Content Agent 6. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. Student Assistant Agent 4. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. 2000). Therefore.old. go to: http://ritl.ira.csc. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Even though each agent acts independently. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. User Profile Agent.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. They are available as adaptive coaches. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity.redwoodelearning. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. Skills Manager Agent 3. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. acting against other teams of agents. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams.codebaby. Baldi. uses seven different types of agents: 1.ac.netobjectdays. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .also about other agents. 2.fsu.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. go to: http://ldt. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. http://www.liv.editlib.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623. and expert guides. http://www. For details see: www. http://www.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. See the article by Williams et al. (1998) developed a conversational agent. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable.uka. http://www.com/ CodeBaby Corp.extempo.org/index. Massaro et al. Learning Paths Agent 5. http://liinwww.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.stanford. (2004): http://www. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. expert role-players.

Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Thomas (2005). Ali (2002).pdf Kao.educause.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.pdf Guessoum.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004..org/index. http://www. Koono. 2005. In Proceedings.pdf Clarebout. http://www. (2000).ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. J. Jrnl.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. (Ed. Vanderbilt University. (2003). http://www. S.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. (2002). IEEE Distributed Systems Online. Doctoral Dissertation.aace.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. http://www.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. http://www. e-Learning 2005.aace. http://www. Do not reproduce 17 . and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. A. Nashville. (2005). C. http://dl. S. http://www. & Kim. G..pdf Kim. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. 4(1). (2002). S. A. M. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.netobjectdays. Tennessee. Zahia (2004).editlib. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.org/index. and Shaw. (2002). 1659-1666.teachableagents. G. E. C. Ng. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. and Palopoli. & Bengu.editlib. & Lin. In Proceedings. G.). 5(7). http://www. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA.pdf Jafari. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. Hershey.org/newdl/index. 21-38. Nashville. 275-285.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. 10 (3). G. http://www. Paper presented. Learning by Teaching Agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. Sun. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.. 3.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..editlib. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).. Elan.computer. W..isi. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. (2005).org/index. B..org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. Educause Quarterly. Proceedings.editlib. Norfolk. http://csdl. A. Inter-active Learning Res. E-Learning 2003. 267-286 http://www. L. and Ho. 459-462.editlib. L. 11(3). Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. Doctoral Dissertation. In Richards. & Ebbers. Y.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.. No. & Johnson..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Z. Vanderbilt University. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Germany.editlib. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). G.educause. 28(2). J. 1503-1506.. Educause Quarterly. VA: AACE. Y. Johnson. (2003). International Journal on E-Learning. TN.pdf Lin. http://www.University of Southern California. http://www.. 1353-1356. Large Complex Systems. 306-311). E-Learning 2003. Hypermedia. Hypermedia.old. (2003). Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. July.teachableagents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen.org/index. Y.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). S. and Tsang. W. www.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.org/index. Krittaya (2005).editlib. & El-Khouly. and Telecommunications 2003. P.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (1999).edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. www. Clarebout.org/16948 Leelawong. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Erfurt.. 75-80.

org/16968 Sahin. K. G. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. & Lim.lib.. 14(1).. ED-MEDIA 2005. In Richards. 194-201.psu. http://www. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.pdf Menczer. (2005). R. (2004).uni-karlsruhe.org/index. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.http://www.org/index. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . (Ed.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. S. In Proceedings.org/index. Carnegie Mellon University. D.. www. L. Kommers & G. M.ist. Daniel. Beskow. Doctoral Dissertation.indiana.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. (2004).Media 2005. H.de/BIK/vpa/109. M. ED-MEDIA. PA. B.edu/565321. and Núñeza. Biswas.pdf Perez.utexas. M. (1999). A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. of California. http://citeseer. R. June 1-4.. (1999).org/index. In P. 321333. Doctoral dissertation. Wesley. 1415-1420.. M. http://www. http://www. D. http://www.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Doctoral Dissertation. Toulouse. J.aace. 143-162.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Finland. http://www. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. (2006).cse.html Shim.cs. E. S. Atreya. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. L.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. France.informatics. O.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. Adebiyi. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. and Ferneley. Russia. 10 (3). G. Peter (1998).org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/fil/ Padgham. S.amazon. U. and Solomon. Sandel.ogi. ED. http://www..editlib. V.). J. 3169-3176. 17(2). Ferat (2000). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. & Leelawong. Richards (Eds. (2005). and Winikoff. and Higher Education 2004.. Proceedings.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).. Healthcare. G. Proceedings.vt. A.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. (2005). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. & Booth. R. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.editlib.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo.).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 1999.aace. New York: John Wiley & Sons..com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. St.amazon. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. August. V. Petersburg. http://cslu. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.org/newdl/index.cfm?fuse action=Reader.editlib. W.aifb.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. IFIP WG12. Cohen. 1632. (1999). http://dl.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 61-65. and Cole. http://scholar. 1999..editlib. http://www. L. K. Government.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Pittsburgh. (2004).editlib. http://www. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. http://www. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. and Stucky. 47-59. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.K.

Chicago.teachableagents. Paper at CLAG2004.. J.upc. Michael (2002). N.pdf Williams. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. (2004). April 18-21. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. ED-MEDIA 2004. http://ca.html Yan.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Gilbert.org/papers/15 8bis. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . (2004). Chun. http://www.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. In Proceedings.http://www.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. http://research. 3000-3002. M. New York: John Wiley & Sons. & Madsen.. 2004.ac.wiley.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge.org/index.

” Lowe adds that “in some cases. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference.mindworkshop.topshareware. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.. motion graphics depiction. However. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. 2003) Finally. However. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. a static diagram.htm For a selection of over 400.Animation Software Related terms Flash. animations may even prejudice learning.com/alchemy/gi fcon. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Rather.topshareware. producing animations can be very costly. The results of many experiments have been mixed.000 pre-built animated GIFs. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn.” (Huk. produced the best learning results. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.animationfactory. Also. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.05 http://www. Given that.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . et. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. (2003).0 http://www.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. al. like pictures in a flip book. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. coupled with imagining how something worked.

whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.com/gallery/default. go to: http://www. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. animating. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.com Enliven . Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.massivesoftware. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. and rendering tool.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. For information on Flash.catoolkit. http://www. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.macromedia.apple.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).viewpoint.com/dynamics/demov ersion. effects.html Falling Bodies .animationonline. http://faraday.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI . For more information on Shockwave.. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium.com/pub/products/e nliven. http://www. http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www..autodesk.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.” http://www.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.eitechnologygroup.Softimage Co.utoronto. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment.swishzone.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.newtek. Inc.com/products/aftereffec ts/main.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. It is part of Final Cut Studio.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. go to: http://macromedia.animats.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies.adobe. go to: http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.softimage. 2004). http://www.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. animation.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online.physics. http://www.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . http://www. the built-in programming language. To use ActionScript. It animates fall stunts. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. For a free demo.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.html CAT . http://www.com Maya is a high-end modeling.

21(4).. S. http://www. July.aace. Educational Psychology Review. http://dl.pdf Hess.ascilite. C.htm Bibliography Castillo. T. Lehi.learningcircuits. R. (2003).Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Kriz. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://www. Hancock.allworldsoft. Atkinson. and Hess.. C. March 2002. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://esub. 87-99. Phillips (Eds.pdf Lowe. 14(1). and Floto. and Hancock. Flash Interactive Session. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. G. http://www2.com/books_catalog . Learning Circuits. 2003.pdf Toth. go to AllWorldSoft. http://www. Learning Circuits. never too much.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.K. 1046-1048. Steinke.ucsb.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. and Cate. G.ascension-tech. (2004). and Moreno.de/pub/bscw. http://www. M.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software.org/2003/aug2 003/toth. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Learning Circuits.htm Hess. http://www. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. (2002).psych. (1). S. Animation – just enough. and Hancock. S.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. July 18.org.siggraph. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.learningcircuits.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation.. (2004)..html Malheiro. FreeDownloads Center. R. http://www. (2003). ASCILITE Conference. Thomas (2003). 325–360. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003.freedownloadscenter.unihannover.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.htm Huk.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.com. Jonas-Dwyer & R. M.learninglab. Cognition and Instruction. T.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. S. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. http://www.learningcircuits. D.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. R. G. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings.htm Hegarty.rapidintake. C.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. McBeath.org/12937 Mayer. S.. http://projekte.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. (2004). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . (2003). Animation as an aid to multimedia learning.sjsu. July 2004. (2004).

intelligent tutoring. cognitive informatics. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. Nevertheless. data mining. machine learning. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. AI. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. multiagent systems. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. expert systems. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. So far. agents.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning.

in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. While many systems purport to be personalized. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. and the teacher. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. To seem humanlike. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. possibly undeliberate manner. To achieve their goals. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . recommender systems.learning. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. and data mining. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. The reality is that. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. (2003). one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner.. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. Moreover. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. including collaborative filtering.g. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. and Aist et al.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. the subject matter expert.” On the other hand.

Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .unito.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. etc) and how they are interrelated.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al..di. http://www.e.uic.” http://www. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. objects. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.iit. gestures. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://lsa. concepts.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.” http://www. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. 2002).” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. rather than using a single type of knowledge.colorado. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. Talking Head Tutor vs. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. (2005a.cs.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.cs. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.

120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.” http://www.cs.iis.cmu.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. Infrature.pdf Oguejiofor et al.cs.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .edu.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. including student monitoring.library.enel.it. http://ariic. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.sinica.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. see: http://lsa. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. without programming.html Founded in 1988. http://www. Aurora .A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.uc3m.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. question answering (QA) techniques. and engaging. Task Tutor Toolkit . challenging.” http://www. and INFOMAP. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.unsw. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .ucalgary. Inc.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.com/doi/pdf/10.colorado. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.edu. As a result.leaonline.” http://ctat. http://quantumsimulations.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. http://bach.pact.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.kicinger.gast. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. e-commerce.com/index. intelligent conflict resolution.uregina. Stottler Henke Associates. and multiagents. http://www. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories. http://www. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. http://www. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. so that these systems become more realistic.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.infrature. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.

taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.cs.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .” http://www. preferred cadence.org/cfp.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. http://www.org/2000/feb2 000/ong. http://www.cmu.com/s10.learningcircuits.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. skill gaps.pact.ed.autotutor. and learning style.its2006.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.ac.ac. with the next one in 2007.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.licef.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.cs. http://aied.teluq.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. http://www. China.org/AITopics/html/tutor. http://ctat.” http://www. http://aied.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). http://www.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.aaai.inf.inf. and an interactive intelligent tutor.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.ed.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.edu.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. an adaptive testing algorithm. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.ke-corp. http://pact.uquebec.cmu.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. http://www.cs. For more info: http://www2.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.masternewmedia. Taiwan.gemini.uk/aiedsoc.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. The AIED conferences are held every two years. http://www.stottlerhenke.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.usyd.ucalgary. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. see: http://www.ca/eng/inde x.virtuelage.htm Do not reproduce 27 .enel.it.wpi.

Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. and Read.iit.. Reilly. C. B. 482-487. Paraguaçu (Eds. S. E.nccu. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society.1109/ITCC. C.. P. K. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.wpi. and Schwarz. http://www. M. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.pdf Alkhalifa. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Hua. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems..Volume I. (2004). (2005).sis. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. McLaren.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Hershey.unito. Vicari.ht ml Aleven. T. and Maguire.).doi. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. S. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and Penstein Rosé. K. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read.sbg. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www2.cmu.B. I.2005..edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000).J. and Koedinger. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . Ritter. V. M.pdf Baldoni.). (2004). B.pdf Chaffar.edu. C. http://www.technologyreview.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.cs. Maceió. Hermann (2002).. M. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.pdf Brusilovsky... R. 159-165.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. In J.html Barker.Marvin Minsky. (2002).ppt Butz. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. Paraguaçu (Eds. In J. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Mostow.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. and Picard. Eshaa (Ed. http://www. Chicago.ri. Artificial Intelligence Review.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. and Frasson. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). http://dx. http://www. (2004). R. Vicari.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner.) (2006). http://www. M. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. S. Baroglio. http://www. and Douglas. (2004).pitt. Argamon. J..pdf Aleven.. http://www. Peter (2000). V. (2004).edu/pubs/pub_4073. S. PA: Idea. G.html Brusilovsky. http://imlab. (2004). Brazil. C. R. R.uregina. and F.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Roll. V.org/10. http://lingcog.pdf Barcena. Bibliography Aist. http://nth. ITS 2004.pitt.ac.com/printer_f riendly_article. Lester. 22: 3–39. (2004). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research .82 Bhatt. http://www. E. (1997). Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Kobe.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. 6(1).amazon.eurodl. R. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. C..cs.di. C. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. and Patti. Lester. S. & F. Kort. P. In Proceedings. and Evens. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web.

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. (2005). E. A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric Disciplines. R. N. K.71. Patel A. ICCM'03.nl/Conten ts/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeContents . Mccalla.http://infosys.unirostock.ac. M. PA: Information Science. B. and Heffernan. Building..aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. and Evens. A. Breuker. (2004).com/gp/product/3540 002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Martens. http://www2004. Looi. G. http://www.journal.nz/~kinshuk/pape rs/kt97_dmu. Doctoral Dissertation. and Michael. In Proceedings. Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Design-ing. Proceedings of MAICS 2004. Evens. M. Control and Applications conference. V. and Glass.actapress. J.com/gp/product/1591 40729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Mainzer.ieee. and Russell. (2004). E. 4th Edition. Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system. Zongmin (2005). C.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. 1:105633. M.). W.K...edu/pubs/03BRIMS-063. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Proceedings. Pain (Eds. T.127 . Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring system.com/PaperInfo. A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology.pact. C. Berlin: Springer. Hershey. and Evens..com/(pdvzlh5 5zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contribution .pdf Kinshuk. Chicago. Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring Sessions. In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive Modelling.cs. 2004. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió.massey. and mankind. R. J. Lulis.cs.wpi. Hatzilygeroudis..edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04. Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003).cmu. Artificial Intelligence in Education.org/periodical/vol_4_2000 /kinshuk.doc Koutsojannis.iit. In C.com/gp/product/1586 035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis. http://www.1 Lulis.3905. M. (2005).H. (2003). Brazil.html Kodaganallur. Freedman. Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. and Rosenthal.org/proceedings/docs/2p 474. Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.informatik. http://www.. M.booksonline. and Testing Cognitive Models. and Michael. http://www. I. http://springerlink. http://www. G.linkingpublicationresults. http://www.pdf Koedinger. http://ctat.aspx? PaperID=26738 Lulis...de/~martens/Papers/Ma_iccm03. M. R. C. and H. J. (2006). Illinois Institute of Technology.795. Amsterdam: IOS Press. McCalla. Alke (2003a). Evelyn (2005).aspx? PaperID=16278 Lee.amazon.pdf Lee. C. and Prentzas.com/PaperInfo. Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system. J. Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED-2005. (2004). Bredeweg.p df Do not reproduce 31 . E. Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical students. D. Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of matter. mind. Web-based Education Conference. D. http://www. Educational Technology & Society.amazon.pdf Looi. Amsterdam. (2004).H. V.iospress.actapress. Weitz. VersaTutor – Archi-tecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor Generator. M. http://www. (2004). Proceedings. IL. 2000.metapress. Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference.amazon. & Aleven. Evens. 3(4). (2000). http://ifets. Evens. http://nth.. Schaumburg. Klaus (2004). M.

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are already available. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. in the near future. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time.learningandteaching. and documents for assessors to use. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. evaluation. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. samples. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. quizzes. When combined into a “360° evaluation. computer-based assessment tools. making it hard to escape assess-ment. or performance samples. self-evaluation. online assessment.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. for example. Assessment software can generate templates. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. and output. In a business situation. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. For example.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. computer mediated assessment (CMA). Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. 1956). While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. We can expect that. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. However. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. rubrics. the automated scoring of essays. and (4) computer marking. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). aptitudes. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. once only done by a human assessor.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. and psychomotor. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments.info/learni ng/solo. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. quizzes. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. eassessment. affective. More sophisticated forms of automated. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. computer based assessment (CBA). ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model.

epistema. Diploma. http://www.com The Evaluator. http://www. http://www. http://www. multilingual support. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. see: http://www. preview pages for all question types. see: http://lsa.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. Review it at: http://www.” organized by academic discipline. http://nt. institutional evaluation.questionmark.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.com/evaluator Testcraft. and adminis-tration features. check out the Dialang web site. http://www.org/english/index. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.horizonwimba.com/redinq/html/index.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. a customizable look and feel.dialang. and self-study. and past work behaviors.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. For information on latent semantic analysis.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. and services useful for outcomes assessment.0.brainbench. learning tools..rmsuk.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. from Resources Management Services in the U. a completely customizable report engine.redinq. has recently won awards for its performance.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . See more at: http://www.colorado.pedagogue.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. surveys.testcraft.” http://www.org/ ETS. and adaptive question branching. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. on its Web site. http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.com/wwwtools/magazines. http://www. http://www.xstreamsoftware.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.uc.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.K. http://www. For details. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.fasfind. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. http://www.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. reporting.respondus.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry.operitel.flaguide. abilities.ets. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). Find them at: http://www. skills. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.com/news_per formance_analyzer2.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.vantagelearning. personality.

au/assessing learning/03/online.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.unimelb.. Gregory (1973). http://www. with over 1. D. http://www.health. http://school. Ortigosa.edu. M.heacademy.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.org/en/en_mod41. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. Freire.pdf Atherton.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba.learningandteaching. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. http://www.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.wlv.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.tcet. http://www. Explore the links at: http://www. A.ulster.com/029.scit. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning.uk/home. London: Paladin. http://www. http://www.. & Rodríguez. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. Online paper. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.org/research/re views/10_01.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.000 different tests from its database. http://www.” http://www.uka.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.uk/cticomp/CAA. http://www. G. 8 (3).Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too.200 references. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. is available from: http://liinwww. Educational Technology & Society.learnflex.oir. (2005).unt.3 Bateson.ifets.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.info/journals/8_3/6. James (2005).com/schrockguide/ assess.htm Atkinson.quintcareers.ac..com/tools/rubrics. and Davies. (2004).ict4lt.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. P.umuc.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. E.uiuc.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. R.ac. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.ira..rmcdenver. 5365.ac.com/career_asses sment.htm#2.thinkinggear.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.html Bibliography Alfonseca. Obtain a copy at: http://www.tasainstitute. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. http://www. http://www..info/learni ng/solo. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. with a list of 34 strategies.cshe.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.nestafuturelab.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. Carro. Pérez.economicsnetwork. Do not reproduce 37 . M. http://cba.ac. T. http://www.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.discovery.

iltaonline. IEEE Intelligent Systems. Shermis and J. (1997).iltaonline.amazon. Arlington Heights. 2005. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Burstein (Eds. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. V.http://www. Daniel.htm. McNamara. (2003).amazon. IL: Skylight.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. Educational Measurement. Daniel.amazon. Missouri. B. Langu-age Learning and Technology. K. and Marcu. Burstein.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Burstein. (2001). Jill. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. http://www.pdf Biggs. Shermis and J. http://www. New York. Jill.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.pdf. M.assess. and Knight. L. D. (1982).. http://www.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . (1956). Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. New York: McKay. 3rd Edition. http://www. Mexico.com/news/showS toryts. Jill.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.org/intelligent/archives.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. & Leacock. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www. Acapulco. eSchool News. Kevin (2003). (2003). (2002). http://www. Chodorow. (1989). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Marcu. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. Iwashita.msu. http://www.. http://llt. C. NY: Macmillan. August 2003. Online paper. 1. Jill C. and O'Hagan. J. Hillsdale. Inouye. (2001). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. http://www. & Olsen. J. and Hirschman. J.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective.. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Rethink testing for future success.htm Burstein. New York: Academic Press. (2003). Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays..com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. www.amazon. http://www. T. B.amazon.. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. In M. N. and Chodorow. J. Kay (1999).) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. How to Assess Authentic Learning. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Martin.computer. In M.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. K.com/Books/b39739.).cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. S. http://www. and Collis. Ciravegna (Eds.pdf Brown J. C.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. Hillsdale. S. http://www.amazon. New York: Oxford.com/Books/b39739. Robert (2005). In R. St. Burstein (Eds. L..ets. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. Kaplan (Ed. June 22. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. In S.eschoolnews. Linn (Ed. Louis.assess. In the R. A. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Harabagiu and F.

www. Seven technologies for assessment. W. Louis.iltaonline. http://llt. and Howell. Foltz. http://mason.nmsu.soton. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Y.. M. v. (2001). S.msu.. (2002). Writing assessment: a position statement. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Language Learning and Technology.Hershey. K.hlc.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Morgan. Howell. 2.edu. S. (1999). Language Learning & Technology 2. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. N.html Davies. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Loughborough. 5. and Grellett. College Composition and Communication Online. (Ed.amazon. B. University of Tasmania. http://wwwpsych. Micheline.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.softwaresecure.ac. O’Reilly. (Eds. 2. (2005). No. Gardner.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. http://www. v. L. (2004).Proceedings from a Workshop. Laham. New York: Basic Books. Micheline. & Landauer. In Proceedings. Language Learning and Technology.html. Language testing and technology: past and future.unimelb.ncte. Howard (1993). W.) (2005). n.amazon.pdf Hricko. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.ecs. (2001). Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Nathan. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. National Research Council.au/worldcall/str5. and Sclater. http://www.utas. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".doc. PA: Information Science. http://www.nap.gmu. and Parry.html Frase. http://www. T. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault. London: Falmer.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). St. n. Online newsletter. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. D. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.Carr. M. (2004). Millard. Online paper.. http://www. Chalhoub-Deville.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. E.) (1999). D. Lawrence...msu. (2001). Robert. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. C. Board on Testing and Assessment. March 9.html Chalhoub-Deville. EdMedia '99. http://llt. 4.amazon.. C. M. H.msu.com/pdf/Paper Tests. The Student Assess-ment Handbook.pdf Dunkel P. May. http://www.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9.edu.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Online newsletter. http://www. http://eprints. P. (1998).au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. May. P. http://www. (1999). 5.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. 2: 77-93.htm. Howard. http://llt. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. Davis.htm Cebrian.

) (2005). Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. V.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. M. A.Jones. Reports from the Institute of Education. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.pdf Kenyon. Government. Graham.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. National Center for Education Statistics.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.amazon.ed.bc. (2006). Hillsdale.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt.. 259284. (2001). and Malabonga. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. D. B. New York.pdf Landauer. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Mahwah. http://www..LSAintr o. http://www. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .. Compiegne. International Journal on E-Learning. & J. (2005). Information Science Publishing. P. Hardas. and Ma.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education.. T. (1998).com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. and Assessment. http://escholarship. M. 5(2). Weller.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. C.kent. and Gifford.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. (1979). pp. (Ed. M.ed. McArthur. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. Potenza. and Writing. M.. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. H. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Hershey. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. N. S. & Mason. In C. R (2002). http://www. S. 25.. http://nces.) (2000). R. Handbook of writing research. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. 403-416. & Laham. PA: Information Science. http://www. France.colorado. Washington. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. http://www. G. and Watt. Howell.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. D. DC: U. Online Assessment. Self. K. http://lsa. http://eric. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. D. (1999)..edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. W. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. C. and Skinner. Discourse Processes.medianet. http://www. & Leacock. (2006)..pd f Weiner. http://llt. W. http://www. Patrick (2000). Fitzgerald.pdf MacDonlad.gov/pubs2000/2000195. University of Gothenburg. Journal of Technol.html Khan.amazon. Tim (2006).) (2002). Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. and Ward. J.msu. J. Problem Solving. K. http://www. Fremer. (2000). M. (Eds. Howard.S. May.amazon. Y. M. Foltz. 4(6). Measurement and Evaluations. J. D. and Hricko...amazon.. (2005). Learning. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. Language Learning and Technology. (Eds.amazon.proexam.edu/cgi/viewcontent . NY: Guilford Press.amazon. Burstein.edu/papers/dp1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. J. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

com Do not reproduce 41 . http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. Operitel white paper.operitel.

It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. or by “streaming.e. podcasting. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and.e. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. (i. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. Provides feedback to learners. One audio application of interest to educators. compared with even a few years ago. is podcasting.. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. in part. depending on the file size). Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings..Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. You can’t add your own notes. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. while it is playing. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. (2005). (i. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. such as those for iPods. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet.5 megabytes. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. This frag-mentation is being fueled. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. which is gaining in popularity. Provides another channel for material review. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. the rest of the file has time to arrive. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. to personalized media). while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . According to Crofts et al. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . For example. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. Assists non-native speakers.

recording.podcasting-tools.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.com/lipsync/ind ex. including podcasting. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. http://www.apple.audiotoolsdirect. open source software for recording and editing sounds.rds. http://www.com/resources/dc_media. Audio and video software.uk/podcasting/index. http://www.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.thepodcastnetwork.ltd. sound editing. playback.purdue. and other operating systems. enhancing.com/scwmarapr05sonification.ibritt. http://www.envision.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://www. GNU/Linux.scientificcomputing. http://www.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .avsmedia. phrases. http://recap.htm For a list of podcasting tools. tools.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. http://www.com.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. http://64.com/blogs/doug/index. http://www. http://epnweb.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. http://www. http://www.co. CD audio extraction. and broadcasting are all found on this site. or sentences from audio Web sites.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. freeware.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. Microsoft Windows.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. htm RECAP Ltd.masternewmedia. http://sourceforge. and utilities for conversion.48. It is available to download for Mac OS X.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. shareware.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.automaticsync.com/AudioTools/inde x. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. http://www. http://www.elearningcentre.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.71. including software to record and play podcasts.edupodder. DJ mixing. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. go to: http://www.

http://dl. J. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. Brenda (2001).com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists..org/index.learningcircuits.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. N. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. May 20. June 2005.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. and Swenson. Luigi (2005). 417-419).) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. L. and Lomas.scientificcomputing.html Kaplan-Leiserson.unl. http://recap. Scientific Computing World. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.adobe. Chesapeake.uk/articles/podguide. Ray (2005).html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. Healthcare. 2005.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Fox. http://digitalcommons. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.. 10(9). Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Doctoral Dissertation.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. A. Retsema. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). September.html Girvan. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Robin Good’s Blog. Podcasts.html Curtis.bias-inc.educause.h tml Canali De Rossi.com/products/audition/ main.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng.apple. Sound Sense. P. Dion Cory (1999). http://edmarketing. Peter (2005). Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). M. July 2005. http://www. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning.. April 2005. C.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index. Government.editlib. University of Nebraska.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S. http://www.masternewmedia.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. http://www. Learning Circuits. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.htm Jobbings.cakewalk. (2003). Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www.audiolink. VA: AACE. Dilley. Eva (2005). Richards (Ed. Dave (2005). http://www. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.multitrackstudio.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. In G. (2005).ltd. http://www. First Monday.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . http://firstmonday. 45-50. Podcasting and Vodcasting. pdf Noakes. and Williams.aace. B.com/scwmarapr05sonification.sonicfoundry. http://www. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).com/home.

entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. simulations. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. please see http://www.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments.com/publications/emerging/emerging. see: http://www. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. 2005). and Evaluation) processes. in the end. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. For details on each Microsoft product. content development.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Development. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 .s html). 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. No authoring tool does everything. rapid elearning. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects.microsoft. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. In this vein.brandonhall. Further. and. (For details. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Design. As well. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. either directly or with third party tools. Implementation.

http://www.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. hotspots. Builds quizzes. visualization. .htm Bernard D&G .com/presenter.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.htm ActiveSlide. http://www.Designer’s Edge.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.com/ Counterpoint . http://www.activeslide. http://www.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.allencomm.anark. http://www.Thinkcap Studio .com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.thinkingcap. http://presentation. music.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. and images and turn them into 3-D training.com Agile . and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. rich text.copycatsoftware. http://www. http://www.com/products/ Articulate . http://www. http://www.turbodemo.com/index.ilessons. http://www. http://www.Capture Station 2. Flash.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.acroservices. and PowerPoint slides.atlanticlink.bridge-pt.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. pop-up messages. Integrates various media. video.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .com/powerp oint-presentations-index.htm Brainshark Inc. go to: http://www.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.com/ Business Performance Technology .lersus. http://www.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.brainshark.composica. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.com Anark .AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. buttons. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . including the following: Drag-and-drop images.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. htm Composica .Composica Enterprise .accordent. and marketing applications. http://www. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. XML.adobe.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. http://www.uk/contentpoint.info/ Allen Communications .co.elearningpowertools. pointers. video.com/eng/index.Content Point .com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.co.com/ Acroservices . video. www.articulateglobal.Media – Import 3-D Models.asp Bridge People and Technology .

such as the following: Web.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. stand alone . http://www.experiencebuilders.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. audio.e-learningconsulting. http://www.com/index.com Element K . video.com/Solutions/Elearni ng.e2train.digitalworkshop.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. HTML courses.WTDS-Web Training Development System . or Macromedia Flash media presentations.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 . Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.epistema. CD Rom.co. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.sculptoris.com/ Eclipsys Corporation .hunterstone.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .horizonwimba. http://www. http://www.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .com/ Information Transfer . http://www.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.com imc AG .lecturnity. http://www.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .shtml Dynamic Media . http://www. http://www.com/inde x_eng. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.gen21.php e2train .eedo.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. and installation files.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www. without programming knowledge.de/ Impatica .uk/ INTEC . DVD-video.com/products/ Pro.seminar. graphics.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.Digital Workshop .intecllc.impatica. http://www.com/ Hunter Stone .com Imaira Digital Media .dynamicpowertrainer. and animation.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.elementk.com/ Integrated Performance Systems . and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www. Post the characters on any Web site.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. Import rich media and customize graphics.eclipsys. http://www. http://www.com/products/forceten. http://www. http://www.com/ka.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.exe files.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. http://www.elicitus.ht ml E-Learning Consulting .

