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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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Operitel’s CEO. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. Grant Hamilton. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. have supported this research from the beginning. A third report. editing. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Lise Bye. This report. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Thanks. None of this would have been possible if my wife. and support at all points of my career. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. lists of online resources. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. Pierre Cahorn. Carlos Oliveira. will be available in early 2007. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. Pamela Fragomeli. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. the second in the series. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Jennifer McDowell. Karen Anderson. technology. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. Karen. The first report. I have provided links to online learning examples. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. and services. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. Amy Davey. along with an index.

the classroom became industrialized. Learning became standardized and linear. and language for communication. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. fire for warmth and cooking.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. with rows. or “reader. They are. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today.” Starting in the first century AD. A third way to learn is by seeing. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. Medieval universities followed the same practice. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. There are. linear teaching techniques online. still used in many institutions of higher education. Do not reproduce 3 .just the ability to follow an example. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. class periods. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. But learning technologies have a much longer history. With these reforms. detentions. as books were scarce. or device that extends human abilities. material. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. and recess. to quote Donald Norman (1993). We tend to forget. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Technologies are any technique. in fact. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. that lecturing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . the raising of hands. The modern classroom. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. many different ways to learn. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. is a 2000 year old “technology. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. “things that make us smart. Schools were started to teach accounting. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. for example.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. even if the originator of the words is not present.

Rather than pages. mashups can only be done using computer technology. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. changing the practice of teaching.Students in these schools learned by reading. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . the early days of computer networking. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. in 1876 someone at Western Union. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. and reciting. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. Eventually. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. When a new technology first comes into use. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. chairman of IBM. Thomas Watson. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. For example. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). moving pictures (films). 2006). most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. At the same time. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done.” Similarly.” In 1970. it needs to adhere to architectures.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. memorizing. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. When a new technology is introduced. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Like all new technologies. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. as this is a non-technical guide. Sadly. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. 2006). and standards. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. However. frameworks. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways.

the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. 2005. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.org). Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org) has a number of published documents that. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. In particular. presentation and interactive environments.fr/publication. Do not reproduce 5 . There is authentication and authorization support at every level.free. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). For example. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. January. Number 3. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic.imsglobal. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. They provide location independence. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. php). > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.grid. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.accessgrid.

http://sourceforge. At the same time.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs).” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. enabling the search for content. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. In business.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. Major specifications for e-learning. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. http://purl. research. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences.oclc. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. This is especially true for adult education.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.” In late 2005. They noted that “…in education. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.taken together. http://www. Bollier says.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology.adlnet. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . Rather. “[a] pull economy . Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. http://imsproject. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. interactive learning components.elframework. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. http://ltsc.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. reinforces this theme.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. and makes extensive use of XML.aicc. Instead.is based on open. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). and education administration. In Europe.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. While packaged courses still have a place. http://www. Instead of just providing courses. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).ieee.

org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Umer. F. 2004).no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles.. G. http://www.. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.1 0/tail. and Conte.cscsi.. http://arxiv. http://ewic. R. Nov.pdf Anderson. Ahmad. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. I hope you will find it useful. is becoming commonplace.idi. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Lausanne. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005.DC/0502051 Alexander. Zanichelli. R. March/April 2006.html Anderson. Wales.. Likothanassis. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Weiss. 16... June 2005. and wearable computers. T.ntnu. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. http://www. A.bcs.wired. K. Chris (2006). Chris (2004). Because this research report is meant as a reference work. M. and Votis. M. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. F. 12(10). Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. M. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China... Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. Montreal... David (2005).org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. 41(2). In the last chapter. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 2006) has argued. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Five years ago. and McGinnis (2004). Web 2. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. 2005). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Ali. those learners are now keeping their own records. Switzerland. the reader can approach any topic in any order. http://www. M. M. http://www. mobile devices. (2002). (2005). M. As Anderson (2004. Cardiff. online resources. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. ambient networks. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. S. Sept. New York: Hyperion. For example. UK. (2005). Moreover. Giotopoulos.org/abs/cs. Reggiani. http://www.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. 19.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Z. along with selected examples. Odeh.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. User-created content. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . From this.htm Bollier.com/wired/archive/12. Bertolazzi.amazon.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. McClatchey. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Chrysostalis. 2004. Bibliography Abbas. October.. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Wired Magazine.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. Italy. The Long Tail. K.. Milan. N. and a bibliography. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.educause. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.pdf Bogonikolos.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Bryan (2006). Thus. 2002. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al.

Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Hao (2003).html Kong.xml.devshed. and McGreal. 2003.asp Chatarji. Dec. 30. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.co m/docs/SOA_World.1109/CIT. 4-36. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 2004.det. Working paper. D.. http://ru6.cancore. Infoworld. Upper Saddle River. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.org/celda2005/index. http://www.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. Triantafillou.xml&DOI=10.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa. Tsiatsos. (1996). 6-8. 2002 http://ewic. C. Sept. and Albert.au Limited. J. pdf He..ICALT 2001.com/paper_pushpull. Online.act. Madison.iadis. http://www. G. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. American Jrnl. (2005).gov. Athabasca University. April 18..infoworld. Norm (2006). http://www. (2001).computer. http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . 14-16.networking technology. L. ThoughtWorks White paper. Erlanger.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. http://www. N. Portugal.S.johnhagel.amazon.ascilite. J.com. A field guide to software as a service. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. V.virtual. (2005). Stefano (2005). A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.pdf Friesen. C. T. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. Centre for Distance Ed. and Brown. http://cde.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product. T.. 2005.2005. WI.org.xml. http://csdl2. and Putland. 2001.cti. http://www. Australia. G. Education. J. Proceedings.5 6 Marshall.gmu.athabascau. (2002).au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203.. http://www. W.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .pdf Millea. 13. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05).Dev Shed. http://www. and Borck. (2005). http://www.. March 2002. Oct. Jagadish (2004).aspeninstitute. Gregor (2005). Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.html Hagel. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Stephen (2004). Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.pdf Erl. Lausanne. Aug. http://www. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. International E-Learning Specifications.pdf Knorr. R. Switzerland. for the Australian Dept. Hornig. Web Services .com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.htm Hohpe. January 2005.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. 13-16. Porto. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. E. Green. Sept. (2005). 2.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. Thomas (2004). Luo. USA. I. http://www.bcs. of Education and Training. 1026-1032. J. http://www.. Perth.html Hockemeyer. J. (2002). From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. and Zhang. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .ca/protocols_en.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . C.edu/pdf/ajde.pdf Cerri.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. of Distance Education 10.

http://www. UK. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.aspx Yang.acten. Dublin.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. ICWL 2003. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. F. Research report. April 26-27. http://www.. S. http://www.R. MA: Perseus.sinica. 21.Neumann. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. (2005).operitel. G. T. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. Library+information Show. Samuel (2006). and Vossen. 27 . (2006). J. and Weggen. ACTeN E-Content Report No. and Wade. M. Harvey.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. (2000). pp. and Ho. http://www.. W.rwthaachen..pdf Do not reproduce 9 . and Geys. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology.aifb. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. http://www. 9. (2003). Donald (1993). (Eds. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. H.alt. Mashups. http://www. G.amazon.ac. May 15.astd.pdf Norman.amazon. Cambridge. Reflective learning. W. Stuttgart. (2005). G. Hambrecht and Co. 2005. Aalderink. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. http://www.iis. http://www-i5. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines.. 911-928. In W.pdf Pierre.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. M. (2004). C.edu. 193–205. Journal of Information Science and Engineering.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2.. Birmingham.pdf Urdan. Rhonda (2006).alt. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Germany.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. Learning Solutions. R. http://ewic. e-portfolios. future thinking: digital repositories. April 1. Feijen. Trinity College. 2006.pdf Werkhoven. Klamma.unikarlsruhe. V.): Proceedings.com/publications. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.informatik.. R. and Jarke. and Oliveira. C. http://www. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. Berlin: Springer.ac.bcs. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. J. Lee.28 April 2004. http://www.pdf Spaniol. Cook.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids.pdf Roberts. Peter (2004). SCORM and the Learning Grid.pdf Woodill. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. 2006. V. (2003). M. C. Zhou et al.

There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. selected elearning related examples. and a bibliography for each section. 10 © Brandon Hall Research .Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. Included are related terms. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth.

com/Explorer/NGT-AC. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. Without the ability to understand emotions. and react to human emotions.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. in Italy. accuracy. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. posture.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. emotional design. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. or sad.” http://www. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. speech patterns mainstream. SRI Consulting (http://www.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.convo. In online therapy.. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. and legality. http://www. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. UK. confused. too. emotions. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling.mit.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. For example.myself-proj. 2005). including the ability to recognize and express emotions.co.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. understand.cs. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al.bham.media. 2005). computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. http://www.sricbi.. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning.ac. and to respond to them effectively. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. et al. keystroke patterns.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. gestures. security. privacy.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.” (Anolli. Affective Computing.html Do not reproduce 11 . facial recognition.

Stock. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Vermersch. Portland.. CHI 2005 conference. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.doc Hook. and Merisol. H. Portland. (2005).edu/emotion.. R. C.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman.pdf Cahour. Vescovo..se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. Portland. S. Bouraoui. 2005. http://www.pdf Interfaces.uniroma1. September 13. A. Dr. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.. K. http://www.pdf Goren-Bar. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Salembier.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. Pianesi.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M.. are available online: http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. B. http://www. B. April 2-7. F. http://www. C. K. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Z. Oregon.sics. http://www.unitrier. David (2003).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour. M. P. and Morishima. M. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Oregon. Mantovani..html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Graziola.nsma. 2005. and Laaksolahti. http://www.org. O. Nortillaro. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. Portland.. J.. Issue 11/12. I. April 2-7. Oregon. M. China. Nass.doc Chateau.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. April 2-7. 2005. Y. The Love Machine: building computers that care. Brave.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye.. December. April 2-7. Oregon. O. http://www.wired. 2005. Brassac. CHI 2005.aisb. Hatfield. and Zouinar. J. Pachoud..com/wired/archive/11. Zurloni. bibliographies. 2005 http://www. Wired Magazine..html Fallman..dis. H. UK.informatik. CHI 2005 conference. with many resources.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. (2005). Balestra.de/link/affective_port al. Oregon. Nakajima. (2005).pdf Maldonado. J.1 2/love. University of Hertfordshire.pdf Diamond. April 12-15. Lee. CHI 2005 conference. April 2-7. P. listing many links to interesting resources.sics. including studies of emotions in computers.arizona.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. April 2-7. Isbister. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. CHI 2005 conference. and Zancanaro.html In Germany.. Joseph (2005).sics.it/~lhci/009. D..sics. Portland.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Iwamura. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.unige.. http://emotion-research.pdf Kaye. Agliati. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.. (2005). October 22-24. and Waterworth.. and Confalonieri (2005).. (2005). CHI 2005.sics. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. D. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. N. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. Rocchi. V. Yamada.. Oregon.. http://www. J.. Portland. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. http://www..The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Realdon. I Like It . L. 2005. A.sics..bartneck.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. K. C. http://emotion. (2005). F.

. MA: MIT. 2005. Donald A. October 22-24. http://www. http://www. M. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.pdf Mentis.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.sics. ACII 2005. and Daily. May 26. Regan (2005). (2004).Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www.sics. R.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. http://www. Affective Computing. 22. R.de/emeocomp/co ntent. NJ.ac. 2005.ac. Beijing. L. Tan. CHI 2005 conference. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. (2002).sics. CHI 2005. http://www. http://www. Paper for WEBIST 2005. E-book http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. and Ishizuka. Portland. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. and Picard.pdf Norman.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.t. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Portland. J. Affective Computing vs. (2005). Oregon.cs.ruebenstrunk.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Cambridge. Helena (2005). 2005. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk. University of Birmingham. Doctoral Dissertation.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.amazon. OR.pdf Mandryk. T. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. 2005. April 2-7.HTM Steele. (2005).org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. http://www. Dec. Rosalind (1997).bham. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Emotional Agents.pdf Masum. April 2-7. S. and Steele. J. Gerd (1998).miv. Oregon. Berlin: Springer. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Portland.amazon.thesis. M. Erlbaum.stanford. Miami.pdf Ruebenstrunk. http://www. Oregon. 35(2). (2005). http://www. CHI 2005. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Portland. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2002.elearningreviews.htm Tao.utokyo. S. http://www.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. New York: Basic. Ian (1997). CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics.doc Wright.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. http://www. April 2-7.iste. Charlotte (2005).jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. China.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Viswanath. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). useful in educational simulations. Fourth. Dick Stenmark. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. 1999). and both may be found in the same http://w3. She made mistakes. veracity. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. 2004) and are. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. autonomous agents. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. learning/adaptation.. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. not only about environments. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Second. and. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). For example. but Do not reproduce 15 . benevolence. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions.se/~dixi/agent/clas s.informatik. 2005. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. rationality. intelligent agents program (for example. therefore. et al. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. 2004). (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. 1999). Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. avatars. Katzlberger. First. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Agents have beliefs. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. 2005). and the students had to continue to teach her. In such situations. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. and many of them can actually learn. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. see the paper by Far et al. Third. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. A second agent in the simulation. In this context. Mentor. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. proactive (goal directed). which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence.gu. However.

http://www. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. Massaro et al.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Baldi.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623.uka. See the article by Williams et al. (1998) developed a conversational agent.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Content Agent 6.fsu. http://www. 2. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. They are available as adaptive coaches. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. expert role-players.netobjectdays.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. Therefore.old.codebaby. (2004): http://www. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. and expert guides.extempo. 2000). Skills Manager Agent 3.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.also about other agents. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. http://www.ira. uses seven different types of agents: 1. http://www.com/ CodeBaby Corp. Even though each agent acts independently. http://liinwww. go to: http://ritl.redwoodelearning.ac. Learning Paths Agent 5.editlib. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. acting against other teams of agents.liv.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. User Profile Agent. For details see: www.stanford.csc. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. go to: http://ldt. Student Assistant Agent 4.org/index.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.

Tennessee. 3. Ali (2002).org/index.pdf Guessoum. Hypermedia.org/newdl/index. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. C.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/index. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.old. Learning by Teaching Agents. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. Krittaya (2005).pdf Clarebout.).org/index.pdf Jafari. Elan. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.editlib. C. (Ed.editlib. No.editlib. 21-38.editlib. and Palopoli. Sun. A. B. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.cfm?fuse action=Reader. (2003).pdf Lin. 75-80. Zahia (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Nashville.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. www. 1353-1356. J.University of Southern California.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. Germany. Educause Quarterly. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. (2005). L. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235.aace. 267-286 http://www. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Y. Nashville. G.org/index. Hypermedia. http://dl. Proceedings. In Proceedings. and Tsang. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. (2003). Educause Quarterly.educause. & El-Khouly.org/index.. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).isi. 10 (3). Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. 306-311).org/16948 Leelawong. July. Erfurt. P. Z. S. VA: AACE.netobjectdays.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. S. Do not reproduce 17 . E-Learning 2003. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. (2000). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. In Richards. 1503-1506. Ng. http://www. & Lin. Vanderbilt University. and Telecommunications 2003. A. Doctoral Dissertation.. 5(7). Y. (2002).org/index. http://www. 11(3). http://www.teachableagents. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.. e-Learning 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao.editlib. E-Learning 2003. & Ebbers.educause. www. G. (2002). and Ho. Paper presented. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. G.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. International Journal on E-Learning. 459-462. Doctoral Dissertation. S. (2002).. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.editlib. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.. A. 4(1).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. J.pdf Kim. http://www. (2003). W. Norfolk. Johnson.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. http://csdl. E.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. Clarebout. and Shaw. Y.editlib.aace. http://www. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.pdf Kao. (2005).org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. 1659-1666.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. & Johnson. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. & Bengu. Thomas (2005). Jrnl... http://www.. G. M.. W. Koono..ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. S.. http://www. Large Complex Systems. http://www. (1999). & Kim. G. http://www. L. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL).teachableagents. TN. Vanderbilt University. Hershey.computer. 275-285. (2005)..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Inter-active Learning Res. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. 28(2)..org/index. In Proceedings.

Proceedings. http://www. http://www. (2004). and Winikoff.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. Adebiyi. 143-162. (1999). 3169-3176. Russia. Healthcare.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. ED-MEDIA. J.psu.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ogi. L. June 1-4. Sandel.vt.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. Atreya.. of California. (2004). G. St. Cohen. W. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Doctoral Dissertation. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.amazon.informatics. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.de/BIK/vpa/109. (1999).uni-karlsruhe.cse. J. Doctoral dissertation. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. D. & Booth. Ferat (2000).editlib. In Richards. Government. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. PA. M.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/fil/ Padgham.aace..ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. http://scholar. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. V..cs.. and Higher Education 2004. 194-201. D. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2005). G. 321333.org/index. 61-65.amazon. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.). (2006). 1999. K. A. and Ferneley.indiana. August. M. http://citeseer. Carnegie Mellon University.pdf Perez. Finland.http://www. R.editlib. L. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . and Núñeza.aace. Beskow. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.html Shim. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. http://www. (2004). Biswas. In Proceedings. Proceedings. H.. http://cslu.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. & Leelawong. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. 1415-1420. ED.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. (2005).editlib.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. M. Daniel. Petersburg. Richards (Eds.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo.. G. http://www. 14(1). http://www. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. New York: John Wiley & Sons. V.. Kommers & G.editlib.edu/565321.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).org/index. (2005). http://www.org/16968 Sahin.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. http://www.aifb. IFIP WG12. S. U. 10 (3).K. http://dl. K.. E. B. France.org/index. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.Media 2005. ED-MEDIA 2005. L. Toulouse. Doctoral Dissertation. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. 1632.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. 1999.editlib. S.. and Cole. R. & Lim.org/index. Pittsburgh.utexas.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno..lib.cfm?fuse action=Reader. M. 47-59.). O. http://www. Peter (1998). (Ed. www. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.. 17(2). In P.ist.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.org/index. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Wesley. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.org/newdl/index. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. R. and Solomon.pdf Menczer. and Stucky. S. (1999). Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).

Gilbert. (2004). Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.org/papers/15 8bis.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. Paper at CLAG2004.pdf Williams. & Madsen. http://www. http://research.editlib.. New York: John Wiley & Sons.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Chun.upc. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. April 18-21.html Yan.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . http://ca.http://www.org/index. Michael (2002). In Proceedings. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. Chicago. ED-MEDIA 2004. 3000-3002. M. (2004)..edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. N.teachableagents. J. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.ac. 2004.

research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. The results of many experiments have been mixed. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.animationfactory. However. al.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.topshareware.Animation Software Related terms Flash. go to the Animation Factory: http://www.com/alchemy/gi fcon. Given that.topshareware. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Also. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.0 http://www. However.mindworkshop.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.000 pre-built animated GIFs. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. Rather. (2003).com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. motion graphics depiction. producing animations can be very costly. 2003) Finally. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. produced the best learning results. a static diagram.05 http://www. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. animations may even prejudice learning. like pictures in a flip book. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner.htm For a selection of over 400.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. et.” (Huk. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. coupled with imagining how something worked.

com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. and rendering tool. animation.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). a high-end editing and visual effects suite.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.massivesoftware.html CAT . animating. effects. go to: http://www.. go to: http://www.com/products/aftereffec ts/main. For more information on Shockwave.” http://www.swishzone. http://www.autodesk.com Enliven . http://www. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.com Maya is a high-end modeling. Inc. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques.catoolkit.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.newtek. http://www.animats. For information on Flash.com/pub/products/e nliven. For a free demo.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.html Falling Bodies .ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.com/gallery/default. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.Softimage Co. the built-in programming language.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.eitechnologygroup.animationonline. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias).apple. their 3-D character creation environment. 2004). has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. http://faraday. http://www.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . go to: http://macromedia. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia.macromedia.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI .Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. Version 9 is available: http://www.physics. http://www.adobe..com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto.viewpoint. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. It is part of Final Cut Studio.utoronto.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. http://www. http://www.softimage. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. To use ActionScript. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. http://www. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.com/dynamics/demov ersion. It animates fall stunts.

(1). Learning Circuits.unihannover. R.sjsu. Thomas (2003).Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. 21(4). (2002). Kriz. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. S.learningcircuits. and Hancock. go to AllWorldSoft. http://dl. G. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. Hancock. S. 325–360. March 2002.ascilite. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. http://projekte.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. July 18..htm Huk.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.siggraph. http://www. (2003). Steinke. 2003.html Malheiro. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . T. Jonas-Dwyer & R.. http://www.K. Phillips (Eds. G. (2003).au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.htm Bibliography Castillo.de/pub/bscw.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. Flash Interactive Session.learningcircuits. and Cate.org. http://www. 87-99. never too much. R.pdf Toth. R. Educational Psychology Review. S. and Moreno. C.rapidintake.learninglab. (2004). Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. http://www2. July 2004. and Hess. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.learningcircuits..aace. http://www. S.pdf Hess. and Hancock.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. (2003). July. Lehi.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits. C.com. http://www.psych. http://www.pdf Lowe. Cognition and Instruction. Utah: Rapid Intake Press.org/12937 Mayer.ascension-tech.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. McBeath.freedownloadscenter. C.ucsb. D.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. http://www.com/books_catalog . (2004). T. http://esub.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC.. (2004).org/2003/aug2 003/toth. M. 14(1).htm Hegarty. (2004). G.htm Hess.allworldsoft. Animation – just enough. FreeDownloads Center. Atkinson.. 1046-1048. M. S. and Floto. ASCILITE Conference.

Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. multiagent systems. agents. machine learning. Nevertheless. intelligent tutoring. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. AI. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. cognitive informatics. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. So far. expert systems. data mining.

An ITS may use a variety of technologies. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004).” On the other hand. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. possibly undeliberate manner. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.. and the teacher. The reality is that. including collaborative filtering. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. To achieve their goals.learning. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. and data mining. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. While many systems purport to be personalized. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. recommender systems.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. (2003). Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner.g. the subject matter expert. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. and Aist et al. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. To seem humanlike. Moreover. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.

http://lsa. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.di.colorado.. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.” http://www.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. Talking Head Tutor vs.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.cs.e.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. (2005a. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. gestures. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. concepts. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.uic. http://www. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.unito.iit. etc) and how they are interrelated. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. rather than using a single type of knowledge. 2002). objects. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.cs.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.

> > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.iis. http://www. without programming. and INFOMAP.com/doi/pdf/10. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .leaonline. Task Tutor Toolkit .pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories.edu. http://www. challenging. Infrature. http://www.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. including student monitoring.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.uc3m.sinica.” http://www. intelligent conflict resolution.pact.cs.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. Inc.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. Aurora .unsw. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.kicinger. see: http://lsa.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b.com/index.colorado.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready. http://www.uregina. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. http://ariic.” http://www. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. and engaging. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.cmu.edu. and multiagents.html Founded in 1988.enel.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.pdf Oguejiofor et al.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.infrature.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.” http://ctat. Stottler Henke Associates. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.it.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.cs. question answering (QA) techniques. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. As a result. http://bach. e-commerce. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. http://quantumsimulations.ucalgary.gast.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.library. so that these systems become more realistic. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.

uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. http://www. For more info: http://www2.stottlerhenke.ac.uquebec.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.licef.gemini.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. an adaptive testing algorithm.ucalgary.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. see: http://www. and an interactive intelligent tutor. http://www. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.htm Do not reproduce 27 . http://ctat. and learning style.uk/aiedsoc.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.learningcircuits.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.autotutor. Taiwan. http://aied. China. with the next one in 2007.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.enel.org/2000/feb2 000/ong.” http://www.cs.com/s10. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. http://www.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. http://pact.ed.ac.ed.cmu.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. http://www.edu. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.cs. preferred cadence.” http://www.cs. http://www.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.ca/eng/inde x.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.virtuelage.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .masternewmedia.org/cfp.usyd.pact. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.it. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.ke-corp.inf. http://www.cmu.teluq.its2006.inf. The AIED conferences are held every two years.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.wpi.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. skill gaps.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.org/AITopics/html/tutor.aaai. http://aied.

http://www. C. Hershey.amazon.sis.pitt. and Koedinger. and Penstein Rosé.pdf Alkhalifa. E. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. http://www.pdf Chaffar. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). I. (2004).com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.org/10.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read. (2004). B. http://www. R. B.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit.). S. (2002). Paraguaçu (Eds.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. S. C. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. and Picard.sbg.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.pdf Brusilovsky. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. and Read. R.eurodl. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.unito. (2004).doi. Lester.pdf Aleven. http://www.ri. 6(1). Kobe. http://www. 159-165. Baroglio. ITS 2004. Argamon.) (2006). & F.pdf Baldoni.. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. http://imlab. and F. http://www2.com/printer_f riendly_article.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. V. C. In J. http://www. Brazil. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Hermann (2002).ac. Mostow. M. McLaren.html Brusilovsky. 22: 3–39.html Barker.technologyreview. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. Maceió. C. J. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.. In Proceedings. In J.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. 482-487.. (2004).. Kort. Paraguaçu (Eds. Chicago. V.. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Barcena.2005... (1997). Eshaa (Ed.1109/ITCC.ppt Butz. P. P.. C. K. Ritter. http://dx.edu. E.82 Bhatt. http://nth. R. Artificial Intelligence Review.Volume I. http://lingcog. M.edu/pubs/pub_4073. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.cs.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. Hua. M. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.J. and Patti. Reilly. and Douglas. Peter (2000).ca/~butz/publication s/wi04..pitt. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.cmu. and Maguire. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.). S.di.Marvin Minsky. PA: Idea.nccu.. S. K. V. http://www. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. (2005). (2004).iit. C. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Vicari.wpi.cs.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. S. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and Frasson. Lester.uregina. G. and Schwarz. Bibliography Aist. Roll. Vicari. T.ht ml Aleven. (2004). Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). R. and Evens. M. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. http://www.B. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. R. (2004).

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which is usually much more reliable than human marking. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. in the near future. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). 1998 for an introduction to LSA). informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. In a business situation. affective.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. When combined into a “360° evaluation. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. quizzes. for example.learningandteaching. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. Assessment software can generate templates. However. are already available. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. once only done by a human assessor. making it hard to escape assess-ment. and (4) computer marking. computer-based assessment tools. computer mediated assessment (CMA). and output. eassessment. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. 1956). online assessment. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. self-evaluation. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. aptitudes. rubrics. quizzes. evaluation. computer based assessment (CBA). Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. and psychomotor. the automated scoring of essays. or performance samples. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. We can expect that. and documents for assessors to use. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning.info/learni ng/solo. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. More sophisticated forms of automated.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. samples. For example. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer.

(Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). For information on latent semantic analysis. see: http://lsa.rmsuk.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.horizonwimba. preview pages for all question types.” http://www. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.org/ ETS.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. on its Web site.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. personality. and self-study.K.flaguide. a completely customizable report engine.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. check out the Dialang web site. and adaptive question branching.ets.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. http://www. http://www. institutional evaluation. has recently won awards for its performance. from Resources Management Services in the U.colorado. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.com The Evaluator. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. http://www.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.uc. http://www.brainbench. and adminis-tration features.com/evaluator Testcraft.xstreamsoftware.testcraft.dialang.0. skills.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. learning tools.com/wwwtools/magazines. Find them at: http://www. http://www. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Diploma. For details.. abilities.respondus. http://www. http://nt.operitel.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. http://www.fasfind. a customizable look and feel. See more at: http://www.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.” organized by academic discipline. reporting. see: http://www.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.org/english/index. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.pedagogue. surveys. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. and services useful for outcomes assessment. http://www.questionmark. Review it at: http://www.redinq.com/redinq/html/index. http://www.epistema. multilingual support.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. and past work behaviors.vantagelearning.

http://www. http://www. Obtain a copy at: http://www.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Pérez.uiuc.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. M.htm Atkinson.org/research/re views/10_01. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. E.wlv.nestafuturelab..htm#2.info/journals/8_3/6. http://www. M.pdf Atherton. 5365.ac.tasainstitute.rmcdenver.ifets. http://www. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Do not reproduce 37 . P.. Educational Technology & Society. http://www.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.oir. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. James (2005)..edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too.heacademy.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.learningandteaching.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. Explore the links at: http://www.200 references.ac.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.ac. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.ulster.edu.economicsnetwork.html Bibliography Alfonseca. D. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Ortigosa. with a list of 34 strategies. A. http://www.org/en/en_mod41. http://www.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. 8 (3). http://www.uk/home. & Rodríguez..uk/cticomp/CAA.ac.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. http://cba. G.” http://www. http://www.unt.3 Bateson.thinkinggear.tcet. Freire. T..au/assessing learning/03/online.health.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.com/029.unimelb.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. with over 1.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.scit.quintcareers.ict4lt. http://school.info/learni ng/solo.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.learnflex. R.uka. Online paper. http://www.discovery.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. and Davies. Carro.ira. (2004). go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. London: Paladin. (2005). is available from: http://liinwww.000 different tests from its database.com/schrockguide/ assess.umuc.com/career_asses sment.com/tools/rubrics.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.cshe. Gregory (1973).

com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. N. J. and Marcu. http://www. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. eSchool News. 2005. How to Assess Authentic Learning. Iwashita.assess. In M. B.. http://www. B.com/Books/b39739. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. http://www. D.org/intelligent/archives. New York: Academic Press. Online paper. J. http://llt. Jill. A.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. 1.amazon. http://www. M. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. and Chodorow. K. (1997). Burstein (Eds. June 22. (2002).com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. (1982). & Olsen. www. Kevin (2003). In the R.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Shermis and J. Ciravegna (Eds. Kaplan (Ed. Jill. Hillsdale. and Hirschman.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive..amazon. http://www. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. S. (2003). New York.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. NY: Macmillan.iltaonline. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. Jill. (2003). T. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. (1989). Hillsdale. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Langu-age Learning and Technology. S.htm Burstein. Rethink testing for future success. L. Marcu. and Collis. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.amazon. In M. New York: Oxford.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. Robert (2005).. Burstein (Eds. http://www. Burstein. Arlington Heights. Kay (1999). http://www.htm. Martin. Linn (Ed.com/Books/b39739.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. Harabagiu and F.iltaonline. Daniel. Educational Measurement. V. C. McNamara. and Knight. and O'Hagan. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Mexico.amazon. (2001). Chodorow. (2001). Burstein.pdf.). http://www.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. C. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. IL: Skylight.computer. Louis. http://www. & Leacock. L.amazon.eschoolnews. New York: McKay.http://www. (1956).ets.pdf Biggs.com/news/showS toryts. Daniel. In S. IEEE Intelligent Systems.assess. August 2003. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". In R. J. http://www. Inouye.msu.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj..) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. J.amazon. K. St. 3rd Edition. Missouri. Acapulco. Shermis and J. (2003). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.pdf Brown J. Jill C.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research .

2. M. 2. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. and Grellett.ncte. (2001).soton. M.msu.. http://llt. Howell. Online newsletter. Howard (1993). Laham. S. L. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies.msu. Writing assessment: a position statement. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.pdf Hricko.Hershey. Gardner. www. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. C. Y. S. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. (2005). Loughborough.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Lawrence. No. Micheline.. and Howell.unimelb.Carr.edu. PA: Information Science. P.com/pdf/Paper Tests. College Composition and Communication Online.html Frase. Chalhoub-Deville.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.htm. Online newsletter.. Nathan. http://llt. C. http://llt. 2: 77-93. M.amazon. H. n. W. Language Learning and Technology.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. and Parry. Howard. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. v. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".Proceedings from a Workshop.ecs. (Eds.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. (2001). Cambridge: University of Cambridge. n. v. Micheline.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. http://www. (2002). Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. March 9.softwaresecure.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. T. Online paper. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. May. 5. (1998). (2001).) (2005).utas. http://www. http://eprints.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. http://www. K.htm Cebrian.nmsu.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.iltaonline. O’Reilly. D. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. University of Tasmania. (2004)... Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. D. http://mason.html.. St.html Chalhoub-Deville. May.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Language Learning & Technology 2. London: Falmer. Millard.nap.msu. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -.amazon. Language Learning and Technology. Robert.edu. W. & Landauer. (Ed.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .hlc. http://www. http://www. http://www. and Sclater. http://www. 5. New York: Basic Books. Davis. Board on Testing and Assessment. Louis. http://www.) (1999). Seven technologies for assessment. EdMedia '99.html Davies.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault.pdf Dunkel P. http://wwwpsych. (1999). Morgan.gmu. In Proceedings. E.au/worldcall/str5. P. Foltz. (2004). Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. (1999). B.amazon. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. 4.doc. N. Language testing and technology: past and future.ac. National Research Council.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.

(Eds. University of Gothenburg. Self..) (2005). Reports from the Institute of Education.. & Laham. (Eds.pd f Weiner. Tim (2006). and Watt. Patrick (2000).) (2002). National Center for Education Statistics.LSAintr o. (1998).com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Problem Solving. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. S. (2000). Online Assessment. http://llt.html Khan. Hillsdale..ed. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . http://eric. C. PA: Information Science.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. http://nces. Measurement and Evaluations. and Malabonga. Hershey. New York. V..edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. In C. Discourse Processes. M. (2006).bc. Learning. http://escholarship.medianet. J. 259284.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.. and Ma. and Gifford. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. 5(2). A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. 25. N. R.. M.amazon.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. C. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. T. NY: Guilford Press. (2001).S. 403-416.. http://www. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. B.ed. P. M. (1999). Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Foltz. Fremer. M. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.edu/cgi/viewcontent . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Fitzgerald. and Skinner. K.amazon. Burstein. Howell. A. and Assessment. M. M. and Writing. (2005).amazon. J. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Weller. McArthur. Hardas.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.) (2000). http://www.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. (2005). http://www. http://www. D. Graham. D. Mahwah. May. & Leacock. D.proexam.colorado. http://www..po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Information Science Publishing. (1979). G. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.msu.amazon. Compiegne. Howard. http://www.pdf Kenyon. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.kent. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.edu/papers/dp1. Government.pdf Landauer. K. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. H. Y. Handbook of writing research. DC: U.pdf MacDonlad. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. and Ward. S. & J. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. D. J. http://www. pp. W..com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. W. Washington. (Ed. R (2002). Language Learning and Technology. France.Jones. and Hricko. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. J. 4(6)...cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis.gov/pubs2000/2000195. (2006). Journal of Technol. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. http://lsa. International Journal on E-Learning.amazon. & Mason. http://www. Potenza.

a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.operitel.com Do not reproduce 41 . Operitel white paper. http://www.

which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. is podcasting.e. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. which is gaining in popularity. or by “streaming. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while it is playing. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. compared with even a few years ago. the rest of the file has time to arrive. (2005).. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. One audio application of interest to educators. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. Assists non-native speakers. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Provides feedback to learners.5 megabytes. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. This frag-mentation is being fueled. depending on the file size). Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. such as those for iPods. (i. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Provides another channel for material review. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. (i. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. in part. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. For example. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. podcasting. You can’t add your own notes.e. According to Crofts et al.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. to personalized media).

scientificcomputing. and utilities for conversion.uk/podcasting/index.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.71.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.co. open source software for recording and editing sounds. Audio and video software. shareware.automaticsync. http://64. http://www.com/blogs/doug/index. or sentences from audio Web sites. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. http://www.purdue. http://epnweb. phrases. htm RECAP Ltd. playback. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.podcasting-tools. DJ mixing.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. go to: http://www.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. enhancing.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. including software to record and play podcasts.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/AudioTools/inde x. http://www.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.htm For a list of podcasting tools.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. Microsoft Windows. http://www.avsmedia. freeware.ltd. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. http://www.48. http://www.apple.com/resources/dc_media.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .com/lipsync/ind ex. http://www.envision. http://sourceforge. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. CD audio extraction.ibritt.masternewmedia. sound editing. tools.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.audiotoolsdirect.edupodder.thepodcastnetwork. http://www.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. recording.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. http://www. GNU/Linux.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. http://www.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.rds. including podcasting. http://recap. http://www. and broadcasting are all found on this site. It is available to download for Mac OS X.com.elearningcentre.com/scwmarapr05sonification. and other operating systems.

com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. University of Nebraska. and Lomas. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. M. (2005). http://www. and Swenson. Sound Sense.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. Government. April 2005. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.com/scwmarapr05sonification.html Kaplan-Leiserson. http://www.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. June 2005. http://www.unl. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Scientific Computing World. Chesapeake. J.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.learningcircuits. http://recap. In G.com/home.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. Robin Good’s Blog.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.editlib. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. 417-419).h tml Canali De Rossi. A.html Curtis.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. http://firstmonday. September. pdf Noakes.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. http://www. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). B. May 20. July 2005. (2003).htm Jobbings.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . P.uk/articles/podguide. Eva (2005). Podcasts.adobe. Dion Cory (1999). Learning Circuits. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). 45-50. Retsema. Ray (2005). Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. VA: AACE.multitrackstudio. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.educause. Peter (2005).. S. 2005.com/products/audition/ main.. and Williams. First Monday. http://edmarketing. Richards (Ed. http://digitalcommons. Dilley. http://dl.apple.bias-inc.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Luigi (2005).ltd.masternewmedia. C. http://www.A number of audio editors are available on the Web.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.html Girvan. Doctoral Dissertation. Dave (2005). Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.scientificcomputing. Brenda (2001). Fox. http://www.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. N. 10(9).cakewalk. Healthcare.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.audiolink. Podcasting and Vodcasting. L. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.sonicfoundry.org/index. and Higher Education 2003 (pp.aace..

either directly or with third party tools. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.microsoft. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. see: http://www. (For details. rapid elearning. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.com/publications/emerging/emerging. 2005). Development. and. and Evaluation) processes.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. content development. Further. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. please see http://www. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Implementation. In this vein.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis.brandonhall. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . As well. For details on each Microsoft product.s html). Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. in the end. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Design. No authoring tool does everything. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. simulations. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.

music.info/ Allen Communications .Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming. http://www. http://www. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. http://www. http://www.com/products/ Articulate .articulateglobal. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www.Designer’s Edge. and images and turn them into 3-D training.com Anark . Integrates various media.com/eng/index. http://www.ilessons. htm Composica . http://www. . http://www.Composica Enterprise .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. XML. http://www. video.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Counterpoint .com/ Business Performance Technology .activeslide. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.allencomm. buttons.copycatsoftware.turbodemo.Capture Station 2.brainshark. http://presentation.thinkingcap.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.bridge-pt. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.adobe.accordent.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.Thinkcap Studio . http://www. pop-up messages. hotspots.acroservices.com/ Acroservices .lersus.co. Builds quizzes.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. go to: http://www. and marketing applications. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. rich text. http://www. visualization.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.asp Bridge People and Technology . and PowerPoint slides.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. video.htm Brainshark Inc.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.atlanticlink.elearningpowertools.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.com/index.htm ActiveSlide.uk/contentpoint. http://www. www. http://www.anark.com/presenter.co. pointers.htm Bernard D&G .A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. Flash.composica.com Agile .Media – Import 3-D Models. http://www.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. video.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.Content Point .

com/inde x_eng. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.com/ Integrated Performance Systems . http://www.com/products/forceten. graphics. Import rich media and customize graphics. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. http://www. http://www. such as the following: Web.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. stand alone . Post the characters on any Web site.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.com/ka. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .com/Solutions/Elearni ng. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.e-learningconsulting. http://www.experiencebuilders. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.elicitus. http://www.impatica.sculptoris. http://www.com imc AG . http://www.php e2train .Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.seminar. CD Rom.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .digitalworkshop.exe files.com/products/ Pro.horizonwimba.WTDS-Web Training Development System . audio.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .Digital Workshop . http://www. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.com Imaira Digital Media .KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.com/ Eclipsys Corporation .Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.uk/ INTEC . http://www. and animation.hunterstone.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . http://www.e2train.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.intecllc.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www. http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .de/ Impatica . HTML courses.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. and installation files.com/ Information Transfer .eedo. http://www. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.epistema.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. without programming knowledge.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.com Element K .com/ Hunter Stone . http://www. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.dynamicpowertrainer. DVD-video.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.shtml Dynamic Media .co.gen21.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. video.eclipsys.com/index. http://www.ht ml E-Learning Consulting . http://www.elementk.lecturnity. http://www.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.

E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.knowledgepresenter.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.mckinnonmulherin.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www. combining multimedia content like video.uk/ MindIQ .DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons. http://www.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. with a built-in learning management system.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.com/flashhom e.maxit. http://www. http://www.com/index. http://www.intuition.com/home/home.authoring tool based on Flash templates. graphics. PowerPoint slides. http://www.ie/software/publisher.knowledgeplanet.com/ NetPlay Software .Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.htm MediaMaker .mindiq. http://www.Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.customcourse.maxit. .com/ KnowledgeXtensions .asp Knowledge Quest .elearninginabox.knowledgextensions.com/prods erv.com/learncenter.mohive.com/ OPTX International . Built-in testing engine. http://www.LEARNERLand – Text. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.com MyKnowledgeMap .php MindOnSite . shtml Itaca .Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.co. and animations with tests and interactivity.learn. Ready-made button and navigation aids. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.easyprof.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.ipsinc.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. with no programming and no plugins. http://www.instant-demo.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. centralized knowledge base. http://www.mindonsite.learnerland.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www. http://www.com/ Learn.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com . and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .EasyProf . Works with SAP Learning Solution.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. http://www.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. audio.knowledgequest.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios . http://www.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure.pdf Intuition .Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. Word.jsp Knowledge Planet .

http://www. http://www.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www. a customizable.sensalearning.com Respondus .or SCORMcompliant. http://www.suddenlysmart.com/ Percepsys .screenwatch.asp TEDS .com/Products/elearnin g_objects.toolbook. and highly interactive elearning content.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.toolbook.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. popups.podia. When content is developed.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .ht m Techsmith .techsmith.scribestudio.com/product_sa. French. and Flash.syberworks. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. crosswords.E-Learning Objects .Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. course publisher.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.com/ Savvica .net ReadyGo .com/camtasia.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. and assessments.rapidintake.com Rapid Intake .com/learn_assistant. JPEGs. GIFs. http://www.cfm Serco (technical) . http://www.readygo.qarbon. http://nuvvo.percepsys. matching games.shtml Reusable Objects . http://www. image labeling.com/ Qarbon .com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author. Microsoft PowerPoint.htm Suddenly Smart . http://www.com/sensasoluti on.softchalk.pointecast.Publisher Professional .Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. http://www.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . http://www. Audio.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. http://www. http://www.htm podia . http://www.com/learn_assistant. http://www. http://www.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.com/ Scribe Studio .com/common/affili ateRefer. without knowing code.respondus. image hotspot activities. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. and course player all in one software package.teknical. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.reusableobjects.students.com/products/study mate. interactive Flash presentations and online training. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. http://www. customizable flashcards.com/coursegen.net/ PointeCast . or Spanish. http://www.teds.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.Nuvvo .ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. kiosks.In minutes. Courses can be posted.com/products/lc.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.com/ SumTotal .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. http://www.podiaOnDemand .htm Do not reproduce 49 .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.

webex. L.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.cs.co. Evanston. Lin (2005).xstreamsoftware.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. June 2005. Blessing.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .pdf Ramp.com/download _rb40eval.time4you.htm Zapatec .oswego.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. Illinois. and wizards.tue.amazon.cs. http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.westcliffdata.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. http://www.lectora. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. (2005). P. and text. and host online discussions. CD.gov/ Webex . Melia.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.Presentation Studio .dol... http://www. http://www. Berlin: Springer. P. http://www. images.pdf Murray. http://www. (2003). http://www. (2005). www.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.bloki. http://www. McMullen. E. video. content conversion.com/ US Government . Montreal.com/products/products _xwb. D.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. T.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.oswego. http://www. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . Northwestern University. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference.funeducation. E. and rapid simulation. De Bra. Government. http://www. or Network. www. S.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . publish blogs.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.uk/index.win.time4you GmbH . http://www.. M. templates. C.brandonhall.asp TrainVision . and Riesbeck.xplana.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.com/Technology.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. interactive and intelligent educational software. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. S.trainvision. Healthcare. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. and Ainsworth.2-conformant objects and assessments. http://www.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. audio.. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. Doctoral Dissertation.com/services/webpresentation-svc. C. (2005). http://workforceconnections. and Pahl.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005. right in their browser with no additional software required. and Brusilovsky.