Word. http://www.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. shtml Itaca . and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .EasyProf . and PowerPoint into a set of templates.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. PowerPoint slides.mindonsite.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.intuition.learn.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex.Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www. graphics. http://www. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios . http://www. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. http://www.jsp Knowledge Planet .NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. Built-in testing engine.easyprof. Works with SAP Learning Solution. centralized knowledge base. with no programming and no plugins.mckinnonmulherin.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.knowledgeplanet.com/index.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. and animations with tests and interactivity.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .pdf Intuition .php MindOnSite . with a built-in learning management system.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.learnerland.elearninginabox.uk/ MindIQ .knowledgequest. http://www. Has its own built-in learning management system.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.co.authoring tool based on Flash templates. combining multimedia content like video.mindiq.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.maxit.asp Knowledge Quest . http://www. http://www.knowledgepresenter.knowledgextensions. http://www. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/tbt/dac/index.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .mohive.com .LEARNERLand – Text.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www.com/prods erv. Ready-made button and navigation aids.customcourse.instant-demo.com/learncenter.com/flashhom e.ipsinc.com/ Learn. audio. .com/ OPTX International .com/home/home.com MyKnowledgeMap .KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.maxit.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.com/ NetPlay Software .ie/software/publisher. http://www. http://www.htm MediaMaker .

http://www.com/products/lc.suddenlysmart.com/learn_assistant. http://www.com/ Scribe Studio . image labeling. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. matching games.toolbook. http://www. without knowing code.teknical. http://www. popups. http://www.podiaOnDemand .Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.softchalk.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. and course player all in one software package.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint.sensalearning.In minutes.scribestudio. course publisher.rapidintake. Audio.com/camtasia.teds.ht m Techsmith .techsmith. image hotspot activities. http://www.qarbon. http://www.percepsys. and highly interactive elearning content. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. kiosks.com/coursegen. and assessments.shtml Reusable Objects . or Spanish. http://www.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://www. http://www. http://nuvvo. http://www.net ReadyGo .Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. http://www.com/Products/elearnin g_objects.Publisher Professional . crosswords.E-Learning Objects .asp TEDS .toolbook.com/ Percepsys . Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.pointecast.com/sensasoluti on.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .com/product_sa.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author. French. interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www.htm podia .com/common/affili ateRefer.net/ PointeCast . When content is developed.com Respondus . http://www.readygo.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.students.screenwatch.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.com/ Qarbon .Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.syberworks.com/learn_assistant. GIFs.or SCORMcompliant. a customizable.Nuvvo .p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .com Rapid Intake .podia. http://www.htm Suddenly Smart .cfm Serco (technical) . either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. customizable flashcards. http://www. http://www.respondus.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.reusableobjects.com/products/study mate. and Flash.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.com/ Savvica . http://www.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. JPEGs. Courses can be posted.com/ SumTotal .ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.htm Do not reproduce 49 .

or Network.. Lin (2005).win. www. C. http://www. E. http://www. content conversion. M. and text.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. Healthcare. interactive and intelligent educational software.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . http://workforceconnections.uk/index. Illinois.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.webex. (2005). templates. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . S.. publish blogs. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.xplana.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. CD. http://www. (2005). Government.westcliffdata. audio.gov/ Webex . Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. www. McMullen. http://www. (2005). http://www. L.pdf Ramp.time4you.htm Zapatec .com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.com/products/products _xwb. and Ainsworth.dol.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.. P. and rapid simulation. Melia. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research .asp TrainVision .com/download _rb40eval.brandonhall. Blessing. http://www.lectora. S. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. and Brusilovsky.com/Technology.cs. C. T.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.Presentation Studio . Northwestern University. and Riesbeck. right in their browser with no additional software required.oswego.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool.tue. video.oswego.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. (2003). De Bra. Evanston. http://www.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. June 2005. Berlin: Springer.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.. http://www. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. and Pahl. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). http://www.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. http://www.amazon. images.2-conformant objects and assessments.cs.co. http://www.xstreamsoftware.trainvision.com/services/webpresentation-svc. D.pdf Murray.bloki.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. and host online discussions.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.funeducation. E. and wizards.time4you GmbH .de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.com/ US Government . P. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Montreal. Doctoral Dissertation. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments.

Masters Thesis. Reuben (2004). Learning Circuits.org/index. The myth about tools. Technical Univ.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. Reuben (2005). Sunnyvale. CA: Brandon Hall Research. http://www. June 2005. Gary (2005).edu/~paws/publication s.learningcircuits.learningcircuits.com/publications/emerging/emerging.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. BC.htm Woodill. http://www.brandonhall. 2005.htm Tozman. Eindhoven. Another new paradigm for instructional design.editlib.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. 2004. http://www. Canada. E. Nov. NL. W. Vancouver. AACE.s html Do not reproduce 51 . Learning Circuits. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. October 2428.2005).pitt.htm Tozman. A. http://www. http://www2.sis.

as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.codebaby. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.Avatars Related terms Agents.” Maldonado et al.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.typepad. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. http://blogoehlert.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. games. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Similarly. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. In some situations. for example. in the broadest sense. http://www. In the context of elearning. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.telsim. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. the avatar may represent an actual human being. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. http://www. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. and generally simulates human activity.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.sculptoris. but in e-learning. especially in gamebased learning activities.

. and Weber. http://www. In the toolkit.pdf Jung. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. 2003.pdf Maldonado.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.co.co.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference.Training Education & Education International Conference. Inc. S.oddcast..com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. http://www.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. H. Nexus Media. C. and Morishima.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.. Nakajima. B..com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. (2004). http://ww. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. Iwamura. http://www. New Zealand. www.. (2005).uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D..pdf Online Resources In Europe. http://www. Raj (2003). S. M. 25. K.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . Nass.elearningguild.ac. 2005.vcom3d.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. In T.” which are avatars that teach.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.pdf Seth.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.stanford.knowledgeenvironments. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. Koschmann.. A. (2005). Yamada.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. Ahad. C. Chan (Eds.W.html 2005 .naccq. modular application. D. http://www. offering a large number of supportive functions. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. Aug.. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Y. Lee.exodus. Brave. Suthers. R.. http://isnm. J. and Nodder. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.redwoodelearning. Try them at: http://www. http://www. http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars. and T.daden.tmmy. H.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. higher education. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. http://www. management. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. However. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. The devices keep students alert and involved. Beatty. clickers. and military settings. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. corporate. integrated with other types of learning technologies. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. 2006.einstruction. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. classroom communication systems. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. increasing their motivation to learn. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. training the faculty member to use the software. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . or clickers. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.” In spite of the costs. The use of clickers has several advantages. the costs and headaches multiply. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. display. giving almost instant feedback. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. costs can be an issue.

Eric (1997).html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.com/news_issue. http://www.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. 2006.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.umass.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.cua.jmu. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. March 3.gtcocalcomp.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. NJ: Prentice Hall.educause.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. 3.net/display.com/Default. Inside CUA. No.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.smartroom. The Physics Teacher. Tom (2004). http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. R.pdf Mazur. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. http://www.Publishing textbook.pdf Burnstein. Volume 2004.optiontechnologies.utexas. including material on the use of classroom response systems. 3. http://www.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. http://inside.com.elearning.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002. 272-275.physics.com/index.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www. http://www. Research Bulletin.learnstar. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.com/products_int erwrite. and Lederman. http://www. http://www.qwizdom.cisat.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). http://umperg.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. 41(5).com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. pdf Cassidy.h-itt. Upper Saddle River. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://www. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.ubc. Ian (2004). http://www. http://www. http://www.pearsoned. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.campustechnology. http://www. E-Learning Dialogue.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. (2003).” http://www.active-learning-site.edu/articleprinter1. Anne (2006). allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. 2004.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.aclearn. Educause Learning Initiative. https://sharepoint. Feb.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. Q.utexas.pearsonncs.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. July 7.com/cps/index. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.amazon.com/index. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.

pdf Do not reproduce 61 .au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Melbourne.uq. Australia.itee.Conference. http://www.edu.

and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. http://www. social bookmarking. e. many respond.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.com/products/i ndex. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. organize. organization. The Institute for the Future. and collaborating.. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.g. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . reduction.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.advancedreality.html?ad-main Annotea . http://www.com/virtualoffice/index.g.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). evaluation. social networking building. and There are many different ways to collaborate.zoho. through brainstorming). as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. doing.g.. clarification.teamspace. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. it requires skill and experience. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. http://www. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. collaborate.

expert location.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system.bookmarks. and communication. instant messaging. http://www. jot down notes. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.com/English/ps2/product s/product.bluetie. http://www.Documentum eRoom . Presence (see who’s online). http://www. and instant access to the group workspace. share files.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . markup of data. and collaboration. document versioning. share information.gotomeeting. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. contacts.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. http://www. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). with templates and workflows for product development. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. and meeting manager.com/ Blenks – In-team .bantu.courseforum. and information technology adoption. robust document management. and communicate with others.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.emc. http://www. and upload photos.comotivsystems. collaborative file management.Unified MeetingPlace . Features include IM.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. http://www.brightidea.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access.digite.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.avecomm.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .citrix.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .cisco. office. Includes document organization and sharing. http://software.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. and individual users.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .backpackit.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . intellectual property management.opencroquet. http://www.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). calendar. search. flexible workflow. and searchable discussion threads. recordable conferencing.com/ Cisco . voice and data collaboration.w3. version control.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business. discussion forum. http://www.jsp Engineering.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently.centraldesktop. http://www. education.inteam. and instant messaging.com/microsites/eRoo m/index.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise .org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.com/ourProduc t/index.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. http://www.globalchat.com/ EMC² . Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.com/services/faq_basics . http://www. non-profit. http://www. project planning and reporting. alerts.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. http://www. Web conferencing.

A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. and sending workflow tasks. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. tracking the status of assignments.gliffy. interactive whiteboard.features a project navigator.com/products/Collabor ation. http://www. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. categorizing. http://www.epam-pmc. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. scheduling and using calendars. Features include interactive data collaboration.shtml Hewlett Packard .flypaper. http://www. and organizational process performance. data and process tracking. http://www.grapevinesoftware. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. assign file editing rights and completion dates. product quality assurance. and corporate instant messaging. http://www. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.Halo Collaboration Studio .GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange.google. http://www. require-ment and risk management.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . project management. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www. It has tools for managing multiple teams. universal file viewer for MS office documents.engineering.gordano.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. secure.Live meetings and Web conferencing.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. and images. http://www. http://www.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . attach threaded discussions to files.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . Features include the following: Accessing documents.groove.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. http://www. and team management. voting.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . It provides working groups with simple. and creating action plans. 2001.ezmeeting. allow members to update and edit files. software construction.forumone. powerful. recording and playback. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. The system streamlines project planning. drawing tools. snapshots.net/home/index.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. search. presentation tools.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. share files and documents.hp.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.groupsupport. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . http://www. cameras. http://www. http://collaboration.com/halo/index. desktop sharing.com/EN/products /GSII. conducting surveys. invite workspace members. easy to use online collaboration system.facilitate. http://groups.exactamerica. Web-based extranet tool. including whiteboards. and document management. meeting. quantitative project management. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. resource information sharing.

Lotus QuickPlace . link sharing). http://www.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .webofficepoint.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . http://www. Features include the following: Document management. podcasting.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. and Microsoft Outlook integration. security levels.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . http://www. http://www. folders. http://www. private interactive access or exchange of text. partners. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. realtime chat. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast.Jotspot Live. http://www. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. discussion forums. and shared documents. versioning control. and secure peer networking architecture. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. and photos. online calendar. Features include the following: Shared calendars. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.ilinc.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. and file commenting.hotComm .ibm. and customers on the Web.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. http://www. task manager.com/ Interwoven . online contact management.jotlive.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. contacts. Functions include the following: Share documents. http://www. including versioning.com/ IBM . and Lotus Notes. http://www. Features include the following: Business email. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business.com/ JotSpot .kGroups provides a number of tools. http://www. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. instant messaging and presence indication. blogs (Weblogs). and extensibility.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.jdhtech. video. search archiving. peer-to-peer.microsoft. an interface to a mailing list server.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. a Wiki. calendars. online document management.uwc. voice. Outlook.iceweb.mayeticvillage. http://www.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.com/products/docu ment_management/index. including file sharing.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.ac.hotcomm. integrates with MS Office. and provides search. image libraries. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees.com/Smart Apps.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. data.com/html/produ cts.hyperoffice. Integrated suite of multiuser.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . http://kgroups. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. online editor.com/hotComm. customers. http://www03. a powerful. efficient.com/ iLinc Communications . and more.interwoven.inquesttechnologies. structured. Web resources. scalable.za/index. Customizable Web directory. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction.

schedule and track events and activities.com/terms.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.santacruznetworks.com/ Oracle .Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. teams. Within each area. called an online community.com/ Same-Page. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. calendaring. milestones. moderator functions.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. and share data or applications while they are online. http://www.Rallypoint . tasks.novell. information. organize and discover content through categories and tags.com/ Santa Cruz Networks .com/ Ramius . Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. text chat. http://www. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. http://www.near-time. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. http://www. team events. processes.performancesolutionstech. task management. audio and Webcam.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. and presence management solutions. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. Enables individuals.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE .ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .com/ Novell – Groupwise .html Rallypoint . The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.mspx Near-Time – Flow . http://www.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. see each other in real time using cameras. instant messaging. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. http://www.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail.com – eStudio . Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. http://myworldchat. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. and MP3 audio recording. http://www. instant messaging.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. Allows people to talk to each other. share knowledge. Workflow Automation. real-time application sharing. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized.parlano.Community Zero .Microsoft – SharePoint . http://www. and communicate. author and review pages individually and across the group. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. providing the best of both worlds.same-page.microsoft. and contact and document management functions. resources.A suite of persistent group messaging. file transfer.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device.com/collabsuite/index. MyWorldChat Communicator .Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.Corporate quality communications center. http://www. http://www. and files.oracle.opentext. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.communityzero.rallypointhq. http://www. Document Management.

or use it to build a Web application.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . application sharing. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. http://www. instant messaging. and more. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . and calendaring tools. http://www.com/ SiteScape .seldensystems.viack. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. Use it out of the box. Web conferencing server (in-house). project.Processes email.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . store files. http://www.yahoo.sitescape.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. Includes VoIP. and other business communications. desktop document folders. calendar sharing. collaboration.stalker. partners. http://www. http://www.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.sumtotalsystems.com/contentmanagem ent/0. workflow and task management. and share.04.tacit. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and instant messaging.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.com/index.25. collaboration. http://www.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. view and edit documents or images together.vignette. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. FTP server. expertise.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.com/content/default. and information sharing. and business partners.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.Forum ZX . WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. voice and Web conferencing.Collaboration software that includes document management. http://www. XML-RPC server. e-mail server. http://groups. video.writely. http://www.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.2097. chat server. and prospects – without leaving their desks.com SpiderWeb Communications . documents. Designed specifically for the non-technical user.trichys.webasyst. live video.sharemethods. and business relationships.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .com/company/news/press /2005. newsgroup server. http://www. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . project teams.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. and use live audio. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. http://www. search. productivity applications.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.com/product/ Vignette .00. threaded discussions. http://www. and breakout groups.solutions. Webbased whiteboarding.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.webcrossing.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees.cyber-grad. http://www. interact.com/products /stcollab. http://www.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite.html Trichys – WorkZone .

http://www. custom stamps.hp. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.saba.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.projectdox. online management for projects of any size and scope. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. http://www. http://www.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. applaud and meter.Intuitive project management software for work teams.Instant set-up.teamdynamix.caucus." virtual collabor-ation.com Nagarro .com/project. project tracking.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. data.Web event calendaring. http://www.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. http://education.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. http://www. simple. http://www. Share multiple projects with multiple users.peoplecube.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . print icon.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . files.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.com/index. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and share documents. connects peers. whiteboard pages. form to submit questions. scaleable.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. discussions.HP Virtual Classroom . exit and help. invoicing.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. content. and collaboration to timesheet management.brevient.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . and payments. project planning.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . and save to disk icon.com/ applications.axista. attendee list.nagarro. video.com/ HP . and e-mails. content button.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. and communicate with their project teams. navigation. Works with Microsoft Project. assign tasks. http://www. http://www. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. affordable.onproject. http://www. and Web pages. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. review button. set user permissions. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. feedback.nexprise.0 .project-open. Access to the tool is also given to clients. http://www. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. scheduling solutions.com/ onProject – myonProject .opmcreator. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. annotation tools.Projistics . and asynchronous group meetings http://care. identify and resolve potential problems.tomoye.generation. and data into a single storage area.Features include Hands up.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.elluminate. calendars. private/group chat.

http://www. and collaboration features.net/site/getglance/exa mples.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging. instant Do not reproduce 69 . http://www. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. Multilingual. http://www. breakout rooms.convenos.Delivers unlimited voice. notes. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. application sharing. polling and quizzes. e-mail invites. video.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. record and playback. http://www. online classes. learning.intralinks. http://www.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. online seminars.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio.genesys.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. transparency tools.horizonwimba. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.photoninfotech.interwise. and videoconferencing. synchronous online lectures. including Web conferencing.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. teleconferencing. desktop sharing. and meetings.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . e-learning classrooms.ivocalize. For example.liveoffice. http://www. instant messaging. and text chat. video. and Web conferencing with WebEx.LiveOffice provides Web-based. how often.Photon Infotech – SPARK . virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. and phone use. Record classes or Webcasts.batipi.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple.A secure. pre-recorded broadcasts.adobe. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www. visual. attendee lists.com/ Intralinks . office hours.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .elluminate. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. toll-free conference calling. integrated content management system. http://www. shared whiteboard and present-ation. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. shared desktop.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . and by whom.Synchronous Webconferencing software. live demos.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. sales presentations. http://www.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.0 .com/ iVocalize . private whiteboards for each participant. http://www. guest lectures.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. http://www. Allows holding live. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. Features include shared documents.com/ internet_conferencing. http://www.mixmeeting. http://www.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . and more.com/website2/events _imc.communiqueconferencing. URL sharing. session reports. Web. meeting management. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. keyboard and voice chat.linktivity. Webcasts. and collaborative content-building sessions.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . virtual office hours. hand raising. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. remote control. and content display.glance. annotations. broadcasts files. and Webconferencing specialists. and a change presenter ability.com/ Linktivity Division. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www. http://www.

or meeting.com/bridgepoint. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. http://www.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. present PowerPoint slideshows. surveys. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . course. Requires only a browser and a phone. Solutions include Web meetings. and moderation of Webcasts.Web and audio conferencing services.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . conference calling. http://www. remote support. show rich multimedia content and documents.Powers online meetings.To support large deployments. publishing. http://www. http://carbon.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.webtrain. http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. http://www. http://www. http://www.vodium.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.com/action.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . the Internet.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . With the convenience of online access through an individual account. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.edu/~bwilson/build ing. http://www. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 .jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. or an entire desktop.webex.telnetz. text messaging.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. Webinars. discussion forums. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. and system management. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. teleconferencing. and document collaboration. share other applications.Meeting One – Click&Share. http://www. send text messages.radvision. editing. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.edufolio. tour Web sites.raindance. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. and into the enterprise. set up labs and conduct quizzes. e-learning. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.netspoke.wave3software.meetingone.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. The suite manages the creation. audio.cudenver. any application.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .com/home/s_vmps.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. http://www. Web conferencing.com/rndc/services/s ervices.voxwire. and desktop videoconferencing services.

2002.ctcevents.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.diglib.collabtech.criticalmethods. http://www. 4.org/collab/inde x.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.htm Butler. Collaborative Strategies.ac.pdf Bonk.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. M. (2003). D. J.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03.kolabora. Shadbolt.. M. (2004). http://eprints.. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. http://collaboration. 2006.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. http://www. http://cde.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. N. Creating an eCommunity.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. S. J.springerlink. scientific. http://www. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. March/April 2006. J.uk/12081/ Beshears.org/index.1:100250.usabilityfirst.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Models of collaboration.1 Bibliography Alexander. http://www.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. Brazil.com/writings.writely.collaborate.org/tools.com/groupware/in dex. September.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. http://www. Japan on July 13-14. Bill (2004).html Do not reproduce 71 . In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). D. Curtis (2002).” http://www. T.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. D.com/webconf/workspa ces.collaborationloop. 2002. http://www. also has a great list of collaboration tools.soton. Nov. and Tate. http://www.educause. K. communities.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.. http://www. and Coleman.mitre.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Chief Learning Officer. Maceió.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. Q2Learning White Paper. ChenBurger.ecs.. Dalton. Fred (2002).thinkofit. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.. http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Potter. Komzak. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.. A.com/View.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. also known as “groupware. 2003. http://www. Nov. http://www. Eisenstadt. Buckingham Shum. Web 2. Sign up for free at: http://www. De Roure. 41(2)...com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. Bryan (2006). Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. S.bruck. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.clomedia.htm Mitre Corporation..globalschoolnet.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).athabascau.. http://www. Page. Michaelides. http://www.

org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. R.html Hurst.masternewmedia. Soren (2002). 5(1). (Eds. Robin Good Blog. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. In Crawford. VA: AACE. P. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002). http://www. D. and Miller. January 21.org/index. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. J. A.. Bjorn (Ed.masternewmedia.. and Sharifi. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. A.. http://www.rheingold. 3. Proceedings. June 22. M.). http://www. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. http://www.) (2003).athabascau..N. http://www. Robin Good Blog.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Fitzgerald. June 30.html Institute for the Future (2005). Luigi (2005). Chesapeake. and Thomas.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es.pdf Kaplan.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Institute for the Future White Paper.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Technologies of Cooperation. K.cmswatch.editlib. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. http://www. Learning Circuits. W. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.zcu. 827-829).htm Canali De Rossi. Then Knowledge Management.masternewmedia. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. and Forster.editlib. 2004.ieee.Canali De Rossi. Price. 5(1).html Kreijns..html Munkvold.. (2004).. Educational Technology & Society. Sept. A. & Weber. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.masternewmedia. J. D. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. http://www. Palo Alto. Carlsen. Gibson.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. R. http://www.. McFerrin. Matthew (2004).htm Canali De Rossi..htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003b). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Luigi (2004b).ca/online_book/ch8 . Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Robin Good Blog.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.masternewmedia. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. May 2.. J.com/Feature/109 Elliot.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. J. Robin Good Blog. e-Book.cfm/files/pape r_12386.learningcircuits. 2003. Kirschner. CMS Watch.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing. Collaboration First. Live ELearning.org/index. 2565-2569. R.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi.. Kirschner. (2005). CA.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. June 5. and Jochems. D. (2004). A. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.amazon. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. http://ifets. http://cde. Aavani. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. January 2005. August 2002. (2002)..htm # Clapp. Robin Good Blog. University of Athabasca.ieee.htm Canali De Rossi. Findlay. http://www. K. Willis. http://wscg. Educational Technology & Society. P. J. C. Luigi (2003a). http://www. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. http://www.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. (2002). R. http://ifets.pdf Strijbos.) (2004). J. I. London: Springer-Verlag.. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. and Martens. Luigi (2004a). (Eds.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan.

edu.. http://sleid. & Purnell.amazon. 1(2). 24. J. Studies in Learning.au/include/getdoc. G.Norwell. Nov.com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Innovation and Development.. K. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. http://www. Evaluation.cqu. Callan. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2004).php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .

telephony.71. http://www. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. blogs.com. labs. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. instant messaging. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A.google. a process referred to as “text mentoring. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. re-usable. and yet tailored and flexible. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.” http://goldenswamp. messaging.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. UK. For example.au/eq/default. Hegarty et al. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. It is being developed into a transportable. http://www. http://www. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. VoIP. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. including communications tools.48. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve.ac.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland.uk/deletacademictalk. telepresence.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . Find her work at: http://64. For Laurillard.jisc. discussion forums. chat.org/index. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.conversate.janison. whiteboards.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.editlib. developed in Brazil. discussion groups.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.

ca/online_book/ch5 . Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.ac.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. http://www.ac.com/cv/research/ rmed35.elearningcentre. 2005 http://www. Pattie (2005). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.amazon. International Journal on E-Learning. http://cde. distance-learning course at Keele University. UK. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.elearningcentre. e-Book. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. University of Birmingham.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. J.editlib. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. Technologies of Online Learning. and Bortolozzi.html Morgan.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool. (2005). D. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. I. S.fasfind.pdf LaCroix. British Journal of Educational Technology.co. http://m.. S.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. J. 199-212. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. M.hbs. Komzak.. CharityVillage.pdf Eleuterio. Hegarty. 13-20.thinkofit. http://www. Learning Circuits. London: Routledge. Diana (1993).uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. and Collins.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. Bostock. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid.htm Garner. J. and Wales.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.com/webconf/hostsite s. http://www2. E-Learning 1. (2004). Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. http://hbswk.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . Jan. Sven (2002). (2004).uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. Nick (2002).html Laurillard.htm http://www.edu/item. http://ewic.elearningcentre. Aug. 19.charityvillage. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.ngfl.learningcircuits. University of Athabasca.com Library. M. (2000). Francis.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn.org/index.pdf Kadirire. Mark (2004). http://www. CAP e-Guide.warwick. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. M. 31 (3).org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.jisc. University of Warwick.com/wwwtools/m/2645. James (2005). and Elliott.uk/schools/document . Working Knowledge Newsletter.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (2002). http://www.athabascau. JulySept.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. http://www.co.formatex.co. Computer Mediated Communication.org/micte2005/4.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. and telephony tools. June. 2004.gov.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. R.. http://safety.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.html Laurik. J. chat. September 23. 2002. (Mlearn 2002). 31. and Cerri. 2002.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. 20-21. F. > http://www.bcs.

A. (2002).uk/papers/Stone_A. June.ac. http://dircweb. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. and Briggs.Stone. J. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.king. 20-21.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). 2002.

The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.org/competencies/in dex. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. David McClelland. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). skills. For a large list of competencies for physicians. entering defined competencies into a matrix.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. performance appraisal.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. Edwards Deming. skills inventory. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this.org. https://launchpad. diagnose symptoms. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. 2005).itsc. skills verification. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. see below) and performance or talent management systems. and carry out proper procedures.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. a Harvard psychologist. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. organizational and personal goals are tied together. Description According to Sanders (2001). go to: www. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.” it started in 1950 with Dr. competency-based training.imsproject. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. 2000).” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. In 1973. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. W. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.

com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.ca/index.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. regardless of industry or sector.com/20 050425/technologylife01.html The U. http://www.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.htm Online Resources HRSG. http://www.” http://www.co. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. htm Many companies have their own competency models.cipd.expresscomputeronline.cpgvision. Clare (2005).hrsg.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans. objectives.oracle.clomedia. R. http://www. and development interventions. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. 2005. Josh (2006). a Canadian company. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.ncrel. April 25. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. measurement.wmich. Chief Learning Officer.edu/paprog/clin_events.amazon.com/skillsman.learnflex.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.shtml Hogg. For example. Building a skills inventory. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.S.amazon. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Express Computer. Read their white paper at: http://www.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. http://www.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. (1982). London: Wiley. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. http://www. Competency and competency frameworks.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. Ken (2000).com Oracle Learning Management System http://www. http://www. See the list of competencies at: http://www.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees..ibm.amazon.syberworks. New York: David McKay.desire2learn.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.E.com/article16.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Sudipta (2005).html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. New York: AMACOM.learningcircuits. Benjamin (1956).org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. activities. April.

org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.operitel. (2001). University of Toronto. Cambridge.linezine.htm Parkin. E. New York: John Wiley.pdf Rankin. 1-14. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.html Radsma. April 30. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. P. http://www. N. http://www. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. and Hollyforde. E-Learning Competencies. American Psychologist. Study 706. F.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. and Epstein. and Expertise. (2003). Ellen (2000). Competency based learning management.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Godfrey (2005). http://www. L. Gary (2004). and Grigorenko.amazon.com/2.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell.amazon. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. White paper from Operitel Corporation. London: IRS.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Rankin.. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. N. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. http://www. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Master's thesis. P. Competencies. London: IDS. v. (2001). (2005). S. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. 2nd ed. Johanna.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. Fall 2000. (2000). and Cahorn.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Competency Frameworks.) (2003). and Neathy. S.co. (2004).collectionscanada. 2005. White paper. Creating a Culture of Competence. http://www. Sanders. Miller. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. London: IRS.htm Whiddett. R. http://parkinslot. (Eds. David. http://www. (1973). Parkin’s Lot.28.html Sternberg.blogspot. http://www.amazon.com Woodill.amazon. (1999).com/Lists/Publications /DispForm.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . Michael. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Learning Circuits.operitel. The Psychology of Abilities. http://www. Operitel Corporation. UK: Cambridge University Press.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Rankin. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.1/features/ewet te. Ethan (2001).cipd. pp. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. N.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (2001). http://www.learningcircuits. http://www. March 2001. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. G.

LCMS. functionality to an ECM. launching courses. According to its official Web site. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. you could hire a company to build a private. They have designed competitive. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. rather than complementary. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. in fact. I feel that closed.” As well. and reporting.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. such as registering users. http://www.” http://drupal.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). the standardized railway system still works while private. displaying a course catalogue. Repositories. 2006). First. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.atutor. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. and “topic maps. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. If you could afford it.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. With the advent of learning objects. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. manage. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. to date. Unfortunately. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Today. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. Learning objects. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.

http://www. TravelinEdMan blog.org Leslie. Why content management software hasn’t worked. http://www. http://www. (Eds.) (2005). G. PA: Idea Group.co. (2006). Curtis (2005). SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. http://www.ntua.html Cisco Corp.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. June 9.topicmap. McGovern. http://www.htm Siemens.author-it. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. 18.html McGee. March 2005.ca/mt/archive/000 689.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. > > http://www.edtechpost. 2003. “Monoliths. (2004)..gerrymcgovern.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. elearnspace blog. San Jose. P. 2005. Scott (2005).com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. Cisco Corporation White Paper. C.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. Educause Review. and Brantner. and Oliveira. Jafari. Budapest. Strategies for managing scalable content. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.educause. http://www. Hershey. Retalis. 2005. http://www. January 23. 2003. George (2003).com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. 2005. http://www. 2006. and Carmean.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 2003.clomedia. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. EdTechPost blog. http://sakaiproject. http://www. S. Learning Solutions. A.topicmaps.htm Simon. http://www. Van (2005).” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.pdf Weigel. C. Mashups. Ed.elearnspace.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. (2005).com http://www. Gerry (2003).org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. reuse in many places. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.pdf Cohen. http://plone.softlab.cmsmatrix. B.cisco. http://travelinedman. S. March 3. 40(3). (2003).org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.blogspot. Dec. Content Management: our organized future. May 15.uk Bibliography Bonk. May/June. and publish to multiple outputs.asp Woodill.e-learningcentre.operitel. New Thinking Blog.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.com/publications.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems..

GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . Consequently. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. knowledge discovery. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. 2001). Luan and Willett. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. personalization methods. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. 2000. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. delivery models and infrastructure investment.

Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.pdf Iskander. and Smyth. Piatetsky-Shapiro. B. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. Grigoriev.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.reeltwo. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart. P. California.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.hkuspace. Do not reproduce 83 . P. K. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. http://imej. K.edu. U. http://pami. New York: Springer. Grieser. M Fayyad. 1996.pdf Fayyad. by applying fuzzy logic. What’s Not.amstatonline.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.convera. P. Uthurusamy.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. Lange. Robert (2002). Smyth. 1--34. (1996). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases.wfu. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. http://www.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. http://www. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. 68(8). Alex (2002). http://www. M. (2004).. and Kamel. (2000).com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. and Tschiedel. G.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://www. (cited in Luan and Willett. G. (2006). Thalheim. http://www.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. B.ac.html Bibliography De Veaux.. Piatetsky.au/%7Ekalina/inde x.com/index. http://www. In Pierre.kdnuggets. Data Mining in e-Learning.. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. R. and Web mining.. pp.html Hammouda. Feb.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney..uwaterloo. S. knowledge discovery.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.kdnuggets.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. School Business Affairs. 2001) http://www. http://pami. and R.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.pdf Jantke. Samuel (Ed. http://www. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Data Mining: What’s New. Long Beach.cs.. G.icosystem.uwaterloo.soul. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. text mining. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.pdf Freitas.kent. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.cs.usyd. Australia. 13-16 http://asbointl. New York: Springer. edited U. Both products are from Convera.

2004 (7). Feb. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. and Yacef. Austria.. B. (2001). http://www.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk.pdf Mor. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.asp Merceron. (2004). 2006. David (2005). and Willett. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). 238-241.. 39-40.-Dec.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. 41-54. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. http://www.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. Train. http://archiveedutice. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. store. http://imej. Oliveira. C. http://www. K.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.computer. and K. 52-59. C.aace. and K. and Cheung. 15(4).2004. 47-55.ccsd.pdf Monk. (2004).com/PaperInfo. E. and Ventura. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. J. http://www.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. http://www. NYC.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. and Ullrich. http://www.actapress. (2006). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. A. S. analyze for more adaptive teaching. Advances in Management Information. Yacef (2005). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2006).com/acatalog/1845 641523. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.is.org/16915 Romero. Oct.informatik.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Porto. A. Maomi (2004). http://dl.. Portugal. International Journal on ELearning.html Ueno.cabrillo. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).open. Hiroshima. Vol 4. A.pdf Merceron. http://www2004. T.ejel. and Minguillon.pdf Merceron. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. Japan. http://csdl2. MA: WIT Press.cnrs. Data Mining in e-Learning.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. (2004). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).editlib.pdf McCalla.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Gord (2004).unikiel. A.pdf Pahl. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. Innsbruck. 3(1).org/index. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. 319-346. 7(1). http://wwwjime. Scholl. Billerica.compmech. Yacef (2004). Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. J. 13-16. C. May 17-22.ac. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining.ags.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. RP Conference Presentation. http://www. Claus (2004). M.wfu. 3(4).pdf Loo. K. In Proceedings. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results.unisb.

pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.net/index.une. 4) develop an action plan. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. 2) categorize. http://www. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. 5) carry out a survey. 3) vote/prior-itize.sal. http://www.tkk.com/ Facilitate. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.edu.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. http://www. http://www. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. http://www. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. in their case study of medical education. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. and 6) document results.utoronto. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.whichbook.hut. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.au/dss/grassgro/index . http://www.facilitate. For example.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).decisionarium. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.bnhexpertsoft.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .

pdf Jantke.siggraph. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Gerhard (2003). http://www. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.informatik.pdf Ounapuu. http://science. White paper from BNH Expert Software.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. In Proceedings.is.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. and Frasson. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. 2005.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. Hamalainen.sal. Thalheim. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. (2004). USA. C. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . and Koskinen.pdf Jantke. R. B. Raimo (2003). Grigoriev. Manchester. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site.pdf Frize. June 20-24.uottawa. http://damit.. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Rostanin. 101-110. V. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.dssresources. http://www. see: http://www. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. http://www. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences... Thalheim.dfki. http://www. (2003). B. Porto. Hawaii. http://www.hut. 23(4). Memmel.. http://www. Kauai.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. Theresa (1998).pdf Knolmayer.ac.com/history/dsshistory .com/index. S. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). Enn (2004). Aachen. Lange. K. books.html Rhyne. Grieser. H. August. Jim (2002). Germany. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.com/PaperInfo.hicss. 238-241.meetingworks. B. Jan.pdf Chakrabarty. Kankana (2005).uniserve. 2004. B..pdf Power.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. Jay (2004).. G.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. O.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. http://www. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. Dan (2003). Hawaii.mc. (2004). http://www.bnhexpertsoft. and information on this area. Online manuscript. August 16-18. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.unikiel. SIGGRAPH publication.pdf Ehtamo. Portugal.” http://dmoz. and Tschiedel. http://www.sal. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. http://dssresources.html Scott. 12(2-3).manchester. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. For newsletters.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS..ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. 317-328.actapress. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.site.2004.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. M.hut.edu. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Enn (2005). 6-9.html Hamalainen. M.. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. P. and Tschiedel. http://www.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. (2000). K.hawaii.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.

(2006).the curriculum. CAL-laborate.html Shimizu. http://www. T. Oct. Hershey. 2002. de Carvaho. Vol. M. 9. http://science. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. and Laurindo.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.uniserve. F.ideagroup.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . PA: Idea Publishing..com/books/details.edu.

big enough to be projected on large walls. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. For air displays. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.P rojector. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.com/about. Inc.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. intelligent interfaces. By stacking a second projector.co.co. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).edu/design/Camera. digital paper. http://killer.cmu. still/video camera.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. lighting up theater size screens. This can be a holographic image. viewers see a floating midair image or video.” Selected Examples Samsung.ntera. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. monitors. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. in cooperation with Sony. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. > > http://www.com/technology/ overview NTERA. Electronic paper could change that some day. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.siliconlight. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.Displays Related terms Digital ink. http://www. In the near future. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.html Promera is a hand-held computer.theregister. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.theregister. http://www. projectors. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. electronic paper. head mounted displays. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. Finally.io2technology.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.ices. In regards to digital paper.

To access the articles. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.loaz.fogscreen. Dec.. M. Garrett. Largest LCD and video projection. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. H. Government.org/citation.uk/index. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 .cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Canada.pdf Wang. http://blog. Vancouver. A. See a demo at: http://www. JISC Technology Watch White Paper.firstmonday.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. London: Springer.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. and Pizer.. K.. Hirota. 2005. http://ad. Richards (Ed. http://portal.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. http://www.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. S..com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T.jisc.provisionentertainment.). He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Whitton.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.informatik. (2005). pages 3053-3068.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. 2005.. M. Germany. and Ottmann. Pisano. Healthcare. http://thejournal.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.unifreiburg.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. Oct. 3.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. W. E.ac.acm. see: http://www.. Tim (2005). Livingston. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. (1996). State.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.informatik. T. see: http://ad.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).H. In G.E. For a list of his publications.unifreiburg.technorati. Hamburg.com/timwang/index. In 2005. G. http://www.

com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. http://www2.angellearning.foliotek.elearningcentre. and simple usability. http://www. helping to transform education and training.paisley.com/eportfolio/in dex.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.iwebfolio.imsglobal. maximum flexibility.co.ac. evaluation.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. My first report in this series. thus. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.org/Articles/eportf olios. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.htm Educause.livetext.nottingham. http://www.pupilpages.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .osportfolio.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.ac. http://www.co. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.elearnspace.educa. http://www.ch/dyn/9.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. http://www. http://www.com/products/ep ortfolio/default. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.pebblelearning.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.htm IMS. http://www. http://www.educause.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0. http://www. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.uk/default. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.com/college/portfolio s. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. http://www. 2005). http://www. http://www. open source electronic portfolio.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. http://isle.chalkandwire.

edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224..becta. Online Paper. (2004).uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. George (2004). M. April 1. Fall. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. has a section on e-portfolios. Trent (2002).org. Educause Quarterly. Aalderink. Educause Quarterly.org/collab/v. 16. Online paper. J. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. (2002).mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. (2004). Fleming.doc Banks. (2002). College of Education http://www.pdf Conway..net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. J. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.com/article. W. J. http://connect. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. with many links. K.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. S.. FD Learning White Paper. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.alt. B. http://www. Cook. B. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. D. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.educause. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. Lee.. http://elgg. and Wade.com/magazine/vault /A5260.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape..ac.. Dublin. Light. 31(3). http://www. (Focus on Teaching). THE Journal Online.criticalmethods. (2005). Graham (2005). E. future thinking: digital repositories.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.. no. (2005).htm Tosh.. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.pdf Lorenzo..edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. http://ferl.educause. 28–37.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. March. vol. Frederick (2005)..uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. Reflective learning. Feijen. ePortfolios. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. J.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001. and Ittelson. G. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Dec. Bibliography Achrazoglou. Love. http://www.elearnspace. http://www.educause. e-portfolios.cfm Dubinsky. B. Online. Gary (2004). http://www. G. J.pdf Batson. D. and Haywood.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . University of Iowa. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.asp?id=6984 Cohn. 37(2). elearnspace. Bryde. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. Educause Review.. Bob (2004). G. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. 4. 2004 http://www. 2005.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. Trinity College. P. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. and McKean. an online resource on collaboration. July/ August 2004. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. http://www.campustechnology.amazon. 39. and Werdmuller.org/Articles/eportf olios. Business Communication Quarterly. http://www. T.educause. V. Vol 27 No 4. Harvey. D..thejournal. http://www.amazon. (2005). Dec. (2003). J. and Hibbitts. http://www.eradc.educause.pdf Greenberg. An Overview of e-Portfolios..

& Figgins. 2(2).citejournal.cjlt. M. C.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.A.http://www.. 144-169. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.ca/content/vol31. (2002).3/tosh. http://www. research.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .A.ht ml Young. and portfolios.

ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.facebook. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.hive7. identity work. Constance Steinkuehler.com/ http://www. serious games.freescale. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com/ http://www. as such.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. http://www. The toolset. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). see: http://news. For a brief review of these tools.myspace. create. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. http://www.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.microsoft. games. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .com/xna/ Softimage. helping speed up the game creation process. from the University of Wisconsin. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. http://www. simulations. and Second Life. play. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Dr. 2005). Cyworld.com/ In 2005.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. allows members of a game development team to work together.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.secondlife.com http://us.com. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. and learning (Amory.cyworld. Facebook. This game allows users to play.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. writing about “first person shooter games. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.” says that “in the mod world. Examples include Hive7. edit. http://www.com/ http://www. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. MySpace.clickteam. There is a free 30-day trial version. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.thinkingworlds. Marc Prensky (2003). 2003). dubbed XNA Studio. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. complex problem solving. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www.

Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.com/ Thiagi. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.org.pluginz. http://www.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. produces educational games for training. You can read about them at Pluginz.com/zone 8/index. > > http://www.seriousgamessummit. http://www.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research . along with their Web sites. researchers. http://www. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.muzzylane. Started in North America. Review them at: http://esub.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.” http://www. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.magnetargames.education.futureplay. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.digiplay. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. Inc.mpjgaBKQ dAe.org/?14@33. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).” Read her research at: http://website.aspx urces.nasaga. http://www. http://www.htm Dr.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. implementation.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. http://it. Canada. Many of their learning games resources are free.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.for the Xbox. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.gdconf.com/solutions/g ames/default.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.uk/index2.ucalgary. For example. See the selection of games at: http://www.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.it-c.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.htm Dr. Sign up at: http://www.siggraph.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www.org/index2.wisc.com/news/548 http://www.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.dk/people/sen/public.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.uga.programmersheaven.coe.softimage. http://www.seriousgames. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.

NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. http://www. Serious Games: Games That Educate. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.iicm. Oct.pdf Prensky. Dreher. and Michael. Rob (2006b).edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. and Biswas. R.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa.uwf. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.ukzn.amazon. In Richard E. Rob (2006a). http://www. http://website. Montreal.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler.php Reynolds.msu. D.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Alan (2003). January 2. University of Wisconsin Madison. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. 17-22. Fourth Quarter. C. see: http://www. http://www. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Games and Education = Oil and Water.pdf Michael. and Inform. 549-567. http://llt. H.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Multimedia learning in games.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . Constance (2005). Marc (2003).com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. J.amazon. (2006). http://www.pdf Swamy. New York: Cambridge University Press.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Jan. C. Xplanazine.uwf.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003.Bibliography Amory. and Chen. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Developing Serious Games. N. 2006. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Bergeron. 2005.cambridge. 2006. http://www. 9(1).) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Simon (2005).wisc. June 25-28. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Technology Trends for the Year. http://www. http://www. Xplanazine. 2005. Hawaii.php Rieber. Learning on Demand Bulletin. Mayer (Ed.pdf Guetl. Gupta. Clifton Park.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. D. and Maurer. H.itc. Honolulu. SRI-BI. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.xplanazine. S. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. simulations and microworlds.marcprensky. http://jason.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging .edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. G. Chapter 33. pdf Reynolds. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. IT-University Copenhagen. 2003. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. http://www. (2005).com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. March 10. S. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. (2005).com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Doctoral dissertation.pdf Godwin-Jones. and Swamy. Train. N.ac. (2005). Gaming. Emerging Technologies: Messaging..teachableagents.xplanazine. 2003. http://www. Gamasutra. 2005.. Clifton Park. Bob (2005). 19. June. http://www. Bryan (2006). http://www. Lloyd (2005). Williams. (2005). Beers.education.. R. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.amazon..com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.

Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004.msu.Tye. Michigan State University. http://woz.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Masters Thesis. Jason (2004).commtechlab.

Artificial intelligence techniques. http://www. Aug. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Report No.soton. http://www. affective computing. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. artificial intelligence. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. 2003. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. http://www...fg2008. 2008.ucsd.fg2006. http://www. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. FG2006. Ludwig-Maximilians University.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. eLearning Developers’ Journal. (2005). will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.com/pdf/2/081 803DES. UK.smartkom.com/~ccohen/gesture . was held in Southampton.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. Munich. Lombardi. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Michael (2003).pdf Borghi.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.pdf Beringer. Nicole (2001). F. FG2008. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. L. looking for particular sequences. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. April 10-12 2006.org/reports/ReportNR-03. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. London. M. at the University of California.” http://mplab. such as Markov models. 3.ecs.cybernet. For a list of papers: http://www. March. and robotics in elearning. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.html Research by Dr.tudelft.elearningguild. 18. haptics.ac.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. including identifying commercial products. Porta.

T. 27-30.pdf Wilson.pdf Lee. (2005). 1999.2005. October 14-16. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. P.. Chen. J.mit. H. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. PA.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02.pdf Ebert.. Korea..aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. Michael (2004). (2002).edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.1 50 Nakanishi.acm. 57-64. Lee. J. http://www.110 9/CMPSAC.ercim. J. Lai. http://www. Setlock. Vancouver. R. Las Vegas. Sept. (1997). and Bender.rutgers. C.ucsb. 242-245. 2004. M.research. and Cohen. Nevada...recveb.2000.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Y. http://csdl2. 884 – 900. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Communications of the ACM. 21(9).iscslp2006.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.actapress.Computer Communication. A.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. http://www.1109/ICALT. 2000.pdf Loi. Park. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. Deller. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.pdf Peixoto. A. M. (2004). http://cbcl.. Shi-Kuo (2000). and Kim. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. (2003).ieeecomputersociety. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. July 1997.cse.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. and Chang.org/10. http://portal. and Bobick. Computer vision in the interface. Wong. Y.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. and Koike. A.. Wesson. January.clayton. Pittsburg. http://interact. September 2002..actapress.F (1999). Proceedings. Gao. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. S.. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. IEEE Transactions.org/citation.computer. J. http://www. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Canada http://cims.fsu..pdf Corradini. P.884693 Chen. 191-196. http://doi. D.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.com/PaperInfo.pdf Ou. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.D. T. http://www. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. 47(1). In Proceedings. and Carreira. Fussell. 675 .html Chang.stat. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). L. W. In Proceedings. and Wong. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. (1997).com/PaperInfo. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. J.mit. Y.676 http://lcv. and Yang. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). and Poggio. Sato. C. C. July 22-27. Y. (2002).org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci.media. X. British Columbia. A. Geiger. Visualization. L. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. (2004).xml&DOI=10. S.pdf Daugman. J. 442-446. IEEE Transactions. http://www. C.ogi. G.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. http://www.. (2005). (2000).cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. and Ma. 19(7). M.. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). (2005).

http://www. 2533–2543.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .illumination variations. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.com/GetPDF.hindawi. 2004:16.

com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research . Designing Web-Based Training. and playback.adobe. In acquiring Macromedia.corel. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.blender3d. interactive creation.broderbund. e-Learning By Design.acdamerica. and in his recent 2006 book. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. rendering. the same principles apply to user interface design.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.html Blender . animation.org/cms/Home. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.0.techillustrator.Graphics Tools Related terms Design.com/TechIllustrator. Download a copy: http://www.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.autodesk.avs.2.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. post-production.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. Nevertheless. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.

Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .google.pdf Qiu. Japan · Sept 7-10.amazon. In P. http://www.microsoft. http://www. http://www.com/E/1335.org/index.amazon.pdf McConnell. Potsdam.IBM CATIA http://www306. (2004). Designing WebBased Training. S.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. New York: John Wiley.amazon.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.carto.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. Proceedings. e-Learning by Design. Pallickara. Do not reproduce 101 .uk/index. A.com SmartDraw http://www. and Uyar. http://www. William (2006).php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. http://grids.indiana.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.co.editlib.com/index.3dlinks.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. William (1991). (2005).siggraph.uk/index. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www. NY: John Wiley. Tools Usage Survey Results.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics. William (2000). Gloria (2004). http://www.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). http://esub.ibm.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.com. http://www.ucs. http://www. Kommers & G.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. X. A.elearningcentre.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://www.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. Tokyo.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. The most listings are for 3-D software.co. ED-Media Conference.smartdraw. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.). Fu-Kwan (2004). Germany.itedo.xaraxtreme. http://www. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.stcphoenix. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). June 1-3. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.co.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. Pheonix. Richards (Eds.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.

stc. CT: Graphics.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www. Cheshire.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. http://www. Edward (1990). CT: Graphics Press. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.pdf Tufte. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. http://www. Frances (2004). Cheshire.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . 2nd Ed. STC. Carolina Chapter.amazon. Envisioning Information. http://www. Evidence and Narrative .com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. Edward (2001).amazon. Edward (1997).

Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.immersion. > > http://wwwpercro. http://www.se/index. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. http://haptex. Finally.mpbtechnologies. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.pureform. http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves. gloves.html http://www. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. When used approp-riately.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Haptic devices come in many forms. Do not reproduce 103 . haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.sssup.forcedimension. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.handshakeinteractive. including pens. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.Haptics Related terms Force feedback.it/projects/pureform. http://www. joysticks/ joypads. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. http://www. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.sensable.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .sensegraphics.” http://www. and force-feedback mice.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.miralab.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. suits.unige. Read the press release at: http://www.

http://web.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).1109/ICALT. M. NJ: Prentice-Hall.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. S. http://www. A. M. M. July 31. CA. Matsubara.piaggio.isfh. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Prentice Hall online article. http://www. Wired News. 917-921.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. 22.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. Proceedings. McGill University. 2005.ethz.haptics-e.pdf O’Modhrain.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://www. and Hughes. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. G. April. Sukhatme. J. 2005.roblesdelatorre. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. Daithí (2003). G.pdf McLaughlin.. (1997).ccii. Proceedings.ht ml Kushner. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. Abbott. 3-5 June 2004. and Ichitsubo.. (2005). Y. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. 2004.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. http://csdl2. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.unitrier.cim.. M.com.usc. M.mcgill. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. and Sukhatume.” http://www. Report delivered January 15. Centre for Intelligent Machines. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. M. L.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.html O’Malley. Deliverable D4.. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). http://www.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. J.computer. Reality bytes.1. M. http://www. and Essl. A. M. David (2003). Chapter on Haptics. http://www. and Gillespie.. (2000). S. R.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.1_release-public. New York Times (Online). Medioni. July 3.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.ra. and Rusbridge.media.unipi. (2004).miralab.com/title/0130650978 Inoue. Japan.pdf Rowell. http://www. N. G.pdf Ó hAnluain. M. http://haptex.digicult. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.xml&DOI=10. Vincent (2005). G.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.net/article-7304. Dobreva. Italy in March.unige.pdf O’Modhrain. Nakamura.” http://www.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). Technology and Haptics.smh. Shahabi. The Haptic Museum.matr. 2003.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Reaching through the net to touch.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems..S. McLaughlin. C.B. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons..pdf Hespanha.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .html Levesque. Haptics Laboratory. and Jaskowiak..html Ross.S. Blindness. D. (2005). Donnelly. Laurie (2004).ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. professional. http://www. Oct. McHugh. Research report.phptr.mit.informatik. http://csdl.. Santa Clara. (2002). Iwane.2005. 2003.. M.computer. Upper Saddle River. (2003).

http://www. http://www. Y. 1(3). 250a.journalofvision. K. & Uchikawa.. H..informit.com/articles/printerfrie ndly.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 . Kaneko. Journal of Vision. (2001). The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.asp?p=345621 Sakano.

” http://www.html http://killer. > > http://killer. tangible computing.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript.com/b/archives/00 2571. head mounted displays.media. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.com/technology/howitwork s.html Description For humans to use a computer. Called Librié. see: http://www. electronic paper.buffalo. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.dottocomu.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. human-computer interaction.mit.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. like digital ink and paper. However.ices. and some.cmu.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01.ices. gesture recognition. handwriting recognition. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.edu/design/Digita link. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. haptics.html Sony.cmu. http://www. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.fujitsu. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). In 2005. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication." http://web. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. monitors. For a review. Writing will require special digital pens. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. see: http://www. they must interact with it through an interface device. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . wearable computing. experience computing. projectors. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. display technologies. textures. digital paper.eink. input devices. Now in the research and development phase. Philips. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.

com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.usask.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.swan.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.org. http://www.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.logitech.thegrid. http://www. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.cs.edfacilities.becta. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.co.net/display.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years.com/index.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.org. http://www.devx.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. http://www. http://www.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.smarttech.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.wired. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.elearningcentre.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.edna. http://www. http://www.com/wired/archive/5 .net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. http://www.au/edna/page4588.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.wacom.cs.lifehacker.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. http://whiteboards.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. See their advice and resources at: http://www.thewirelessdirectory.edu. http://www. http://www.aclearn. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.ac.channelnewsasia. Although this technology has been around for a few years.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.com whiteboards. and graphic. http://www. 3) throw. consisting of a pen and a charger. human computer interaction. 2) roll.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://www. and 5) build. it is constantly being improved and updated. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.sony. Following are three such articles: > http://www. These methods are 1) touch.05/ff_digitalink_pr. http://www. http://www. 4) bend.

Nicole (2006).com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. http://www. C.co.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. 6.guardian. K.1116483. Springer. Kato.com/wired/archive/9 . Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . April 7. 26. June 1. University of London. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Edinburgh. and Nakagawa.htm Zeichick. 2006. http://ad. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. Vancouver. http://www.newscientist.aace.unifreiburg.wired. (2005). Journal of Interactive Learning Research.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. Richards (Ed. http://education. T. H. King’s College.ac.10577. (2004). J. http://www.eschoolnews.10577. 2004.mercurynews. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Julie (2002).00.pdf Mohamed. 15(3).com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.. N. http://www. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper.microsoft.html In G.08/epapers. Bandoh. F. (2005).uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. 2004. with its use of digital ink. January 6.virtuallearning.pdf Revell. 2004. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard.mspx Bibliography Cogill..guardian.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.pdf Otsuki. (2003). Will (2004). Y.pdf Cross. Peltason. http://dl.anoto. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. B.. 2006. http://ad..00. December 22.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://education. 257-269.04/anoto.devx.org/16321 Read. Jan.co.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. NewScientist Magazine (Online).com/wired/archive/8 .com/news/showst ory. and Ottmann.informatik. Michael (2005). 2003.html eSchool News. J.. http://www.wired. (2006). http://www. HCI2005. Guardian Unlimited. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. eSchool News Online. Indurkhya.org. S. The Mercury News. http://www.html http://www. Jan. Oct.informatik. and Ottmann.). is described in a 2002 press release. 2005. K. The most flexible paper yet revealed.uk/elearning/ story/0.com/article. Tablet PC Developer. Alan (2004). Scotland. T.unifreiburg. Phil (2004). Fri.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. Haag.> > http://www. Adelaide. Chalk one up to the whiteboard..html Wong. Dal-RI.uclan. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.1585516.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Guardian Unlimited.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. M. Australia.

and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become.. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS).Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. elearning portals. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. 2005). learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. conversation. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. Whenever possible. Course Management Systems (CMS). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.e. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. Content management. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.

Inc. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.fldata. a contact management system.” http://elgg. .pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. content-driven forums run by experts.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.com Gyrus .php EVE.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. . http://www. The LMS companies.academici. http://opensourceschools.. one of the LMS vendors listed below.TrainingMine http://www. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . more control over their own data For faculty. roles.trainingpartner.KnowledgeHub http://www.ieee.cornerstoneondemand. . the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. a search engine.GeoMaestro http://www.compendiumcorp. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.com/ Element K . To quote the developers. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).net/index. a leading open source learning management system. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics.allencomm.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.avilar. . more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.com/ IBM .g. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. more control over the learning environment For institutions. is available as a free download.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.com/ Compendium Corporation .WebMentor LMS http://www.gen21. in alphabetical order. .geolearning.com/ GeoLearning Inc. groups.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.gyrus.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.com/ Frontline Data Solutions. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.elementk. The roles. and other academic services.Training Partner http://www.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. a communic-ation platform.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc.

com/isnm2005/in dex.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.Oracle Learning http://www.com/flashhom e.com/ Saba .PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.com/index.webraven.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.com/ Strategia .Net http://www.aspx Oracle USA Inc. .com/ TeraLearn. .com/2004/index.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.com/overview.html Plateau Systems .html OutStart Inc.ttg-inc.com/ Vuepoint .com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.com .com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.Intellinex LMS http://www.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.SSA Learning Management http://www.LearnFlex LMS http://www.redbooks.teralearn.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.com/ Syntrio .CourseMill LMS http://www.com/portal/index.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.IntraLearn XE http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254. .com/ MaxIT .com Inc.com/ Intellinex LLC.netdimensions.TM SIGAL http://www.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .SSElearn Portal http://www.wizdom.htm SAP .cfm TEDS Inc.syntrio. TrainingOffice Audit http://www. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.com LearnSomething Inc. .com/ SSE .meridianksi.LearnerWeb http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. .asp SumTotal Systems Inc.SAP Learning Solution http://www.ssaglobal.LearnCenter http://www.novasys-corp.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.iPerform http://www.intralearn.oracle.wbtsystems.strategia.technomedia. .howtomaster.http://www.intellinex.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.sap. .com/ Do not reproduce 111 .outstart.TopClass LMS http://www.com/redbooks.vbtrain.html Trivantis Corporation .LMSLive http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.com/ NetDimensions .Isoph Blue http://www.TotalLMS http://www.OnTracker LMS http://www.jsp Operitel Corporation .com Websoft Systems Inc.vuepoint.aspx RISC . – TEDS http://www.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. .com/ mGen Inc.sselearn.asp Learn.oracle.operitel.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.risc-inc.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.learnsomething.ca/en/default. . .ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.plateau.html?Open InfoSource Inc.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.ips-inc. Tracker.net/trackerinfo.com/ WBT Systems .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.trivantis.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.teds.mGen Enterprise http://www.InfoSource http://www.html IntraLearn Software Corp. .learn.DOTS .maxit.knowledgeplanet. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.Ed Training Platform http://www.mgen.isnewmedia.sumtotalsystems.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.ibm.websoft.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba. . .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .

D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.PDF Farmer. ICALT2002 Conference. Molinari.Xtention Learning Management System http://www.info/static.71. M. 2005.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . Pierre (2000). Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.ac.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. Incorporated Subversion. University of Birmingham.uk Teresa A.edu.uk/index. Jan. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central. http://www.pdf Cohen.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.unitn.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems.ieee. and Trifonova. by Sam Adkins.ac. http://incsub.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. Building educational virtual environments. http://www. 2006.org/eun.pdf Dalziel.learningcircuits.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Ronchetti. (Online edition).com XStream Software Inc. Learning Circuits. Sam (2005). (2002). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. http://www.edutools. October. and Tsiatsos. (2006). separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.The Learning Manager http://www.mq. http://www.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. http://www.xtention. Proceedings. http://www. 21.learningcircuits. C. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. (2002).eun. UK. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems.xstreamsoftware.jisc.A possible future for online learning.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103." http://www.htm Bouras.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).nxtbook. James (2003). June 20-21.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo. L. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).science.. .e-learningcentre. http://www.pdf Dillenbourg. http://www. August.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.building new education strategies for schools.com/ from the JISC in the UK.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Ed.co. A. Workshop on virtual learning environments.. James (2005).it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). .” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. Virtual Learning Environments. A. http://lttf.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. . Chief Learning Officer.thelearningmanager.brandonhall.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .48.cetis. T.melcoe.com/ Xtention Inc.

zcu. October 2005. M.. J.aace. November 2004..au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Plzen.pdf Ueno. Healthcare. (2005).org/newdl/index. 31-Feb. 40(3).pdf Sadeghi. Derek (2004). April. Browne.bath.pdf Tsinakos. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . 4.cfm?fuse action=Reader.infodiv. and Sharifi. http://tojde. Maomi (2005). R. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. A. WSCG Conference 2005.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005. Government.ac.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. 5(2). Proceedings. Van (2005).Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. Avgoustos (2004). May 2006 http://www. http://wscg. http://www. and Quealy.unimelb. 2005. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. http://www. LMS Governance Project Report. (2006). Jan. L.educause. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .edu. Exeter.anadolu. Report published by UCISA. Report for the Melbourne.pdf Wise.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533. T. Czech Republic. M (2005).edu. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. http://www.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). May-June. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Aavani. J. Educause Review.pdf Morrison. and Higher Education 2005. and Walker. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.ac.ucisa. Proceedings of ALT-C.. Vancouver. http://www.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. 2005. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.

There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. rapid learning. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. Learning objects have several uses. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. culture. intelligent tutoring. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. As online educational materials are produced. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. curriculum. Rather. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. They are emulations of “software objects. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). This idea is based on older. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. 2004. However.” This use has been more successful. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. sharable content objects (SCOs).” To facilitate searching and retrieval. At the simplest level. Wiley. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. The acronym SCORM. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. 2006). in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. learning object model (LOM). SCORM. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects).” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. Beyond that. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. computer-use practices. learning object repository (LOR).” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. reusable learning objects (RLOs).” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. of learning objects. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. a well-known standard for learning objects.” such as a graph.

http://www. http://dspace. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://web.cdlib. http://mlor.arizona.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://learnware.rice.net/project.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.merlot. preserves. with a focus on information literacy.org/Home.thegateway.profetic. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.educanext.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.fedora.unsw.lrc3.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://lester. http://nsdl.edu/DesktopDefault.edu.mcli. http://ideas. http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. http://dlist. http://www.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.koha. and distributes digital research material.uvic.utoronto.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. http://www. http://www. http://www. indexes. and they can be general or subject specific.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. http://www. with almost 15.llearn.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://www. stores.dist.downes. http://www.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 . http://www.sir.lolaexchange.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. http://www.000 items. resources for grades K-12.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.maricopa. http://www.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.goenc.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.oise.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.wisconsin.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://www.org/index.uwaterloo. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.

cancore.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. http://www.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. and Anderson. T.org/eng/scientifiques. Celentano. B.9. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. And Longo. 2(1). 1(3).phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. (2004).irrodl.html http://www. http://www. and Alderman. Online document. M. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.nmc.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. & Strijker. March.org/content/v2. (2004).uwm. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. http://www. http://www. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. M.org/14190 Downes.cisco.unesco. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.uwm.org/guidelines/index.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. http://portal. (2003).doc Christiansen. Bibliography Barritt.ca/mt/archive/000 681. http://www.L.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. http://www. Online paper. CANCORE. http://dl.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.dicole.html Edusource (2003).htm Collis. (2004)..shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.org/blog/archives/ 002089.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. Stephen.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. F. 5-16.ca/implementing_proje cts.uniroma1.elearnspace. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. authored by Rachel Smith.aace.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://www.org/ci/en/ev. EdTechPost.jcdl.lornet. Version .1/downes . C. http://www.dis.uis.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.it/~lhci/002. http://www. A. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.publiclibraryofscience.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. International Journal on E-Learning.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.edtechpost. is available at: http://www. 2(4). http://www.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. J..edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. A.amazon.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. (2000).itdl. Software Architecture Document.

and Pragnell. http://www. Mattson.. http://www.htm Morrison. 2004.doc Fiaidhi. Online paper. G.ac. S. (2004). E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. T. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.http://www.org.cancore.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Elizabeth (2004). July 14.pdf Richards. Warren (2000). http://www. and Morales. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. K. http://www.Part 2. http://www.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.edusource. Rossano. G..org/index.learningcircuits. M. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Research Report.informingscience. Downes.. (2004).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. Learning Material Repositories . Paper presented.Rafts or Battleships? . INTERACT 2005. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www.. Rory (Ed. V. Anderson.ac.. Derek (2004b).pdf?fuseaction=Reader.ca/protocols_en. 1 (3). Norm (2006). http://www. March..ca/implementing_proje cts. Learning Circuits. 14.9%2015-11-03. http://proceedings.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. 7(1). Jan. http://ideas. G.. Lori (2002).. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.html Friesen. G. MacLeod. http://www. Final Project Report.html Murphy..edu.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. T. Babin. and Freisen.Part 1. (2005). M.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. A Primer on Learning Objects.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.html Leeder. http://www.html McGreal. 2004. http://www.bath.bath.itdl. http://www. Harrigan. R. D. 12.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Do not reproduce 117 .uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.htm Nejdl. Wolfgang (2004). Derek (2004a).org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn... 1(3).. Learning Material Repositories . D. March.learninglab. J. R. Hatala.blogs.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. http://www.learningcircuits. Norm (2005). Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. Online Education Using Learning Objects.) (2004). Paquette. R. London: Falmer.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.eduserv.itdl. S.pdf Krauss. McGreal. (2004).Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. Richards. (2002).cfm/files/pape r_11841. Online. Fredinand (2004). CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference..amazon. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. S. Roberts. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.p df Roselli. Rachel (2006).htm Friesen. March.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability.usq. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. March.html Heery. and Schafer. and Mohammed. http://www.editlib. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. N. Friesen. Learning Circuits. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. N.Rafts or Battleships? . Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.kth. 2004. April 2002. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. InSITE conference.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.. June. M. Aug. T.cancore.org/mar2000/p rimer.

p df Wiley. (2006).htm Shepherd. http://www. David A.org/read/ Wiley. Online. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Brigham Young University. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. M.dis..pdf http://www.pdf Santally.uniroma1.fastrakconsulting.> > http://www. A. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory..uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper.uniroma1. M. David A. 1(7). 9. and Senteni. http://opencontent. David A.itdl. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Doctoral dissertation. (2000). Objects of Interest.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . http://opencontent. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. (2002). (2004). (2000). : http://reusability.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.org/docs/dissertation.co.htm Wiley.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. (Ed. Iterating Toward Openness. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Govinda. http://www.dis. Clive. Jan.). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.

including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams.clarklabs.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. galleries.http://www. geocaching. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. navigation. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). more demands for a person’s attention. Department of Defense.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth.com/ MapInfo .org/ ESRI.esri. and wearable computers.frappr.http://www. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. However. PDAs. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. including cell phones. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies.http://www.S. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . laptops. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. and security issues.com/ Intergraph . Do not reproduce 119 . including privacy concerns. galleries. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. gaming consoles. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. as with any new technology. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. location-based systems are found in museums.cadcorp.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. personal media players.http://www. findability.intergraph. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. http://www.com/ Clark Labs .http://www. users will be able to use a variety of devices. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. proximity tools.mapinfo.

http://www.chimer.” http://www.google.confluence.ac.state.berkeley. similar to what a GIS system uses.com/index.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.google. http://www.bham.esri. http://portal. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.biogeomancer.searchable from a database. http://www. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.geog.edu. See their complete range of products.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.museum.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. http://local.live. create. http://earth. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. at: http://www.google.org/index.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.ac. http://www. http://www.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations. http://www. http://platial.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. http://earth. While not very useful for most people. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.leeds.000 archaeological sites in the state.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. http://mvz.google. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. it is a great tool for teaching science. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. http://www.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.fi/english/page.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.cetadl.greatestplaces. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.il. http://www.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.5372. as well as papers on trends in GIS.smm. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.asp?path= 500. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. http://www. http://www.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.pangonetworks.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.

co. Online article. http://education. F. A. 38(4).. and Chamzas. http://www.. http://www. http://www. Dec.. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. C.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.learningcircuits.com http://geotags. and students. 2005. IBM Systems Journal. http://www. A. (2001). Arnaoutoglou. and visualize spatial information. 1999.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. and Borriello.eoscenter.jisc. (1999).ordnancesurvey. IEEE Report. Abbott.com/gis4mt/index.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work..net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. Koutsoudis. Dobreva. January.opensourcegis. 2005. A. http://www.intelresearch. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. Eva (2004).com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. enthusiasts.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. http://elearningeuropa. Mapping. Earth. McHugh. G.wisc.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. http://www. Learning Circuits. http://www..geocomm.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.bc.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. J. http://pngis. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.digicult.research.gees.pdf Tsirliganis.http://www.ac.. Information in places.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.ac. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.. > > http://geotags. S.C. http://www. J. Guardian Unlimited. 15. G.com/geo/ Cardinali.digicult. CAD.info/index.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. DigiCULT Newsletter. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. 2003. Pavlidis. Chapter on Location Based Devices. M. Heather (2005). 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. http://www. Fabrizio (2005).com/ Bibliography Benford. see: http://www.ca/ Geotags. Future LocationBased Experiences.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).edu/sco/gis/his tory.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. and Location-Based industry professionals.geography.ibm.guardian.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. Issue 6. Steve (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. (2003).htm McLean. Part II.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . manipulate.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05.00.pdf Spohrer.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.html Ross.uk/elearning/ story/0. Donnelly. N. and Rusbridge.uk/oswebsit e/education/index.. Jan 2004. M. http://www. We learning: social software and e-learning.. D.directionsmag.1642288. (2005).intergraph.co. Nov.

122 © Brandon Hall Research . SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. composite applications. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. tag clouds. all expressed in binary code. providing an informal collaborative environment. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. or protocol. such as those for collaboration. run all by themselves. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. of how to communicate with each other. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. Mashups are constructed in several ways. 2004). etc. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.” Using SOAP. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. integration. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. to a lesser extent. document management. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. communications. also called “object interoperability. Programs can be “stand alone. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. personalized. the rules for sending files across the Internet. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. or through “Web services. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. For example.. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs.” that is. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. in schools and universities. A “mashup. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page.” then. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. Similarly. at the same time. Many of these objects are software programs. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. API clouds.Mashups. hybrid applications.

programmableweb.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. and Padron. G.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.elearnspace. (2004).mashupfeed. July 25. Dec. Curriculum as Mashup.icio. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.deitel.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.techlearning. Dodero. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. 2006. http://www.htm Siviter. http://www. > > http://www.html Hof.infoworld. http://www. Learning Technology newsletter. Business Week Online.icio. and Oliveira. Elearnspace.pdf Seimens.html Warlick.bctechnology. Vol. As Warlick (2006) has noted. Galen (2006). a writer for Business Week.htm Torres. and mutate. http://ww6. match. Vol. Enterprise mashups.businessweek. Learning Technology newsletter. George (undated).com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Learning Solutions.0 APIs. Paul (2002).com/products/print_fr iendly.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .org/resources/web services. 2005. http://www.ieee. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. January 2004 http://lttf. C. July 28. J.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. January 2004 http://lttf. C. Robert (2005).pdf Stacey.businessweek. http://en.com/ http://www. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.us.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. Bibliography Gruman.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. 2006. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. http://www. 6. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. J.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.html Rob Hof. SOAP.. May 15. Issue 1.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. Many have educational value. http://www. Mashups. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.wikipedia.operitel. Mix. (2006). Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Issue 1. 6. http://del. 2006. Douglas (2004).ieee. 6.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. http://www.emilychang. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. March 6. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.com/publications. techLEARNING.html Woodill.” It has many examples of mashups. Web Services. David (2006).programmableweb. 2002. Infoworld. http://blogs.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.

. M. June 2004. community. Bibliography Abel.ac.pdf Delphi Group (2004). search engines.. http://www. Ohio. Delphi Group report.educause. T. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.do?tm =O4E.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. http://ebiquity. Perich. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. http://simile. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. (2004).html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.umbc.edu/content. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Lenne. http://iiscs.php?id=25 Chen. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. H.cetis. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.mit. http://dublincore.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. in the context of information technology. MA. B.wssu. Boston. In Proceedings. Finin.info/issues. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. 98-111.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.imsglobal. Barry. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. pervasive computing. A. to develop metadata standards. http://www.Metadata. Benayache. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. and Joshi. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). An ontology. 7(4). http://www.edu/get/a/publication /105.html Description At the same time that learning objects. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. C.cancore. repositories. and institutional stores.mit. http://libraries.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. C.edu/o4e/viewhome... This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. and Chaput..ifets. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. metadata. Moulin.. D. F.. http://metadata. (2004). A. and services. and artificial intelligence are being developed.

Defining “taxonomy”..ca/editors.ecdl2003. W. Building a Metadata-Based Website. (2004).adammathes. (2004).com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Mosoiu. Ellyssa (2005). N. BoxesAndArrows.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). http://www. May 22. http://www. and Shao..info/issues.htm Gruber.boxesandarrows. Chen. University of Illinois graduate paper. NISO Press. 11(7/8). D-Lib Magazine. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema..learningcircuits..ifets. TagOntology .php?id=25 Kroski. July/August. Reuben (2004). http://www. BoxesAndArrows. J.tagcamp. October 29. 2002.pdf Oin.greenchameleon. http://dl. http://tomgruber. (2002). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. D. http://www. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. Another new paradigm for instructional design.boxesandarrows. http://tomgruber. 7. (2003). Online article. Norm (2005).org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.niso. N. Trondheim.cancore. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. 7(4). 2006.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. 26-28. 2002. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel. Learning Circuits.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.php?id=25 Tozman.blogsome. Patrick (2006)..com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. S. Dolog.dlib.aace.org/10614 Mathes. and Nejdl. Christina (2002).html Gruber. Presentation to Tag Camp. April 21.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Understanding Metadata.html Wodtke. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Wagner. B. http://www. 2003.pdf Friesen. M.ppt Ricci. J. A. Green Chameleon. Norway. 82-97. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). I. 2005. BoxesAndArrows. Nov. http://www. Christian (2004). P.boxesandarrows.htm Weibel. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. November.org/.delphigroup. April 9. 2004. Infotangle. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Pouloudi. P.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson..ifets. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. April 18. http://infotangle. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). and Godby. and Poulymenakou. Dec. A. Thomas (2005a). Adam (2004). http://www. (2004). http://www.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n.info/issues.pdf Henze.http://www. http://www. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 2004. http://www. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. International Journal on E-Learning. M. http://www. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Stuart (2005). Lytras. http://www. G.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. Thomas (2005b). 7(4). 2005. A. (2003). and Diaz. October-December. Do not reproduce 125 . http://www.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.

7(4). 70-81.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.

and mentoring. conversational learning. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). personalization. improved identity creation. Do not reproduce 127 . and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. there were estimated to be 1. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. in Japan. However. 2004). video) and distributed databases.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. pervasive computing. powerful support for effective learning. cellular telephones. cell phones. tablet PCs. Cited in Prensky. time and space. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. communicative skills and community building.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. strong search capabilities. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. tablets. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. (2004). wearable computing.6 billion units in operation by that year. location-dependence. brokerage. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. personal digital assistants (PDA). Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. delivery and tracking of learning and information content.” Two years ago. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. multimedia. collaborative learning.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. using ambient intelligence. such as increased computer literacy. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. Essentially. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. instant messaging (text. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. mLearning. 2003). laptops. location based technologies. podcasting. it is predicted that there will be 2. personalization. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). rich interaction. MP3 players.

net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.htm Jari Laru. movies. activities.” > > > http://www.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.edu.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.cs.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning.co. resources. http://gseacademic. http://www.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research . pictures.bbc.co. and a glossary.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.harvard.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.se/projectd ata.knowledgepulse.mobilearn. US.” > > > http://m.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. http://www.cs.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.pdf http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.beta80group. links.elearningcentre.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.telus.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. or a combination of media.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.computer.com/wwwtools/m/273 7. of the University of Oulu in Finland.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.ccu. and pre-service teachers.com/wwwtools/m/271 7. Israel. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.edu.edu.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.fasfind. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.” They have a “firefly watching system. Australia. http://www.fasfind. http://www3.fasfind.com/home_en.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. http://news.pdf http://www.cs. http://spotlight-mobile. audio. technologies.pdf location-specific text. http://urbantapestries. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content. http://csdl2.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.stockholmchallenge. applications. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.mobilelearning. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.ccu. http://urbantapestries.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. http://www. including issues. Learn more at: http://www.” and a “bird watching learning system.ccu.” a “butterflywatching learning system.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. http://www.

net. http://llt. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.pdf Jasola. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. Report.pdf Godwin-Jones. 347-359. http://www.J.ccu. Bryan (2004).html Chen.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. EDUCAUSE Review.uk/eli_practice. James (2005). 17-22 http://llt.science. T. Emerging technologies: Messaging. JISC Guide. Jill (2005). 2(9).html Kadirire. and Trifonova. Sept. http://knowledgetree. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice..m-learning. A. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.flexiblelearning. 9(1). (2002). and Sheu. http://www. S.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.html Grew. 5.pdf Anderson. Ireland. Gaming.formatex. January 2005. Paul (2005).. Language Learning and Technology. and Pagani. http://www. Vol. J. Molinari. (2005). Univ. http://www. http://213. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.6.msu.iadis.educause. Ronchetti.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.uk/handler/public ations.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.ntnu..ac. For example. September 2005. Gaming.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. M. http://www. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://www.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. and Sharma.itdl.idi.135/ipodined/news.kaywa.ac.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.htm JISC (2005).edu. (2003). R. Bob (2005).html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.cs.ac. http://mobile.au /edition06/download/geddes. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. A. 2006 in Dublin. No.org/micte2005/4.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.232.pdf Colazzo.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . http://www. of Birmingham http://www. B. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.jisc.pdf Geddes. 39.msu. (2004). (2005).edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. http://www. L. http://www.bham.pdf Attewell. http://www.pdf Bibliography Alexander. No. Y.94. E.unitn. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. P.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).eee. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. 19.jisc. Kao.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.

edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.uk/public/getfile.html von Koschembahr. Malavasi. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. H. June 27.. http://www. http://drei. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. A. J.innovateonline. 40-53.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples.. Christopher (2005).open. (2001). 1(5).00. Draft paper submitted for publication. D. Liang. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.clomedia.fil. and Cultural Heritage.ac. Ann (2005). T. multimediabased learning application. http://www. T. Michael (2005). http://www. Peter (2005). S. and Vavoula. May 23. M.usabilitynews.com/content/templat es/clo_article.pdf Thomas. Feb.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Hungary.pdf Sharples. (2005).2. Conference on Virtual reality.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Wang. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. http://www.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.2002. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. (2005).. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. and Yang. Chief Learning Officer. 2005.pdf Mellow.asp Liu. M.pdf Metcalf.doc Meisenberger. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.com/news/article 2490. and Nischelwitzer.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298.org/10.fhjoanneum.. http://kn. http://portal. M. Växjö. 2004. Amherst. David (2006). M.oucs. Feb. http://www. T. Archeology. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.educause. Kristóf (2002). J. 2005.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. Proceedings. A.digicult.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. http://www.ox. http://doi. http://www. Donnelly. and. http://21st. MA: HRD Press. Neil (2003). Ellen (2005).amazon. Galasso. computer-aided. Mike (2005).uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.pdf Scagliarini. Proceedings.. Budapest. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. and Sforza. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. J.guardian. S. E. Enabling Mobile Learning.org..co. Greece.ascilite. L. Understanding. Presented at WMTE 2002. and Dobreva. Växjö University.Light. 40(3). E. Romagnoli.ieeecomputersociety. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.org/citation.. June/July 2005... M. Roffia. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. G. Sweden.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.ac. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.1039222 McLean. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.110 9/WMTE. Coralini. Learning in the Mobile Age. (2002).ac. http://www. (2004). http://www. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. E-Learning on the move. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Taylor. F. May/June 2005. Brisbane..info/index..htm#Implications Prensky. M.phil-inst.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . April 2005.century. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. http://education... Australia. Marc (2004).eee.1490476. Teleborg Campus. Glyfada. 2002. Pigozzi. 2005.bham.uk/elearning/ comment/0.acm. ASCILITE2005 Conference. UsabilityNews. August 29-30. EDUCAUSE Review.. Cinotti. Vecchietti. Chan.

et al.ac. research. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. (2005a. Kim (2000). it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.aaai.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. rather than just returning Web pages.e.upenn. (2004). Lee et al. http://dmoz. and standards. i.cs. natural language understanding. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.it/index. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.lexxe.translating one natural language into another. speech recognition. (2004).. http://www. http://eduforge. natural language generation.ldc. machine translation. tools. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .york. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. http://tcc.” See also Jordan et al..elsnet. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). speech synthesis.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.org/softwaremap/trove_list . and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. http://www. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Di Eugenio. http://www.itc.uk/~silvia/litReview.org/aitopics/html/natlang. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. Do not reproduce 131 .org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. http://wwwusers.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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amongst institutions. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. Secondly. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories.uk/ilogbook/d efault. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. and review his or her learning activity. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. (Cortlett et al. such as search engines. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. learners need to be in real-world situations. and through a variety of technologies. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. as learners move between institutions. e-portfolios. Technology needs to be situated. it helps the user plan.bham. learning management systems. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. Individualization in an LMS is weak. work places. To practice real-world situations. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. often only for the purposes of the course. and.. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. wikis. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility).cetadl. http://portal. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. whiteboard). Running on the learner's PC. discussion forums. etc. and social bookmarking sites.ac. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. without an offline client to the LMS. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. manage. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. This requires support over time. In many cases. track. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. blogs. social environments.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. libraries. for the learner. A PLE is structured by the learner.). A PLE must support lifelong learning. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. there can be no electronic interaction. chat. but these are only available to members of the course.

11. http://www. and Westmancott. Online case study paper. Incorporated Subversion.pdf Farmer. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. PLE Reference Model.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. (2005). James (2006).jisc. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. D. Terry (2006).ppt University of Birmingham (2005).ac.ac. J. Colin (2005).uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. Sharples.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.ac.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Nevada.ac.edublogs.ac. 2006.mlearn.ac.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://elgg. Ting.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.cetis.bath. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www. M.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.. http://incsub. 2006. Las Vegas.. T. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.org. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. January 9.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. http://terrya.za/CD/papers/Corle tt.jisc. 22-27 July 2005. Jan. Edinburgh. http://www.cetis.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. Chan..uk/index. http://www. UK.elearning. http://www. O.

and/or presentation of materials.elenaproject.g.uk/ilex/final. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.hcrc. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. 2005) Once the user data has been collected.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. However. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. Keenoy et al. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).ac. the personalization can be applied to content. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. through a questionnaire). At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. Often.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials.). artificial intelligence. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs.. or it can be an implicit model.g. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems.. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. navigation. 2005). (Filippini-Fantoni.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. rule-based filtering. Furthermore. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.org/en/index. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. http://www.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. picture.g. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. These techniques include content-based filtering. PDAs). The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 .. etc.ed. learning environments. etc.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . collaborative filtering. http://www.

hatii. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.virtualmuseum. http://www.firstmonday.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. Online paper..unibo. with a particular focus on the museum sector. (2005). Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). C.CY/0409055 Boyle T.unimagdeburg. T. http://www.pdf Beler. J. http://www. S.calimera. J.beta80group.pdf Callaway..arts.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles ...ca/English/Pers onal/index. D.cs. W.metmuseum. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. Cozzolongo. and Kuflik. http://www.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. PowerPoint presentation. http://www. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Pizzutilo. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.arces. B. Ler.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. A. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. Ngo.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. University of Glasgow.gla.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.noekaleidoscope. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.org/pdf/cs. Online paper. A.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art.pdf Bright. and FilippiniFantoni. G. http://smart.umuai. A.org/default. K. HATII. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. http://www.. De Carolis. and Nuguid.(2001).uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. and Cook J.directa..it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf Calimera Project (2005).asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.org/ Bibliography Abbott.net/home. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.calimera.ac.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. A. http://www. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. Kay. (2004). Daisy (2002).org.ecdc.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.. http://adiret.. (2005). Bowen.ascilite. Melbourne. http://www.. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. http://www.html http://www.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.cognitive traits. Borda.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research . wireless networks. The Future of Access (or. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.pdf m/index. http://arxiv.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. (2004). S. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. A. William Niu.pdf Cavalluzzi. A demo is available at: http://www. > > http://www. https://www.emarcon. dynamic user profiling techniques.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.