CA: Brandon Hall Research.htm Woodill. Nov.s html Do not reproduce 51 .org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. Learning Circuits. BC.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp.sis.learningcircuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. A. 2004. Reuben (2005). The myth about tools. Technical Univ. June 2005. Vancouver. (2005). NL. http://www. AACE. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.learningcircuits. 2005.brandonhall. Masters Thesis.com/publications/emerging/emerging..pitt. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.htm Tozman. http://www2.2005).htm Tozman. October 2428. Learning Circuits. W.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. Gary (2005). http://www. Reuben (2004).editlib.org/index.edu/~paws/publication s. Sunnyvale. Canada. Eindhoven. E. http://www.

Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. and generally simulates human activity. In some situations. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.sculptoris. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. Similarly.codebaby.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.telsim. especially in gamebased learning activities. http://www. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. http://blogoehlert. the avatar may represent an actual human being.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.Avatars Related terms Agents.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. for example.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. in the broadest sense. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. http://www. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic.typepad. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. but in e-learning.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. games.” Maldonado et al. In the context of elearning. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.

html 2005 . eLearning Developers’ Journal. Nakajima. J.naccq. and Weber. www. Raj (2003).. http://www. and T. users are represent-ed as avatars. Try them at: http://www. R. Nass.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. in cooper-ation with a number of groups.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. S. K.pdf Maldonado.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.. http://www.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.W. offering a large number of supportive functions.tmmy.co. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. modular application. 2003. Inc. Iwamura. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.pdf Online Resources In Europe.exodus. (2005).. New Zealand. Chan (Eds. http://www. http://isnm.daden. A. Suthers..” which are avatars that teach. M. http://ww.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI. Lee.pdf Seth.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. Ahad.co. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. In T..com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.ac.. http://www. H. B. Aug.. C.knowledgeenvironments. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. S. http://www. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. http://www.. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. http://www. (2004). Yamada.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. C.Training Education & Education International Conference. and Morishima.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. (2005). D. Nexus Media. Brave.elearningguild. and Nodder.vcom3d. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. H.stanford.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . Koschmann. Y.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar. In the toolkit. 2005. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.pdf Jung. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. 25.redwoodelearning.oddcast.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. the costs and headaches multiply. classroom communication systems. management. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. clickers. http://www. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. However. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector.einstruction. The devices keep students alert and involved. The use of clickers has several advantages.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . and military settings. Beatty. higher education. or clickers. 2006. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. giving almost instant feedback. increasing their motivation to learn.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. integrated with other types of learning technologies. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. costs can be an issue. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. display. corporate. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students.” In spite of the costs. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. training the faculty member to use the software.

com/cps/index. http://www. Feb.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Research Bulletin. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.edu/articleprinter1.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.net/display.umass. Inside CUA.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.com/products_int erwrite. Educause Learning Initiative.” http://www.com/index.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. Volume 2004.elearning.com/news_issue.optiontechnologies. No.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.gtcocalcomp. 3. Upper Saddle River.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.pdf Mazur. http://inside. http://umperg.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.com/index.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Eric (1997). R. July 7. 3.h-itt.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). Ian (2004).learnstar. Q. http://www.physics. including material on the use of classroom response systems. 2006. Anne (2006). 7 things you should know about…Clickers.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. E-Learning Dialogue. (2003). http://www. Tom (2004).ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .campustechnology. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.utexas. http://www.aclearn.pdf Burnstein.amazon.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. http://www. http://www.cisat. pdf Cassidy. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. 2004. NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.utexas.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.qwizdom. and Lederman.com. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.cua.smartroom. http://www. The Physics Teacher. http://www.ubc. http://www. http://www.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS. 41(5).aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.Publishing textbook.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.jmu. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. 272-275.educause. March 3. http://www. https://sharepoint. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.pearsoned.pearsonncs.active-learning-site. http://www.com/Default. http://www.

Conference.edu.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .uq. Melbourne. http://www. Australia.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.itee.

clarification. reduction. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.. http://www. organize.html?ad-main Annotea . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations..zoho. social networking building.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.com/virtualoffice/index.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . many respond. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. The Institute for the Future.advancedreality. e. and collaborating.teamspace. collaborate. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . http://www.g. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.com/products/i ndex.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. evaluation. and There are many different ways to collaborate. organization. http://www. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.. it requires skill and experience. doing. social bookmarking. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). through brainstorming). Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task.g.g.

http://www.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently.avecomm. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.com/English/ps2/product s/product. Web conferencing.bookmarks. Includes document organization and sharing. http://www. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . and upload photos. and collaboration. http://www. robust document management. http://www. recordable conferencing.Documentum eRoom . search. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). office.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . discussion forum.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. http://www.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . with templates and workflows for product development.globalchat. non-profit. intellectual property management.centraldesktop. and meeting manager. and instant messaging. Features include IM. http://www. version control.comotivsystems.gotomeeting. and searchable discussion threads. jot down notes. and information technology adoption.w3. flexible workflow. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.citrix.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.digite.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.com/ourProduc t/index.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://www. and instant access to the group workspace. http://software.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com/ Cisco .org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . http://www.courseforum. http://www. http://www.bluetie. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). voice and data collaboration.com/ Blenks – In-team .com/services/faq_basics .Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. and communicate with others.bantu. alerts.com/ EMC² .com/microsites/eRoo m/index. collaborative file management.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. expert location. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. share information.cisco. http://www.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. project planning and reporting. http://www.jsp Engineering.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. instant messaging. contacts. calendar.Unified MeetingPlace . document versioning.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources.opencroquet. and individual users. education. and communication.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. Presence (see who’s online).org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .emc.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. http://www. markup of data. http://www.backpackit.inteam.brightidea. share files.

com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy .gordano. software construction. 2001.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. desktop sharing. easy to use online collaboration system. Features include interactive data collaboration. allow members to update and edit files.Live meetings and Web conferencing. Web-based extranet tool.com/halo/index.forumone. resource information sharing.shtml Hewlett Packard . universal file viewer for MS office documents. http://www.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. quantitative project management. The system streamlines project planning. conducting surveys. http://collaboration. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.grapevinesoftware. scheduling and using calendars. including whiteboards.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. and corporate instant messaging. http://www. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. http://www.com/products/Collabor ation. interactive whiteboard. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. presentation tools.facilitate. search. and creating action plans. invite workspace members. http://www. cameras. categorizing. http://www.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. assign file editing rights and completion dates. tracking the status of assignments. It provides working groups with simple.groupsupport. snapshots. recording and playback. http://www. and team management.hp.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .com/EN/products /GSII. and sending workflow tasks. data and process tracking. powerful. Features include the following: Accessing documents.epam-pmc.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. and document management. project management. http://www.exactamerica. and images.net/home/index.flypaper.features a project navigator. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.engineering. http://www. share files and documents.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .google.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . secure. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. drawing tools. meeting. voting. require-ment and risk management.gliffy. http://groups. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. attach threaded discussions to files.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files.groove. product quality assurance.Halo Collaboration Studio . Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. and organizational process performance. http://www.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.ezmeeting.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www. http://www.

iceweb.com/hotComm. search archiving. contacts.com/Smart Apps. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. Customizable Web directory.ilinc. online editor.com/products/docu ment_management/index. and Microsoft Outlook integration.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. http://www. and customers on the Web. task manager.com/html/produ cts. and extensibility. blogs (Weblogs).Lotus QuickPlace .mspx Do not reproduce 65 . Outlook.za/index. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees.microsoft.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . online contact management. and Lotus Notes.ac.hotComm . http://www. video. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. and file commenting.hyperoffice. an interface to a mailing list server. including versioning. and more. http://www. a powerful.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://www. integrates with MS Office. discussion forums.com/ JotSpot . A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Features include the following: Business email. and shared documents. and secure peer networking architecture. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. Integrated suite of multiuser.jdhtech.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.Jotspot Live. online document management. partners.com/ Interwoven .WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. realtime chat.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. calendars.inquesttechnologies. including file sharing.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. http://www03. podcasting.mayeticvillage. http://kgroups. http://www.webofficepoint.interwoven.jotlive.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. Functions include the following: Share documents. peer-to-peer. data. http://www. versioning control. link sharing). Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. folders.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default.uwc.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M .kGroups provides a number of tools. instant messaging and presence indication. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. Web resources. Features include the following: Document management.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .com/ iLinc Communications . structured. http://www. http://www. private interactive access or exchange of text. voice. http://www. Features include the following: Shared calendars.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.ibm. and provides search.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. http://www. online calendar. and photos. efficient. image libraries. scalable. customers. http://www.hotcomm. a Wiki. security levels.com/ IBM .jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.

calendaring. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.novell.oracle.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. Workflow Automation. Document Management. http://www. and communicate.santacruznetworks. schedule and track events and activities. http://www.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. http://www. and presence management solutions. http://myworldchat. instant messaging.opentext. and MP3 audio recording.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . see each other in real time using cameras. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.Community Zero .A suite of persistent group messaging. share knowledge.communityzero. real-time application sharing. Within each area. tasks.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.mspx Near-Time – Flow . Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. http://www.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized.com/ Novell – Groupwise . processes. http://www. providing the best of both worlds. team events.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. milestones.Rallypoint . Enables individuals. and share data or applications while they are online.com/collabsuite/index.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. http://www.com/terms. called an online community. and contact and document management functions.com/ Ramius .same-page.com/ Same-Page. author and review pages individually and across the group.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. resources. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates.Microsoft – SharePoint . audio and Webcam. instant messaging. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.microsoft. teams. http://www.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management.parlano. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. organize and discover content through categories and tags. http://www. text chat.near-time. task management.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device.com/ Oracle . eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. moderator functions. http://www. information.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. MyWorldChat Communicator . and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. Allows people to talk to each other. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. http://www. file transfer. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web.com – eStudio . and files. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Corporate quality communications center.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .html Rallypoint . Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard.performancesolutionstech. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.rallypointhq.

ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. http://groups. interact. or use it to build a Web application.stalker. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . productivity applications. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.com/ SiteScape .webasyst. expertise. collaboration. search.Forum ZX . and share.Collaboration software that includes document management.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and other business communications.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.vignette. http://www. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. video. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. partners. http://www. Includes VoIP. http://www. Web conferencing server (in-house).00. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. and prospects – without leaving their desks. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www. http://www. view and edit documents or images together. store files. calendar sharing.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. XML-RPC server.sharemethods. workflow and task management.25. Webbased whiteboarding. and use live audio.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. http://www. http://www. documents.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. threaded discussions.webcrossing. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. and business relationships.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. collaboration.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. and more.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased.sumtotalsystems. http://www. and calendaring tools. desktop document folders. newsgroup server.seldensystems. application sharing.com/contentmanagem ent/0.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. http://www.cyber-grad. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and instant messaging.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . voice and Web conferencing. instant messaging. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . and business partners.com/company/news/press /2005. FTP server.04. project. chat server.Processes email.solutions.writely.com/product/ Vignette . Use it out of the box. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.html Trichys – WorkZone .com/index. live video.tacit.viack. project teams. and breakout groups.2097. and information sharing.com/content/default.trichys. e-mail server.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.com/products /stcollab.yahoo.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications .

form to submit questions. identify and resolve potential problems. http://www.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.nexprise. and payments. http://www. and communicate with their project teams.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. annotation tools. navigation. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. scheduling solutions.hp.brevient.Instant set-up. connects peers. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.HP Virtual Classroom .com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.Features include Hands up. http://www. discussions. http://www. and Web pages.com/ HP . Works with Microsoft Project.caucus.tomoye. review button. http://www. and save to disk icon. http://www.opmcreator.Intuitive project management software for work teams. and e-mails. project tracking.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research .htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www.com/ onProject – myonProject . and collaboration to timesheet management. scaleable. http://www.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . print icon.saba.0 .In-house tool developed to assist in project management.projectdox. private/group chat. attendee list. exit and help. and share documents.com/ applications. http://www. content button. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. assign tasks. project planning.Web event calendaring.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . applaud and meter. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator .com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.project-open.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.com/project.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting . video.axista. calendars. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. data." virtual collabor-ation.teamdynamix. simple. invoicing. feedback. custom stamps. whiteboard pages.com Nagarro . Access to the tool is also given to clients.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. files.peoplecube. http://www. http://www. http://education. content.nagarro. and data into a single storage area.elluminate.generation. set user permissions. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.com/index. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. affordable. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.Projistics .myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. Share multiple projects with multiple users. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .onproject.

http://www. virtual office hours. teleconferencing.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces .genesys. shared desktop. Multilingual. and by whom. guest lectures. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. meeting management. Features include shared documents. http://www. and videoconferencing.com/ Linktivity Division.adobe. attendee lists. live demos.convenos.intralinks.com/ iVocalize . keyboard and voice chat.com/ internet_conferencing.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging.com/website2/events _imc.mixmeeting. annotations. instant Do not reproduce 69 .liveoffice.Photon Infotech – SPARK . compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. broadcasts files.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. Webcasts.elluminate.A secure. office hours. e-mail invites. and a change presenter ability.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.horizonwimba. video.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.batipi. transparency tools. and Web conferencing with WebEx. Web.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. and Webconferencing specialists. http://www.Synchronous Webconferencing software. Record classes or Webcasts. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.photoninfotech.0 . online seminars. synchronous online lectures. and collaboration features.ivocalize. URL sharing. and text chat. including Web conferencing. notes. application sharing.communiqueconferencing. http://www. pre-recorded broadcasts. how often. record and playback. toll-free conference calling.linktivity. hand raising. http://www.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings.com/ Intralinks .asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www. and meetings. http://www. polling and quizzes. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. online classes. and content display. and more. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. sales presentations. and collaborative content-building sessions. http://www. remote control.interwise. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www.glance.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .net/site/getglance/exa mples. and phone use. http://www. video. learning.LiveOffice provides Web-based. desktop sharing. http://www. private whiteboards for each participant. http://www.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. http://www. visual. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. http://www. shared whiteboard and present-ation.Delivers unlimited voice. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. Allows holding live. breakout rooms. integrated content management system. instant messaging. For example. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. http://www. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. e-learning classrooms.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. session reports.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .

editing. and desktop videoconferencing services. and moderation of Webcasts. Solutions include Web meetings.com/action. conference calling.com/bridgepoint. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. text messaging.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.telnetz. tour Web sites. http://www. publishing.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research .Meeting One – Click&Share.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). send text messages.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .To support large deployments. or an entire desktop.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. http://www. Webinars.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .cudenver. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .webex. course.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . remote support. the Internet. The suite manages the creation.voxwire. http://www.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. audio.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .vodium.com/rndc/services/s ervices. set up labs and conduct quizzes. surveys.wave3software. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.Web and audio conferencing services. http://carbon. and instant messaging capabilities. http://www. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. and system management. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. or meeting.radvision. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world.webtrain. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.meetingone. http://www.edufolio. show rich multimedia content and documents. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/home/s_vmps. and document collaboration. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. http://www.Powers online meetings. Requires only a browser and a phone.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.raindance. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. e-learning.netspoke. present PowerPoint slideshows. Web conferencing.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. and into the enterprise. teleconferencing. http://www.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. any application. discussion forums. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . share other applications. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.edu/~bwilson/build ing.

kolabora...com/groupware/in dex.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. De Roure. http://cde. ChenBurger.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. March/April 2006.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. 4. http://www. 41(2). Dalton.. http://www. Brazil. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.uk/12081/ Beshears. http://collaboration. also known as “groupware. Potter.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://www.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck.collaborationloop. Maceió.ctcevents. Page.. Curtis (2002).html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. 2006.org/index. 2002.ac.soton.org/tools.collaborate. Bryan (2006).com/webconf/workspa ces.bruck. Fred (2002). J.ecs.diglib.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. Chief Learning Officer. Michaelides.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. M.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. http://www.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.writely. D. Bill (2004). http://www.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.mitre.collabtech.thinkofit. http://www.. Creating an eCommunity. N. http://www.springerlink. (2003). http://www. and Coleman. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). K.athabascau.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. D. http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. S. Nov. http://www. Collaborative Strategies. September.htm Butler. communities. http://www. http://www. Models of collaboration.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. Web 2. A.com/writings.clomedia. also has a great list of collaboration tools.. 2003.com/View.pdf Bonk.1:100250. Q2Learning White Paper. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.htm Mitre Corporation.usabilityfirst. 2002. J..0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.org/collab/inde x. scientific. T.. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. Sign up for free at: http://www. J.. D. Japan on July 13-14. Buckingham Shum.criticalmethods. and Tate.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. Shadbolt. S.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. Eisenstadt. Komzak. (2004). http://eprints.globalschoolnet.1 Bibliography Alexander.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. http://www.” http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 . Nov. M.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.

Palo Alto. http://www. London: Springer-Verlag. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. (2004). http://www. D. McFerrin. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. http://www. January 21. 72 © Brandon Hall Research .org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Willis.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Luigi (2004a). and Sharifi.. Robin Good Blog. Gibson. (Eds.Canali De Rossi.amazon.masternewmedia.cmswatch. May 2. D.org/index. Luigi (2003a).. Matthew (2004). J. Luigi (2003b). http://www.. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. R. 2004. J. Chesapeake. P. J.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.htm Canali De Rossi.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.editlib. Sept.html Institute for the Future (2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. VA: AACE. Then Knowledge Management..masternewmedia. Price. Robin Good Blog. Robin Good Blog.. http://cde. http://www. Aavani.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. 3.html Munkvold. June 22. Educational Technology & Society. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. 2003.zcu. Live ELearning. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.rheingold.) (2004).ieee.. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. In Crawford.pdf Kaplan. K.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.cfm/files/pape r_12386. A. June 30. Institute for the Future White Paper. 5(1).learningcircuits. Proceedings.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. 2565-2569.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. K. Fitzgerald.masternewmedia. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. http://ifets. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.masternewmedia. August 2002. January 2005. Collaboration First. Soren (2002).com/Feature/109 Elliot. D.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Bjorn (Ed.ieee..org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.ca/online_book/ch8 . http://www. (2002).html Kreijns. Learning Circuits. and Forster. Technologies of Cooperation. http://www. and Thomas.) (2003). CMS Watch.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. A. http://wscg. Kirschner. http://www. Findlay. 827-829). J. University of Athabasca. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. M.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. CA. (Eds. (2002). R. June 5. http://www. I. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.htm Canali De Rossi.htm # Clapp. Luigi (2005). and Jochems.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing.athabascau. W.htm Canali De Rossi. (2002). J.).editlib.pdf Strijbos. Robin Good Blog.. Luigi (2004b). Robin Good Blog. A. R.. (2005). The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.. & Weber. A.N.masternewmedia. and Martens. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. e-Book. 5(1). http://ifets. http://www.org/index. R. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. (2004).html Hurst. Carlsen. P. C. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.. J.. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Kirschner. and Miller. Educational Technology & Society.

cqu. (2004). G. & Purnell.amazon.. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. Evaluation. Callan. 24.. Studies in Learning. http://www. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://sleid.com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Innovation and Development.Norwell. J. K.au/include/getdoc. Nov.edu.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . 1(2).

chat.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. telephony. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them.janison. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. http://www. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. http://www. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .conversate. developed in Brazil.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.jisc. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone.au/eq/default.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. labs. and yet tailored and flexible. discussion groups.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. telepresence. a process referred to as “text mentoring. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Hegarty et al. For Laurillard. messaging. discussion forums. http://www.uk/deletacademictalk. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.editlib.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. VoIP. blogs. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. It is being developed into a transportable. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.71.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. including communications tools. re-usable. Find her work at: http://64. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.ac. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.google. whiteboards.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/index. instant messaging.” http://goldenswamp.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. UK. For example.com.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.48.

Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. 31 (3). British Journal of Educational Technology.warwick. (2005). J.html Laurillard. http://safety. Francis.pdf Kadirire. Mark (2004). Hegarty. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid.ngfl. J.hbs.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.elearningcentre. chat.pdf Eleuterio.elearningcentre. http://www. September 23. and Collins.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.charityvillage. http://www2.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. e-Book.fasfind. R. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. F.gov. 2002.uk/schools/document . James (2005).org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6. 2005 http://www.htm http://www.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.elearningcentre.com/wwwtools/m/2645. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.learningcircuits.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. E-Learning 1. and Bortolozzi. Aug. Pattie (2005).ca/online_book/ch5 .ac. http://ewic.com/cv/research/ rmed35. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. I. S. 2002. and Cerri. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. Diana (1993). D. http://m. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.html Morgan.ac.jisc. (2000). 13-20. M. (2004). University of Birmingham. 199-212.html Laurik.co. Learning Circuits. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. Technologies of Online Learning. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. http://www. June.formatex.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. distance-learning course at Keele University. International Journal on E-Learning. Working Knowledge Newsletter.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. > http://www. (2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Komzak. University of Athabasca. and Wales. (2004).uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. J. 31. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.htm Garner. S.athabascau. 19..0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .edu/item.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.com Library.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. and telephony tools.org/index. http://www. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. London: Routledge. http://hbswk. Sven (2002).. Computer Mediated Communication. Nick (2002). Jan.co.org/micte2005/4. UK.. CAP e-Guide. 2004.com/webconf/hostsite s. http://www. J. and Elliott. CharityVillage.editlib. Bostock.thinkofit. University of Warwick.pdf LaCroix. http://cde.bcs. 20-21. JulySept. (Mlearn 2002).uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool. M.co.amazon.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.

ac. 2002. A.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).king.Stone. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. and Briggs. http://dircweb. 20-21.uk/papers/Stone_A. June. J. (2002). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.

abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.org. W. entering defined competencies into a matrix.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. For a large list of competencies for physicians. skills inventory. Description According to Sanders (2001). see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . and carry out proper procedures. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. go to: www.itsc. Known in the early days as the “quality movement.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. organizational and personal goals are tied together. 2000).net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. In 1973. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Edwards Deming.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.imsproject.org/competencies/in dex. competency-based training. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). skills. skills verification. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.” it started in 1950 with Dr. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. 2005). a Harvard psychologist. diagnose symptoms. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. David McClelland. performance appraisal. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. https://launchpad. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.

amazon. R.wmich.html The U.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. a Canadian company. activities. http://www.” http://www.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. Sudipta (2005). Express Computer. http://www. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. Clare (2005). Benjamin (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. Building a skills inventory. http://www.com/skillsman. New York: David McKay.clomedia.hrsg. 2005. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. htm Many companies have their own competency models. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.ibm.expresscomputeronline.edu/paprog/clin_events.cipd. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. http://www. (1982). Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. http://www. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.S.amazon. See the list of competencies at: http://www.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.desire2learn.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.com/article16.. regardless of industry or sector.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.learnflex.oracle. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.ncrel.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. For example. Ken (2000). Read their white paper at: http://www. New York: AMACOM.htm Online Resources HRSG.ca/index.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans. objectives. measurement. London: Wiley. http://www.syberworks.shtml Hogg.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.com/20 050425/technologylife01.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.learningcircuits. and development interventions.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Chief Learning Officer.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.E.amazon. http://www.cpgvision.co. April. Competency and competency frameworks.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Josh (2006). April 25. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.

March 2001. http://www.amazon. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. and Hollyforde. UK: Cambridge University Press.) (2003). Sanders.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 .learningcircuits.operitel. Cambridge. F.blogspot.28. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. S.pdf Rankin.com/2.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. pp. American Psychologist. http://www. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. Johanna. N. Miller. University of Toronto. Competency based learning management. and Neathy.amazon.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.html Radsma. London: IDS. (2001).linezine. 2005.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (2000). 1-14. S. Ellen (2000). Fall 2000. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Learning Circuits. April 30. Rankin. http://www. v. G. Michael. (Eds. Master's thesis. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Competencies. http://www.collectionscanada. http://www.htm Whiddett. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.1/features/ewet te. London: IRS. http://www.cipd. (1999). The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.com Woodill. http://www. Operitel Corporation. Study 706. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. http://www.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. Creating a Culture of Competence. (2005).amazon. http://parkinslot. Ethan (2001).amazon. (1973). http://www. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. The Psychology of Abilities.htm Parkin. E.. David. White paper.co. Parkin’s Lot. and Grigorenko.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. and Cahorn.html Sternberg. Competency Frameworks. White paper from Operitel Corporation. Godfrey (2005). and Expertise. N. 2nd ed. P. E-Learning Competencies. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. (2004). P. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. N. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. London: IRS. (2001). R.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. New York: John Wiley. Rankin. Gary (2004). http://www. (2001). L.operitel.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. (2003). and Epstein.

2006). Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” http://drupal. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. such as registering users. and “topic maps. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research .” such self-contained systems have been described as being. They have designed competitive. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. and reporting. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use.atutor. I feel that closed. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. Unfortunately. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. rather than complementary. to date.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. the standardized railway system still works while private. With the advent of learning objects. First. According to its official Web site.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. Learning objects. http://www. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. functionality to an ECM. you could hire a company to build a private. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Today. LCMS. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. If you could afford it. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. manage. Repositories. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.” As well. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. displaying a course catalogue. launching courses. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. in fact.

2003. http://www. Jafari.cmsmatrix. http://www. > > http://www.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533.cisco. (Eds.org Leslie.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. C.pdf Weigel. P.pdf Cohen. Why content management software hasn’t worked. Dec. Retalis. and Brantner. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Ed.. elearnspace blog. March 2005.co. Gerry (2003). 18. Cisco Corporation White Paper.com http://www. Strategies for managing scalable content.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.topicmaps.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.educause. G. http://sakaiproject.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. 2005.ntua. http://www. George (2003). 2005. May/June. New Thinking Blog.) (2005). http://www.ca/mt/archive/000 689. PA: Idea Group.elearnspace. EdTechPost blog. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. 2005.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. “Monoliths. http://www.htm Simon. 40(3).operitel. (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article.asp Woodill.html McGee. 2006.. and Carmean.clomedia. Curtis (2005). S. Mashups. http://www.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. January 23. March 3.gerrymcgovern. Van (2005). They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. http://www.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . http://travelinedman. http://www. 2003.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. Content Management: our organized future.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. B.author-it. Scott (2005). (2003). Educause Review. C. (2004).edtechpost. reuse in many places. 2003.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Hershey.topicmap. Budapest. McGovern. and Oliveira. http://plone.blogspot. TravelinEdMan blog. A.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. Learning Solutions. June 9. S.e-learningcentre.uk Bibliography Bonk. and publish to multiple outputs. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. http://www. (2006).softlab. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS.htm Siemens. San Jose. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. http://www. May 15.com/publications. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. http://www.html Cisco Corp.

Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. personalization methods.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. delivery models and infrastructure investment. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Consequently. 2000. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. 2001). By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Luan and Willett. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. knowledge discovery. As data mining tools and techniques evolve.

Grigoriev. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. and Smyth. (2000).. text mining.hkuspace.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. Smyth.usyd. What’s Not. http://www.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning.pdf Jantke. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. 1996.edu. Data Mining: What’s New. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. U.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.. http://imej. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. Uthurusamy.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. 13-16 http://asbointl. Robert (2002). and R. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. R.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. Piatetsky-Shapiro.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. B.cs.wfu.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. 1--34.com/index.uwaterloo.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. 2001) http://www. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. http://www. P.icosystem. P. Piatetsky. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Thalheim.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux.pdf Iskander..au/%7Ekalina/inde x.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. and Tschiedel... Data Mining in e-Learning. M Fayyad. K. K. Feb.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. by applying fuzzy logic.kdnuggets. http://www..pdf Freitas. (1996). http://pami.cs.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. Both products are from Convera. http://www. Australia. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.amstatonline.html Bibliography De Veaux.reeltwo. knowledge discovery.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.soul. P. http://pami.pdf Fayyad. S. G. California.ac.html Hammouda. http://www. Long Beach. G. Samuel (Ed. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. pp. In Pierre. (2004). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. (cited in Luan and Willett. Alex (2002).classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. edited U. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.convera. Lange. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. Grieser. http://www. (2006). AAAI Press/MIT Press. and Kamel. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. G. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.kent. School Business Affairs.uwaterloo. M. Do not reproduce 83 .kdnuggets.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. B. http://www.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. 68(8). New York: Springer. and Web mining. New York: Springer.

http://www.. Vol 4. and Cheung. http://www. 3(1).org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. http://www. Porto. J.editlib. Billerica.org/index.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . C. and Ventura. A. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. T. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). S. Maomi (2004).aace.2004.pdf Monk.com/PaperInfo. Austria.pdf Merceron. 13-16. (2004). Portugal.pdf Loo.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. analyze for more adaptive teaching.ejel. MA: WIT Press. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.unikiel.pdf Pahl. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Advances in Management Information. A.html Ueno. Hiroshima. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.asp Merceron. Japan.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.is. Yacef (2005). (2004). TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining.open. Innsbruck. and Minguillon. (2006). 39-40. http://www. C. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. http://archiveedutice. K. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. (2006).org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. A. and K. (2004). Feb. (2001). International Journal on ELearning.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. http://wwwjime. In Proceedings.computer. Claus (2004). A. Data Mining in e-Learning.pdf McCalla. K. and Yacef.org/16915 Romero. Oct.unisb.cnrs. http://csdl2. B. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.wfu.. http://www2004. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).compmech. M.-Dec.actapress. 2004 (7).pdf Merceron. 238-241. 52-59. RP Conference Presentation. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.ags.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. 47-55.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan.informatik.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm.cabrillo. May 17-22. http://www.pdf Mor. NYC. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). Gord (2004). Scholl. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. E. store. 15(4). Oliveira.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. Train. C. and Willett. http://dl.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.com/acatalog/1845 641523. 3(4). 7(1). http://www. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. 41-54.ccsd. 2006. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. Yacef (2004). J. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction.. and Ullrich.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.ac. 319-346. http://imej. and K.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. David (2005). http://www.

com/ Facilitate. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. 3) vote/prior-itize. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.une. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.au/dss/grassgro/index .facilitate. and 6) document results. http://www. 4) develop an action plan.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. http://www. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. 5) carry out a survey.hut. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. http://www. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.decisionarium.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004). http://www. in their case study of medical education.edu.bnhexpertsoft. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.whichbook. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . For example.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). 2) categorize.tkk.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.utoronto. http://www.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index.net/index.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.sal.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.

and Tschiedel. B.pdf Power.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. June 20-24. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. http://www. Thalheim.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. Thalheim. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.com/PaperInfo. 101-110. August 16-18.html Scott. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.pdf Ehtamo. S. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.bnhexpertsoft.pdf Frize. Grigoriev. In Proceedings.hut. Hamalainen. M. Kauai. and Koskinen. http://www. books. http://www.site.pdf Jantke.mc.pdf Chakrabarty. Germany.hut. V. (2003). M. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. 238-241. 2005. Hawaii.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.unikiel. http://www.sal. Aachen.informatik. http://www. http://www. and information on this area. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.dssresources.. 23(4).dfki. K.. http://science.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.is.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.uottawa. http://www..): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. August.manchester.meetingworks. see: http://www.uniserve.. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research .hicss. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Jay (2004).pdf Ounapuu. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Manchester.. Jim (2002). Online manuscript.sal.actapress. Porto.ac. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. C.. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. Enn (2005). White paper from BNH Expert Software.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.pdf Jantke. B. Enn (2004). Jan. Rostanin. B. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Raimo (2003). (2004). (2004).org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.” http://dmoz. SIGGRAPH publication. Portugal.com/index. 12(2-3). H.hawaii. P. R.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.pdf Knolmayer. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. Kankana (2005).html Rhyne. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Dan (2003).fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.siggraph. Theresa (1998). Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Hawaii.html Hamalainen. Grieser. K. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed.2004. and Frasson. O. B. 6-9. For newsletters. Lange. http://www. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.com/history/dsshistory . (2000). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. http://www. http://www. http://dssresources. 2004. 317-328... http://damit. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. G. USA. Gerhard (2003). and Tschiedel.edu. Memmel. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.

Oct. M. 2002.ideagroup. T.edu. and Laurindo.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .html Shimizu.com/books/details. de Carvaho.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott..the curriculum. Hershey. F. PA: Idea Publishing. 9. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. http://www.uniserve. http://science. CAL-laborate. (2006). Vol.

Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. projectors. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. This can be a holographic image. in cooperation with Sony. Electronic paper could change that some day.edu/design/Camera.ntera. lighting up theater size screens. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.co.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. head mounted displays. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. For air displays.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. http://www.com/technology/ overview NTERA.Displays Related terms Digital ink.theregister.siliconlight. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. In regards to digital paper. big enough to be projected on large walls. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. digital paper. http://killer.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).cmu.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Inc. monitors. viewers see a floating midair image or video.html Promera is a hand-held computer.theregister.ices. Finally. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. In the near future. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . It can display and send data out through its wireless components. By stacking a second projector.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. > > http://www. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.P rojector. still/video camera.com/about.io2technology. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. intelligent interfaces.co. http://www. electronic paper.” Selected Examples Samsung. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.

.loaz. E.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. K.provisionentertainment. For a list of his publications. see: http://www.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.E.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. Pisano.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. Hamburg. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.).unifreiburg. Germany. http://www. W.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.H.. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 .informatik. Vancouver. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Livingston. In 2005. and Pizer. See a demo at: http://www. T.unifreiburg. (1996).uk/index.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. London: Springer.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.. State. 2005. Dec.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. Tim (2005).acm. (2005). pages 3053-3068.firstmonday. In G. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. 3. see: http://ad. http://portal.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. http://ad. Whitton.pdf Wang. http://blog. Oct.jisc. M. Largest LCD and video projection.ac.org/citation. M. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. G.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. Hirota. http://www. Healthcare. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Garrett. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.informatik.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. To access the articles.technorati. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. 2005. http://thejournal.com/timwang/index.. Government. H. S. Canada. Richards (Ed. A. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005)..org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. and Ottmann.fogscreen.

edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www.co.htm Educause.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. http://www. open source electronic portfolio.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.elearnspace.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www.elearningcentre. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. 2005).com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. My first report in this series.osportfolio. http://www.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.com/eportfolio/in dex. http://www.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://www.ac.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. helping to transform education and training.org/Articles/eportf olios.com/college/portfolio s. http://www.chalkandwire.foliotek.nottingham. http://www. http://www2.angellearning.uk/default.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.htm IMS.pebblelearning. and simple usability.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.imsglobal. http://www.paisley.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .educa. maximum flexibility.co. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.iwebfolio. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.educause. http://www.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. http://isle. http://www.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.livetext.ac. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.ch/dyn/9.pupilpages. evaluation. thus.

G.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape.pdf Batson. 4.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. http://www. Online Paper.... e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.ac. V. G.becta. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. Bryde. Love.org/collab/v.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. http://elgg. March. April 1. P.. (2005).htm Tosh.pdf Greenberg. D. E.. Online paper.elearnspace. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. and Ittelson. Reflective learning. (2003).amazon. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. University of Iowa.asp?id=6984 Cohn. S. J.org. W. (2004). (2002). Feijen. J. George (2004).amazon. Bob (2004). Fall. http://www. http://www. B. J.. Online. and McKean. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.campustechnology. July/ August 2004. Business Communication Quarterly.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. an online resource on collaboration.. D. 2004 http://www. J. and Wade. (2004). M. Lee. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.alt.. 2005.com/article. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. informal learning and ubiquitous computing..eradc. http://www. An Overview of e-Portfolios. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. Bibliography Achrazoglou. (Focus on Teaching).. Trinity College. Aalderink. http://www. 31(3).cfm Dubinsky. Fleming.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. elearnspace. 16. (2005). has a section on e-portfolios.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. Dec.. Vol 27 No 4. e-portfolios. K. and Werdmuller.. B. FD Learning White Paper.educause. future thinking: digital repositories. Harvey. Graham (2005). http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. ePortfolios. and Haywood. (2005). Dec. College of Education http://www. 28–37. http://www.doc Banks. D. Light. Cook. Educause Quarterly. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell.pdf Lorenzo. Dublin. Gary (2004).com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 .educause. 39. J. T. Frederick (2005). Educause Quarterly. with many links.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001..edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. B. Educause Review. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. Trent (2002).Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. http://www. http://www.com/magazine/vault /A5260. no. http://connect. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.educause. G. J. THE Journal Online. http://www.pdf Conway. vol.org/Articles/eportf olios.thejournal. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. and Hibbitts. 37(2). (2002).criticalmethods. http://ferl. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens.

research..cjlt. M.A. 2(2).ca/content/vol31.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .http://www.citejournal.3/tosh. and portfolios. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. C.ht ml Young.A. http://www. & Figgins. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. (2002).org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. 144-169.

” says that “in the mod world.com/xna/ Softimage. MySpace. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. from the University of Wisconsin. identity work. This game allows users to play. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.com http://us. simulations.myspace. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. http://www.thinkingworlds. Facebook. Dr.hive7. Cyworld. Examples include Hive7. edit. writing about “first person shooter games. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. see: http://news.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. Marc Prensky (2003). For a brief review of these tools. helping speed up the game creation process.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.clickteam.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.com.cyworld. allows members of a game development team to work together. serious games.secondlife.com/ In 2005. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.com/ http://www. http://www. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. There is a free 30-day trial version. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. complex problem solving. games. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. http://www. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .facebook. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. as such. create. http://www.com/ http://www.microsoft.freescale. The toolset. play. 2003). Constance Steinkuehler. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. 2005). dubbed XNA Studio. and Second Life.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. and learning (Amory.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments.com/ http://www. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM).

Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.for the Xbox.com/zone 8/index.com/news/548 http://www.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).htm Dr. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. See the selection of games at: http://www. http://it.com/ Thiagi.wisc. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.pluginz.it-c.org/?14@33.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. produces educational games for training. > > http://www.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Started in North America.org.softimage.magnetargames.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research . and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. Review them at: http://esub.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.uga. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.ucalgary.seriousgamessummit.org/index2.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. http://www.mpjgaBKQ dAe.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. researchers.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. Canada.” Read her research at: http://website.education.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. For example.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. implementation.siggraph.digiplay.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools. http://www.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.muzzylane.coe.com/solutions/g ames/default. http://www.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. http://www. along with their Web sites.programmersheaven. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www.htm Dr. http://www. Sign up at: http://www.futureplay.” http://www. Inc. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.nasaga.seriousgames. You can read about them at Pluginz.dk/people/sen/public.uk/index2.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. Many of their learning games resources are free.gdconf.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.aspx urces.

Gaming. Honolulu. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. June 25-28.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. and Swamy.marcprensky. 2006. Marc (2003). Beers. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. 2003. http://www.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. Technology Trends for the Year. Xplanazine. http://www. Fourth Quarter.pdf Bergeron. Rob (2006a). Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. S. 2003. June. Clifton Park. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www. SRI-BI. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Rob (2006b).xplanazine. Games and Education = Oil and Water. J. Train. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://www. (2005).. http://www.php Rieber. 2006. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Montreal.ukzn. http://www. 549-567. IT-University Copenhagen. C.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. Gupta.wisc. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. January 2.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. R. Serious Games: Games That Educate.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www. and Biswas. Simon (2005).xplanazine. Bryan (2006). N. H.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Williams. Xplanazine.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. http://llt. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Dreher. http://www. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. 2005. S. Jan. 19. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. 2005. Language Learning and Technology. and Chen. http://website.pdf Prensky. G. (2005).com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool.amazon.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Oct.teachableagents.pdf Swamy.pdf Michael. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. http://jason. D. 9(1). March 10. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Clifton Park..msu. Hawaii.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. http://www. see: http://www. pdf Reynolds. (2005). Gamasutra. Doctoral dissertation. and Inform.amazon. Alan (2003). Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. University of Wisconsin Madison.iicm. Learning on Demand Bulletin.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa.amazon.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. and Michael.education. 2005. N. (2005)..pdf Guetl.Bibliography Amory. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . C.uwf. 17-22. (2006).edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging .uwf. Chapter 33. simulations and microworlds. Lloyd (2005).cambridge. Multimedia learning in games. In Richard E.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Mayer (Ed..ac. R.itc. and Maurer. H. Constance (2005). D. Bob (2005). Developing Serious Games. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.php Reynolds. http://www. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue.