Information Access.Info. http://w5. Personalization through IT in museums. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. Dagger.uniba. http://www. Paris. May 25.di.pdf Copa. D. G.p df Green.pdf Goren-Bar.semanticweb. February..com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.itc.pdf Giroux..The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. 1–27. K. September 2002. Facer. Ecole du Louvre.. Silvia (2003). Stock. M. O.. https://www.edfac. May 2002.acm. (2004). Graziola. S. (2002). Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.jpbowen.) (2002). Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. Magical Mirror: multimedia. FutureLab report. Bowen. V. Gallipoli. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.dimi. Barcelona. George (2005). (2005). Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. (2005). PEACH http://peach.pdf Heckmann. Nejdl. May 25. Hershey. Rudd. April 2004. science centres and galleries. and Tasso. PA: Idea Group Publishing. (2003). (AVI 2004). Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. and Numerico. URL: http://doi.. T.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Málaga. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. M. Online paper.it/papers/gorenbar2005. Soro.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. and Vazirgiannis. and Cardinalli. Dillon.pdf Eirinaki. Dominik (2003). http://www. (2004). Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. Subramaniam (Ed. C. (Eds. http://tmtfactory. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.ie/Owen. P.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09.. Kuflik. Montreal. (AVI 2004). Comparison of museum/city tour guides. 2004.1145/643477. and Boavida. and Verdaguer. N..org/10. M.cs.. (2002).. Pianesi.ppt Correia. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. X. M.pdf Ceccaroni.nestafuturelab. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.uniud. May 2004. http://iswc2002. N. Online paper. Moulin. I.p df Filippini-Fantoni. Web mining for web personalization.org/posters/ moulin.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. Wade. FutureLab. C. D. Issue 7.org. T. Italy. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Sanna. F.. and Paddeu. M. University of Sydney (2004).. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. and Humphreys. http://lrnlab. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . Gallipoli. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. (2005). D.pdf Dolog. http://www. 2004.. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. http://www.cs. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. http://www. L..Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. Roy (2004).24_Conlan.it/intint/people/papers /aims04. and Zancanaro.pdf Conlan.futurelab. O. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. P. interactive services in home automation.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. J. (2004). ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. S. S.pdf Fuschi.tcd.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers.learnexact.usyd. P. DigiCULT . and Sintek. A. Spain. T. (2003). http://www. Personalization and Digital Technologies. In Mizzaro. Rocchi. 3(1).uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. In R.2004-1213. C.designshare. W. http://www.edu. H..www2004. R. http://www. Italy. 2005 www. New York.com/pub/evsc05b.ichim. F.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. Henze.uni- Do not reproduce 141 ...htm Hawkey.

http://peach.. Online paper. http://w5. October 2004.stuba. 2005. (2005).ed. and Niu. http://www.itc..l3s. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.pdf Henze.e5. T.cs. SeLeNe . Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. Yasuda. T. and Okamoto. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. L.pdf Klobučar. Personis: A Server for User Models. http://www. P.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final.kbs. D.. http://adiret. Stock. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). Gallipoli. Lum.unimagdeburg. Final Version. In: De Bra.edu. http://www. B.cs.bbk. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. Levene. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).. Online paper. K.. Goren-Bar. de Freitas. J. UM 2005. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Callaway. UK. T. and Zancanaro.pdf Kay. Kaszas.sb. P.inf.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.. A. and Montandon. A.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. (2004). N.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. 23-30 July 2005.PDF Kay.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005.cs. http://www. LSC. Niu .. (2005). In Mária Bieliková.pdf Kuflik..it/papers/avi2004. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . M. (2004). May 25. Jaroslav. Jones.pdf Kuflik.pdf Kay. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. pages 249-256. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. D. M. UK http://homepages. S. Edinburgh.ac. W.ac.. . K.ac. Yokoi.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. M.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. 7(4):70-81.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Kummerfeld. K. Online paper. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server.4.au/~piers/papers/ pums. P. http://eprints.edu. and Lauder. http://www.. editor. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. (2005). Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments.. (2004).uk/selene/reports/ Del22.. O..unihannover. B.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). Waycott... R. Penserini.pdf Henze. Kummerfeld. P. J. and Nejdl. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. (eds. W. P. 2004 http://www.ippr.uni-sb. Educational Technology & Society. and Lauder.2. http://www. P. V.pdf Keenoy. and Blažič.usyd.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14.p df Iwazaki. Rocchi. W. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. Turcsanyi-Szabo.pdf Kay.ijs.si/eng/ijceel. (2004). C.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. T. T. (2004). and Conejo.pdf Johnson. and Peterson.usyd. (2002). Dolog.. B. PIA Conference. Brusilovsky.cs.. Seničar.1. Italy. S. (2002). Levene... Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Busetta. Bratislava. and Zancanaro. M.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1.. Online paper.bbk.fiit. (2001).. M. Proceedings of IIT.computer. Martin (2004).Self E-Learning Networks. J. A.. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. P.pdf Kuruc....dcs. http://csdl2.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. WP4 Deliverable 4... Nicola (2005).. Brasher. P. J. IEEE Computer Society. (2005). J. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Keenoy. 2004. C.

Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. available from www.bbk.uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. B. Maier P.cs. Y.html Schmidt. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management.sts.utokyo. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.http://senet.gov. http://www. D. A. (2000). Turcsányi-Szabó.um.pdf Ng M. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. A. Turcsányi-Szabó. David. Bossung. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century. Flypad Report. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS). 2004. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version).bbk. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement.2.pdf Sakamura. Keenoy. F. J. (Eds.pdf Reeves. (2005).dimi. and Levene. January 2004. (2004). Schmidt.. URL: http://maya. Kaszás..lsc. (2004). A Multi-Dimensional. Malaga. B. 2002. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. K. C.... http://www. M. (2004a). F.pdf Mizzaro.. Online paper. Montandon. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).2.fraunhofer. Keenoy.nott. Málaga. and Tasso. ACM Press.pdf Schoonenboom. Winterhalter.learninginprocess. R.. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. New York. (2005). David. http://www.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub.. H.. V. J-P. Lejeune.. C. Montandon. and Hemmje. Kaszás. Goita. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.ac.1. May 25. H.pdf Niederee. Stuart. P. A.dcs.. http://www. Barrios. and Modritscher.. May 7.) (2002). J. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.ac. http://eprints. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Muller. Ken (2000). Z. Trummer.uk/6832/01/ah 02.uniud.ncsl.ac. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. (2004).. http://www. Spain.. Margaret (2002). L.dcs. Paper presented at EDEN 2004... Diagne.ecs.uk/trails Schoonenboom.H. http://www. Stewart. Spain.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Preis.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Faure. Pluhar..www2004. M. P.. J.ipsi. http://www. A.pdf Martinez. C.. Enric and Minguillon.de/~mehta/uuc m.ac. A...tuharburg... Italy. and Srivastava. Jones. S.pdf Pivec. M. 43(8):142–151. Hungary.org/proceedings/doc s/2p264..edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final. Blake. M.com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. http://www. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Armstrong R.depaul. Cooley.org.. (2002). May 2004. http://www. Communications of the ACM.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h. J. May 2002.. (2004b). available from www.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605. Jones. C. pp. L. and Levene.ac. Mehta. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.. August. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems.428-431. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.uk/trails Sehring. Gallipoli. Lejeune. A... Online paper. C. C. K.. Gutl.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor.elearningguild.. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal. Julia (2004)..pdf Do not reproduce 143 . M. 2004 http://www2. Budapest. S.uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069.mrl..2. J-P. A. Hall W.pdf Mobascher. M..soton.iicm.

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and other roles outside an organization (Collins. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . the portal offered information on more than 20. Knowledge Management. http://www. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. In the business world.elearningeuropa. 2001). instructorled.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. content management. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. vendors.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.Portals Related terms Collaboration. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. collaborative environment. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. learning management systems. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. which form a dynamic user profile.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . As of early 2006.

executrain. (2003).html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. instructors.fathom. Hershey.elementk.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.com/home. 2004.saba. and shared lists for tasks.learningcircuits. M.asp?id=9028 Barron. and schedules.worldwidelearn. interactive discussion groups.students. baby! E-learning portals.com/article. students. March 1.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.www2. news and announcements. http://www.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.Education. (Eds. including educational uses. http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. document management information. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. May 2000. http://www. http://blogs. Ron (2004).ittoolbox.teach-nology. http://www.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index.microsoft.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. Heidi (2001).mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.700 online courses http://www.000 online courses http://www.300 online courses http://www.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. New York: AMACOM. and Aucoin. category. Bray (2001). You’ve come a long way. Campbell. museums.. http://knowledgemanagement.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. A.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. http://h20219.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. In Jafari.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.campustechnology. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. go to: http://www. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. R.000 publishers worldwide http://www. audio and/or video.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. http://www.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. instant messaging. A Portrait of Learning Portals. Learning Circuits.microsoft. Campus Technology Magazine.proquest.asp Element K – Access to over 2.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. e-mail distribution lists. K.amazon. and universities.nl/mart/CategoryView. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.000 lesson plans http://www. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. and Sheehan.cyberu.amazon.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . administrators.hp. calendars. online meetings with text. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. school administrators.tamtam.htm Brockbank. Tom (2000).trainingregistry.

San Francisco: JosseyBass.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. http://www. J.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. (Eds. (2003). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Hershey. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. Richard & Associates (2002). and Sheehan.learningcircuits. http://www. http://www. A. C. http://www.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.. September 2000. M.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Cornelia (2000).amazon. New York: AMACOM. Reviewed at: http://www.asp Katz.Collins. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.) (2003). PA: Information Science Publishing.htm Do not reproduce 147 .amazon.educause.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. and Gordon.educause. Heidi (2003). Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.asp Terra.

148 © Brandon Hall Research .replayhq. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. In fact. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. However.com/site/index.macromedia.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. Skypecasting. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. http://www.lsc. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.mit.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.elluminate.” In the Middle Ages. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. While it is expensive. when experts are not readily available. webcasting. although many are trying to change this practice. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.com Hewlett-Packard. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. virtual classrooms. http://www.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. web conferencing.edu/TEAL). Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. Online presentations can be very boring.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. in partnership with Dreamworks. http://www. webinars Consequently. http://icampus. See the TEAL Project at MIT. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. Experience them at: http://www. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. http://www. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. the word “lecturing” means “to read.

39155030.kolabora. http://www.> > http://www. virtual classrooms.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. Captivate. a columnist at InfoWorld.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. and kidneys.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. independent listing of Webinars.infoworld. Web conferencing.co. > > http://www.com/publications/lel/lel.adelaide. videoconferencing. Webcasts.htm http://www.athabascau.elearningcentre.elearningcentre.elearningcentre. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.” > http://www.com/news_radars /web_presentations.hp. social software for online collaboration. online meetings. although it does not have to be.silicon.ccimeet. videoconferencing.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/news_radars /web_conferencing. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.00. virtual teams.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.thinkofit.humanresourceWebinars.acue.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning. Coursebuilder.htm http://www. http://cde.com/udell/200 5/02/25.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www. groupware.380 0005416. and Flash. and e-learning.edu.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. forums and message boards.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. online communities.co. brain.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach. http://buyersguide.com/webconf/index. instant messaging. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. http://www. Do not reproduce 149 . http://ajax.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.lsc. > > http://weblog.eweek. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.elearningcentre.html#a1185 http://weblog. Authorware. presentation and streaming presentation tools.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. intranets.co. Breeze. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.kolabora.infoworld. virtual meetings.htm http://www. Web seminars. and whiteboarding.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.brandonhall.com/eweek/web conferencing.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution. http://www.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. http://www.e-learningcentre. and Web presentations. http://www. Dreamweaver.co. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.com/cxoextra/0.com/udell/200 5/01/22.

org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. April 30.htm Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. (2004).php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. Jennifer (2004). (in two parts) > > http://www.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. Robin Good Blog. http://www. July 8. K. July. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. and Quick.amazon..com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1.com/product /software/795/index. Robin Good Blog.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. http://www.html Using Apreso software. 2005.downloadjunction. http://www. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.pdf Bibliography Agarwal. May 15. 2003.01. Luigi (2003b). http://m. Armit (2005). Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. K.presentations.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. P. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.programjunction. http://labnol.russellmcnally.fasfind.russellmcnally. http://www.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. July 26. Belinda (2003).com/downloads/sear ch. http://www. Russ (2004). Luigi (2003c). Luigi (2003a).html Canali De Rossi.filesland.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus.blogspot. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 2003. Live ELearning.http://www. http://www. 7(3).learningcircuits. (2002).com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. Learning Circuits. P. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.apreso. 2003.aln. Sept. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.htm Duckworth. http://www.timelyweb.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. http://www. http://www.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.com/software/present ation.com/presentatio ns/index.com/Breeze Part2. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. http://www.masternewmedia. Sept.com/wwwtools/m/21593. Christine (2001). 3.htm Canali De Rossi. and Furr. 2004. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.masterviews. http://www. Digital Inspiration.aace.asp McNally. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth.pdf http://www.htm Hofman. Live and Online!: tips.com/Breeze Part1. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.pdf Scott. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.

jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . Dec.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. Dave (2002). and Equipment. and Winfield.html Zielinski. L.infoworld. 2005. http://www. (2003).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. InfoWorld. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.http://kmi. http://www. http://www. 11. S. Choose the Right Vendors.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1.open.pdf Spielman.ac. but… Presentations Magazine. Choices are great.amazon.presentations. Feb. Software.. Start Saving Time and Money Today. AMACOM. Choose your presentation tools carefully.

just-intime e-learning. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. or HTML knowledge. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Reduce the number of development vendors.. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. low. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . For example. including tools and templates. It can refer to learning something quickly. Standardize approaches. Assign SMEs who are committed. tests.does not require any plug-ins. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. but not always good for you. Deploys easily . Navigation built in .automatically assures that all navigation works. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.e. are built in. easy to use. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. programming. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Instructional design built in. In the second sense of the term. virtual classroom. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. a demand to produce online content very quickly. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. extreme e-learning. According to Ready Go!. FAQ. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. simple. by necessity. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. glossary. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Does not require any advanced skills. 2003). manage the content and the users. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. learning objects. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. It is best suited to text-based materials. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. such as creating links.versus high-interaction). In the first case. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Advanced features. Tools for rapid e-learning are. microlearning > down pages. and communicate deliverable expectations. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. or where the online information frequently changes. graphics.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. 2003).

and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. Clark (2005).co. LTI Newsline. Bill (2005). 2004. See a demo at: http://www. Jennifer (2004).articulate. http://www.access to a clear project plan.htm Bibliography Abell.scate. Kendrick (2006). Chief Learning Officer.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. J. (2004). http://www.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. Reusability. Future-Proofing.transformmag.elearningcentre.org Web site. http://www. Jay (2005). computer games.bersin.com/showArticle. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. Learning Circuits. Enhance.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. J. April.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. and other good stuff. and Bersin. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www. tools.pdf Crosman. Dianne (2005).com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. http://www. http://www. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Josh (2004). and Publish.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.ltimagazine. http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Do not reproduce 153 . http://www. See sample templates at: http://www. http://www.asp Bersin. schedule and due dates. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. http://www. conferences.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.pdf Aldrich. Learning Solutions. Tips and Techniques. Transform Magazine. Penny (2004). Extreme Learning: Decision Games.” Find out more: http://www. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. June 30. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. http://www. Edit.amazon. 2006. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. centrally located files. Lane (2002). January 23. July 2. Chief Learning Officer.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. June.raptivity. http://www.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. http://www. Josh (2005). which contains information on resources.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.clomedia. 2004). Mark (2003).pdf Brodsky.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.com/content/templat es/clo_article.readygo.elearningmag. Paper.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.microlearning.learningcircuits. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Templates. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.elearningguild.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. August 2004.htm Bersin. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Larstan Business Reports.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.meetingone.masie. http://www. LTI Newsline.com/studio. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. January. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Making rapid e-learning work. version control protocols.elearningguild. July 2004.clomedia.

The Training Foundation online article. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. http://www.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. http://vftraining. Learning Circuits. http://www. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. http://www. Kevin (2002).com/content/templat es/clo_article.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. 2002. http://www. Learning Solutions.clomedia.ltimagazine. Eric (2003). June 2004.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Chief Learning Officer. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Stephanie (2006).com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f.trainingfoundation. http://www. April 20. http://download. 9. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Ed (2004). A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. http://www. Macromedia White Paper.elearningguild. http://www.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Simulation. Chief Learning Officer.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. http://www. http://download.clomedia.pdf Jimenez. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.pdf Gustafson.e-learning programs in weeks. 2006.elearningguild. Joe (2005). http://www. Jan.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.pdf Jimenez.com/articles /default. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Ray (2006). Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. Nov.elearningguru. 10. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. January 2003. 2005. Rapid Intake White Paper. Macromedia White Paper.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Shepherd.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Mar. 2006. (2004b). Nick (2005).adobe. Ray (2005). LTI Newsline. January 16.trainingpressreleases.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.macromedia.learningcircuits. Learning Solutions.macromedia. Press release.pdf Macromedia Inc.clomedia. http://www. Clive (2006).cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. February 2005. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. http://www. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Garin (2004).com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.com/new sstory. (2004a).htm Masie Center (2005). e-Learning Crop Circles.pdf Mayberry. 2006.

By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.com/r_home. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .cmu. for underwater exploration.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.org/aboutbotball/overview. engineering. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. technology.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. and math.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.edurobot.aad. Inc.evolution.lego. > http://www. http://www.rec. simulation > http://www. http://mindstorms.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://www. http://www.botball. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.ri. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. engineering. and mathematics.ife. http://robotics. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.whmsi.nasa. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.gov.edu/index.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. http://www. technology.active-robots. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. one child at a time. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.euron.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.

http://www. go to: http://www.amazon. (1980). D.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.pdf Cooper.pdf Ferrari.l3s.pdf Nourbakhsh. AAATE Conference 1999. Kumar. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.brynmawr.microworlds. D. W.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.sci.ams. Hohmann. L. http://www. Mr. It features news.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics.fhbrandenburg. D.. and Powerful Ideas. I. M. http://www. New York. http://www. Robots in the classroom .ac. Computers.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. http://www. http://dangermouse. C.uml. H. Heinsohn. particularly robotics. and Hempel. D. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. and Loose. M. and Meeden.cmu.com/solutions/mw exrobotics. (2004). Yanco. lip movements.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.kipr. and Wagner.php Bibliography Blank. H. D.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Düsseldorf. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. I. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. S.tools for accessible education.. Meeden. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.pdf Papert. > > http://www.cs. G. (2005).osaka-u. Ferrari. L.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. B. and Mataric.org/article. R.technology. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. U.edu/~sklar/er /edu. New York: Syngress Publishing. D. (1999). links. Kumar. Basic Books.. and other information on robotics.net/ Run by NASA. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. http://www.irc.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Germany.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research .php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.jp/ See also: http://www....andrew.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.ed.. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.. http://robothaven.pdf http://www. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. and vocal tics.eng.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. Miller. Paper at the American Assoc. and Dautenhahn. Sept.l3s. Germany.atr. J. P. http://robotics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Proceedings. (2001)... Keating. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. H.. M. June.jp/ Blank. (2004). and Yanco. Mindstorms: Children. K.amazon. November. Harwin.brooklyn. http://zeus.gov/rcc/index. (2004).wtec.pdf Boersch. Find out more about this group at: http://www.cuny. Lathan.profetic. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. http://www.nasa. http://www. (2004). By donning motion sensors. Artificial Intelligence Conf. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.

DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. A. R.ccmlab. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Ontario. M. Sept.. M.. and Rusbridge. Dobreva. 28-30. Donnelly.digicult.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education.. (2005). Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Abbott. McHugh. S.pdf Do not reproduce 157 .pdf Stewart.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.. http://rob. T. http://www. A. Ottawa. and West. (2001). Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. D.

But. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. data mining. each with their own defining feature sets. such as Yahoo. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . 2004). > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. They bring into the equation user preferences. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. as this section of the report shows. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. One new approach is called “federated searching. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. Web directories. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. information retrieval. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Meta–search engines. a rich user experience.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. for a variety of reasons. search engine optimization. which submit queries. Examples are Google and Overture. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . federated search.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. meta-search engines. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search.examples are early yahoo. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. collective intelligence. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list.so they take the structure of the Web into account. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. collaboration. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. Ezzy (2006a. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources.com and Alta Vista. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. One is the problem of finding relevant. in parallel. such as Google and Altavista. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. While search engines have improved over the past several years. resource discovery. dependable information. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers.

http://search.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.looksmart.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.msn.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www.aol.alltheweb. http://search.otavo.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.alexa.grokker. http://www.faganfinder.mooter.com/ Answers.gnod.netscape. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://getoutfoxed.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://www. http://channels. http://www.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .com/search/defa ult. blogs.convera. http://www.google.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://www. and text. then fill in the search box. http://dmoz.about.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://www. http://www. http://www.jookster.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com About. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.aeiwi.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.com Gada.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.altavista.umich.umdl. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www. http://search. http://www. http://www. video. http://www. http://www.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.ask.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.gravee. get answers http://www. http://www.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.icerocket.gada.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.lexxe.hotbot. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.gigablast.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://oaister. http://www. and the Web.answers.General search engines: A9 – Amazon.com’s search service http://a9.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ Gravee . http://www.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.

> > http://firstgov.gov/ http://www. http://www.eurekster. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://icerocket.gnoosic.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.imdb. http://citeseer. http://infomine. reviews.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.com/ Wink – Using social networking. & KidsClick!. http://books. http://www.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.govmine. http://tagjag.squidoo.blinkx. http://www.psu.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . users tag their favorite results and block spam.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .com Google Book Search – Search just for books.ist. Much of this information is hidden from view. AwesomeLibrary.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.pubsub. http://qube.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://www.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://froogle.ai. http://www.ucr.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://swicki.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.google.gpoaccess.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://vivisimo. http://www. ArtKIDSRule. http://www.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.google.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://www. reviews.imdb. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.com/v2a/flash.yahoo.Clusters results.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.healthfinder. http://rollyo.ujiko.sri. http://www.com/v2/index.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.google.acronymfinder.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. http://kids. cast lists and theatre schedules. Yahooligans. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www.topic appears. AolKIDS.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. http://www. Wink then diplays the results.wink.ithaki. http://scholar.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.koders.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://www. books.stumbleupon.qelix. and movies.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. FactMonster. http://www.

http://smealsearch1.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.scirus.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www. http://wwwqbic.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.seekport. http://www. http://www.soundspotter.findlaw. http://www. http://lawcrawler.columbia.technorati.liveplasma.rrzn. http://www.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.uni-hannover.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.truveo.com/ Last.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.ee. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine. http://www.merl.searchedu.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.columbia. http://www.com/ LitLinker .com/ MediaFinder .com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.f cgi QBIC .com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.acm.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). as of this writing. http://www.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.A legal search engine.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information. http://www.ee.cmp.searchking. http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.krugle.ist.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.gov/entrez/query.org/citation.rawsugar.ibm.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.almaden.omgili. http://techsearch.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www. http://wang16.nih. http://www. http://portal.columbia.org/ Omgili .pandora. http://www.convera.ncbi. http://www.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. http://www.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.Krugle – A search engine for developers.” Content-based search engines for pictures.cfm?doid=10 56808.4 billion links. http://www.nlm.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education. http://www.last.psu.psu.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.ee.fm/ LawCrawler .com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.

http://www.searchtools. focused searches on topics they care about.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. health information sources.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. yellow pages. http://www. games. bookmarks.info.copernic. maps/directions. http://www.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. jobs. video. and links the clusters.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. http://www. therefore.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages.researchbuzz. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. dating and personals.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www. http://www.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.ac. hotels. tickets. classifieds. http://nlp. flights. http://www.trovando. http://www. including a set of international telephone directories.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . apartment rentals. http://www. http://searchenginewatch.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. companies.bolton.cs.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://www. http://clusty.kartoo.search.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. is a valuable resource for researchers.nyu. audio.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. eBay. weather.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.uk/ SearchTools. or federated searching.ithaki. and their relationships. and tracks a user's search history.zoominfo.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. and notes.xcavator. Unlike other search engines. http://www. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.ac. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. shopping sites.com/ Info – Searches reference works.ixquick.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. http://a9. pictures. http://www. lottery results. http://www-rocq. the user's community has total control over the results. http://www. city guides. and Web mail for the topic entered.zapmeta. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www. movies.inria.dogpile. news sources. http://vivisimo.net/indexu.intute. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. greeting cards.com/ clusters. white pages.

The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. 7-12.tveyes.elearning. http://www. Exchanging.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.readwriteweb.pdf Ensor.htm Ezzy.eurekster. http://infomine.netmasters. Resource Discovery . Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. or topic . or swicki.com/ Stephen Downes.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr. http://www. Ebrahim (2006). CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index.gpoaccess. This search engine. No. F. http://www. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. Read/Write Web. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. 2006.downes. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).gov/ http://www.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. and Shoham. Search 2.ucr. DigiCULT Thematic Report. and Searching in eLearning Systems. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. A. Frank. http://www. http://www..php Geser.ala.readwriteweb. http://swicki.searchenginecolossus. and Apprato. Users can also browse by subject category.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. July 20.php Ezzy.. O. For example. Traditional Search. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. First Monday.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. http://www. Pat (2005). > > http://firstgov. Read/Write Web.gov/ http://www.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. http://www.firstmonday.co. John (2005). Guntram (2004).amazon. S.0 vs. July-Sept. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.ac.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.0 vs. is against the idea of federated searches. Traditional Search. 2006. December. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. International Journal on e-Learning.editlib. http://www. (2004). Part 1. 10(12).org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. can be published on the user's site. June. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. Do not reproduce 163 . DigiCULT Thematic Report. No. Y. 6. (2005). Search 2. Ebrahim (2006).com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. New York: Portfolio. http://www. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. July 25.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1.html Battelle.just as a search engine is used for text.citysearch.org/index. June 2004.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.digicult. 6. http://www. Part 2. 2004.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. phrase. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).

S.com/news/showS toryts.pubsub.asp Wyman. June 30. 2004. B.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. and Gupta. (2005).http://www. 4(1). Mimkes. W.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. S.com. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. http://www. Prescient Digital Media.com/article2/0. Part I: http://www.prescientdigital. Simple advice for complex search solutions. and MacColl. InfoWorld.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. 15. http://www.infoworld. http://www. eWeek.pdf Murray. J. Corey (2005).Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. (2005).html Kumar.eweek. 10. Oct. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . 2005. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. Kashyap. http://www. Refining enterprise search.washington.com/alertbox/20030630. and Hilf.prescientdigital. Oct. (2000). 2004.ht m Pratt. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.eschoolnews.htm Part II: http://www.aace.. (2004). Jakob (2003).pdf Gincel. It’s Gada.ed. 2004. 2005. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. Parts I and II. http://bobwyman. http://www. Mike (2004).isnoldenburg. April 28.. InfoWorld.1759. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think….de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen.00.html Heck. Search engines don’t suck.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. May 8. 149-166. J. Stanford University. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources.. http://dl. Bob (2005). Oct. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. International Journal on E-Learning.org/16955 Low.com/links/article . E. M. http://www. http://searchenginewatch. eSchool News. Doctoral dissertation.uk/boon/delos200 5.ischool. Mittal. http://www. they’re just limited. 3.ac. Major Search Engines and Directories. html Porco. Danny (2004).php/2156221 Vaas. 2004. 2005. Oct. http://homepages. P.digicult. White paper.useit. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Lisa (2005). Carmine (2006).com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.pdf Sullivan.pdf Schlenker. A.18 69408. SearchEngineWatch. 15. Richard (2004). 2003.

but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. Selected Examples In Europe.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). (2005) note that “historically.alphaworks. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. founder of the World Wide Web. metadata. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. http://www. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).ibm. 2003).elenaproject. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. http://www. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. Abbas et al. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. search. taxonomies. It has both its advocates and its critics. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. http://www. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. semantic grid. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. Like it or not. are now falling short of earlier promises. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting.org/en/index. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. near Boston. microformats.aktors.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. such Do not reproduce 165 . In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. ontologies.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. but it will not be in general use for some time.

. T. http://www.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.personal-reader.net/ Bibliography Abbas.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. May 29 June 1. D....php?http://www . Z. http://www. B. Lieberman.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications.. Mozo.ac. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Sobernig.. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. The semantic web. L..) (2003).open.com/article. Brantner. The first issue is free. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. M.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. Salvachua. http://www. New York: Wiley. Huber. Simon. implementing.amazon. (2005). R. Scientific American. Greece. S. http://jungla.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. A. S. 2005. D. (Eds. http://www. May 9-12. (1).dit.upm. http://www-jime. Olmedilla. http://arxiv. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. McClatchey. S. and Zillinger. A Semantic Web Primer.amazon.. Cambridge. semantic infrastructural services. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. http://www. and Ahmed. T. and van Harmelen (2004).jxta.ac. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.. Umer. Web Services.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing.pdf Anderson. S.pdf Daconta.hp.tkk. M. Z. and Whitelock. Markus.as semantic portals for end-users.. D.amazon. and Hendler.info/issues.. T. and Lassila. http://edutella. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press.ideagroup.semanticweb. Tim (2003). http://www. J..pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. A.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. (2005). Mark (2005).de/html/ Aguirre.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.aimatshape. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).ifets. G. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications.. K. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). http://www.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. (2003).. Forward. http://www. http://www-jime. http://www. Hendler. Miklos. (2001).hpl.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. and Knowledge Management. J. Odeh. M. Wahlster.. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.open.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. http://www.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. O.. and Smith. In Fensel. Ali. MA: MIT. H. (2004)..info/index.. Obrst. http://kaon. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. F. May 2001. W.sciam. G.ifets.seco. xi. J.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou.

http://www. Stephen (2005). (2002). http://www. http://www.. Oct. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. D.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. M.amazon. and Neagu. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. DevSource. H.html Haack. Nicola (2005b). (2001).scipub. Greenwich.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . Sweden. Online article. Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Thomas (2004). 2005. http://www.kbs..pdf Nilsson. MA: MIT Press. Phil (2006). CETIS Online article. Online article. CT: Manning. G.devsource. and Shadbolt. Jennings. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. H.De Roure..9/semgrid. Cambridge.Some Architectural Guidelines.00. PA: Information Science Publishing. N. http://www.ca/cgibin/page.pdf Henze. http://www. M.jisc. M. http://www.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504. May 27. L. T.amazon. and Zetti. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. The Netherlands. D. F.cwi. A. Nack. http://www. Brian (2005)..uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia.. and Hendler. htm Dorai.ac. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective.kbs. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. Syllogism. http://homepages. 2006.com/article2/0. M...) (2005). L.unihannover.ac. Juan-les-Pins. Stephen’s Web. (2005). Lieberman.asp Hatem. Wahlster. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. Hershey. 10. N.well. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. and Naeve. (2004).ftrain. (Eds. Wilbert (2005). D. A. http://www.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. Journal of Computer Science.pdf Kraan. pdf Doctorow. Cory (2001). http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . http://www. 500-504. 18-22 July 2005.com/ContraShirky.org/v1. Mauthe.pdf Henze.semanticgrid. Lund. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure.. (Eds. http://www. Ramadan.amazon.pdf Downes. http://www2002. and Gouarderes.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. Paper presented at the GLS conference. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Oct.cetis.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras.downes. J. Palmer. France.com/~doctorow/metacrap.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford.189 5. http://www. and Naeve. Amsterdam. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Sikora.unihannover.1961106.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05. http://www. 2001. Rutledge. A.) (2003). C. Paul (2003). and Worldview”. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Semantic Web Technologies.. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. H. Nicola (2005a). 1(4).cgi?post=31624 Fensel. W. (2001). Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05.