2004.msu. http://woz. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Michigan State University.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis.commtechlab. Masters Thesis. Jason (2004).pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .Tye.

edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. and robotics in elearning. haptics. http://www. For a list of papers: http://www. M. 18. http://www.ecs. affective computing. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.ac. was held in Southampton. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. March. Porta. Munich.cybernet. London. F.html Research by Dr.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. http://www.smartkom..nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . 2008.elearningguild. L.soton.fg2008. http://www. Artificial intelligence techniques. UK. FG2008.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. 3. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain..pdf Beringer. looking for particular sequences. Nicole (2001). Report No.com/pdf/2/081 803DES. artificial intelligence. April 10-12 2006. Lombardi.com/~ccohen/gesture . The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video.org/reports/ReportNR-03. at the University of California. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. Aug. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing.tudelft. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. Ludwig-Maximilians University. (2005). Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. such as Markov models. 2003. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.” http://mplab. including identifying commercial products. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. FG2006.ucsd.pdf Borghi.fg2006. Michael (2003).

pdf Lee.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk..cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. 21(9)... An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. C. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Las Vegas.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. P.mit. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. A. Korea.ucsb. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci. Y. and Poggio. A.884693 Chen. September 2002. Face and gesture recognition: overview.pdf Ou.rutgers. Computer vision in the interface. and Wong.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. 1999. J. W. C.org/10.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Pittsburg. and Yang.media. M.Computer Communication.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. (1997).1109/ICALT. P. (2005). T.pdf Corradini. Setlock. 442-446. Vancouver. (2004). (2005). Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. July 1997.F (1999). Communications of the ACM. Chen.mit. J. http://www. 242-245. and Bobick. (2002). Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference...xml&DOI=10.actapress. J. IEEE Transactions. (2002).. Nevada. G.computer. http://csdl2. 191-196. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. January. Sept. (2004).html Chang. and Chang. S. 27-30.ieeecomputersociety. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction..recveb. L.pdf Wilson. 57-64.110 9/CMPSAC. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). H. Lai. PA.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Proceedings. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .iscslp2006. Park.. and Koike. Y.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. http://www. Y. http://www. L.ogi. British Columbia. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. 675 . J.fsu. D.actapress. http://interact.676 http://lcv. In Proceedings.. Fussell. M. Y. C. Shi-Kuo (2000).. T.pdf Peixoto.pdf Daugman. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. J.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.cse. Visualization. A. Gao.acm.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.2000. and Bender. C.com/PaperInfo. July 22-27. http://www.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Sato.clayton. 2004. 47(1).edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. J. http://www. October 14-16. Lee. In Proceedings.research. X.2005.. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. 2000.. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. (2003). http://cbcl.D. Michael (2004). Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. http://doi. Canada http://cims.stat. A.pdf Loi.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. (2000). 884 – 900. Wesson.org/citation. and Ma.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. and Carreira. Deller. R. IEEE Transactions. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).. M. Wong. 19(7).pdf Ebert. (2005). (1997). and Kim. S.1 50 Nakanishi. http://www.com/PaperInfo. and Cohen.ercim. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Geiger. http://portal. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. http://www. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.

2533–2543.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .illumination variations.hindawi. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. http://www.com/GetPDF. 2004:16.

broderbund. and in his recent 2006 book.corel. e-Learning By Design.2.blender3d. animation. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.acdamerica. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. interactive creation.autodesk. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. the same principles apply to user interface design.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. post-production.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. and playback. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.org/cms/Home.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Download a copy: http://www.0.adobe. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com/software/soft_t/gshar p.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.techillustrator. Nevertheless. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Designing Web-Based Training.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research . In acquiring Macromedia.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.avs. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.html Blender .com/TechIllustrator. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. rendering.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.

htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.indiana.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. William (2000).pdf McConnell.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com/index.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.uk/index. http://www.itedo.co.amazon.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.uk/index.ibm. NY: John Wiley. http://grids. Potsdam. ED-Media Conference. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. X. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).elearningcentre.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.siggraph.com/E/1335. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Pallickara. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.3dlinks.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.carto. Proceedings.amazon. (2005).com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. William (1991).ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. A.amazon. Richards (Eds. The most listings are for 3-D software.xaraxtreme. http://www.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.co.com SmartDraw http://www. Kommers & G.ucs.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.stcphoenix. Germany.com.org/index.. June 1-3. (2004). http://www. Fu-Kwan (2004).org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.editlib.pdf Qiu.).com/ToolsSurveyResults04. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. Tokyo. A. Pheonix. Do not reproduce 101 . http://esub.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.microsoft. New York: John Wiley. Japan · Sept 7-10. Tools Usage Survey Results. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.IBM CATIA http://www306. Gloria (2004). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).smartdraw. http://www.google. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.co. In P.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics. Designing WebBased Training. http://www. and Uyar. S. William (2006). http://www. e-Learning by Design. http://www.

The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Envisioning Information. STC. http://www.amazon. Frances (2004).org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. CT: Graphics. Edward (1997). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Edward (2001). Cheshire. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Cheshire. http://www.pdf Tufte.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. CT: Graphics Press. CT: Graphics Press. Evidence and Narrative . Edward (1990). 2nd Ed. Cheshire.stc. http://www. Carolina Chapter.

com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. > > http://wwwpercro. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. gloves. joysticks/ joypads. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.html http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. and force-feedback mice.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.handshakeinteractive. Do not reproduce 103 .now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. suits. http://www.it/projects/pureform.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .miralab. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.forcedimension.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .sssup. http://haptex. including pens.pureform. Haptic devices come in many forms.mpbtechnologies.sensable. When used approp-riately.asp Body-based devices include gloves.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.immersion. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. http://www.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom.” http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .unige. http://www.se/index. Read the press release at: http://www.sensegraphics. http://www. Finally.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.

http://www.. http://www. Japan.1.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4... Nakamura. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. M. http://csdl. Y.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. (2004). Medioni. M. Shahabi. S. G. 2004. L. (2005). and Jaskowiak.miralab.S..computer. R.. Reality bytes. M. 2005.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Dobreva.ethz. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). Santa Clara. 2003. http://www. April. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Matsubara. (2000). M.html Ross.. Upper Saddle River.matr. July 3.xml&DOI=10.media.smh...pdf O’Modhrain.unige.isfh. (2005). 2003.com. Vincent (2005). Proceedings. M. http://csdl2. McLaughlin.phptr. N.haptics-e. (1997).3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. 3-5 June 2004.usc.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. and Ichitsubo. and Gillespie.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. Centre for Intelligent Machines.ra. M. http://www. Chapter on Haptics. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.” http://www. G. M. http://www. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. D. and Sukhatume.unipi. Deliverable D4.pdf Hespanha. Iwane. McHugh.html O’Malley. Technology and Haptics.. M. C. Blindness. G. (2003).. New York Times (Online). 917-921. CA. J.mcgill. and Hughes. professional.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. Wired News. Reaching through the net to touch..org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. M. and Essl. Laurie (2004). and Rusbridge. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. M. McGill University. July 31. 22. Proceedings.com/title/0130650978 Inoue. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis.B. http://haptex.pdf Ó hAnluain. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. Italy in March. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. http://www.unitrier.1_release-public.computer. Report delivered January 15. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.net/article-7304.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.ht ml Kushner. Sukhatme. David (2003).informatik.piaggio.roblesdelatorre. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Oct. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Daithí (2003). http://web.digicult. S. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). A. Donnelly. J. 2005.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.” http://www.html Levesque..cim.pdf McLaughlin.mit. G.S. Research report. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. A. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Haptics Laboratory.ccii. The Haptic Museum. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. (2002).pdf Rowell.2005.1109/ICALT.pdf O’Modhrain. http://www. Abbott. Prentice Hall online article.

journalofvision.http://www. http://www.informit.asp?p=345621 Sakano. K.. (2001). 250a. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. 1(3). Journal of Vision.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 .com/articles/printerfrie ndly.. & Uchikawa. Y. Kaneko. H.

html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. electronic paper. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. projectors.com/technology/howitwork s. In 2005. However. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. see: http://www.buffalo. Philips. see: http://www. handwriting recognition. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. input devices.mit.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript.media. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.com/b/archives/00 2571. Now in the research and development phase.ices. head mounted displays.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. wearable computing. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.html Sony.” http://www. haptics. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. display technologies.ices. human-computer interaction. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).fujitsu. textures. http://www.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.html Description For humans to use a computer. > > http://killer. monitors. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.cmu.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. experience computing. tangible computing.cmu. and some.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01.html http://killer. Called Librié. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. For a review. they must interact with it through an interface device.dottocomu." http://web. digital paper. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.eink. gesture recognition.edu/design/Digita link. Writing will require special digital pens. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. like digital ink and paper. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.

http://www. human computer interaction.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.channelnewsasia. 2) roll. http://www.wired. http://www.elearningcentre. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.edna.edfacilities.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. http://www. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.ac. http://www.05/ff_digitalink_pr.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. http://www.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. Although this technology has been around for a few years.edu.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards. 3) throw.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.co. http://www.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.swan.wacom. and graphic. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.com/index.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .cs.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. http://www. http://www.cs.au/edna/page4588.org.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. See their advice and resources at: http://www.aclearn. These methods are 1) touch.usask.thegrid. and 5) build. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. http://www.becta.com whiteboards. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. consisting of a pen and a charger.net/display.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links. it is constantly being improved and updated.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.thewirelessdirectory.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.org. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. http://www.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.sony.com/wired/archive/5 .uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. http://www. http://whiteboards.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. http://www. 4) bend. Following are three such articles: > http://www.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.logitech.lifehacker. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.smarttech.devx.

and Ottmann. 26. Edinburgh. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.com/article.00. December 22. J.unifreiburg. http://www. F. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. 2006.uclan.html Wong. S. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.10577.08/epapers. University of London.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. (2005).aace.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems.. Vancouver.). Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing..04/anoto. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. Oct. J.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. Y. http://dl.co. http://www. Scotland. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. The most flexible paper yet revealed.html http://www.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. http://www.informatik. Australia. Will (2004). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. 257-269.newscientist. H.. Whiteboards are doing the chalking.> > http://www. June 1.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.ac.pdf Mohamed.org/16321 Read. Nicole (2006). and Ottmann. 2004. http://ad. April 7. Jan. with its use of digital ink. 6. 2004. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . Michael (2005).1585516.10577.uk/elearning/ story/0. Kato. 2003. Chalk one up to the whiteboard.guardian. http://www. HCI2005.eschoolnews. http://www. http://www. http://www.mercurynews. M.pdf Cross. and Nakagawa.com/wired/archive/8 .wired.com/news/showst ory. (2006).. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. C.uk/elearning/ story/0. Springer. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. King’s College.microsoft.00. N.html In G.pdf Otsuki. Jan. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. eSchool News Online. 2005. is described in a 2002 press release.informatik.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. Guardian Unlimited.unifreiburg. (2004). 2006. T. K. Haag.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink.. Guardian Unlimited.com/wired/archive/9 . Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors.pdf Revell. Fri.mspx Bibliography Cogill. NewScientist Magazine (Online).anoto. B.guardian.html eSchool News. Dal-RI. Peltason.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. Alan (2004).1116483.. Julie (2002). The Mercury News.co. Indurkhya. http://education.htm Zeichick.org. 15(3). http://ad. January 6. K. (2005). http://education. Bandoh. Richards (Ed. 2004.wired. Adelaide. Phil (2004). (2003).devx.virtuallearning. T.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Tablet PC Developer.

2005). Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. Whenever possible. Content management. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals.e. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. elearning portals. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS).. conversation. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Course Management Systems (CMS). the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems.

> > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf. groups. . a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics.fldata.geolearning.cornerstoneondemand.Training Partner http://www. roles.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www. a communic-ation platform.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.net/index. one of the LMS vendors listed below. a leading open source learning management system.TrainingMine http://www.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. http://www.” http://elgg. in alphabetical order.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.com/ Compendium Corporation . . and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).KnowledgeHub http://www.allencomm. is available as a free download.academici. The roles.compendiumcorp. . more control over the learning environment For institutions.com/ Frontline Data Solutions. a search engine. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.gen21. more control over their own data For faculty.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. . and other academic services. To quote the developers.com/ IBM . which has the following aims: > > > > For students..org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book.ieee.g. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.com Gyrus .WebMentor LMS http://www.php EVE. content-driven forums run by experts.trainingpartner. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.com/ GeoLearning Inc. a contact management system.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).elementk. . http://opensourceschools. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.com/ Element K .gyrus.avilar.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.GeoMaestro http://www.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. The LMS companies.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.

KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.com/ MaxIT .maxit.SAP Learning Solution http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ttg-inc.Oracle Learning http://www.sumtotalsystems.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.knowledgeplanet.html Plateau Systems . .TM SIGAL http://www.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .Net http://www.com/ Syntrio .com/isnm2005/in dex.LearnFlex LMS http://www.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. .vuepoint.LearnCenter http://www.html Trivantis Corporation .Intellinex LMS http://www.com Inc.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.vbtrain.oracle.oracle.com/ Saba .aspx RISC . . .strategia.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.com/ Intellinex LLC.DOTS .ca/en/default.htm SAP .trivantis.LMSLive http://www.intellinex.aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/ mGen Inc.SSA Learning Management http://www.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.outstart.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.com/overview.mgen.Isoph Blue http://www.howtomaster.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.isnewmedia.Ed Training Platform http://www.intralearn.teralearn.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.net/trackerinfo.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. .SSElearn Portal http://www.html?Open InfoSource Inc.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www. .TeraLearn LCMS http://www.TotalLMS http://www.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.asp Learn.com/redbooks.risc-inc.InfoSource http://www.CourseMill LMS http://www.netdimensions. .meridianksi. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.sselearn.saba.learnsomething.cfm TEDS Inc.com/ Vuepoint . .plateau.com/index.mGen Enterprise http://www.ibm. – TEDS http://www.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.com/2004/index.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.iPerform http://www.webraven.teds. .sap.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. Tracker.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.com/ Strategia .html OutStart Inc. .redbooks.operitel.com/portal/index.TopClass LMS http://www.technomedia.wizdom.OnTracker LMS http://www.syntrio.com/flashhom e.websoft.http://www.com/ SSE .com/products/saba/learni ng/index. .learn. .com/ TeraLearn.com .jsp Operitel Corporation .ssaglobal.wbtsystems. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com Websoft Systems Inc.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .com/ WBT Systems .IntraLearn XE http://www.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.LearnerWeb http://www. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.novasys-corp.ips-inc.html IntraLearn Software Corp.com/ NetDimensions .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.com LearnSomething Inc. .asp SumTotal Systems Inc.

http://www. by Sam Adkins. http://www.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. October.co. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. 2005.. A.nxtbook.PDF Farmer.uk/index. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .jisc.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. http://incsub.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002).. A.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). UK. Learning Circuits.brandonhall. James (2003).au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.com XStream Software Inc. (2006).xtention. . C.pdf Dillenbourg.A possible future for online learning.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.ieee.unitn. University of Birmingham.learningcircuits. Building educational virtual environments.edutools.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. 21. Pierre (2000).htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools.” and open source course and learning content management systems.science.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. August. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.melcoe.building new education strategies for schools. M. L. ICALT2002 Conference. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. Sam (2005).ac. Jan.org/eun.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. and Trifonova. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.uk Teresa A. http://www.cetis. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.htm Bouras. http://www. Workshop on virtual learning environments.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. (Online edition).48.eun. (2002).com/ from the JISC in the UK. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc.com/ Xtention Inc. Proceedings. .e-learningcentre.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. .org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central. http://www.mq." http://www. and Tsiatsos. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.pdf Cohen. June 20-21. Virtual Learning Environments.The Learning Manager http://www. Chief Learning Officer. http://lttf. http://www.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. http://www.ac.thelearningmanager. http://www.xstreamsoftware.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). Ed. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. Ronchetti. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Incorporated Subversion. T.info/static. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.learningcircuits.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo.pdf Dalziel.71. http://www.edu. Molinari. James (2005). 2006.

M.org/newdl/index.bath. and Walker..Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.pdf Tsinakos. http://www. Vancouver. A..pdf Do not reproduce 113 . T. Plzen. and Quealy. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.ac. Van (2005).infodiv. http://wscg. 2005.cfm?fuse action=Reader.educause.edu. Educause Review. Proceedings. Report for the Melbourne. Maomi (2005). http://www.pdf Ueno. J.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.ucisa.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. and Sharifi. http://www. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005. Jan. Aavani.aace. October 2005. (2006). Exeter. and Higher Education 2005. Report published by UCISA. May-June. Proceedings of ALT-C.ac. 2005. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .edu. R. http://tojde.pdf Wise.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. April. 31-Feb. J. Derek (2004). VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. May 2006 http://www.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). LMS Governance Project Report. Browne. (2005). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Government. WSCG Conference 2005.pdf Sadeghi. http://www.unimelb. 5(2). Avgoustos (2004). M (2005). 4.pdf Morrison.zcu. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.. 40(3).ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.anadolu.au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Czech Republic. L. Healthcare.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. November 2004.

behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. 2004. culture. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. As online educational materials are produced. 2006).Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). intelligent tutoring. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research .” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Wiley. learning object repository (LOR). A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. a well-known standard for learning objects. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Rather. This idea is based on older. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. However. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. curriculum. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal.” such as a graph. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. learning object model (LOM). sharable content objects (SCOs). At the simplest level. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. SCORM. They are emulations of “software objects. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. rapid learning. reusable learning objects (RLOs). computer-use practices. of learning objects. The acronym SCORM. Learning objects have several uses. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Beyond that.” This use has been more successful. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings.

arizona.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://nsdl. http://mlor.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.uvic. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.net/project.downes.llearn.koha.unsw.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .rice. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.000 items. resources for grades K-12. http://www.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. indexes. http://dspace.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). http://lester.profetic.utoronto.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories. http://web. http://www. http://www.merlot. stores. http://dlist. preserves.cdlib. http://www. with almost 15. http://www.maricopa.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://www.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.goenc.thegateway.lrc3.mcli. http://www.oise.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. and distributes digital research material.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.edu.uwaterloo. with a focus on information literacy. http://www.dist. http://ideas.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.sir.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. http://www.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.org/Home. and they can be general or subject specific. http://www.fedora.org/index. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.educanext.lolaexchange. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.wisconsin.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.edu/DesktopDefault. http://learnware.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://www.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.

116 © Brandon Hall Research . International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www.cisco.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www. A. T.amazon. (2004). http://www.irrodl.cancore. Version . http://www. C. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. International Journal on E-Learning.dis.org/14190 Downes.lornet. http://www. (2004). 5-16.uis.dicole.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.uwm.edtechpost. CANCORE.doc Christiansen. J. 2(1).html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.ca/implementing_proje cts. (2003).shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.publiclibraryofscience.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Stephen. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. And Longo.it/~lhci/002.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02. http://www. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.html Edusource (2003).uwm.. http://www. & Strijker.jcdl.9. Bibliography Barritt.elearnspace.uniroma1. http://www. 1(3). (2004).html http://www. Software Architecture Document. http://www. Celentano. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. 2(4).org/eng/scientifiques.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. (2000).nmc. Online document.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. http://www.ca/mt/archive/000 681.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. M.org/guidelines/index. B. and Alderman. http://www. authored by Rachel Smith.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.1/downes .” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.itdl.htm Collis. is available at: http://www. and Anderson. http://portal.aace. F. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.L.org/blog/archives/ 002089. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. http://dl.. Online paper.org/ci/en/ev.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. M. March.unesco. A.org/content/v2.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. EdTechPost.

9%2015-11-03.org/index. London: Falmer. 2004. http://www.. 7(1).org/mar2000/p rimer. 1 (3).blogs.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. Hatala.html Leeder.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.http://www. http://www.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Norm (2005).ac. Friesen.cancore. Learning Material Repositories . CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Paquette.htm Nejdl.bath. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 2004..editlib..Rafts or Battleships? .au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Anderson.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. and Morales. Jan. G. A Primer on Learning Objects. Norm (2006). Paper presented. (2004). J.ca/implementing_proje cts..uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.. (2002). D. Final Project Report. and Pragnell. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. S. 12. T. April 2002.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. Rory (Ed.ac. June. Mattson. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://www. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design.amazon. Aug.learningcircuits. Learning Circuits.learninglab. M. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. http://www. and Schafer. Babin.bath.. 1(3).edusource. July 14.p df Roselli. Derek (2004b).. Harrigan. Do not reproduce 117 .cfm/files/pape r_11841. Elizabeth (2004). Online. Wolfgang (2004). Rachel (2006).Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.html Friesen. http://www.ca/protocols_en. Warren (2000).htm Morrison. Learning Circuits. Learning Material Repositories .org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. Derek (2004a). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.doc Fiaidhi. (2005). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. INTERACT 2005.Part 1. G. McGreal. MacLeod.. R.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. R. Richards.. G. M.. Online paper. March.kth.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. D. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). N.) (2004).usq. http://www.pdf Richards. N.cancore. March.Rafts or Battleships? . Lori (2002).html McGreal. (2004). Fredinand (2004). T. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. and Mohammed.html Heery. S.htm Friesen. Downes. http://www. Research Report. G. Rossano. R. InSITE conference.pdf Krauss. March.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. http://www. http://www. 14.eduserv. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. T.informingscience. http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. and Freisen.itdl. March. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.Part 2.org.. S. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. http://www.. (2004). V. 2004. http://www. http://ideas...html Murphy. M.itdl. http://proceedings. Roberts. K. Online Education Using Learning Objects. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.edu.learningcircuits.

(2004).dis. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. Brigham Young University.> > http://www. http://www.pdf http://www.uniroma1. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.. A.co. 1(7). Jan.itdl. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Objects of Interest. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.htm Wiley. M. (2000).org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.org/docs/dissertation. Clive. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Iterating Toward Openness.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. and Senteni. David A.)..dis.htm Shepherd. David A. (2000).it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. Doctoral dissertation.uniroma1. Online. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. http://opencontent. http://www. Govinda. (2006).org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002). Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. David A. 9. (Ed.fastrakconsulting.pdf Santally. M. http://opencontent.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. : http://reusability.org/read/ Wiley.p df Wiley.

mapinfo. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. PDAs. gaming consoles. Department of Defense. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).esri. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. more demands for a person’s attention. users will be able to use a variety of devices. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. personal media players. Do not reproduce 119 . including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams.http://www.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. http://www. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information.http://www. and wearable computers. galleries.com/ Clark Labs .frappr.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. including cell phones.org/ ESRI. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .intergraph.cadcorp.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. findability. proximity tools. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.http://www.http://www. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. and security issues. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.http://www.com/ MapInfo .S. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. However. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.com/ Intergraph . Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies.clarklabs. as with any new technology. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. navigation. galleries. location-based systems are found in museums. laptops. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. geocaching. including privacy concerns.

See their complete range of products. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.fi/english/page. http://www.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. http://local.google.museum. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. it is a great tool for teaching science.google. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. http://www.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. http://www. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.leeds. http://www.berkeley.ac. http://earth. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.bham.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.pangonetworks.greatestplaces.org/index. http://portal. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .com/index.google. create.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.il.geog. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.confluence. http://www.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world.google. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.edu.asp?path= 500.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.biogeomancer.searchable from a database.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.esri.chimer. http://www. http://mvz. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. While not very useful for most people. http://www. http://earth. http://platial.000 archaeological sites in the state.cetadl. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery.ac. similar to what a GIS system uses.smm.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. http://www. http://www.5372. http://www.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.state.” http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.live. at: http://www. as well as papers on trends in GIS.

Steve (2005). location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. J. C. Learning Circuits. and students. Online article.ibm.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. http://www.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. http://elearningeuropa.bc.geography. Mapping. Guardian Unlimited.jisc. A.guardian.com/ Bibliography Benford... Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Heather (2005). G. and visualize spatial information.digicult.00.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. 15. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. A.info/index. Issue 6.research. Eva (2004). Pavlidis. 2005. http://www. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. (1999). manipulate. January..html Ross.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.ca/ Geotags. N. http://www.htm McLean. 38(4). 1999. Information in places.1642288.ordnancesurvey.com/gis4mt/index.geocomm. Abbott.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. We learning: social software and e-learning. Dec. Jan 2004.intelresearch. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.ac.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Fabrizio (2005)..ac.eoscenter..php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. and Chamzas. IBM Systems Journal. (2001). 2003. and Location-Based industry professionals. and Borriello.opensourcegis. http://www.http://www.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. G.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.co. http://www. http://www.digicult..co.pdf Tsirliganis. Earth. 2005. http://pngis. Future LocationBased Experiences. J. and Rusbridge. M.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.learningcircuits.uk/elearning/ story/0.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. CAD.pdf Spohrer. http://www. http://www.intergraph.edu/sco/gis/his tory. (2003).wisc. Part II.gees. IEEE Report.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. Donnelly. see: http://www.. S. Koutsoudis.directionsmag.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. enthusiasts. M.com/geo/ Cardinali.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . http://www.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. (2005). DigiCULT Newsletter.. A. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Dobreva. http://www. Chapter on Location Based Devices. Arnaoutoglou. F. > > http://geotags. http://education. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.com http://geotags.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. McHugh. Nov.uk/oswebsit e/education/index. D. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.C.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.

or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions.” that is. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures..” then. A “mashup.” Using SOAP. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). such as those for collaboration. run all by themselves. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. at the same time. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. also called “object interoperability. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. the rules for sending files across the Internet. to a lesser extent. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. etc. in schools and universities. integration. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code.Mashups. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. Similarly. For example. providing an informal collaborative environment. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. tag clouds. API clouds. 2004). 122 © Brandon Hall Research . of how to communicate with each other. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. or protocol. hybrid applications. composite applications. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. communications. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. all expressed in binary code. personalized. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Many of these objects are software programs. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. or through “Web services. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. document management. Programs can be “stand alone.

com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. 6.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.com/ http://www.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. http://del. George (undated).icio. http://www. http://ww6.htm Torres. http://www. Business Week Online. Learning Technology newsletter.emilychang. SOAP.htm Siviter. 2006. Douglas (2004). 6.” It has many examples of mashups. http://www.wikipedia.html Hof. Issue 1. 2002.infoworld. Enterprise mashups. http://www.us.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. As Warlick (2006) has noted. and Oliveira. http://blogs.programmableweb. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. and Padron.. http://www. http://www. Robert (2005).ieee. C.0 APIs.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.businessweek. Issue 1.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Vol. 2005.ieee. and mutate. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.html Rob Hof. March 6. Elearnspace.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.org/resources/web services.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. Web Services. Paul (2002). 6.mashupfeed. January 2004 http://lttf.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.pdf Stacey.pdf Seimens.operitel. Mix. J.bctechnology. 2006. techLEARNING. http://en. Dec.techlearning. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. 2006. David (2006).businessweek.deitel. (2004). Galen (2006). Bibliography Gruman. G. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.com/publications.com/products/print_fr iendly. (2006). January 2004 http://lttf. http://www.elearnspace. Infoworld.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .programmableweb. July 25. C. Dodero.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. Many have educational value. Vol. July 28. May 15. Learning Technology newsletter. Mashups.icio.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. J. a writer for Business Week. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Learning Solutions. match. Curriculum as Mashup.html Warlick.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.html Woodill. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. > > http://www.

asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects..edu/get/a/publication /105. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. MA. T. Lenne.mit. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Moulin. and institutional stores.ifets. 7(4). 98-111.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. M. in the context of information technology. http://ebiquity. Finin. search engines.wssu. and Joshi.imsglobal. http://dublincore. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Benayache. (2004). http://www.. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. A..html Description At the same time that learning objects.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). metadata. to develop metadata standards. http://www.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. C. In Proceedings..edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index.ac. C. Barry.cancore. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. repositories. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. community.cetis. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. and Chaput. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.php?id=25 Chen.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. pervasive computing. http://metadata.Metadata. A.pdf Delphi Group (2004). http://iiscs. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. http://www. Ohio. F.edu/o4e/viewhome.educause.edu/content.. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.mit. http://www. B. http://simile. June 2004. H.umbc.info/issues. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. and artificial intelligence are being developed. Delphi Group report.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research .. Boston.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.. Perich.do?tm =O4E. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. Bibliography Abel. An ontology. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. http://libraries. and services. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. D. (2004). A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.

http://www. 26-28.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. (2003). NISO Press.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras.cancore.php?id=25 Tozman. D-Lib Magazine. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. (2004).niso. W. S.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. and Nejdl.learningcircuits. (2004). M. (2004). Adam (2004).adammathes. A.boxesandarrows.. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.ifets. I.boxesandarrows. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.greenchameleon. BoxesAndArrows. 2005. N.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.html Gruber.. J.ifets. Lytras. N.pdf Friesen. 2006. J. 2002. Norm (2005). November. Trondheim. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. Reuben (2004). 2005. and Mosoiu. Christian (2004). Do not reproduce 125 . Presentation to Tag Camp. B.htm Gruber. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. BoxesAndArrows. http://www. http://www. http://www.boxesandarrows. Patrick (2006). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. http://tomgruber. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building.pdf Oin. University of Illinois graduate paper.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). 11(7/8). http://www. May 22.delphigroup. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. http://www. A.. April 18.org/. Defining “taxonomy”. Green Chameleon. International Journal on E-Learning. TagOntology .com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider.ecdl2003.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. P. G. http://www.dlib. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.pdf Henze. Infotangle. http://www.tagcamp. http://infotangle. Thomas (2005b). Ellyssa (2005). The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. October-December. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Wagner. Thomas (2005a). A. April 21. and Poulymenakou.html Wodtke. 2003. 7(4). Dec. Learning Circuits.. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel. April 9.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Understanding Metadata.info/issues. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. M. 2004. July/August. D. 7. Dolog.ppt Ricci. 7(4). http://www. Pouloudi.. (2002).org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. http://www. Online article.aace. and Shao. Stuart (2005).org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. P. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. http://www. and Godby.info/issues. http://dl.http://www. Another new paradigm for instructional design.blogsome. 2002. 2004. BoxesAndArrows.ca/editors.php?id=25 Kroski.org/10614 Mathes. Nov. Building a Metadata-Based Website. Chen. and Diaz.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Norway. Christina (2002). http://www.htm Weibel.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. October 29. (2003). 82-97.. http://tomgruber.

ifets.info/issues. http://www.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . 7(4). 70-81.

brokerage. (2004). communicative skills and community building. in Japan. tablets. personal digital assistants (PDA). conversational learning. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. rich interaction. and wearable computers in teaching and learning.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. improved identity creation. collaborative learning. Do not reproduce 127 . any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. using ambient intelligence. strong search capabilities. location-dependence. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. location based technologies. podcasting. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. 2003). and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. time and space. laptops. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. MP3 players. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. such as increased computer literacy. wearable computing. delivery and tracking of learning and information content.” Two years ago. powerful support for effective learning. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. and mentoring. Essentially. there were estimated to be 1. multimedia. video) and distributed databases. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. it is predicted that there will be 2. tablet PCs. instant messaging (text. 2004). Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. cell phones. mLearning. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). However. pervasive computing. Cited in Prensky. personalization. personalization.6 billion units in operation by that year. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. cellular telephones.

technologies.elearningcentre. movies.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.ccu.harvard. and a glossary.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. http://urbantapestries.fasfind. audio.fasfind. resources. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.cs. US.cs. Israel. and pre-service teachers. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.mobilelearning. of the University of Oulu in Finland.se/projectd ata.pdf http://www.ccu.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. http://gseacademic.” a “butterflywatching learning system.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.mobilearn.edu. http://www.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.fasfind.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. activities.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005. http://urbantapestries.telus. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.computer.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.com/wwwtools/m/271 7. http://www. Australia. including issues.” > > > http://www.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.” > > > http://m.pdf location-specific text.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.knowledgepulse.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.edu. http://www.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.” They have a “firefly watching system. http://spotlight-mobile.” and a “bird watching learning system.com/home_en.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.edu. http://www3. http://csdl2.pdf http://www.htm Jari Laru. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.ccu.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.cs. Learn more at: http://www.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.bbc. or a combination of media.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.com/wwwtools/m/273 7. pictures.beta80group. applications. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://www.co. links.stockholmchallenge.co.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research . http://news. http://www.

2006 in Dublin.kaywa.uk/eli_practice. and Sharma.msu.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.jisc.. http://www. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. 2(9).One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Bryan (2004). No. http://www.bham. Learning and Skills Development Agency.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. http://www. P.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.html Grew. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www. S. L. (2003). http://www.flexiblelearning. M.science. Ronchetti. September 2005.J. (2002). Gaming.eee.ccu. Ireland.uk/handler/public ations. http://213.ntnu.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. 5. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.html Kadirire.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.pdf Bibliography Alexander. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. JISC Guide. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.unitn.ac.pdf Anderson. No. (2005). Univ.educause.edu.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.135/ipodined/news. A. (2004).232.ac. and Trifonova. EDUCAUSE Review. Bob (2005). 39. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.net. James (2005). 19. Molinari.pdf Colazzo.msu. http://www. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. http://www. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. J.ac.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. of Birmingham http://www. and Pagani. and Sheu.m-learning.iadis.html Chen. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 129 .org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.pdf Geddes. http://www.pdf Attewell. For example.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. E.au /edition06/download/geddes.itdl. Emerging technologies: Messaging.org/micte2005/4. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Sept. http://mobile. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. 347-359.pdf Jasola.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. http://knowledgetree. 9(1). 17-22 http://llt. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). T.94. B.htm JISC (2005). January 2005. Kao.idi.jisc. Language Learning and Technology. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. Paul (2005).. A.cs. Jill (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Report. Vol. http://llt. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. http://www.6. Y.com/mobile_learning/i ndex..formatex. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. Gaming.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. (2005). R.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.

T. April 2005. 40-53. http://education. http://portal.ascilite. H. http://kn.doc Meisenberger.com/content/templat es/clo_article.century. Glyfada. http://www. Coralini.acm. Växjö. (2005).. and. (2001). Proceedings. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. M.pdf Mellow.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. Feb.fhjoanneum. M. Michael (2005).cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Donnelly. http://www.Light.. Amherst. http://www.pdf Sharples. E. E. http://www. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. and Sforza. Kristóf (2002).. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.guardian. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Wang.ac.uk/elearning/ comment/0. S.innovateonline. 2002. and Vavoula. Neil (2003). (2002). Draft paper submitted for publication.pdf Thomas. and Cultural Heritage. J. Mike (2005). and Yang.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. Australia.. Ellen (2005). MA: HRD Press. and Dobreva.html von Koschembahr.. (2004). M. M. G. http://www.ac. Sweden. Greece. Enabling Mobile Learning. Romagnoli. Presented at WMTE 2002.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross. May 23. Liang. Christopher (2005).digicult.org/citation.2002.clomedia.. E-Learning on the move..info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. http://doi. June 27.pdf Metcalf. L. T.phil-inst. August 29-30. http://www. J.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. Chief Learning Officer.110 9/WMTE. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.usabilitynews. J.uk/public/getfile. Pigozzi.ox.org/10. 2004. 1(5). T.org. Roffia. 2005. Understanding. Galasso.bham.2... (2005).. multimediabased learning application. Budapest. Brisbane. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. and Nischelwitzer.eee. Cinotti. Hungary.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Proceedings.00.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.. A. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Vecchietti. S. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Chan.info/index.educause.open. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Teleborg Campus.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. UsabilityNews.1039222 McLean. 40(3). http://www. Conference on Virtual reality.. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment.1490476. Marc (2004). June/July 2005.pdf Scagliarini.amazon.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. Malavasi. Learning in the Mobile Age. Ann (2005). M.ac. May/June 2005. M. 2005. 2005. Archeology. Feb. Växjö University.com/news/article 2490. http://drei. http://21st. Guardian Unlimited. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context... Taylor.htm#Implications Prensky. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. computer-aided.oucs. David (2006). http://www. Peter (2005).ieeecomputersociety. A. F. http://www. A theory of learning for the mobile age. http://www.asp Liu.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. EDUCAUSE Review.co.fil. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. D.

uk/~silvia/litReview.” See also Jordan et al. research. (2004). http://tcc. http://dmoz.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. speech synthesis. http://wwwusers. http://www. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. Kim (2000). ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. et al. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. natural language understanding. tools.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.org/aitopics/html/natlang. http://www.upenn.ldc. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.ac.. speech recognition. machine translation.org/softwaremap/trove_list . Lee et al. rather than just returning Web pages.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.york.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. http://www. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.aaai. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.it/index. (2004).lexxe.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.translating one natural language into another.e. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.itc. i. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).elsnet. (2005a. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language..com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001).org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Di Eugenio. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. natural language generation. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://eduforge. and standards. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. Do not reproduce 131 .cs. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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A PLE is structured by the learner. learning management systems. http://portal.bham.cetadl.ac. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. such as search engines. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. but these are only available to members of the course. often only for the purposes of the course. social environments.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . and through a variety of technologies. discussion forums. it helps the user plan. chat. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. there can be no electronic interaction. track. without an offline client to the LMS. and review his or her learning activity. whiteboard). there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals.). wikis. (Cortlett et al. e-portfolios. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. This requires support over time. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). Secondly. learners need to be in real-world situations. and social bookmarking sites. blogs. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. libraries. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE must support lifelong learning. Technology needs to be situated. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. amongst institutions.. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. etc. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. for the learner. In many cases. Individualization in an LMS is weak. Running on the learner's PC. and. work places. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. To practice real-world situations.uk/ilogbook/d efault.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. manage. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. as learners move between institutions.

ac.cetis. http://www. 2006. J. Edinburgh.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.ac. http://www. PLE Reference Model. http://www.jisc. UK.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.ac. Colin (2005).. Online case study paper. 2006. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.edublogs. M. 11.uk/index. 22-27 July 2005. http://www. Nevada. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .elearning. http://www. (2005). and Westmancott.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.ac.jisc. James (2006). Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Chan.ac.org.cetis.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. Ting.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. Incorporated Subversion. Sharples.ac. January 9.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan. Terry (2006). http://www.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.za/CD/papers/Corle tt..doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. http://elgg. http://terrya.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Jan.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. http://incsub.mlearn. O.pdf Farmer.bath. Las Vegas. D. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. T..

there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.ed. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.org/en/index. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. picture.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. navigation. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. http://www.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. and/or presentation of materials. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.g.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .ac. PDAs). artificial intelligence. etc.g. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.uk/ilex/final. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. 2005) Once the user data has been collected..). These techniques include content-based filtering. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes.g. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. or it can be an implicit model. However. etc. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. Keenoy et al. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. http://www..) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. 2005).” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. the personalization can be applied to content. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.hcrc. (Filippini-Fantoni. through a questionnaire). collaborative filtering. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. Furthermore. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. rule-based filtering.elenaproject. Often. learning environments.

http://www.emarcon. (2005). The Future of Access (or. A. http://arxiv. and Cook J. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. (2004).umuai.beta80group.(2001). T..ac.metmuseum. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. J. S. and FilippiniFantoni. http://www. K. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.noekaleidoscope.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. Bowen. Online paper.cs.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.org..asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.cognitive traits. wireless networks. S. > > http://www.net/home.unimagdeburg.ca/English/Pers onal/index.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .calimera. D.unibo.gla. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.arces. A. HATII.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.html http://www. http://www.CY/0409055 Boyle T..nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.pdf m/index..directa. A.calimera..pdf Calimera Project (2005).virtualmuseum. G. Borda. http://www. and Nuguid. PowerPoint presentation.. http://www. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. William Niu.. http://www.org/default. (2004). A demo is available at: http://www. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. Daisy (2002).it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.pdf Cavalluzzi.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. University of Glasgow.firstmonday.net/toscana/events /museomarmo.pdf Beler. C.ecdc.arts.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.ascilite.pdf Bright. http://smart. Ngo. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. with a particular focus on the museum sector. and Kuflik. De Carolis.org/ Bibliography Abbott. Kay. Melbourne. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!)..org/pdf/cs. https://www. Pizzutilo. http://adiret. W. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.hatii. B.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research . Ler. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Online paper..html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. J. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. A. Cozzolongo. (2005). dynamic user profiling techniques. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.pdf Callaway. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. http://www.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. http://www. A.

http://lrnlab.learnexact. (2003). A. Ecole du Louvre.usyd.pdf Goren-Bar. Personalization through IT in museums. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. N.di. Sanna.edfac.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Issue 7. and Verdaguer. T. Subramaniam (Ed. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Wade. Graziola. URL: http://doi. K. Nejdl.org/posters/ moulin..pdf Dolog. Stock. Rocchi. http://www.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.. In Proceedings of WWW2004 .. Silvia (2003).nestafuturelab. FutureLab report.pdf Eirinaki. http://www.ichim. X.) (2002). Italy. September 2002. https://www.pdf Ceccaroni. University of Sydney (2004).com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. Rudd. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. Kuflik.. and Humphreys.pdf Conlan..The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. and Vazirgiannis.acm.org/10. S. Dominik (2003)..pdf Giroux.com/pub/evsc05b. C. PA: Idea Group Publishing. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. (2004).pdf Fuschi. Personalization and Digital Technologies. M. DigiCULT .ie/Owen. http://www. New York.pdf Heckmann.. P. Barcelona.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. and Sintek. Málaga. and Tasso.. 2005 www. George (2005). PEACH http://peach. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. D. P. 2004. Pianesi.2004-1213. Web mining for web personalization. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. (2002).it/papers/gorenbar2005.cs. (2002).Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. In Mizzaro. Roy (2004). O. (2005). Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects.. T.dimi. 2004.designshare. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization.p df Filippini-Fantoni. Gallipoli. interactive services in home automation.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. F.it/intint/people/papers /aims04. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. and Paddeu. C.www2004. S.Info. (AVI 2004).tcd.. G. http://iswc2002.. http://www. F. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. V. (2004). FutureLab.futurelab. Paris. and Boavida.. 1–27. Facer.1145/643477. (2005). Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . May 2004. http://www. Moulin. T. May 25. Hershey. http://www.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.Information Access. Dagger. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. O.semanticweb. W.. Gallipoli.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.itc. H. D. (2004).24_Conlan. M. and Zancanaro. C.edu. N. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives.cs.uniba.htm Hawkey. (AVI 2004).org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. M. In R. (2003). science centres and galleries. R.. http://tmtfactory.pdf Copa.ppt Correia. M.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01.jpbowen..p df Green. February. Dillon. Soro. (Eds. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. M..uniud. 3(1). P. Online paper.. May 25. http://www. S. and Numerico. Henze. May 2002. J. L. Bowen. http://www. (2005). Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. D. April 2004. Spain.org. Italy. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. Online paper. Montreal.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. I.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. http://w5. and Cardinalli.

Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. Kummerfeld. Online paper. Educational Technology & Society. Kummerfeld. Jaroslav.ippr. S. and Lauder.inf. D. and Niu..edu. 7(4):70-81.computer. N. Yokoi.e5. (2004). Brasher. . Callaway. 2005. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).pdf Kuflik.ac. O.. J.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. L. http://www.unihannover. C.. V.bbk.fiit. October 2004.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. and Nejdl. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. Turcsanyi-Szabo. Personis: A Server for User Models.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. W. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . Online paper. (2005).cs.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. http://eprints. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). J.. http://w5.usyd. W. http://www. S.cs. Jones..pdf Kay.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05..usyd. (2004).au/~piers/papers/ pums. and Blažič. R. SeLeNe . May 25. http://adiret.pdf Keenoy... PIA Conference.si/eng/ijceel. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.ed. Proceedings of IIT.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1..pdf Kay. Levene. P. K. M.. Brusilovsky. UM 2005.. (2005). (2004). Levene. and Okamoto. T. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies.unimagdeburg.1. (2001). P. Seničar.. K. and Conejo.. Bratislava.itc. A. (2005). Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. and Montandon. Final Version.pdf Johnson. M..it/papers/avi2004. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. W. K. Lum.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005.stuba. J. (2002).sb.Self E-Learning Networks.ijs.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. B.. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. Gallipoli. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. J. Waycott.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. P.dcs.p df Iwazaki. http://www. A. (eds. D. P.l3s.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication..pdf Kuruc.2. (2002). T.. P. In: De Bra. B.pdf Kay. and Zancanaro. Kaszas. M. Dolog. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22.cs.uni-sb. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. Edinburgh. T.pdf Keenoy...sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. C. and Zancanaro. Online paper. Martin (2004).kbs. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.pdf Henze. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.edu.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14. Rocchi. T. (2004).. 23-30 July 2005.. 2004 http://www. http://www. Online paper.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). pages 249-256.. http://csdl2. de Freitas. B. LSC. Yasuda. UK. P..pdf Kuflik.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. WP4 Deliverable 4.. editor. http://www. http://peach. (2005). Busetta.pdf Henze. and Lauder. and Peterson.ac. M. 2004.bbk. Goren-Bar. J. Stock.pdf Klobučar. Penserini. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications.PDF Kay. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks.. P. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). T. M.cs.. IEEE Computer Society.ac. Niu . A.4. UK http://homepages... Italy. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. In Mária Bieliková. http://www. (2004). Nicola (2005). P.

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In the business world. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. instructorled. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. the portal offered information on more than 20.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. As of early 2006. collaborative environment.Portals Related terms Collaboration. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. content management. http://www. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. Knowledge Management. 2001). vendors.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . which form a dynamic user profile. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience .elearningeuropa. learning management systems.

co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. including educational uses. http://blogs. (Eds.teach-nology.cyberu.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo.com/home. A Portrait of Learning Portals. http://www.proquest.saba. New York: AMACOM. Ron (2004).300 online courses http://www.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.worldwidelearn. online meetings with text. instant messaging. and Sheehan.Education. http://knowledgemanagement.ittoolbox. and universities. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. Heidi (2001). (2003).com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. e-mail distribution lists.000 online courses http://www.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. You’ve come a long way.elementk.students.learningcircuits. Tom (2000).com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. baby! E-learning portals.tamtam. http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. PA: Information Science Publishing. go to: http://www. Campbell. school administrators. K.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.asp Element K – Access to over 2.microsoft.campustechnology.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. March 1.microsoft. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. interactive discussion groups.nl/mart/CategoryView.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.com/article. Hershey.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. museums.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.trainingregistry. and Aucoin. http://www.executrain. and schedules.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. http://h20219. May 2000. news and announcements.htm Brockbank. document management information. audio and/or video. instructors. In Jafari.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.fathom. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.. calendars.amazon.amazon. Bray (2001). R. http://www. Learning Circuits. category.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. http://www.hp.000 lesson plans http://www. and shared lists for tasks. M.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121. http://www.www2.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. administrators. Campus Technology Magazine. A.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.700 online courses http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. 2004. students.000 publishers worldwide http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.

Reviewed at: http://www. J.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. (2003).learningcircuits. New York: AMACOM.educause. and Gordon. http://www. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. San Francisco: JosseyBass. C. Heidi (2003).asp Katz.asp Terra. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. M.educause. Hershey. September 2000. Cornelia (2000). Richard & Associates (2002).htm Do not reproduce 147 . http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing.amazon.amazon.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. http://www. A. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen.) (2003).. (Eds. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal.Collins. and Sheehan. http://www. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113.

Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. http://www. webinars Consequently. although many are trying to change this practice. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.com Hewlett-Packard. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.lsc. http://www. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. Online presentations can be very boring.com/site/index. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. webcasting. http://www.replayhq. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. the word “lecturing” means “to read. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. However. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. In fact. in partnership with Dreamworks. when experts are not readily available.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. http://icampus. 148 © Brandon Hall Research .mit. http://www. virtual classrooms. web conferencing. Skypecasting.masternewmedia. See the TEAL Project at MIT.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. While it is expensive. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.macromedia. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. It is clear that in this age of entertainment.edu/TEAL).com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. Experience them at: http://www.” In the Middle Ages.elluminate. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.

uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. videoconferencing.” > http://www. and Web presentations. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.380 0005416. intranets. Breeze.lsc.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.com/eweek/web conferencing.com/publications/lel/lel.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach. > > http://www.kolabora.co. instant messaging.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. > > http://weblog.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations. independent listing of Webinars. although it does not have to be.eweek.infoworld. http://www.elearningcentre.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.e-learningcentre.kolabora.00.39155030.infoworld.com/webconf/index.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. http://buyersguide. Authorware.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. online communities.htm http://www.humanresourceWebinars.co. videoconferencing. and Flash.com/cxoextra/0.hp. Dreamweaver.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. Web conferencing.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution. groupware. social software for online collaboration. online meetings.co.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. virtual classrooms.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. virtual meetings.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.edu. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.thinkofit. http://www. http://cde.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. Do not reproduce 149 . and whiteboarding.adelaide. http://www. and e-learning.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.silicon. Coursebuilder. and kidneys.athabascau.elearningcentre.elearningcentre.ccimeet. Webcasts.co.acue. virtual teams.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. http://ajax. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. Captivate.> > http://www.brandonhall.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.html#a1185 http://weblog. http://www.com/udell/200 5/02/25. presentation and streaming presentation tools. brain. a columnist at InfoWorld.com/udell/200 5/01/22. http://www.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.htm http://www.co.htm http://www. forums and message boards. Web seminars. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.com/news_radars /web_presentations. http://www. http://www.

. Digital Inspiration. Live and Online!: tips.html Canali De Rossi.programjunction. http://labnol.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.fasfind. Learning Circuits. July.masterviews. Luigi (2003a). http://www.com/Breeze Part1.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. 2003. 2004.filesland. http://www.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://www. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. http://www.aace. 2003. P.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. and Furr. K.aln. http://www. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.01.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. http://m.masternewmedia.htm Hofman.http://www. Sept.russellmcnally. Robin Good Blog.amazon. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.apreso. K.russellmcnally.learningcircuits. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. July 26. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. Armit (2005). http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Belinda (2003). Luigi (2003c). 3. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.com/wwwtools/m/21593.com/software/present ation.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. Russ (2004).html Using Apreso software.com/presentatio ns/index. Sept.. May 15. 2003. 2005. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.blogspot. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.presentations.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Jennifer (2004).htm Canali De Rossi. P.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. 7(3). Christine (2001). Live ELearning.com/product /software/795/index.masternewmedia. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. http://www. (2004).pdf Scott. http://www.htm Duckworth. (in two parts) > > http://www. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.htm Canali De Rossi.pdf http://www.timelyweb. http://www.downloadjunction. http://www. April 30. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Luigi (2003b).com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/Breeze Part2.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. Robin Good Blog. (2002). July 8.com/downloads/sear ch. and Quick.asp McNally. http://www.

AMACOM. (2003). Start Saving Time and Money Today. http://www.ac.html Zielinski.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. Choose your presentation tools carefully. http://www.pdf Spielman.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. and Equipment. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. and Winfield. S.open. Software. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. InfoWorld. Choices are great. Dave (2002).amazon. 11.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display.presentations. but… Presentations Magazine. Choose the Right Vendors. http://www. 2005.. Dec.infoworld. L. Feb.http://kmi.

automatically assures that all navigation works. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. tests. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. such as creating links. Assign SMEs who are committed. extreme e-learning. For example. manage the content and the users. Deploys easily . In the first case. simple.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. just-intime e-learning. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. programming. In the second sense of the term. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Instructional design built in. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Reduce the number of development vendors. 2003). following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. It is best suited to text-based materials. or HTML knowledge. including tools and templates. 2003). or where the online information frequently changes. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research .versus high-interaction). Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. Does not require any advanced skills. Standardize approaches. Tools for rapid e-learning are. glossary. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. It can refer to learning something quickly. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. and communicate deliverable expectations. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. by necessity. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. low. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary.e. FAQ. According to Ready Go!. easy to use. are built in.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. a demand to produce online content very quickly. but not always good for you. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Advanced features.does not require any plug-ins.. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. microlearning > down pages. graphics. Navigation built in . learning objects. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. virtual classroom. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.

” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.masie. http://www. Clark (2005). San Francisco: Pfieffer. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www. Enhance. See a demo at: http://www. version control protocols. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www. and other good stuff.scate. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1.readygo. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. which contains information on resources. J.microlearning. Templates.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. June 30.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.pdf Brodsky.clomedia.elearningguild. Extreme Learning: Decision Games.transformmag. and Bersin.co. Lane (2002). Chief Learning Officer.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.ltimagazine.org Web site.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.articulate. tools. July 2.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.pdf Crosman. Transform Magazine. See sample templates at: http://www. http://www.meetingone. Dianne (2005). Chief Learning Officer. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. April.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.com/studio. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.access to a clear project plan. Future-Proofing. http://www. and Publish. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. Paper. Bill (2005). centrally located files. Jay (2005). Tips and Techniques. Kendrick (2006). January.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. http://www. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. Jennifer (2004). August 2004.bersin. Learning Solutions. http://www. LTI Newsline.elearningmag. Making rapid e-learning work.htm Bersin. July 2004. 2004). http://www. June.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.amazon.com/content/templat es/clo_article.raptivity. http://www. http://www. January 23. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Mark (2003).clomedia. 2004.learningcircuits. schedule and due dates. Reusability. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. http://www. Larstan Business Reports. Edit.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. http://www.htm Bibliography Abell.pdf Aldrich. Penny (2004). computer games. Josh (2004). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. http://www.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. 2006.elearningcentre. Learning Circuits. conferences.asp Bersin.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. J. Do not reproduce 153 . http://www. http://www. (2004).” Find out more: http://www.elearningguild.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.com/showArticle. Josh (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article. LTI Newsline. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.

learningcircuits. Ed (2004). January 16. Learning Solutions.elearningguild.pdf Jimenez. Learning Circuits. Press release. Chief Learning Officer.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Vignettes for Training White Paper. http://www.pdf Jimenez.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. Joe (2005).macromedia. April 20. Bersin and Associates White Paper.trainingpressreleases. Nick (2005). http://www. 2006.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Ray (2006). February 2005. June 2004. Chief Learning Officer. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.ltimagazine. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. http://www.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. 2006. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.pdf Shepherd. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.elearningguru.com/articles /default. http://www. Nov. e-Learning Crop Circles. Simulation. (2004b). Macromedia White Paper. Learning Solutions. Ray (2005).com/new sstory. http://download. Mobile and Device Based Learning.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. 2005. http://vftraining.adobe. LTI Newsline. Rapid Intake White Paper. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. January 2003.elearningguild.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Eric (2003).clomedia. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.clomedia. http://www. (2004a).asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.htm Masie Center (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_article.pdf Mayberry.macromedia. http://www. 2006.e-learning programs in weeks. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Mar. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. Macromedia White Paper. http://download.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Gustafson. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Stephanie (2006). 2002. http://www. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Jan.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.clomedia. 10. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. Kevin (2002). http://www. http://www.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. Garin (2004). 9.trainingfoundation. http://www. Clive (2006). The Training Foundation online article.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.jsp?id=150619 Hess.pdf Macromedia Inc.

Inc.edu/index.com/ Do not reproduce 155 . http://robotics.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.evolution. technology. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. technology.edurobot. and mathematics. and math.rec. http://www. http://mindstorms. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.gov.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.aad.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.org/aboutbotball/overview.com/r_home.active-robots. engineering.ri. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. > http://www.cmu. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. one child at a time. http://www.ife.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. for underwater exploration. http://www. engineering.nasa. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.botball.lego.whmsi. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. http://www.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. simulation > http://www. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.euron.

L. By donning motion sensors. M.l3s.pdf http://www. Düsseldorf.atr. lip movements.technology.cs. Keating. (2004). (2001). New York: Syngress Publishing. Kumar. New York.amazon. http://www. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. D.pdf Boersch. Germany.pdf Nourbakhsh. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. (2004).pdf Ferrari.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. D. Heinsohn. http://robothaven. I. (1999).edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. K.ed.uml. Proceedings. Ferrari. Sept.brynmawr. Harwin.com/solutions/mw exrobotics.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. Kumar.brooklyn.. D. November. (2004).pdf Papert.l3s. particularly robotics. H. D. G. http://www.jp/ See also: http://www. http://www. W. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. H. and Meeden. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Miller.... (2005).. C. Yanco.fhbrandenburg.. S.osaka-u.sci. http://www. http://robotics. (2004).ams.amazon. and Powerful Ideas.tools for accessible education. M. links. L.microworlds.profetic.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. It features news.kipr.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.edu/~sklar/er /edu. and Mataric.. and Wagner.cmu. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. http://www. and Yanco. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. http://www. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.ac. http://dangermouse. go to: http://www. Mr.nasa.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Artificial Intelligence Conf. and Dautenhahn. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. Lathan. and vocal tics.irc. (1980). Robots in the classroom .org/article. D.jp/ Blank. Germany.wtec. U. and Hempel. Mindstorms: Children. Basic Books.gov/rcc/index.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . Meeden.cuny.andrew.net/ Run by NASA. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. B. I. June. and other information on robotics. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka..de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics.php Bibliography Blank..eng.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.pdf Cooper. Computers.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.. http://www. H. Find out more about this group at: http://www. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. http://zeus. http://www. Paper at the American Assoc. D. and Loose. Hohmann. > > http://www. M. AAATE Conference 1999. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. J. P. R.

(2005). Ontario..pdf Stewart.. (2001). Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.digicult. Dobreva. 28-30. McHugh. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. A. Abbott. and Rusbridge. and West.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.pdf Do not reproduce 157 .ccmlab.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. Sept. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. T. S. Ottawa.. M. R. http://www. M. A. D. http://rob. Donnelly..

Examples are Google and Overture.examples are early yahoo. which submit queries. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. search engine optimization. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . They bring into the equation user preferences. One is the problem of finding relevant. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. collaboration. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search.so they take the structure of the Web into account.com and Alta Vista. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . as this section of the report shows. in parallel. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. such as Yahoo. While search engines have improved over the past several years. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Web directories. 2004). such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. such as Google and Altavista. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. a rich user experience. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. information retrieval. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Meta–search engines. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. Ezzy (2006a. data mining. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. But. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. dependable information. meta-search engines. federated search. One new approach is called “federated searching. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. collective intelligence. each with their own defining feature sets. resource discovery. for a variety of reasons. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.

A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/search/defa ult.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.com/ Answers.ask. http://www.gravee.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.faganfinder.mooter. http://search. http://www.google.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. http://www. http://www.altavista. http://dmoz.grokker.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://www.convera. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.gigablast.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. blogs.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.icerocket. http://search. and text.com Gada.netscape.jookster.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www. http://www. http://channels.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.gada.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.aeiwi. http://www. http://getoutfoxed.lexxe.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://www.looksmart. http://search.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www.gnod.about. http://www.aol. http://www. then fill in the search box. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.umich. video.com’s search service http://a9.com/ Gravee . http://www. http://www.answers.alexa.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. get answers http://www. http://www.msn.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.otavo.alltheweb.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. and the Web. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www. http://oaister.com About.umdl.hotbot.

http://www.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. AwesomeLibrary.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://citeseer.ithaki. http://www. http://scholar.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://www. & KidsClick!.ai. books. http://www.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.gov/ http://www. http://rollyo. http://www.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.google.gpoaccess. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.gnoosic.Clusters results.sri.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. FactMonster.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. reviews. ArtKIDSRule.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. and movies.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://www.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.ujiko.wink.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://www. http://tagjag. Wink then diplays the results.imdb.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://froogle. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.blinkx. > > http://firstgov.healthfinder. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://infomine.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.google. http://vivisimo.qelix. http://qube.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.squidoo. cast lists and theatre schedules.eurekster.yahoo.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://kids. Yahooligans.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.ucr.com/v2/index. reviews.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://www. http://www.acronymfinder. http://www.psu.pubsub. Much of this information is hidden from view.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.koders. http://icerocket. http://www.topic appears.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.ist.com/v2a/flash.imdb.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.govmine. AolKIDS.google. http://swicki. http://books.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .stumbleupon.

is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.soundspotter. http://techsearch.findlaw. http://www.pandora.” Content-based search engines for pictures.liveplasma.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.ncbi.krugle.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://wang16.columbia.acm.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.f cgi QBIC .com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.psu.almaden.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.Krugle – A search engine for developers.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://wwwqbic.org/citation.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. http://www.scirus.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums. http://www.searchking.seekport.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.gov/entrez/query.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. http://www. http://www.rawsugar. http://www. http://www.com/ LitLinker .edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.omgili.com/ Last. http://portal.cfm?doid=10 56808.cmp.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.technorati.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. http://www.ee. http://www. http://www.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.ee.convera.ibm. http://www. http://smealsearch1. http://www.last. http://www.uni-hannover.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.columbia. as of this writing.4 billion links.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.ist.A legal search engine.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www. http://www.psu.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.com/ MediaFinder .htm Do not reproduce 161 .org/ Omgili .searchedu.nih.fm/ LawCrawler .rrzn. http://www. http://www.nlm. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web. http://lawcrawler.ee. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.merl.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.truveo.columbia.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.

com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.nyu.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. white pages. Unlike other search engines.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.net/indexu. maps/directions.xcavator. http://www.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. tickets.bolton. pictures. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www. http://www.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.intute. http://a9. http://www. flights. http://www-rocq. and notes. video. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. movies. shopping sites.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. games.cs. lottery results. classifieds.zapmeta. http://www. and links the clusters. companies. eBay. news sources.ac. http://clusty. the user's community has total control over the results. city guides. focused searches on topics they care about. http://www.search. weather. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. bookmarks.uk/ SearchTools.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. hotels. and tracks a user's search history.kartoo.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. Known as “meta-search” engines. health information sources.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research .com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. and their relationships. is a valuable resource for researchers. yellow pages. http://www.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. http://www.copernic.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.zoominfo. jobs. greeting cards. audio. http://nlp. http://www. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.researchbuzz.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.com/ Info – Searches reference works. apartment rentals.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.searchtools.trovando. http://vivisimo.ac.ithaki. or federated searching.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. therefore.inria. dating and personals.com/ clusters. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://www.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.ixquick. http://www. http://www.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.info. http://www.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. including a set of international telephone directories. http://www. http://www.dogpile. http://searchenginewatch.

Find out why in this presentation: http://www.amazon.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. This search engine.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.netmasters. July-Sept. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. 2006.downes.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.ucr. Exchanging.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.php Geser.. Traditional Search. and Searching in eLearning Systems. is against the idea of federated searches. Ebrahim (2006). Y. December.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro.com/ Stephen Downes. DigiCULT Thematic Report. and Shoham. Part 1. phrase.editlib. Pat (2005). For example. June 2004. International Journal on e-Learning.ac. Read/Write Web.elearning.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government.php Ezzy. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. Ebrahim (2006). http://www. July 20. http://www.firstmonday.0 vs.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. 2004. or topic . can be published on the user's site. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.gov/ http://www. Guntram (2004). http://infomine. DigiCULT Thematic Report.eurekster. http://www. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.readwriteweb. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. 2006. http://www. F. http://www. 6.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Do not reproduce 163 .pdf Ensor. Resource Discovery .gov/ http://www. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing.readwriteweb. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.org/index. Traditional Search. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.tveyes. S.gpoaccess. 10(12). (2005).just as a search engine is used for text.htm Ezzy.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. 7-12.digicult. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. > > http://firstgov.html Battelle.0 vs. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. June. Read/Write Web.ala. A. (2004). 6. No. http://www. http://swicki. Search 2. John (2005). In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. New York: Portfolio. O. http://www.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr. Frank. First Monday. http://www.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.citysearch..searchenginecolossus. http://www. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.co. and Apprato. Users can also browse by subject category. http://www.. Part 2. or swicki. No. Search 2. July 25. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.

http://dl. 2003.18 69408.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores..asp Wyman. Parts I and II. B. (2005). SearchEngineWatch. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. 2004. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference.eweek.aace. International Journal on E-Learning. eWeek.com. 15.pubsub. and Gupta.washington. Mike (2004).com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. http://searchenginewatch.00. J. (2005). Mittal.ht m Pratt.ischool.html Heck.com/alertbox/20030630. http://homepages.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. http://www.htm Part II: http://www. 2004. S. Refining enterprise search.infoworld. Doctoral dissertation. InfoWorld. P. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. 2004. Oct.com/news/showS toryts. Prescient Digital Media. W. Search engines don’t suck.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. Simple advice for complex search solutions.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . Jakob (2003). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Danny (2004).php/2156221 Vaas. 15. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . Richard (2004). 2005.infoworld.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. 2005. Bob (2005).ac. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. Oct. Mimkes. It’s Gada.html Kumar. A. 149-166. html Porco. Lisa (2005).pdf Schlenker. http://www. E.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. J.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. June 30. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. http://www. http://www. eSchool News. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. April 28. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. Part I: http://www. http://www.digicult.org/16955 Low. M.useit. http://bobwyman.uk/boon/delos200 5. 2004. Major Search Engines and Directories.com/article2/0. 2005.com/links/article .prescientdigital.eschoolnews. Corey (2005).isnoldenburg.http://www. Kashyap. http://www. and MacColl. (2004). S. 10. 4(1). http://www.. May 8.pdf Gincel. White paper. (2000).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. and Hilf. Oct. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Stanford University. 3.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Carmine (2006). Oct.pdf Murray.ed. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials..com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.1759.prescientdigital. they’re just limited.pdf Sullivan. InfoWorld.

alphaworks. metadata. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. such Do not reproduce 165 . founder of the World Wide Web. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. Abbas et al. semantic grid. http://www.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. http://www. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. taxonomies. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. ontologies. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies.ibm. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs).aktors. are now falling short of earlier promises. (2005) note that “historically. Like it or not. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. but it will not be in general use for some time. 2003). search. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. http://www. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview.org/en/index. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). near Boston. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. It has both its advocates and its critics.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects.elenaproject. Selected Examples In Europe.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. microformats.