.pdf Shirky. 2005. Marketing Profs.uk/selene/reports/ Del3. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks.soton. Millard. 2002. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.. Andy (2005). http://eprints.marketingprofs.html Wilson.aifb.981948. Lytras. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.00. F. http://poorbuthappy. B. Online article. New York.uk/elearning/ story/0.pdf Sampson.com/login/sign up.ac. Online article. Wagner. David (2002). R. Who said that? Metadata. CETIS Online article.darwinmag. (2003). http://www. L. (2005). (2003).. http://www..10577.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. and Woukeu.shirky. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. and Studer. http://education.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. http://www. (2004). InfoWorld. The Semantic Web.pdf Tao.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.cetis. and Christodoulou.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. http://ewic. Syllogism.bbk. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. 2003. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. http://www.com/read/swiftkick /column. Staab. L. P. 2004. John (2004). and Worldview.sop. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. May 17–22. Scott’s Workblog.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . eLearning based on the Semantic Web. K.cetis. H. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. 7. Schmitz.. June 21. 2003. Scott (2005). August 2. J. Karenos. and Miller. (2005). and Stumme. http://www2004.. http://www. (2004).infoworld.. (2001). http://www.ecs.ac.ac. http://www. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Scott (2002). M. January 17. 7 (4). and Diaz. Nov. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.pdf Samaras.co.unikarlsruhe. H. New York. Economics and Culture. Darwin. A. trust. G. Woukeu. D.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Davis.html Van Dijck.dcs.bcs. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. G. 2628. C. http://www. 2004.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast..asp?source=/5/updegrove1. D. 2005.pdf Updegrove.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. Peter (2003).info/journals/7_4/5. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. Semantic Web.guardian.inria. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. December 3. G.asp Udell. http://www.pdf Tane.ac.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. June 14. and Davis. E. and the Semantic Web. F. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.p df Tao. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. USA.ifets. Clay (2003). Millard.w3. S. A. Networks. http://www..html Stojanovic. D.

Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. 2005). and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. It was decommissioned in 2005. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.insead.uiuc. i. http://www. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.gov/ Winters et al. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. microworlds. especially ones set by themselves.noaa. http://www.insead. http://www. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. learn. http://www.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. participants will be motivated to evaluate.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.e. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.com/omni.” My first report in this series. http://sos. role-playing.insead.insead. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.icherubini.calt.calt.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.calt.calt. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.ncsa.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. http://cave.arcscience. http://www.calt.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. According to High (2004). but information about it remains on the Web.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. reviewed simulations as an online content format.insead.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. games.

to play in a virtual fishtank. and murmurs. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.forio. and Mac OS X.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. with many examples to try.virtualfishtank.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www. Linux.edu/harvey_about. > > http://geowall. heart sounds. go to: http://www." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. http://www." http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.biographix.sdsu.shatters. Mass. http://www. http://www. For example.ht m Intermezzon .com/broadcastoverview.com/ Forio .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.stt-global.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.sdsu. http://www.noaa.miami.adobe. breathing. http://www. http://thinkertools. It runs on Windows. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.med.html weather forecasting.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.umich.berkeley.calt.dc. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. http://www.intermezzon.fsl. http://www. http://www.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.geo.assima.lsa.net/celestia/index.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .making-history.experiencebuilders. pulse rate.umich. http://crme.http://www. without programming knowledge..edu/ http://um3d. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.insead.atghome. http://www.edu/geowall/ind ex. they are only available for Macintosh computers.soe. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research .ISLE .com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.edcenter.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. http://www.edcenter.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. http://www.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. However.adobe.net/ Biographix .

has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.learning2005.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.nexlearn.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.com/ MaxIT .Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/ Reusable Objects . create courses specifically on using computer software. Integrates with many media types. which can then be used to build simulations. including simulations.com/portal/index.com/product_r pe.knowledgepresenter.com/ Knowledge Planet .htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. http://www.maxit. http://www.com/ Kookaburra Studios . http://www.com/products /firefly. http://www.elearningcentre.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.” http://www.the click of a mouse.knowledgeplanet.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.icherubini.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.reusableobjects.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.xstreamsoftware.teds.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.virtualcontrolroom. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.co. http://www.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index. http://coe. http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.maxit.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.stagecast.com/ MaxIT .htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.bc. http://www.percepsys.qarbon. http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.jibc.com/3dTraining.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. Do not reproduce 171 .knowledge-director.outstart.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/products/sim.knowledgequest. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.sdsu.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.stottlerhenke.asp Knowledge Quest .

Rasmussen.. Online report. 172 © Brandon Hall Research .htm eSchool News (2004). http://www.simplay. October 2004.uva.com/news/showS tory.. A. Chief Learning Officer. Clark (2005). Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). R. (2004).ft.for Philosophers and Engineers. B. Holland. and Hou. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. http://www. and Sund Martin.medialabeurope. http://www. Taghiyareh.ac. http://www. June.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. http://www. October 15-19.learningcircuits. H. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.bham.. Aaron (2005). October. A.ac. T. 2002.html Linser.learningcircuits. Shannon (2004). Aug. http://www. Six criteria of an educational simulation. Les (2004).html Lunce.pdf Cherubini. San Francisco: Pfieffer. A. http://www. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. and Bostan.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.case studies. Learning Circuits. 2004. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf Swaak.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir.net/papers/ELearning. U. (2005).learningcircuits. http://www. Learning Circuits.htm Aldrich. September. p.clomedia. J. eSchool News. (2001). M.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. AACE conference.projects.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. Montréal. http://www. M. and Ip.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Feb. T.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt.eschoolnews. How playing power drives lessons home. 12. Making the most of software simulations.. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. (2002). Mazloumian.learningcircuits. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. http://www. Laser.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.. Department of Computer Science. Learning Circuits. http://itdl. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.http://www.html Sobeih. International Workshop. A. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. 4. In Interaction Design and Children. L. Jennifer (2004). & de Jong. July. The promise of online simulations.cs. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. Financial Times. http://www. and McCloughlin..science.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. http://www.. 1(10). September.blikstein. Kamau (2004). Computer simulations in distance education.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. (2002).uk/ccs/elearn/resource s.html Learning Circuits.amazon. http://www.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.ncassr.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.pdf DeVries. J. A. 2004. J. (2004). P. http://www. A.bbk. Viswanathan. and Wilensky. F. Bjorn (2004). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. computer games. 2004. Utrecht. (2001).ht m Sloman.html Karrer. Implementation and Evaluation. Paper presented at Robocup conference. Simulation levels in software training. 8. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.htm High. Clark (2004).PDF Blikstein. Simjour. Gash. Sept. A.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin..

it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. M. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. 284-294.-Apr.html Winters.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper. In Association for Computing Machinery. USA. 17.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .uc. http://www. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Mar. Gary (2003).. The American Prospect.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. http://www.protonmedia. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. C. and Strohecker.icherubini.. April. Florida. Fort Lauderdale. Online paper at: http://lsm.. Sherry (1997).dei.pdf Tjaden. Cherubini.pdf Turkle. 8(31). http://www.knowledge. N. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. (2003).prospect. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 1997.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.

or water.. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.org/Template. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. especially for tagging retail items in stores.” http://vis. optical tags. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. http://cnm.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. therefore. infrared (IR) tags.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. They are programmable and.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. For a full discussion of this issue.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. RFID technology is developing rapidly. which transmits over short distances. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.checkpointsystems. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.iu. especially in museums and for outdoor education. http://uitspress.edu/index.com/default . Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. easily changed. While controversial. 2005). Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.ala. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag.edu/102605_meal. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .open.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. grease. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.ac. http://www.iu. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.

K.toydirectory.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. (2003).msu. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. N. January 1.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn.csmonitor. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. R. (2005). Infoworld. 2004. March.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.org/newdl/index. Michigan State University.pdf Robinton. Andrew (2005). M. A.msu.ac. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. van Kranenburg.xml&DOI=10.eschoolnews.. Proceedings. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. 276-283. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. eSchool News Online. 4(3).aace.toydirectory. (Eds. Donnelly. (2005). in a 2005 online article. June 27. 2005. http://www. G. TD Monthly.digicult. A. Technology Watch Report 1. M.. R. Aparna (2004).pdf Osawa et al. H.1109/WMTE. K.2005 . and Dobreva.. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).org/persagen/DLAbs Toc..html Osawa. P. http://www..org/ Bibliography Borck. S.org/news/showsto ry.aace.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.com/monthly/articl e. and Backhouse.. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. http://www.com/monthly/articl e. (2006).edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. http://www. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.. Ando. M.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. April 13. http://www. Corey (2004).pdf Salcedo. & Richards.infoworld. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 261-263. http://csdl2.). http://www..ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. 2004. 5. Shibuya.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.pdf Murray. http://www. standards. http://www.. Masters Thesis. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. Oct. RFID: frequency. http://www.rfidnews.jisc.asp?id=1222 Ross. Noda. S.digicult.. T... Tsukagoshi.66 Ward. James (2006). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. http://www. http://www. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). and Yano. Y. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. http://www.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. Y. (2004). Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. and Case. Noma. C. G. adoption and innovation. http://www. Ogata.cfm?fuse action=Reader.computer. In Kommers. & Kondo.html?s=feature Heining.

Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. users can see what others are Blinking.us) post their favorite Web sites. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. share references with colleagues.blinklist. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. faculty. tagging. store. and search for a specific user's Blinks. connect with others. http://blogmarks. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. printouts. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.First. while users of the del. http://www. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. or distributed in e-mails.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. and organize the academic papers they are reading. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. http://www.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. they act as an “outboard memory. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. researchers at all levels (students.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. and books. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research .metafilter. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Students.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. Also. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. For instance. They can save references. Fourth. in turn.” However. The result is something called a tag cloud. or check out what everyone wants to do. search.us Web site (http://del. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. ontologies.citeulike. Second. Third. For example. as each member can upload resources discovered. describe. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. no matter their location or timing.connotea. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. metadata. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. search others’ references. music.A free service to help academics share. Fifth. As of April 2006. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective.com/ Blinklist . much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. get inspired. Blink also provides tools to sort.43things. http://www. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Flickr held over 100 million images. and to share them.icio.net/ CiteULike . share their stories. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.icio. and Web links. http://ask. http://www.

based on what is happening in the news media. blogging. http://www.shadows.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.simpy. sort.com/archives/beta_up date/index.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.com/ Kaboodle . and/or books and find them again.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. http://www. Also retrieve it easily.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.Consumating .furl.rojo.com/ Jots . They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. With digg. but. http://consumating.com Clipmarks .edu/ppad2/ index.com/ Del. http://jots.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .networkltd.feedmarker. http://www.com/ Furl .com/ Project Pad . http://www.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.search.us/ Digg . http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://www. http://del. http://flickr.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.memeorandum. RSS.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.icio.kaboodle. music.digg. search.linkroll.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. and share photos with others.gnolia.clipmarks. and discover relevant links. http://www. http://www.eventful.us . http://blog. http://ma.yahoo. http://projectpad. http://myweb2. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.com/ Flickr – Store. http://www. http://www. http://www.pageflakes.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. http://www.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.net/ Jookster . updated in near real time. Tags can be shared or kept private.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.com/ Magnolia . the users decide. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. similar to Digg.icio.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. and non-hierarchical editorial control. users submit stories for review. http://www.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.netvouz.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.eu/products/networ k_menus. http://www.A free.org/news. share. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.northwestern.com/ Simpy – Search tags. or enter new items and tag them.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.html Linkroll .jookster.netscape.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.

com/udell/gems/d elicious.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.fasfind.com/wwwtool s/m/7172.quickonlinetips.” > > http://magazines.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/archives/000 558.peterme.spurl.icio.fasfind. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. http://www.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. and share it with others. http://www. tags.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.yelp. http://unalog. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.educause. http://tabblo.com/wwwtool s/m/6350. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. http://www.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.wists. http://www.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. Flickr. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.” http://www.com/ about how tagging works with del. 41(2).html http://atomiq.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.zvents. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. March/April 2006. http://weblog. Web 2.wink.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.veotag.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. If a city is not there.infoworld. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.com/index.suprglu. http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.smugmug.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .S. and social bookmarking. Bryan (2006).Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.html http://www. with contributions from users. http://www.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://www.quickonlinetips.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. http://upcoming.us.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. http://swik. http://www.icio.quickonlinetips.A.html http://tagsonomy.net/ Suprglu .com/ SWiK . Online Resources Jon Udell. and Digg. http://www. > http://www.tagzania.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.us.com Wists – A social shopping site.

com. Tom (2005).http://www. June 21. Jan. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Collaborative knowledge gardening.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. 2005. 20. D-Lib Magazine..html McGillicuddy.dlib. Hammond. The New School of Ontologies. B.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. Jon (2004).com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. 2005.isi. Social consequences of social tagging.00. (2005). The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Online Paper. Ulises (2004). April 2005.org.techtarget. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. HP Labs Report. http://many. Adam (2004).pdf Mejias. Andy (2006).pdf Richardson. http://dlib. Will (2005).ejournal. T.html Lawley.. J.htm Hammond. http://www. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. S. 2005. Jon (2005). 2006. and Scott. InfoWorld.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. SearchCIO. http://www.plasticbag.html Mathes. 11(4). Liz (2005). Trusted Sources..com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. http://www.typepad.shtml Golder.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. http://www. http://ideant.infoworld.com/originalCo ntent/0. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). May 20. August 20. InfoWorld.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.hp. Hannay..289142. May 5. (2005).html Coates. 2. (2005).html Udell. Online paper. and Hannay. Aug. July 20. T. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. Plasticbag. Sept.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1.pdf Gurber.pbs.ht ml Mejias. http://www. http://www. 2005. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. 11(4).org/teachersource/learning . T. http://tomgruber. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. 2004. Ulises (2005).hpl.ascc.html Do not reproduce 179 . http://searchcio.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Shamus (2006).weblogged.sid19_gci1195182.html Mote. Nicholas (2004). http://ideant.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Tags vs. Webblogg-ed.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Lund. Keynote address. D-Lib Magazine.typepad.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. Tom. Ideant. Many2Many. (2005). Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. and Huberman. T. http://www.corante.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my..php Lund.educause. April 2005. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. M. 2. http://www. B. http://www.. 2005. 2006. Flack. B.infoworld.adammathes.

http://www. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. shared links.com. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. photo albums.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. etc. 2005). etc. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. social software. reviewed social networking as an online content format. family. social networking sites such as Friendster.) Relationship Management (Orkut. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. tagging.classmates. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. etc. communities of practice. shared link libraries such as del.com. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. and the military.” that is. e-mail. SMS.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.icio. My first report in this series. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. online personals such as Match. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. e-mail. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. dating sites. photo sharing sites.) Experience Sharing (blogs.us.al.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. etc. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Friendster. work.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research .

which is then open to other readers.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/signin/index. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. http://www.stumbleupon.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. http://www. https://www. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com/ucinet.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. http://www.linkedin. It costs several thousand dollars. http://platial.netminer.xanga.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. http://www. https://www.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.last. http://www.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.” http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. http://www.com/inflow3. and files and then make them available to others.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.com Platial – A site to create social maps.analytictech. http://www.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.livejournal. and within “communities of interest. http://www.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.diaryland.myspace.esnips. http://www.com/ Orkut . http://www.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.facebook.faceparty. upload photos. photos.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. Facebook has networks for colleges. http://www. in associations.orkut. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://www. and geographic regions. or as a social network. http://www.orgnet. http://360.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. http://www. audio. as a blog. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. high schools. video. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.my-diary.yahoo.freeopendiary.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.intronetworks.spartasocialnetworks.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.html Last. http://www.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. Share it with others if desired. Users share their writings and meet each other. List who a person knows and find out who others know.com/introNetwor ks. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .com/ Live Journal . which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.codeville. http://www. workplaces.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.friendster. documents.com/reg/sample.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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“Simultaneous Presence.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. as well as news. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. http://www.yahoo.aim.pdf Knudsen.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd.ietf.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. http://www. secure. Network Working Group (2000).acs. history. C. http://get. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. 6. 2004. Presence applications poised for takeoff. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).txt Knudsen. and Pejas.com/index. J. http://www-142. Hubert (2001).php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.sourceforge. In Soldek. the CAVE. Sept. http://www. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. (Eds.advanced.nada.org/teleimmersio n.pd f Fontana.jabber. http://gaim. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. > > http://www. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.. A. http://www. L." http://www.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.) (2000). Nils (2000). The driver sits in a box.ieor.berkeley.fakespace. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. and Handberg.ebuddy.org/rfc/rfc2779. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.html Goldberg.org/teleimmersio n2.no/at/nmm/enlund.percro.org Bibliography Dreyfus. (2002).com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. Network World.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. London: Routledge.networkworld.net/ Jabber – An open.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. http://www. A.kth.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society. http://www. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.advanced. J.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. http://www. http://messenger.ibm. C.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . http://kmr. http://www.unizar. and Windows.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. http://www. MA: MIT Press. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Naeve. and Naeve. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. Online memo.hig.html http://www. 44-49. http://www2.amazon. On the Internet. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. BSD.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. Cambridge. Ken (Ed. John (2004). http://laimuz.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.live.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. MacOS X.virtual-presence. (2001).

pdf Sponberg.infoworld. (Eds. M. D. Dobreva. (2001).kth.swedishlearninglab. Donnelly. http://www. Being There: Concepts. McHugh.. In Hoyer.modes. Jan. S. 2002... Abbott. http://cid.nada. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www. H.digicult. and IJsselsteijn.se/pdf/CID-206. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Germany: Hagen.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1. Regina (2004). W.com/news/culture/0. Wired News. and Handberg. Knudsen.. Alberta. (Eds.wired.Banff. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.pdf Udell.Learning. G.. January 2005. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. F. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. Calgary. (2005).pdf Lynn. Ins and outs of teledildonics.html Riva. June 1. H. A.650 64-0. L.) (2003). C. Jon (2005). http://www. http://www.org/docume nts/Sponberg. InfoWorld.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. http://www. M. September 24..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 28. Davide. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. et al. and Rusbridge.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.amazon. A.

there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. bandwidth becomes an issue. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Do not reproduce 189 . although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. In spite of the limitations. television. Britain's largest telecom firm. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). amateur and professional video cameras. However. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. A new version of television. As the following examples show.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. 2002). Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. the largest Internet telephone service. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. screencasting. reviewed video as an online content format. cell phones. according to Foroohar (2006). tlearning. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. even a video plug-in for Skype. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). PDAs. IPTV. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. BT. 2005). video blogging. My first report in this series. Once video goes on the Internet. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. vodcasting. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. Video blogging has become common. in all its formats. videocasting. Further. streaming video. telepresence. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video.

com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. the “triple play” of video.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.bittorrent. http://www. http://www. PDA.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.bittorrent. http://www. See examples at: http://www.veotag.apple. http://www.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.dmeurope.google. http://www. http://vpb.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.org/ At YouTube. low bandwidth video stream. http://www.com For an example of a video blog.org/ In 1999.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.uk/index. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. cellular. partners. or set-top box. or students through a high quality.com/pressrelea ses.rocketboom. See samples at: http://www.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.youtube.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.” Users can upload video clips for free.rocketboom.com/default.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. http://www. It is still going strong at: http://www. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. with IPTV. http://www.medialogic.ourmedia. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.axor. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. http://video. and maintains loyalty.brightcove.dfilm. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www. and multimedia content to customers. a three-minute videoblog. improves the satisfaction of the client. See the current selection at: http://video.html Dialcom Networks. desktop. http://www.co.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.addictingclips.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. http://participatoryculture.on2.com/ BitTorrent.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.google. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.concord. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. employees. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. video.ar/iptv_en.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. whether dial-up. http://www. the Internet telephone service.com/nara. voice. see Rocketboom. and divide them into chapters or segments.com.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. tag them.com/index_about.xstreamengine.

Peter (2003). London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. by alphabet. Dec.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. Beyond Wireless Broadband.masternewmedia.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.com/seeds/index. http://www. P.org/doing/media. http://www. http://eduscapes. Online article at: http://www.” http://www. Luigi (2005a).dvguru.com/ http://www.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.com/webconf/video.mil/index.masternewmedia.uk/tlearning/contents.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.upenn. http://www. read “Ten video sharing services compared. 1. Wi-Max.hpc.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.wharton. termed “mobile television.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. Wi-Fi.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media. and by tags.elearnspace.edu/articl e.” Bibliography Atwere.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.htm Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. and Bates. http://www. 2005.500 vlogs organized by popularity.org.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. D.ht m Canali De Rossi.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. http://www.mefeedia.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning.” http://www. http://www. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.spider.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. but business models are fuzzy. (2003).navy.thinkofit.elearningcentre.” http://www. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.pdf Bardia. Robin Good Blog. The site already contains nearly 6.pjb. Luigi (2005b). video.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. https://www. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.co.co. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. which users can submit. t-learning Study . http://www. http://www.com/article. and visual resources.educause.streamingmedia.uk/files/pdf/1443.iptv-industry. Pradeep (2004). For example.masternewmedia. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .veoh. http://www.lsda. www.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.” http://knowledge.

(2005). 417-419).ac. Matthew (2005).usc. Campus Technology.umist. Brian (2005). Networking Pipeline.campustechnology.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb.amazon. M. 2005. (2003). http://www-rcf. June 6. http://www. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.ibm. Tom (2005). NC: Duke University.networkingpipeline. University of Missouri.com/showAr ticle. http://edmarketing. http://www.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. http://www. Online paper.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. Durham. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. C. G. L.pdf Thornhill.). In Richards. 7. http://www1. http://www. 2005.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .). http://www. pdf Nolle.) (2002). Peter (2005). Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. IBM Institute for Business Value study.php Taplin. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. IAT Services White Paper. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.masternewmedia.htm Curtis. 2005. Mon. Jonathan.msn.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). Feb. http://www2..XMax Goes The Distance.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman.com/article. http://www. P.org/newdl/index. 2005. S. Dec. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Asensio. Rana (2005). Manchester. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.aace. discussions and implications. Brian (2002). 2005. Newsweek (International Ed.msnbc. The IPTV Revolution.cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://www. (Eds. Robin Good Blog.bcr. Nov.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.pdf Klass. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. April 26. (Ed. Changing Channels. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.apple. and Young.asp?id=7769 Meng. 8-9.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . 2.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. and Swenson.

desktop virtual reality.equator.arts. and look do not count much in virtual spaces.ac. Shape has developed the augurscope. Creed. Exploration and discovery are enabled. http://www. Near Eastern. inventors.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www. virtual environments only on end-users' machines.kahootz.net/wiki2/index. By using aspects of game play.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. designers. simulation. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. skin color. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.ca/index.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. http://www. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. distributed virtual environments. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. exchange enabling. http://solipsis.futurelab. Videoconferencing is not required. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.org/highlights/augur.ubc.columbia. and Religious Studies department. To do this. Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. http://ancient. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . augmented virtuality. http://www. http://www1.shapedc. and storytellers. interaction. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).org. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.netofpeers. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. mixed reality.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.cs. and the aim of the virtual experience.

htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. including education. Campus Technology. https://www.com/article. and Tsiatsos. T.healthdatamanagement.campustechnology. For example. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.navy. C. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.cti.ch/About/about_index.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. 175-199. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. A. C. > > http://www.pdf Bouras. (2006). Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.S. 24. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.com http://www. http://ru6. and Tsiatsos. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.informationinplace.cti.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory..mil/index. http://ru6. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. Technology Area . > http://vads. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. (2001).html Bibliography Bouras. http://www. http://www. G. http://ru6. Philopoulos.ahds. T.opencroquet.ac. http://vr. Triantafillou.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index. V.coe.cti. C.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).intuition-eunetwork.org/index. (2001)..edu/vrel.ergonetz.com/edu/index..de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. Research report.epfl. Luigi (2004).asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. Hornig.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .ahds. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7. August 9.ecu. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. East Carolina University.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34. http://www. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. http://www. T.spider.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 . http://www.html The U.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. http://vrlab. and Tsiatsos. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.ac. http://www.activeworlds.secondlife.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. 2006.pdf Bouras.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.hpc. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.

pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. (2005). July 9-16.00. 2004.p df Prasolova-Førland.html Jones. 1(2). http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . Virtual teaching aids become a reality.guardian. No.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. http://www. Guardian Unlimited.com/PaperInfo.. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. ISPRS. Eva (2004).digicult. & Sester.ikg. P. F.info/downloads/TWR3lowres... and Seyedarabi. M. Donnelly.Good Blog. 2004.. Abbott. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. Vol. Proceedings.pdf Ross.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen.ie/Owen. M.com/Reference.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.unibo.htm Katterfeld. C.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. P. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.masternewmedia. T. http://courseweb.eng.. 2005. Monahan. D. R. M. January 2005.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. Proceedings.actapress.html Liarokapis.co.org/htmleng/english. Michelle (2003).cs. La Coruna/Spain. 2004.elearning. Petridis. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. M.unihannover.. http://www. C.unt. http://www.edu.actapress.tcd. O. Trend: augmented reality check. F.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. (2004). 27.icc2005. 28. A. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Dobreva. and Hicks. and White. 35.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. E. Web-based Education 2005 conference. https://www.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. Conlan. Bertolotto.pdf Katterfeld. Stephen (2004). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.pdf McArdle.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. (2004). World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Gerard (2002). M. 2004. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. and Mangina. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. http://education.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. and Sester. G. (Section on Virtual Reality). and Rusbridge. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Sept.10577.1314022. (2005). Istanbul. M.actapress. J. (2005). Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. http://www.oln.pdf Hoare. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE).org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Learning Circuits. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.htm Dickey.com/PaperInfo. (2002). Sept.. http://www. McHugh. http://www.learningcircuits.. 1. http://www.. Lister.monash. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Ekaterina (2005). G. A. Dec. http://www. S. (2005). Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.

so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. pattern recognition. et al. location based systems. visualization can represent alternative points of view.ucar. see ZoomClouds. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. cybercartography. which showcases their potential.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. GIS.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and data rendering. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. My first report in this series. http://www. Finally.net/omnigator/models/ index. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.dpc.com/solutions. http://www. mapping. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. data mapping. such as a blog. graphics. images. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. On the other hand. geographical information systems. For an example.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. The educational advantages of visualization are many.ontopia.unifiedfield. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. 2003). 2005). The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.zoomclouds.inxight. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.semagix. data filtering. reviewed visualization as an online content format. Flash. http://www. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. allowing for innovation or new understandings. See some amazing demos at: http://www. cognitive collage.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. dynamic displays.

Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.” http://richie.nasa.medibolt. http://www. http://www.org/timeformations/ intro. http://www. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.html For a practical application of visualization.medtropolis.edu/ Paul Nixon.” http://www.bbc. http://www.marumushi.ac. VR.com Web site in Tokyo. It has images of space and the earth from space.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.nlm. and display (without glasses!).com/VBody.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.lecielestbleu.mit.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. a young graphic designer.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385. Free demo at: http://www. http://www.nixlog.gov/index.ul. http://www.media.vrco. http://www. delivery. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www.ubc.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.utexas.alice. Be sure to explore the “zoo.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.edu/index. http://www.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.ddd.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch. http://news. and visualization applications.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .co.esrin.skyscraper.0 authoring system.typorganism.gsfc.in English or Spanish. See his list of resources at: http://www.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.vista. http://esapub.tmm.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.cs. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.nih.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .idc.bham. Sample the collection at: http://svs. http://chatcircles.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.”’ BBC News.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.esa. April 7th. Museum Edition.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. 2004. See: http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.

3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.mccrackendesign.ontopia.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.com/index.gfdl.at/home.edu/postcartoaag06. http://www.vicodi.com CenterView http://www.idashboards.com/index.cs.xcelsius. http://www.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.html XCelsius http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. one million items. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www.cs.at: http://www.umd. http://www.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.feedtank.com/omni. http://www.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.net/omnigator/models/ index. http://www. retrieval. for example.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.vrvis.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.html Top Tier http://www.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.amnh.unifiedfield.noaa. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.com/applicati on.owu.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. See their tool set and examples of their work. http://www.org/about.com/cat/dashb oard/index.ambientdevices. http://clustrmaps.nlm.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.microsoft. See this technology in action. http://makingmaps. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.semagix.indiana.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.com/solutions.com WorkPlace http://www.corda.arcscience. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. in the U.S. http://www.ibm.nih.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.spotfire. anatomically detailed.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. http://research. and information presentation.

and.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://www.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.microsoft. http://research.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. Didger.advizorsolutions. http://www. http://www. http://www. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .esri.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. and rendering software.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. http://www.” http://www.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.timemap.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. Carrara.golden. for 3-D data visualization. for well log and borehole plotting.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.oziexplorer. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. including the following: Bryce.okino.formz.media. http://www.com/mam/mam.intergraph.visualcomplexity. They have worked with the U. for thematic and analytical mapping. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. associations.S. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.mapinfo. modeling. networks. Grapher. trends. and rendering. animation.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. http://tangible. Strater. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://www. MapViewer.visualanalytics. http://www. many of which are unique.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.daz3d. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. and anomalies in data. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.5-D modeling and rendering software.pixologic.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. including the following: Voxler.softill.com/vc/index. http://www.accurender.com Pixologic is 2. for 3-D landscaping and animation. http://www.goes far beyond static JPG map images. http://www.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.musanim. http://www. Try a demo at: http://www. http://www. for 3-D modeling.mit.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. Clicking a related term extends the process.topozone.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.visualthesaurus. http://www. http://www.

edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. Proceedings. http://www. Working Paper. He finished his PhD. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Sherman (2003). Jacques (1983).topicmap. A.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www.ubc. 14(1).vrco. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. J.. Mackinlay. and Woodill.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.edu/research/r esearch. (Eds.mit. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.masternewmedia. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. Paris: La Haye. and Resetarits.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.iu. http://www.editlib. and Shneiderman.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. > http://www.complexityandeducation. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. (2003). http://www.pdf Bergmann.gvu. les réseaux.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.cs.edu/index.org/index.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. http://acg.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. P.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. The Semiology of Graphics.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . J.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.gatech. is available online.com/ Bibliography Alpert. both visualization companies. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.fakespace. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.mit. http://coe.agocg.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. > > http://acg.net/printRec. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.edwardtufte..liveplasma. together with their estimated depth of influence.) (1999). Following are two: > > http://graphics. http://www.com/ http://www. B.ualbert a. Jacques (1967).edu/eet/ Ell. J.stanford. > > http://www. http://www.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.sdsu. EXYSTENCE network.infovis. les cartes. 31-49 http://www. K. http://www. M.complexityscience.media.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.gvu.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.gatech. http://www. G.ac..org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.media.topicmaps.pdf Bertin. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. Madison: University of Wisconsin.” http://vis. Paier.

com/article. January 2005.. Spence.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.digicult. Morales. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. and Rusbridge. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. J. (2005). Brent (2006). Vol. 2. and Woolsey. Brian (2002).fr/CanJ/CanJ. D. 17-30. http://www. K. May/June. http://www.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.siggraph.psycho. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 46: 461-488. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.istituti. P. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Harlow. Siggraph.cfm/files/pape r_5994. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. J. available online at http://www. Donnelly. 4th Edition. 42. (Section on Visualization).indiana. http://www.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. M. (2005). Theresa (1998).amazon. http://www. McHugh. http://www.agocg.org/index. September. Ruth (2003). (1992). (2006). NC: Duke University. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. August. Luca (2005).ht m O'Regan. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. G. http://createdrealities. A. http://nivea. 329-351.. Campus Technology. (2001).amazon. EDUCAUSE Review.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. 69-82. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.. M. (2004).DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. 2005. S. No.campustechnology.ac. (2005).html Rhyne.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. 4(1).elearningguild. No.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. C. Reading. pp. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. A.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . eLearning Developers’ Journal. Educational Media International. (2005). http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.univparis5.. June 1. England: AddisonWesley. Abbott. August 11.K. http://www. 185–213 http://www.asp?id=11222 Metros.slis. International Journal on E-Learning.. Information Visualization. Canadian Journal of Psychology. K.pdf Goldfarb. 3.com/articles/abs tracts/index.html Madhavan.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638.pdf Scaife. L. Switzerland: University of Lugano.asp Mittal.amazon. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.org/dl/index. Lugano. Dobreva. Vol.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.com/publications. http://www. Arns. and Knezek. http://itdl.educause.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Mike and Rogers. Durham. 3(1).aace. and Bertoline. S.editlib. B. 41(3).html Ross. http://www. 16(4). http://www. (1998). Luca (2003). 1-34.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.. G. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language.usilu. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. http://www. A. Yvonne (1996). K. pp. Robert.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. 45.pdf Shneiderman. and Pagalthivarthi.

Amsterdam: Elsevier.com/tufte/index Ware. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Computers. Edward (1997). M. Cheshire. Sharpe. http://www. http://www.org/threshold Tufte. http://www. 2nd Ed. Envisioning Information. Matt (2002). http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. http://www. evidence and narrative.edwardtufte. (2004). CT: Graphics Press.amazon.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. David (2005).amazon. Cheshire. Threshold.amazon.ciconline. Digital Information Graphics. Visualization.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. Edward (1990). and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Information Visualization: perception for design.com/tufte/index Tufte.E. Edward (2001). Colin. Cheshire.edwardtufte. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. David (2002). 2nd Edition.com/tufte/index Tufte. Fall. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. http://www. CT: Graphics Press.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research .

envisioninc.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. headphones or speakers. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.cogs. http://www.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.jajah.elearningcentre.co. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. requiring an Internet hookup.org Bibliography Cherry. March 2005. http://www. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. http://www.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Using VoIP. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. but it is rapidly improving.html Do not reproduce 203 . and a microphone. 1996).pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. http://www. In the near future. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. in remote communities. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. communications tools. Join the discussion at: http://voip. Geraldine (2005). An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.ieee. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. http://www.skype. Internet telephony is relatively simple. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Internet telephony. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.spectrum. http://www.infoworld.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.avaya.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. http://www. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.ac. http://www. http://www. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning.weblogsinc. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Steven (2005).uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. IEEE Spectrum Online.susx. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.voipreview.

Meredith (1996).org/xpl/freeabs_all. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://ieeexplore. Language Learning and Technology.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. 9(3).msu.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . and O’Droma.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.pdf Ottoson. I.ieee.. M. http://www. September. http://llt. S. 9-12. Robert (2005). Stojanov. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Mobile distributed e-learning center.Ganchev.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. (2005).nald. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing.

edu/design/Ion. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. anytime. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.hubuska. For example. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. or repairing complex machines.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690. ubiquitous computing > http://www.ices.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. Do not reproduce 205 .ices.learnexact. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. especially for comercial airlines. managing. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. It is unrestrictive to the user 3.com/Home/Home.bbc. http://killer.bris. including wearable computing.cmu. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://killer. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.edu/design/VuMan.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. http://www. training.cmu. It is attentive to the surrounding environment.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. In January 2006. including batteries.cs.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.co. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. Selected Examples In Europe. 1998): 1. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. training to do their jobs.ac.pdf http://www. It is controllable by the user 5. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. The entire system. like a wristband or jewelry.checkpointelearning. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. weighs less than three pounds. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. It is observable by the user 4. and other organizations involved in inspecting. http://wearables. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. 6. the automotive industry. http://news. http://www.sportbrain.

toronto. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.edu/ http://wearcam.” including computers built into underwear.http://www.org/icwckeynote. Fairfax.bham. 2006.mit. http://www. http://www. http://about. Mmoma (2006).org is a rich source of references. March 8.eyetap. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. (2004). Dec. http://wearcam. Simson (2004).toronto. http://www.com/read_arti cle. Olga (2005). and Levene.wired. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). http://www. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.eecg. VA. S.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.uoregon.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.edu/research/wear ables/index. http://www.gsfc. 2005. especially in the area of wearable cameras. http://isd.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.wearable. M.wired. H.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.com/news/culture/0.html The design of “smart clothing.704 81-0.eee. 1.uk/wear-it http://www.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. http://www.amazon. May 12-13.ac. See: > > > http://genesis. http://www.businessweek.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.ethz.com/news/culture/0. Technology Review (Online). March 24. Business Week Online. (2003). personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. Wearable Computing for the Commons. and Niedzviecki. Toronto: Anchor Books. Wired News. http://www. S.cs.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.org/index.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. C. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. ICWC98.html Garfinkel. Steve (1998).pdf Kharif. 2004. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . What you’ll wear in 10 years.org/index_graphical.jisc.704 81-0.uk/index.technologyreview.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. (2002).html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.eecg. Wearable computers that you can slip into.htm Mann. and Lupisella.ac.media.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.nasa. M.ht ml http://www.

CDs. basic text format for quick review. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).html 6.com/productBlog Express.net/dl. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. and Atom is the second.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . Here is a list of 48: 1.com 9. social bookmarking. and laptops. Amphetadesk http://www. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. each with its own features. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed.bloglines.Web Feeds Related terms Atom.org/Aggie. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. BlogLines http://www. Awasu http://www.attensa. To read content from a Web feed. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future.” as its content is changed by the author. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.html 2. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. Brightcove http://www. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. and electronics. photo collections. and course offerings. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. Aggie http://bitworking. with all the potential for viruses and spam.bloglet. Bloglet http://www.awasu. When changes are made to a Web site. listings of the latest books. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources.brightcove. > For learners and teachers. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices.0 format). TV guides. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.disobey. blogs.com/ 5. job searches. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). PDAs. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed.com/ 8. Attensa http://www.com/ 7. including cell phones.com/ampheta desk 3. podcasts.com/ 4.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. feeds.

com/rss/ 39. Reader http://www. feedbeep http://feedbeep. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.uk/rssreader / 23. FeedPublish http://www.com/ 17.com/ 16.ht ml 20.sharpreader.com/ 22.com 32.html 27. RSS2Exchange http://www.fuzzyd.feedster.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.org/ 44.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877. RSS Orbit http://www. including listings for various electronic devices.feedzilla. PubSub http://www.pubsub.com/myrssto olbar.com/feedscout.onfolio.U.h tm 12. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.protopage.newsisfree.com/today/ 36. To have a blog aggregated.com/ 30.feedroll.feedreader.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47. My RSS Toolbar http://www.net/ 45.blogplanet. FeedScout http://bytescout. EaZy RSS reader http://www. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ 15.com 40.com/ 43. FeedForAll http://www. Sage http://sage.com/ 25. Rojo http://www.com 14.com 28.com/ 21. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.ca/edurss02. Feedster http://www. Videora http://www.rssreader.10. SharpReader http://www. Topix http://www.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.feedburner.com/ 29.newsgator. Thunderbird http://www. RSS Bandit http://www.com/ 42. OnFolio http://www. Edu_RSS 0.videora.2 http://www. Feedroll .downes.http://www. Feed-Directory http://www.feed-directory.pluck.somee. Project D. RSSCalendar http://www.com/ For a list of more aggregators.rojo.sh tml 41.feedforall.rss-to-javascript.mozilla.projectdu.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. FeedBurner http://www.com/v2 33. Pluck http://www.com/ 19. Protopage http://www.rssbandit. NewsIsFree http://www.hexamail.rssreader.hebig. Newsgator http://www.puremis. Syndirella http://yole.learningfeeds.com/ 31.org/ 37. FeedReader http://www.bytescout. see: http://www. RSSReader http://www.net/index.mozdev. LearningFeeds http://www. RSS Software http://www.com 18.rsscalendar.com/ 34.net/ 26.co.feedpublish.net/ 24.com/ 46.com/thunderbir d/ 48. StepNewz http://www.com/ 13.topix. Fuzzy Duck http://www. Feedtier http://feedtier. Gregarius http://gregarius.php.shtml 11.

Read his article written specifically for educators. http://technologysource.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Quentin (2006). http://www.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.php 2003. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. http://www.teachinghacks. Aug.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www. RSS Ideas for Educators. D.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. BC. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.com/news/showS tory. a blog by Alan Levine.teachinghacks.learningcircuits. http://www. Stephen (2002). http://www.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.downes.elearning. Anh (2005). July/August 2003.htm D’Sousa. Online paper. and D’Arcy Norman. 3. Learning Circuits.usatoday.ca/edu_rss.htm Downes. http://www. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. http://www.pdf Canali De Rossi. 2005. Do not reproduce 209 .maricopa.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. maintains a long list of RSS resources. Aug. and Norman. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Bill (2003).eschoolnews. USA Today (online). http://careo.contentious.masternewmedia.. eSchool News.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject.wcc.org/2004/jun2 004/downes.elearningguild. May 19.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. http://timyang. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.learningcircuits. May 2004.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. 2004. Learning Circuits. Luigi (2004). Mary (2003). Online paper.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. Robin Good Blog.downes.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. Brian Lamb.ca/files/RSS_Educ. The Technology Source Archives.redjupiter.maricopa.ca/files/RSS_Educ.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. RSS: the next killer app for education. 2004.dist. 1. 2003.mcli. http://www. http://www. RSS could transform online communications. Oct. http://www. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. Lamb. B. 31.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.lo. http://www. Stephen (2004). RSS: a learning technology. A.htm Harrsch. University of North Carolina.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).pdf Gannett. Vancouver.downes.htm David. Eva (2004). http://www.Possible Future Evolution. http://www. Dan (2004). An Introduction to RSS for Educators.com/wiki/doku. http://www.ca/cgibin/wiki. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.mcli.dist. June 2004.1. Aug. 5-8. Brian Lamb. Version 1. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.ubc.vccs.htm Levine. (2003).

2006. 3.html Samuel. Aug. http://www.html Powers. Mihai (2006).com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. July 7. Namespaced extensions in feeds. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. http://www.alexandrasamuel.theshiftedlibrarian.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Shelly (2005).com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). (2006). T. 2005.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. 2005. MediaThink White Paper. http://googlereader. Jon (2005).xml. http://www. http://www.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.html MediaThink (2004).html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . RSS: the next big thing online.blogspot. and Webb. Using RSS for data integration. Sept. The Shifted Librarian. 13.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. http://www. Otherwise Engaged. http://www.oreillynet. Jenny (2005).com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. 2005. Alexandra (2005).infoworld.mediathink. O’Reilly Network. June 18. InfoWorld. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. M.pdf Parparita.Levine. March 23. 2006. Google Reader Blog. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.html?page=1 Udell.oreilly.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.

php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.net/features. http://www. 3. 2. approaches. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Do not reproduce 211 .sourcewatch. and email notification.schtuff.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. Content is ego-less.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. http://www.org/index.000 articles in English in Wikipedia.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. http://www. http://www.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. 4. time-less.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. the software used to run Wikipedia. and never finished. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. See the progress at: http://edu. RSS. an image gallery. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.10. With some basic instructions. http://wikipedia. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.com/cgibin/mb. There are now over 1.usemod. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.tikiwiki. features.” Essentially. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. My first report in this series.com/artpdf/GR12. 2005). See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.wikipedia.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.seedwiki. Anyone can add to it. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. is available for other applications. http://www. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.com/cgibin/wiki.gilbane.usemod. http://www.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://www. For wikis to work.org/tiki-index. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. and projects.sourceforge. can be used by a team for joint writing. it is important to have several contributors. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. custom permissions. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.300. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.

dicole.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. His article.ascilite.learningwiki.com/ WritingWiki.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.ubc. as well as an analysis of how they work.71. Andrea (2003). Perth.ikiw. First Monday.” http://writingwiki.html Augar.infoworld.nu’s first nine months in service. Dec. Twiki. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.com/wwwtools/m/25242.fasfind. http://flosse. Teaching and learning online with wikis.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.different. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives.infotoday.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. including wikis. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://www.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. http://radio.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.ucalgary. “Quickiwiki.” http://tlc. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. Swiki. A free trial is available.. 8(12).pbwiki.org. R. http://aronsson.html Ciffolilli. http://64. http://careo. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. http://en. http://whiplash. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.elearningcentre. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. http://www.org has lots of resources on wikis.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis.elearning.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16.jot. http://www.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.co. http://kairosnews.” is a rich source of information on wikis.48.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis. Phantom authority. W. of the University of British Columbia. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. http://www.se/wikipaper. including a section on wiki tools. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. and Zhou. 5-8. http://weblog.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. http://www. L.shtml Brian Lamb. Operation of a Large Scale. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.html Bibliography Aronsson. Raitman. N.wikibooks.socialtext. (2004). that she updates regularly. (2002).Weblogs. http://www.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. http://www. is provided by David Mattison. Dec. http://m.com/ Jon Udell. Australia.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.

de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. T.com/artpdf/GR12. (2004). Clark.00. Online paper. http://gilbane. Oct. M.pcmag.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. 2006. Online article. Anja (2004).html Wood. The wiki way.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. Wiki Tools. 19. Issue 42. Online article at: http://www.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Why Wikis Work Not. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. http://container. Online article at PCMag. Renée (2005). Bo & Cunnin. http://Weblog.oreillynet. 2.profetic..com. Online article. Wiki pedagogy. Educause Review.ac. Nov. http://www.com/cgibin/mb.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer. http://www.4149.amazon.pdf Kulisz. July 7. Searcher. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.shtml Rubenking. 12(10). and Webb. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.infotoday. J.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. http://www. L. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Brian (2004).1/technot e_xxvii... International Journal of Information Ethics.usemod.html Tomkin. April 2004. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Cossarin. David (2004). April 2003.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.org/content/v5.pdf Fountain.asp Schmitt. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. Lauren (2005). Emma (2005).infoworld. Swiki. http://www.uk/issue42/ Udell.http://firstmonday. 2005. O’Reilly Network. http://www.educause. http://www. Neil (2003). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). and Rudolph. Making the case for a wiki.educause. Ariadne. Sept.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . Quickiwiki.Oct.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. January.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.zkm.. W. David (2003). (2006). http://www.com/article2/0.14 02872. InfoWorld. 2004.irrodl.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Jon (2004). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.ariadne. Richard (2003).Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .10. 36-48. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. July.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. http://c2. Twiki. UniversityWiki.html Stafford. S. M. (2001). http://www.pdf Leuf.

Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. However.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. in turn. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. After a product has been successfully launched. CD-ROMS. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . floppy disks. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. which can then lead to inventions. which. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs.

This is due. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. and decline. in part. change itself seems to be inevitable. means that they actually think differently. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. The experience of younger learners with television. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. this approach is now rapidly changing. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. mature. to the complex. both in classrooms and online. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. However. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. and computers. Further. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. while others will last for decades. video games. But not all technologies will travel this road. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . 2003). but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. Some will die quickly. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. The technology of e-learning. some will never leave the development stage. In any field. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. For a variety of reasons. peak. or may never become commercially viable. ascend the curve. in both formal and informal settings. Ontologies.

There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. For the older generation. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. For example. To keep our attention. With feedback. The children of the baby boomers. p. Because of this. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. sex. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. television. In contrast. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. libraries. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. global warming. digitization of smell. Within the next five years. terrorism.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. But they are usually disap-pointed. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. wearable computers. generally went to work earlier. ecological disasters. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. the civil rights movement. surprise. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. designers of Sesame Street. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. the space race. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. or violence is needed to keep our attention. gaming consoles. Then even more movement. we will see the restructuring of education and training. movie theaters. huge data wall displays. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. video games. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. Once we master the art of reading. The speed of change increases with each passing year. in a back-and-forth exchange. and personal digital assistants. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. In North America. the baby boomers. results in an action by the other participant. commercials. that is all about to change. 2002. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. born in the 1970s. In approaching electronic educational media. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. 1994). mind-altering drugs. the learner. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. However. It works for a time. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. mobile phones. Their children. whereby the action of one participant. 28). touch and taste. until we become habituated.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. and digital ink and electronic paper. Generally. the computer.

and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. portfolios. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. Douglas (2005).com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. and the mapping of everything. http://www. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. Bob (2006). http://www.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.operitel.amazon. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. or can be more bound up by the technologies. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. Guides are optional.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. http://www. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www. In the next wave. creative products. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes.amazon. New York: Collins.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.com Bibliography Christensen. http://www. http://www. Marc. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. technologies and services for the next 5 years. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Texas. (2001). Clayton (1997).com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 .amazon.amazon. Dallas. Digital Game-based Learning. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. At the individual level. Two hundred years ago. Gary (2006). May 2006. James (1994). San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. Likewise. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rushkoff. shortly.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. it will be a giant collaborative workspace.

UK http://www.ac. New York. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.Portugal Tel.umu. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .myself-proj. 3400 Hillview Avenue. Manuel I.com/ WEBIST Av. Palo Alto. CA 94304 USA http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. 17th Floor. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.de/link/affective_port al.O.net/ Auburn University Auburn.51. D.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal . MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.auburn. Building 5.webist. Den Dolech 2 P.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .unige. Marc Schröder.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. L69 7ZF. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.mit.cs.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.nngroup.bham. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.media.agentlink.se/~muse/hom e. Box 513.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.org/ AiLive Inc.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.ailive.bartneck. 27A 2º esq. 1515 Broadway.informatik.

Washington.codebaby. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.ascension-tech.animats. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.animationfactory. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Secretariat.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Inc.extempo.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . N. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.org.edu Extempo Systems.liv.csc. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Edmonton. Suite 206 Boulder. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. #1910. W Toronto.indiana.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.isi.rit.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.redwoodelearning.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.com Alchemy Mindworks P. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.ascilite.computer.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. P.ac.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.O. Box 5200.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. O.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. Box 527.educause. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Burlington. 10004-104 Avenue.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.apple. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.informatics. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Huntsville.adobe. Inc. Box 2124 Menlo Park.mindworkshop.com/ Apple Computer. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. Bloomington. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St.au/index.O.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.W. L69 7ZF. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.

psych.460.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.eitechnologygroup.pact.com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/ NewTek.newtek. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.avid. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.autotutor. Santa Barbara.A. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.aclweb. TN 38152 USA http://www.html Ulead Systems 970 W.6450 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.cs. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. 190th Street. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. Wellington.com/index.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab.swishzone.S. 110 Cuba Mall. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com/pub/index. Inc.catoolkit.autodesk.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Inc. Suite #480 Torrance.org/home.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. PO Box 24478.aaai. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. Tel: +1.818. San Antonio.com/ Avid Technology.htm Macromedia. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.org/ SWiSHzone.macromedia.cognitivesciencesociety. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.San Rafael.massivesoftware. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.viewpoint.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.siggraph.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. Inc.cmu.com/home. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. Avid Technology Park.asp EI Technology Group.ucsb. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury.

303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. West Montreal.W.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. Suite K.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.it. CA . Suite 360 San Mateo.cmu.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu.cis.iit.stottlerhenke. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.edu.10th Street S. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.uquebec. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.umuc. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.W.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.edu Quantum Simulations.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.cs.. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.enel. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. Suite 1500 Montreal.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Egry J.eden-online. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.usyd.cs.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. Chantilly.licef.brainbench. 100 Sherbrooke St.ca/eng/inde x. H-1111 Budapest. Calgary.cs. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.wpi. Alberta.virtuelage.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . Inc. Calgary.ke-corp.teluq.gemini. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. East Adelphi.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.unisa.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.com Do not reproduce 221 . 1. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.com/index.ucalgary. u.org/eden.

CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U. Antrim BT37 OQB N.edu.redinq.oir. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.tcet. Suite 753 Madison.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. Suite 100.rmsuk.ac.O. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.ht ml 222 © Brandon Hall Research .com/redinq/html/index. Co. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba.html Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ. Newtownabbey.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.unt.cshe.operitel.htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.questionmark.uk/home. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www. Box 305280 Denton.ets.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle.quintcareers.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.horizonwimba.uiuc. Suite 105 Princeton. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www.unimelb. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.scit. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.edu/home University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall. Johnson Street. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.wlv.ac.O. Norwalk.uk/cticomp/CAA. Boulder.Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www.ulster. Suite 201 Peterborough. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www.pedagogue. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.colorado.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.ingeniousgroup.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.flaguide.S. Box 317 New Hartford.edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www. FL 32720 USA http://www.

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com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Italy http://www. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.horizonwimba.brainshark. Inc.bridge-pt.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.co. NG8 6PE.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. Inc.asp Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury. Suite A300 Salt Lake City.bloki. Suite 2300 New York. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax.lifeboatdistribution.uk/contentpoint.com/index. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www. 200 South.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.copycatsoftware.allencomm.anark.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 224 © Brandon Hall Research .com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.com. UK Tel. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. 136 South Main Street. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www. 20100 Milan.com/Index.atlanticlink.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. Nottingham.ciscolearning.org/Products/CLI_ Virtuoso/Index. Waltham.mckinnonmulherin.O. Ste. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road.acroservices.learn. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. Suite 200 Boulder.com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn.customcourse. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.com Brainshark. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.trainvision.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.http://www. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www.maxit.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.

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com DA Group The Lighthouse. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. +49(0)721.respondus. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.xplana.83 01 616 http://www.com/coursegen.percepsys.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. Gandy Blvd. #1910.4259 Fax: (760) 635.hunterstone.syberworks.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. Edmonton. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www. 55 South Market St.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Redmond.5709 http://www. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas.time4you.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana..com Avatars CodeBaby Corp.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. Suite 200 Tampa.com Trainersoft FunEducation. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.suddenlysmart. Inc.qarbon.codebaby.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.maxit.co. 4.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.funeducation.sensalearning.thinkingcap.turbodemo.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.com/products/study mate. Inc.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. 76133 Karlsruhe. 323 Newbury Street Boston. Suite 1550 San Jose.seminar.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. CA 92101 USA http://www.toolbook. Germany Tel.. SC. 10004-104 Avenue.

com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife..O. Inc. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.active-learning-site.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. P.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.opera. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.flock. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 .daden. USA http://www.com WaveMarket. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.vcom3d. 6th Flr.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.wavemarket. Birmingham. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.cramersweeney.com GTCO CalComp.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. W Toronto.qelix. Mary Apts. Mumbai 10. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.oddcast.tmmy. Moseley. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Nesbit Rd. Ste. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.html Knowledge Environments.telsim.O.knowledgeenvironments. Inc.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. Mazgaon.. Suite 900 Austin.. INDIA.co.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Inc.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.mozilla.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.com/v2/index. Inc. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www. B13 9SG.blogburst.uk/chatbots. 219 Tampa.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Dale Mabry Hwy. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www.co.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Suite 260 Orlando. 11th Floor New York. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.omnigroup.redwoodelearning.com Moorestown.

com.inteam.bluetie. Inc.smartroom. Inc.com 404 Fifth Avenue. #205 Pasadena.com BlueTie. 12617 Meridian E. Pittsford.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. 6th Floor New York.com Brightidea. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Somerset.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. SW. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. Ontario.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research .com Smartroom Learning Solutions.brevient.com Centra c/o Saba. Suite 522.brightidea.umass. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.saba.Columbia. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. NJ . Inc.batipi.pearsoned. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue. Pleasant St. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Amherst. Inc.0162 http://www. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Suite# 401.avecomm. Draper.aspx Qwizdom.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Puyallup. 1192 East Draper Parkway. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite 101E Falls Church.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Orlando.physics. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.optiontechnologies.edu Batipi 11 St. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Jospeh Street. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.gtcocalcomp.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. Suite 103 Toronto.caucus.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.bantu.944. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.telnetz.backpackit. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.adobe. Inc. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.qwizdom. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor.

CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.. Lauderdale.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.epam-pmc.digi-net. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.emc.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Sanibel FL. Ontario. Inc. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. Suite 630 McLean.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com LLP PO Box 325.digite.W. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. 232 http://www.engineering.html Citrix Systems.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.same-page. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. 6th Floor San Francisco. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.com Engineering. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.comotivsystems. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 82 Pioneer Way.courseforum. Suite 600 Ottawa.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. Inc.convenos.communityzero. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.centraldesktop. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. 795 Folsom Street.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. 170 West Tasman Dr. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Inc.cisco. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. Inc. 57th Street Gainesville.com Digi-Net Technologies. San Jose.com Cisco Systems.com Digité. 1034 N. Suite 950 Portland.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.communiqueconferencing.edufolio.citrix.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .elluminate. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.collaborationloop.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St.

MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.net Groove Networks. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.globalschoolnet. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.glance.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.com Glance Networks. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. Inc. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.novell.grapevinesoftware.hotcomm. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.gordano.genesys.net Global School Net 132 N.com c/o Citrix Systems.horizonwimba.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . 3100 Steeles Avenue East.net GroupSupport. Inc. ON.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.gotomeeting. 395 Encinitas. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.ezmeeting. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.groove.hp.com Groupwise c/o Novell. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. Clevedon. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.facilitate. El Camino Real. Ste. #115 Rockville. Suite 500 Markham. Suite 2300 New York. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.4517 http://www.V. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.groupsupport.hyperoffice.exactamerica.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.forumone. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.com GoToMeeting.flypaper.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Inc. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.com B.

com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.com Interwise. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. 25 First Street. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. 11th floor New York.com onProject. Inc. 1289 N.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.near-time.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.netspoke.jdhtech. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.mspx LiveOffice.liveoffice. Suite 6500 Woburn. Suite 412 Cambridge. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.inquesttechnologies.interwise.interwoven.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.meetingone.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.microsoft.onproject.linktivity.ilinc.org/tools.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Inc. Sunnyvale. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www..com Near-Time. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. Suite 1401 Denver. Suite #150 Herndon.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. Inc.ibm. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com Do not reproduce 233 . NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.intralinks.iceweb.mitre.http://www03.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. Phoenix.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Suite 300 Torrance. 3 Wing Drive.mayeticvillage.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. 44th St. Suite 100 Tucson. Fordham Blvd.ivocalize. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.

com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. Cactus Rd. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.radvision.parlano. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. Suite 1450 Chicago. 35. 17-17 State Highway 208.com SpiderWeb Communications. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.project-open.sharemethods.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Suite B. Inc. Suite 440 San Jose.opmcreator.microsoft.peoplecube.nagarro. Suite 445 Scottsdale.cyber-grad.projectdox.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Selden Integrated Systems. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com Photon Infotech Inc.com/collabsuite/index.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.O.ht ml Parlano 10 S. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.sitescape. Inc. New No. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.performancesolutionstech.com RADVISION Inc. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. P.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Box 3325 York. 3679 Concord Road.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Suite 210 Maynard.oracle. 51.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.q2learning. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. Harbor. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.seldensystems.photoninfotech. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.Adyar Chennai. Suite 200 Greeley.raindance. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.opentext. 1175 58th Avenue. Ste 275 Mill Valley. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. Riverside Plaza.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.com Raindance Communications.

tacit.txl Viack 14811 N. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.usabilityfirst.O.com Web Crossing.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. Suite 100 Austin.com/groupware/in dex.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.teamspace.axista. P. Suite 950 Washington. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. Suite 810 Toronto. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Kierland Blvd.com Do not reproduce 235 .com Teamware P.net WebEx Communications.webtrain.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.O.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.webasyst. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. Inc.webex.webcrossing. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.trichys.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.teamware.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. Inc.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.teamdynamix.webofficepoint.vodium.backpackit.com/content/default. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.vignette.sumtotalsystems. Suite 1050 Vancouver.wave3software.viack.. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. Canada http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.tomoye.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.stalker. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

Do not reproduce

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.com. West. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. 500 West Madison.outstart.ssaglobal.maxit.com TEDS Inc. Inc.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. Chantilly.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Inc. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. East . 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.plateau. Suite 1280 San Francisco. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.syntrio. 550 Queen St. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.technomedia. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Glebe Road.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.teds.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.sselearn.oracle.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. Louis.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.ca Do not reproduce 241 .mgen. St. Suite 260 Foxborough. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Fifth Floor Montreal. Suite 700 Arlington.saba.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Suite 2200 Chicago. Inc.com mGen Enterprise mGen. 100 Foxborough Blvd.teralearn. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.meridianksi.isnewmedia. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.sap.wizdom.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. LTD 671 N.Suite 350 Toronto.

1619 Sumter Street Columbia . 240 Bay Street. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Suite # 105 Columbia. 4th Floor Oakland.sumtotalsystems. 4 Expressway Plaza. Victoria.xtention.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.vbtrain. Inc.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.info/index. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.cdlib. 2280 St. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.fldata. Suite 200 Ottawa.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.arizona. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Laurent Blvd.ttg-inc. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. Suite 101 Houston.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View..com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .risc-inc. Inc. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. Inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.O.wbtsystems. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. Inc.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Ontario.vuepoint. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com Tracker. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.uwm. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.xstreamsoftware.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.avilar. 122 West Way. Box 9752 Boulder. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.gyrus. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. NY.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.sir.trainingpartner.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 17041 El Camino Real.edutools.

ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. SG1 2JY.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.com Do not reproduce 243 .edu. P. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.O.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Suite 3100 San Francisco.dist. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. Rice University. AZ. Houston.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.esri. ETRAC.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.ca ENC Learning Inc.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.rice.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. Fondren Library. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. Norton Road.thegateway.org/eng/scientifiques. Hertfordshire.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.lolaexchange.com/gis4mt/index.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. CT 06459 USA http://www.lornet. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.lrc3. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.cadcorp. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. Sterling Court.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. Stevenage. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.netera. Box 3000 Boulder. Suite 1600 Tucson.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.cf m ESRI Suite 300. AZ 85250 USA http://www.plos. Box 1892.goenc.mcli. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.geocomm.O. 5151 East Broadway.eoscenter.llearn. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.clarklabs.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. MS 44. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria.edu/DesktopDefault.merlot.unsw.maricopa. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.

knowledgepulse.pangonetworks. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. html ELSNET Trans 10.intergraph.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.mapinfo.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. Suite 501 Portland. Dept. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.berkeley. of Geography. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.fi/english/page.O.5372.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.smm. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Inc.edu PanGo Networks.mobilearn.stockholmchallenge.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.eee. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.bham. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. 959 Concord Street.ac.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.cetis.org/aitopics/html/natlang.cancore.ac.org/ Spotlight Mobile.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Suite 100 Framingham. PMB #112 Lake Mary. Inc. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.com Metadata.uk/handler/defaul t.imsglobal. Box 240000 Huntsville.asp?path= 500.edu. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.O. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.aaai. P.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Austria http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.

Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. 10010 USA http://www. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.com Groove Networks. Italy http://tcc.lockss.seti. Suite 300.it Victoria.Project Coordinator CSI .internet2. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.com MoveDigital.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.itc.overnet.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.sun. NY.cetis.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.asianart. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.stockholmchallenge.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Inc.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Inc. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.elsnet. Deane Rd. 1st Floor A . 19104-2653. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.llearn. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.ac. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.lexxe. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.org/site/pp.movedigital.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .ldc.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.elena-project.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.groove. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.advancedreality. Whisman Road Mountain View.net internet2.upenn. PA. Inc.

3º 08021 Barcelona.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.genesys.com/presentatio ns/index. Ninth St.mit.macromedia.trainingregistry.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.com ProQuest 789 E. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. 15-4-A Gatineau.presentations. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.virtualmuseum.17th Avenue SW Calgary.cyberu.ca Slate Hill. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. 3016 5th Ave. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.worldwidelearn.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elluminate. Suite 225 Santa Monica.proquest.com Portals CyberU. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. Alberta. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.apreso.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Suite 600 Alpharetta.rmv. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.lsc.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Box 172 1039 . CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.333.6526 http://www. Minneapolis. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.saba.com 50 S.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.saba.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Presentations. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www. New York 10973 USA http://www. Inc.teach-nology.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.microsoft.O.executrain. NE Calgary.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc. 3333 http://www. Eisenhower Parkway P.elearningeuropa. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.elementk. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. Alberta.com Teachnology.org Macromedia.

hp.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.irc. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. SE-100 44 Stockholm.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.articulate..com Raptivity P.cmu. SWEDEN.com/halo/index. D. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. 130 W.html Norman. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.eng. Suite B Orion.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.aad. O. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.raptivity.scate.active-robots.botball. Inc. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.whmsi. Box 2827.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.evolution. Chilcompton.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.gov.ac.com ReadyGo Inc.osaka-u. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.org Evolution Robotics.readygo. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.rec.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Inc. Ste.ri.generalrobotics.ife.ed. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.ams. Redmond.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. CA 94040. Lindsey Bldg. Henrik I Christensen.org Euron c/o Prof.euron. Centre for Autonmous Systems.atr. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Radstock Somerset.nasa. Pasadena. Union St. Michigan.

Suite 60 Quebec. Suite 500 Oakland. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco.6100 http://www.com Ask.O.ac.copernic.com Google (including Froogle. Chicago.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.Search Engines About.com Info.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.com excite.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.ixquick. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.info. 42nd Floor New York.com Gada.convera.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.kartoo.intute. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. Box 1133 Washington.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com Gnod.findlaw.O. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.koders. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.excite.gigablast.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. Inc.alexa. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.net Koders Inc. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.net/ Healthfinder P.dogpile.healthfinder. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.ask.gnod.com 229 West 43rd Street New York. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.about. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.icerocket.google. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. Google. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.

Suite 211 Palo Alto .edu/ PubSub Concepts.com/v2/index. 360 22nd Street.W.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. 7th floor.com Technorati 665 3rd Street.technorati.cs.qelix. New York. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.lexxe.cfm?doid=10 56808. 64 Fulton Street. 23rd Floor San Francisco. 6th Flr.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. 2400 N. Inc. Seventh Floor New York..org/citation.msn. Mumbai 10. NY 10003.http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.acm. Suite 207 San Francisco.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.pandora. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.mooter. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.almaden. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Inc.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.netscape. Inc. 17th Floor New York.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.com LitLinker c/o ACM.W. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.com/ Netscape AOL LLC. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.82152 Martinsried http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE. 625 Second Street San Francisco.1057022 LookSmart.com SearchKing.convera.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 23rd Oklahoma City. INDIA.biz Truveo.ibm. Nesbit Rd. Mary Apts.krugle. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Ltd.rawsugar.com Pandora Media.truveo. Inc. 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Inc.seekport. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.metacrawler.. Mazgaon.lalisio.pubsub.nyu. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.looksmart. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.searchking.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.

601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.seco. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .intermezzon.elena-project. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.com Zoom Information Inc.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research .Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.macromedia.knowledgequest.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.O.biographix.ee. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI . CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.atghome.macromedia.columbia. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.personal-reader. 10 Old Bailey.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.New York.stt-global.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.yahoo. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. 1st Floor A . EC4M 7NG London. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.com Flash c/o Macromedia. Inc. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. GreenPark Reading. Box 1558 New Canaan.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.alphaworks.htm Yahoo! Inc.zoominfo. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.tkk.forio. Inc. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . Yahoo http://www.ibm.experiencebuilders. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. Ontario.assima.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.com Assima Ltd.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.

NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Taschereau Ouest.eduperformance.. Inc. Suite 240 Atlanta.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. Ontario.cs. Inc.teds. Suite 200 Ottawa. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. Suite A-207 Brossard.com/English/t 6essai.virtualcontrolroom. Suite 1550 San Jose.maxit. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.qarbon. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.com Softsim Outstart Studio. Laurent Blvd.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Québec. England http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.stagecast.outstart. Suite 300 Wichita.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.xstreamsoftware.muzzylane. Light & Acoustics. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.assima. Schaumburg.learning2005. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. 2280 St. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.ac. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. 1821 Walden Office Square. LLC 100 South Main Street.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.knowledgepresenter. Suite 360 San Mateo.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com NexLearn.nexlearn.fsl.com MASIE Center. Inc. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.noaa. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.stt-global.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 55 South Market St..stottlerhenke. Suite 400. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Newburyport.net Do not reproduce 251 . B15 2TT.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. CA . K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.bham.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.knowledge-director. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Stagecast Software. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.knowledgeplanet.

spurl. CA 94089 USA http://del. 101 Wolf Drive. Inc. 625 Second Street San Francisco.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.icio. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.classmates.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. SW. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Inc. Inc.iu.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Suite 125 San Diego.zvents. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. CA.checkpointsystems.edu/index.friendster. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.icio. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.O. 795 Folsom St.rojo.shadows.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.com/ mag. Menlo Park. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.com FURL c/o LookSmart. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.netscape. Ltd. WA 98055 USA http://www.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.eu Rojo Networks.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.analytictech. CA 94105 USA http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto.. Morton Street. Inc.tagzania. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.gnolia. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. Suite 224 Bloomington.networkltd. Suite 900 Austin.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.com Social Bookmarking del. 2001 Lind Ave. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive.com Classmates Online. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Spurl ehf..net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.us Eventful c/o EVDB. Inc. Thorofare.furl.socialtext. Box 920089 Needham. Suite 500 Renton.com Friendster..

com Brightcove.bittorrent.percro.spider.com iTunes Apple Computer. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. CA 90028 USA http://www. Inc.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.net Sparta Social Networks.ergonetz. 7220 Trade Street. Box 1641 Denver.jabber. Box 1641 Denver.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .spartasocialnetworks.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.O. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.org Veoh Networks.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.advanced.veoh.jabber. Suite 115 San Diego. New York. Inc.sociosite. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.com/halo/index. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.html Jabber Software Foundation P.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.activeworlds.xstreamengine. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.navy.org.hp. VA 23461-1924 https://www. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CA 92121 USA http://www.brightcove. Cupertino. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. Church Street.com Do not reproduce 253 .uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.com Jabber Software Foundation P.org Fakespace 11 E.dfilm. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.percro.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.apple.fakespace. CA 94105 USA http://www.futurelab. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.O.hpc.1011 CM Amsterdam. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. 4th Floor Marshalltown.

Inc.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.O. Troy. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .corda.501 North Morton Street. Box 884.formz. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.vista.coe. 1333 Butterfield Rd.informationinplace.com/ MapInfo One Global View.bham. 809 14th Street. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. Columbus. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.edu/vrel. 350 South 400 West.com Intuition 9. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.idashboards. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Williams Building College Park.V. Cambridge. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.esri.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Suite 110 Troy. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Suite 280 Downers Grove.mapinfo. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.xcelsius.advizorsolutions. IC ISIM VRLAB.ecu.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.feedtank. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.epfl. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Suite 317 San Diego. Inc.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.cs.intuition-eunetwork.accurender. Inc.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.golden. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Danvers.com ESRI Suite 300.com Golden Software.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.umd.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.ac.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Draper.ambientdevices. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.. Suite 206 Bloomington. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.daz3d.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Suite 100 Lindon. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville. Golden.intergraph.O. Tracy.

net Pixologic.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.musanim.skype. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.visualthesaurus. 9th floor New York.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Inc. Unit # 1 Mississauga. Riga. 2513 Charleston Road.topozone.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.okino.nlm. 155 Spring Street. MA 01863 USA http://www.vicodi.microsoft. 73 Princeton Street. California. Donau-City-Strasse 1. 3 East 28th St.mccrackendesign.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. Suite 102 Mountain View.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.inxight. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. 94043 USA http://www.ontopia. Unit A2 Naples. Ltd. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.spotfire. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.softill.com JAJAH Inc. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.unifiedfield.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc. FL 34108 USA http://www. 869 97th Ave N. Suite 3A New York. Inc.com Spotfire.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.com Unified Field.nih. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. NY 10012 USA http://www.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Ontario L4V 1T8. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Inc. Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. 212 Elm Street Somerville. 2nd Floor Poolesville. 20010 Fisher Avenue. Inc.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. RIDemo Brivibas 183.S.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.sportbrain. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.pixologic. A-1220 Vienna.visualanalytics.jajah. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. U. CA 94712 USA http://www.vrvis.

P.pluck. First Floor. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. Suite 100 Campbell. 116 New Montgomery Street.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.com Rojo Networks.715135858 http://www.onfolio. Estonia http://www.feedster. Suite 2260 Portland.. Suite 381 Vancouver.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.1001 W.rojo.ch Web Feeds Attensa. San Francisco.brightcove.ethz. Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.feedreader.com Brightcove. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.. 795 Folsom St. 64 Fulton Street. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Nederland Tel: +31.com Feedster.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep..attensa. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.V.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. CA 95008 USA http://www. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . Suite 605 San Francisco.feedburner.feedforall. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Seventh Floor New York.org JotSpot. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Inc. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.feedzilla. 11211. Switzerland http://www.pubsub. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.jot. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. 167 Hamilton Ave.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Hanover. Coldbrook Business Corp. Petersburg.com PubSub Concepts.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.rssreader. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.mozilla. Broadway. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Inc. Inc. South #358 St.bloglines. Tallinn.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.microsoft. Suite 900 Austin. 200 2nd Ave. Inc.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Building K Mountain View.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Valdeku 100.wearable. Inc.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

196. 219. 50. 231. 211 Broadband. 69. 137. 46. 13. 24. 25. 203. 24. 180. 67. 74. 84. 28. 150. 74. 36. 196. 194. 71. 18. 196. 69. 23. 60 Clickers. 197. 57. 64. 191. 160. 127. 43. 194. 41. 27. 193. 52. 65. 70. 21. 139 assessment. 72. 138. 123. 59. 135. 91. 46. 127. 171. 63. 165. 72. 196 Dashboards. 23. 159. 170. 59. 66. 45 Avatars. 189. 85. 100. 18. 153. 137. 29. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 27. 181. 130. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 211 Communications Tools. 160. 161. 56. 48. 211. 176. 119. 47. 171. 20. 180. 125. 79 Complexity theory. 100. 112. 189. 139. 26. 125. 184. 21. 81. 24. 48. 63. 94. 65. 203. 190. 60 Cognition. 127. 53 barcodes. 43. 6. 54. 47. 39. 74. 80. 5. 170. 22. 177. 148. 16. 50. 36. 12. 128. 65. 196 cognitive maps. 110. 113. 199 Architectures. 80. 156. 180. 226 Authorware. 86. 194. 201 cognitive collage. 209. 181. 114. 94. 23. 4. 170. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 208. 217 Collaboration. 117. 25. 97. 146. 57. 95. 28. 18. 144. 40. 218 Agents. 35 Content management. 74. 159. 45. 39. 21. 149. 23. 199. 162. 65. 63. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 69. 190. 141. 127 Cooperation. 18. 196. 35. 89. 145. 97. 46. 55. 180 Competency Tracking. 63. 4. 201 Adaptive systems. 75. 89. 118. 196 collaboration. 211. 103. 165. 158. 42. 203. 67. 91. 29. 82. 74. 191. 209. 21. 68. 180. 109. 64. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 50. 27. 88 cybercartography. 160. 29. 149. 178. 34. 49 AJAX. 52. educational. 91. 69. 136. 122 Ambient computing. 47. 100. 112. 93. 15. 169. 116. 35. 205 Animation. 211. 45. 26. 36. 48. 193. 145. 127. 52. 122. 58. 137. 4. 35. 67. 190. 200. 223. 174. 90. 50. 193. 66. 2. 15. 207 Classroom response systems. 177. 15. 216 Affective computing. 209. 78. 146. 46. 22. 15. 122. 23. 78. 101. 212 Boolean searches. 35. 146. 209 Augmented reality. 27. 215 Communities of practice. 27. 101. 57. 66. 170. 93. 81. 17. 169. 93. 85 Blogs. 20.Index 3-D graphics. 207. 184. 165. 33. 176 Cell phones. 44. 93. 70. 44. 170. 24. 42. 203. 66. 121. 109. 145 Conversational learning. 140. 28. 7. 83. 77. 196. 11. 46. 30. 85. 193. 198 Data mining. 174 Bayesian probability. 140. 70. 121. 49. 5. 47. 31. 192 Browsers. 72. 122. 110. 176. 109. 39. 8. 59. 165 Air display. 62. 174. 16. 145. 172 Audio. 66. 179. 70. 37. 84 Adobe. 50. 159. 112. 69. 93. 128. 85. 132. 216 Computer based assessment. 171. 193. 128. 84. 90 Assessment. 51. 116. 45. 65. 83. 74. 48. 21. 16. 195 Authoring tools. 129. 189. 198. 191. 197. 80. 71. 127. 177. 26. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 46. 67. 50.

201 FrontPage. 162. 13. 184 e-Science. 98 GIF graphic format. 25. 7. 49. 100. 45 Displays. 193. 89. 13. 72. 210 formative assessment. 122. 197. 17. 57 Flash. 74. 93. 49. 20. 83. 170 Federated searches. 120. 169. 11. 18. 57. 178. 152. 202. 137. 219 Infrared tags. 31. 5. 45. 104. 86 Deep Web. 199 Gesture recogntion. 9. 67. 100. 88. 116. 110. 205 Hybrid systems. 196 Immersive environments. 12. 170. 48. 15. 49 Google. 119. 16. 26. 201 Grid computing. 119. 54. 134. 59. 173. 132. 201. 103. 174. 60. 55. e-learning. 81. 42. 184. 20. 176. 196. 190. 166. 189. 193. 89. 127. 217. 159. 198. 24 e-Portfolios. 193. 97. 85 Extreme learning. 169 Expert systems. 250 Folksonomies. 5. 180. 127. 80. 47. 58. 203. 122. 198. 48. 25. 74. 134. 85. 103. 16. 215 Informal learning. 91. 21. 156. 164. 3. 108. 88. 101. 35. 70. 49. 152. 86. 154. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 120. 11. 86. 200. 13. 64. 106. 75. 153. 106. 193. 165 Handwriting recognition.Decision support systems. 27. 146. 114. 172. 187. 110. 63. 11. 35 Frameworks. 161. 106 Head mounted displays. 180. 80. 152. 196. 183. 70. 66. 59. 4. 23. 194. 16. 63. 179. 121. 196 Graphics. 106. 107. 37. 155. 210. 134. 125. 216. 162 History. 65. 158 Design. 97. 238 Geocaching. 163. 119 FireFox. 20. 107. 84. 186. 248 graphics. 217 images. 35. 120. 34. 152. 5. 74. 69. 160. 133. 119. 45 dynamic displays. 215. 64. 189. 80. 26. 199. 167 evaluation. 80. 26 Emotional design. 32. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 178. 191 Games. 196. 26. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 137. 11. 28. 11. 25. 163 Findability. 57. 107. 174. 204 Dreamweaver. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 239 Individualization. 78. 46. 134. 30. 24. 95. 4. 215. 124. 68. 196. 89. 225. 169. 19. 8. 70. 94. 125. 91. 121. 109. 23. 217 Instant messaging. 106 Healthcare applications. 52. 197. 106 Haptics. 175. 158. 33. 69. 193. 106. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 162. 149. 154. 94. 90. 131. 53. 90 Experiential learning. 197. 176. 158 Informatics. 141. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 27. 85. 162. 16. 30. 4. 27. 200. 63. 9. 47. 123. 199. 139. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 88. 214 Human-centered computing. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 114. 197. 5. 75. 93. 84. 52. 103. 97. 124. 123 Hype in e-learning. 216 Director. 33. 34. 169. 158. 134. 196 e-Commerce. 7. 93. 205. 122. 22. 187. 158. 3. 71. 100. 26. 166. 101. 94. 37. 196. 9. 29. 109. 170. 151. 109. 8. 149. 25. 47. 23. 26. 45. 146. 6. 170. 79. 9. 25. 119. 60. 216 Distributed systems. 15. 153 Facial recognition. 88. 51. 66. 88. 88.

141. 215 Interoperability. 26. 53. 135. 241. 179 Optical tags. 191. 115. 114. 145. 57. 80. 100. 35. 147. 112. 6. 109. 77. 134. 137. 128. 182. 116. 60. 220. 107. 70. 65. 103. 69. 17. 196 Mashups. 23. 43. 139. 25. 48. 166 Pervasive computing. 180. 166 PowerPoint. 49. 178. 111. 58. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 2. 159. 27. 153 Microsoft. 199. 129. 140. 54. 143. 169. 174. 135. 110. 128. 181. 161. 161. 123. 148. 119. 66. 128. 42. 15. 122. 114 learning object repository. 6. 80. 125. 123 Medical applications. 196 Pedagogy. 127 Podcasting. 145. 122. 130. 139. 171 M-learning. 116. 172. 144. 62. 45. 180. 119. 183. 45. 46. 119. 150. 60. 155. 16. 36. 31. 98. 47. 216. 120. 137. 8. 172. 65. 32. 85. 114. 178. 240. 26. 124 iPod. 246. 47. 127.Interface devices. 7. 81. 154. 78. 170. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 65. 64. 190. 129. 63. 166. 101. 124. 190. 127. 68. 44. 25. 11. 42. 7. 149. 205. 107. 45. 165. 6. 80. 42. 160. 206. 193. 80. 129. 20 Museums. 30. 26. 199. 106. 138. 152 Lecturing. 6. 137. 146. 21. 189. 230. 108. 76. 110. 135. 6. 86. 174. 145. 139. 125. 89. 165 pattern recognition. 69. 194. 20. 189. 127. 162. 145. 18. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 244 Motion Graphics. 180. 62. 139. 23. 163 Microformats. 114. 40. 93. 215. 90. 148. 59. 111. 90. 187. 120. 74. 80. 138. 249. 176. 127. 130 Mobile computing. 47. 183. 246 Location based tools. 42. 146. 205 Macromedia. 112. 115. 125 Lab book wiki. 26. 109. 116. 190. 256 Microworlds. 238. 42. 107. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 135. 191. 140. 77. 175. 85. 137. 114. 5. 121. 4. 114 Learning Objects. 149. 191. 223 Portals. 134. 143. 244 Meta-search engines. 189. 45. 81. 120. 82. 145. 48. 119. 165. 49. 148. 130. 152. 165. 171 Metacognition. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 54. 7. 134. 189. 152 Libraries. 136. 80. 45. 91. 239. 156. 153. 26 Metadata. 193. 124. 113. 233. 241 Learning Management Systems. 4. 93. 100. 127. 199 Neural networks. 35. 204. 97. 79. 125. 250 mapping. 78. 124. 143. 192. 234. 36. 160. 26. 122. 152 Networks. 46. 178. 176. 142. 124. 174. 48. 180. 97 Ontologies. 140. 146. 22. 246. 23. 196. 192. 34. 158. 131. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 146. 156 Legacy materials. 165 Microlearning. 43. 43. 128. 176. 54. 113. 121. 109. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 122. 171. 127. 216. 186. 7. 47. 139 Personalization. 141. 65. 114. 226. 26. 242 learning object model. 134. 24. 213. 21. 144 Navigation. 63. 66. 34. 134. 65. 150. 255. 139. 95. 4. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 237. 140. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 174. 211 latent semantic analysis. 211 Knowledge management. 29. 191. 17. 68. 124. 149. 109. 15. 119.

119. 215. 26. 69. 153. 48. 119. 172. 172. 59. 131. 178. 95. 35. 11. 120. 160. 124. 162. 191 summative assessment. 170. 49. 36. 35 Semantic Web. 57 T-Learning. 189. 35. 115. 185. 48. 93. 50. 47.Presentation tools. 75. 71. 174. 141. 57. 109. 110. 175 Tag clouds. 179. 35 Quizzes. 124. 81. 34. 177. 38. 168. 115. 174. 93. 247 rapid learning. 114. 5. 74. 178. 163. 141. 189. 152 Projectors. 203 Telepresence. 174 Social bookmarking. 66. 148. 74. 215. 47. 40. 178. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 209. 9. 65. 20. 174. 174 Project management. 52. 175. 90 Reusability. 170. 47. 47. 119. 176. 141. 21. 134. 179. 137. 35. 211 Tags. 116. 106. 159. 97. 154. 80. 106 Proximity tools. 186. 122 Tagging. 227. 9. 7. 139. 39. 124. 38. 205 Shockwave. 180. 131. 119. 180. 47. 42. 165. 26. 169. 183. 88. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 150. 116. 35. 37. 138. 49. 148 Smart labels and tags. 15. 225. 114. 156. 86. 189. 46. 216 Tests. 124. 6. 199 Single-user wiki. 153. 46. 125. 221 SCORM. 152. 246 Privacy. 154. 188. 9. 45. 9. 4. 35. 129. 217 Translation. 199 Turing Test. 160. 83. 189 Security. 114. 116. 39. 54. 30. 16. 169. 137. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 62. 159. 5. 125. 4. 27. 189 Search engines. 36. 166. 36. 64 Telephony. 197. 50. 174. 196 Serious games. 158. 119 quizzes. 180. 11. 176. 193. 11. 22. 179. 64. 8. 94. 122. 48. 40. 181 Speech recognition. 134. 184. 55. 155. 166. 54. 167. 118. 181. 171. 50. 175 Rapid e-learning. 114 Repositories. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 27. 88. 52. 35 Symbology tags. 117. 57. 82. 84. 161. 170. 134. 91. 48. 54. 26. 141. 175. 114 Screencasting. 77. 91. 161. 177. 54. 189. 110. 191. 182. 152 Thin clients. 87. 247 Role-playing. 207 Social networking. 37. 125. 123 Simulations. 148. 132 Streaming video. 155. 114 Robotics. 122. 177. 62. 70 Radio. 48. 169. 163. 83. 46. 189 Television. 135. 155. 133. 156. 94. 112. 125. 47. 174 self-evaluation. 26. 68. 171 Scenarios. 191 Tours (online). 144. 215. 167 reusable learning objects. 174. 131. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 177. 122 sharable content objects. 93. 165. 199 Taxonomies. 89. 176. 158. 176 Team management. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 149. 165. 49. 171 Science. 168 résumés. 211 Skypecasting. 173. 190. 150. 46. 150. 74. 36. 203. 191 Tangible computing. 72. 109.

98. 56. 211. 253 Videocasting. 69. 148. 154 Virtual learning environments. 123. 67. 145. 255 Web conferencing. 57. 187. 5. 88. 189 virtual classroom. 148. 109. 211. 216. 11. 198. 90. 182. 43. 203. 3. 193. 217 Word. 89. 211. 176. 62. 191. 81. 160. 210. 196. 190. 137. 214. 256 Webcasting. 4. 44. 74. 45. 7. 107. 200. 51. 215. 137 Virtual reality. 212. 130. 113. 127. 46. 209. 165. 108. 150 Webinars. 108. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 57. 255 Wearable computing. 106. 9. 64. 182. 206. 124. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS).Ubiquitous computing. 150. 106. 13. 256 Woodill. 205. 208. 121. 148 Virtual classrooms. 189. 174. 149. 192. 210. 40. 80. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 207. 148 Whiteboards. 65. 131. 177. 119. 205 Usability. 49. 91. 216 Vlogs. 215. 164. 177. 106. 199. 239 Wikipedia. 200. 100. 213. 236. 123. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 159. 22. 194 Video. 66. 212 Wikis. 193 Visualization. 60. 197. 79. 68. 189 Vodcasting. 74. 112. 187. Gary. 9. 209. 148. 74.

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