G. MA: MIT Press.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. semantic infrastructural services. Wahlster.upm.. http://www-jime. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. (2005).sciam.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. S.. http://kaon. Web Services. and Zillinger.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. T.. (Eds. http://www. Brantner. Z. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. T. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. In Fensel. M.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051.jxta. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Obrst.open. Miklos. Greece.amazon.. http://www.. May 2001. M..com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. 2005. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education.pdf Daconta. (2005). A.. J. Z. Markus. http://edutella.. Sobernig. (2004).ifets. Tim (2003). D. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. A. F. Salvachua. The first issue is free.amazon.. Huber. and van Harmelen (2004). http://www. D. (2003). http://jungla.personal-reader. http://www.com/article. Simon.tkk.pdf Anderson.. and Lassila. J. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. and Ahmed.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.open.amazon. Ali. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. Olmedilla.. Hendler. http://arxiv..dit. Cambridge. http://www.hp. (2001). The semantic web. Cambridge.. and Hendler.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler..hpl.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. xi.semanticweb. Mozo. B. Mark (2005). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. O. MA: MIT.info/index. H.ac. Odeh. and Whitelock.ideagroup.php?http://www .ifets. D.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou. S.seco.net/ Bibliography Abbas. McClatchey. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).ac. and Smith. A Semantic Web Primer. Umer. S. http://www.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web..info/issues.. http://www.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . implementing.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. G.aimatshape. W. http://www. Scientific American.. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. T. L. (1). New York: Wiley. May 9-12.. M. http://www. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. J. R. K. http://www-jime. http://www.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.as semantic portals for end-users. Lieberman. and Knowledge Management. May 29 June 1. Forward.de/html/ Aguirre.) (2003).es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. S.

amazon.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. http://www.00. Hershey. Sikora. Palmer.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. Phil (2006).pdf Nilsson.asp Hatem. DevSource.pdf Henze. L. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Nack. Brian (2005).189 5. 500-504. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE).9/semgrid.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504. A.. Jennings. Mauthe.ftrain.. Paper presented at the GLS conference. N.downes. D. and Zetti.kbs. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Stephen’s Web. http://www2002. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. http://www. http://homepages.Some Architectural Guidelines. M. Wahlster.html Haack.ca/cgibin/page.unihannover. H. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. C. Sweden. and Naeve. (2001). 2001.amazon. (2004). Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05.amazon. 18-22 July 2005. http://www. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews.semanticgrid.. L. http://www. F. MA: MIT Press. and Gouarderes. (Eds. H. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. M. Semantic Web Technologies. A.) (2003). 1(4).pdf Henze.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. Paul (2003). Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras.pdf Downes. (2005). Lieberman. (2001). Lund.) (2005).cwi.jisc. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. http://www. (Eds. The Netherlands... PA: Information Science Publishing.cetis. Nicola (2005b).de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. Rutledge. May 27.ac. W. and Shadbolt. France. M.kbs.com/article2/0. Stephen (2005). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. Amsterdam. Oct.1961106. Online article. Online article.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Greenwich. and Hendler. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 .devsource.De Roure. G. 10. Thomas (2004). Nicola (2005a).com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. Cambridge.well. M. D. and Naeve. Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Journal of Computer Science.com/ContraShirky. http://www. Cory (2001). CT: Manning. and Neagu. http://www.org/v1. Oct. http://www. J. http://www. pdf Doctorow.scipub. D. Wilbert (2005). htm Dorai.. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . CETIS Online article.. 2005. T. Syllogism. N.ac. http://www. Ramadan. Juan-les-Pins. A. http://www. (2002)..com/~doctorow/metacrap. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. 2006. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. H.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin.unihannover. and Worldview”. http://www.pdf Kraan.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. http://www.

.ac. (2004). Staab. Nov. A. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.inria.uk/selene/reports/ Del3. New York.aifb.guardian. (2004). Darwin. E.pdf Tao. http://education.cetis. Syllogism. John (2004). Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. Scott (2005).darwinmag.w3. and Diaz. Marketing Profs. L. H. http://www. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Worldview.00. Karenos.marketingprofs. B. August 2. (2005).com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. http://www2004. 2003. Scott (2002). Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project.ac.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism.p df Tao.ecs. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. G. June 21.. (2001). Economics and Culture. June 14. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. and the Semantic Web. J. D. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. and Stumme.infoworld.981948.pdf Sampson. A. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Lytras. D. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. and Davis. http://www. InfoWorld.ac. Scott’s Workblog. January 17. Peter (2003). S. (2005). Millard.dcs.co. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. (2003). http://www. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. http://eprints. D. Wagner. 2002. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. 2004.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). and Studer.unikarlsruhe..org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . P. 2005. May 17–22. http://poorbuthappy. Online article. New York. 2005.html Van Dijck. Woukeu. C.10577.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. trust.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.pdf Samaras. and Miller. and Woukeu.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.com/read/swiftkick /column. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson.ifets.info/journals/7_4/5.bbk. Schmitz.. http://www. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. The Semantic Web.ac..shirky.bcs. http://www. http://ewic. USA. (2003).de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. G. December 3. 7 (4).com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. CETIS Online article.cetis. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. 2628. M. 7.uk/elearning/ story/0. Online article. http://www.sop.pdf Tane.html Stojanovic. Clay (2003).html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.pdf Shirky. Davis. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.asp Udell.com/login/sign up. F. Networks. H.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. http://www. L. http://www. R.. and Christodoulou. http://www. http://www. 2003.soton. Millard..uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.pdf Updegrove.html Wilson.. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. K. Semantic Web. F. Who said that? Metadata. David (2002). Andy (2005). G.. 2004.

noaa.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. participants will be motivated to evaluate.insead. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. http://www.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. games. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.insead. It was decommissioned in 2005. learn. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. According to High (2004).htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).gov/ Winters et al. 2005). http://www.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.calt.uiuc. http://sos. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . http://cave.insead. i.arcscience.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.” My first report in this series. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. but information about it remains on the Web. reviewed simulations as an online content format.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.insead. especially ones set by themselves. microworlds.insead.calt.calt. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.com/omni. http://www. http://www.calt. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.icherubini. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. http://www.calt.e.ncsa. role-playing. http://www. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.

http://www. http://www. and murmurs.geo. go to: http://www.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. http://www.lsa.ISLE .html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.html weather forecasting. > > http://geowall. http://www.virtualfishtank.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.edcenter.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index.dc.intermezzon.sdsu.noaa. For example.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.fsl. http://crme. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.http://www. http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.stt-global.calt.making-history. to play in a virtual fishtank.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma . Mass.assima. http://www. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. and Mac OS X. http://www.umich. heart sounds. without programming knowledge.forio.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.net/celestia/index.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.adobe." http://www. breathing.experiencebuilders. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .com/broadcastoverview.shatters.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.sdsu. http://www.com/ Forio .insead.edcenter.net/ Biographix .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.med.biographix.atghome.edu/geowall/ind ex.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. http://thinkertools.edu/harvey_about.soe. http://www. http://www.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.ht m Intermezzon ..com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. with many examples to try.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.edu/ http://um3d. pulse rate.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www. Linux. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research .adobe. they are only available for Macintosh computers.berkeley. It runs on Windows. http://www. However.miami." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.umich.

com/ MaxIT .com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www.com/3dTraining. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www.com/products/sim.virtualcontrolroom. Integrates with many media types.asp Knowledge Quest .com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.com/products /firefly.com/ Knowledge Planet .com/portal/index. http://www.qarbon. http://www.sdsu.nexlearn.bc.the click of a mouse. http://coe.stottlerhenke. including simulations.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.jibc.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www.maxit.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.icherubini.learning2005. http://www.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www. http://www.xstreamsoftware.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.com/ Kookaburra Studios .” http://www.com/ Reusable Objects .edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.reusableobjects.teds.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand. Do not reproduce 171 .knowledgepresenter.knowledge-director.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www.com/product_r pe. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.knowledgeplanet.com/ MaxIT .htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.maxit.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. which can then be used to build simulations.outstart.elearningcentre.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www.stagecast.co.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. http://www.percepsys.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.knowledgequest.

Sept. A.bbk. p. T. Chief Learning Officer.htm eSchool News (2004). Financial Times.. Montréal.html Karrer. (2005). http://www. 2004. A.net/papers/ELearning. http://www. Shannon (2004).nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. Department of Computer Science.learningcircuits. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. http://www. http://www. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich.ac. Kamau (2004).blikstein. (2001).org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. Holland. M. F. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 12. and Ip. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. and Bostan. Simulation levels in software training.PDF Blikstein.html Linser.htm Aldrich.. Jennifer (2004). Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). 8.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. M.medialabeurope. A. Gash.ft.com/news/showS tory.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.ncassr. A. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .ht m Sloman. September.pdf Swaak.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.. A.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. Computer simulations in distance education. June.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook.pdf DeVries.bham. http://itdl. (2004).html Lunce.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. Simjour.projects.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.. A. http://www. October 15-19. U.cs. B. (2004). Bjorn (2004). 2002. R.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. (2001). Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Viswanathan.learningcircuits.html Learning Circuits. (2002). J.html Sobeih. and Wilensky. October 2004. eSchool News.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. 4.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. and McCloughlin. http://www. http://www.simplay. 2004. Making the most of software simulations. computer games.. San Francisco: Pfieffer. H. Utrecht. http://www.learningcircuits. and Hou.case studies. Taghiyareh.eschoolnews. J. T. Implementation and Evaluation. September. Online report.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. A. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. and Sund Martin.for Philosophers and Engineers.uva. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . Clark (2004). Aaron (2005). Les (2004). http://www.htm High. International Workshop. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Feb.ac. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.pdf Cherubini. P. http://www. & de Jong.. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Learning Circuits. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.http://www. J. (2002). In Interaction Design and Children.amazon.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.clomedia. http://www. Clark (2005). Mazloumian. L. http://www. Learning Circuits. Rasmussen. Laser. July. AACE conference..learningcircuits. http://www. The promise of online simulations.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. Paper presented at Robocup conference. How playing power drives lessons home. October. Aug..uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. 2004. 1(10). Learning Circuits. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.science. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. Six criteria of an educational simulation.

In Association for Computing Machinery.prospect. Online paper at: http://lsm.icherubini.uc. and Strohecker.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.pdf Do not reproduce 173 . (2003). USA. C. M. Fort Lauderdale.-Apr.dei.pdf Tjaden. N.knowledge. Florida. http://www. 284-294. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Cherubini.. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Sherry (1997). The American Prospect.html Winters. 1997. 17. April.. Gary (2003).pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. 8(31).com/protonMEDIA _white_paper. http://www.protonmedia. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. http://www.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Mar.. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.pdf Turkle. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.

ac. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.iu.edu/index. easily changed. RFID technology is developing rapidly. For a full discussion of this issue.ala. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.com/default .cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay.open. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)..cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. grease. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.org/Template.” http://vis. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.iu. http://www.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. They are programmable and.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. http://uitspress. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. While controversial. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. therefore. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. or water.checkpointsystems. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. optical tags. http://cnm. infrared (IR) tags. 2005). symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. especially for tagging retail items in stores. which transmits over short distances.edu/102605_meal. especially in museums and for outdoor education.

eSchool News Online.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . and Case. (Eds.). S. C.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. & Richards.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.org/ Bibliography Borck. Andrew (2005). http://www. Infoworld. http://www.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn.msu. K..2005 .eschoolnews. (2003). Y.toydirectory. & Kondo. June 27.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.org/newdl/index. TD Monthly. (2006). (2005)..com/monthly/articl e.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.digicult. (2005). M.66 Ward.csmonitor. standards. G. and Backhouse. T. in a 2005 online article.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Donnelly. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Aparna (2004). Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. and Yano. http://www. Technology Watch Report 1. N. M. Shibuya.1109/WMTE.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. S. G. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. http://www.pdf Murray. Y. March. van Kranenburg. RFID: frequency.pdf Osawa et al.pdf Robinton.. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. http://www. http://www.html Osawa.html?s=feature Heining. http://www. Oct. January 1.xml&DOI=10. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. Noma. 5..asp?id=1222 Ross.aace.com/monthly/articl e. 2005..digicult. James (2006). http://csdl2. 276-283. 261-263..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.pdf Salcedo. R.. Tsukagoshi. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. 4(3). (2004).uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. adoption and innovation. Masters Thesis.cfm?fuse action=Reader.ac. K. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. http://www. M.aace. April 13. and Dobreva. http://www.jisc. http://www. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. http://www.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. 2004.org/news/showsto ry. H. Noda.toydirectory.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. http://www. A.msu.computer. Proceedings. Ando.rfidnews. Ogata. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).. In Kommers. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal.. http://www.. 2004. A.. R. Corey (2004). P.. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.infoworld. Michigan State University.

or check out what everyone wants to do. http://www. http://www.us) post their favorite Web sites. As of April 2006. share references with colleagues. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.com/ Blinklist . metadata. connect with others. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. Also. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. and search for a specific user's Blinks. no matter their location or timing. Blink also provides tools to sort. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.citeulike. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. and books. and Web links.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.net/ CiteULike .” a location to store links that might be lost to time.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. music.blinklist. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms.” However. while users of the del. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. and organize the academic papers they are reading. or distributed in e-mails. http://www. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Flickr held over 100 million images. Fifth. search others’ references. http://blogmarks.43things. Fourth. faculty.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. For instance. store. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. search. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them.us Web site (http://del.A free service to help academics share.First. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.icio. users can see what others are Blinking. get inspired. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Students. they act as an “outboard memory. For example. tagging. in turn. printouts. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. The result is something called a tag cloud. share their stories.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. They can save references. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. ontologies. describe. and to share them.connotea. as each member can upload resources discovered. http://ask. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. researchers at all levels (students. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries….icio.metafilter. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . Second. Third.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. http://www. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term.

shadows.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://myweb2. and non-hierarchical editorial control.memeorandum.com Clipmarks . http://www.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.icio. RSS. http://del. updated in near real time.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. http://www. http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.linkroll.A free.netscape.us .feedmarker.icio. http://www.digg.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.northwestern.pageflakes. http://www.rojo.Consumating .com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.us/ Digg .com/ Jots .clipmarks. Tags can be shared or kept private.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. sort. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.search. http://www.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. http://www. Also retrieve it easily. http://www. similar to Digg. http://www. users submit stories for review.edu/ppad2/ index.furl.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://www. but. http://flickr. http://www. http://www. search. based on what is happening in the news media. and/or books and find them again. http://ma.com/ Del. http://www.eu/products/networ k_menus.jookster. http://consumating.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.net/ Jookster .netvouz.com/ Furl .simpy.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. share.eventful.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.com/ Project Pad . the users decide.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. and share photos with others. http://www. and discover relevant links.kaboodle. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. music.com/ Simpy – Search tags. http://projectpad.gnolia. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www.networkltd.com/ Kaboodle .Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.org/news. http://blog. blogging.com/ Flickr – Store.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.com/ Magnolia . and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. http://jots.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. or enter new items and tag them. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.html Linkroll . With digg.yahoo.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.com/archives/beta_up date/index.

S. If a city is not there. http://www. Web 2. and share it with others.wists. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.educause.” http://www. March/April 2006.icio.spurl.us.com/ about how tagging works with del.smugmug.com/writings/ontology_ov errated. http://weblog.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.us.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story. 41(2). http://www. http://tabblo. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/index. with contributions from users. http://www.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.tagzania.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. Flickr.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://www. > http://www. http://upcoming. http://www. http://www. http://www.fasfind.com/ SWiK .com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.suprglu.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.com Wists – A social shopping site.” > > http://magazines.net/ Suprglu .html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/archives/000 558.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.quickonlinetips.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.A.icio. Bryan (2006).quickonlinetips. Online Resources Jon Udell.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. http://swik.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .com/udell/gems/d elicious.infoworld.com/wwwtool s/m/6350.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.html http://www.zvents.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.peterme. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. http://www.wink.quickonlinetips.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.fasfind.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.com/wwwtool s/m/7172.html http://atomiq.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.veotag. http://unalog. and social bookmarking.html http://tagsonomy. and Digg. tags. http://www.yelp.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.

html Lawley.com/originalCo ntent/0. Tags vs. July 20.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. J.org/teachersource/learning . Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng.html Udell. InfoWorld.sid19_gci1195182.infoworld.hp. Jon (2004).html McGillicuddy. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. B. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. B.infoworld. 2006. B.typepad.html Coates. Online Paper.corante. http://www. Keynote address. http://www. April 2005. Jan. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.htm Hammond. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. 2005. Tom (2005).html Mathes.ascc. http://ideant.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. (2005).typepad.hpl.pdf Mejias.educause.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. T. Trusted Sources.com.isi.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. T. April 2005. 2005..org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.ht ml Mejias. Hammond. Andy (2006). August 20. S..plasticbag. June 21. 2. Lund.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. Aug.shtml Golder. http://www. http://dlib. InfoWorld. http://www. http://www.dlib. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).org. M. Many2Many. 2.techtarget.289142.php Lund.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell.pbs. http://many. Online paper. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. http://searchcio.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. 11(4). Shamus (2006). Tag mania sweeps the Web.adammathes. Ideant. 20. http://www. May 20. T. and Scott.. T.. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://ideant. Will (2005).http://www. (2005). (2005). Jon (2005). Social consequences of social tagging. SearchCIO.pdf Gurber. and Hannay. D-Lib Magazine.. 2005. Collaborative knowledge gardening.html Do not reproduce 179 .. HP Labs Report. 2006. 11(4). 2005. 2005.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. http://tomgruber. Plasticbag. Flack. Tom.weblogged. The New School of Ontologies. Sept. Liz (2005). Webblogg-ed. http://www.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. and Huberman. May 5.00. (2005).pdf Richardson. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. Ulises (2004). D-Lib Magazine. Nicholas (2004).net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. Ulises (2005). 2004. Adam (2004). http://www. Hannay. http://www.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.ejournal.html Mote.

connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. work. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. e-mail. photo sharing sites. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. My first report in this series. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers.) Experience Sharing (blogs. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. 2005). reviewed social networking as an online content format. tagging. etc. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. http://www. e-mail. etc. shared link libraries such as del. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs.classmates.” that is. photo albums. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. social networking sites such as Friendster.us. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks.) Relationship Management (Orkut. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. online personals such as Match. etc.icio. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. family.al.com. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. shared links. and the military. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. dating sites. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters.com.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . etc.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. social software. communities of practice. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. SMS. Friendster.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software.

esnips.html Last.xanga. List who a person knows and find out who others know.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.com/ Orkut . Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. and files and then make them available to others. http://www.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. https://www.” http://www. http://www.facebook.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. which is then open to other readers. and within “communities of interest.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.yahoo. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.livejournal.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. upload photos. http://www. audio. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. http://www.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. high schools. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. documents.codeville. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://www.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.com/signin/index. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.myspace.com/introNetwor ks. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com Platial – A site to create social maps.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www.com/ Live Journal .com/ucinet. as a blog. and geographic regions.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.friendster.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. workplaces. It costs several thousand dollars. http://360.spartasocialnetworks. http://www. video.faceparty. http://platial. http://www.last.diaryland. http://www. in associations.my-diary. Users share their writings and meet each other.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. Share it with others if desired.intronetworks.orkut. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. Facebook has networks for colleges.stumbleupon. https://www.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.netminer. http://www. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .com/inflow3. or as a social network. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.com/reg/sample.analytictech. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.freeopendiary. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. photos. http://www.linkedin. http://www. http://www.orgnet.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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pdf Knudsen.amazon. history.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. Sept.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. http://gaim.ibm. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. John (2004).“Simultaneous Presence.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. Online memo.net/ Jabber – An open. http://laimuz.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.live.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund.pd f Fontana. Nils (2000). A.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . 44-49.fakespace. 6.com/index.) (2000). MA: MIT Press.advanced. Ken (Ed.acs. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.nada.txt Knudsen.networkworld. Naeve. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Presence applications poised for takeoff. London: Routledge.org/rfc/rfc2779. Cambridge. Network Working Group (2000).org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. (Eds. On the Internet.org/teleimmersio n. J." http://www. C. http://www. http://kmr. http://www. and Pejas. Network World. MacOS X. http://www. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.kth.aim. J.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. http://www. http://messenger. http://www. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.org/teleimmersio n2.ebuddy. and Windows. http://www. (2002).advanced.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. 2004. The driver sits in a box. (2001). Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.yahoo. A.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society. as well as news.org Bibliography Dreyfus. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).unizar.virtual-presence. http://www.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. and Handberg.html http://www.ietf. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. Hubert (2001). L. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. In Soldek.jabber. secure.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.berkeley.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence.ieor. and Naeve. http://www2. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location..sourceforge. http://www. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. C.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. BSD.percro. http://www. http://www-142.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. the CAVE.no/at/nmm/enlund. http://get.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd. > > http://www. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.html Goldberg.hig.

H. (Eds.amazon. 28. June 1.nada.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . (Eds. (2005).com/news/culture/0. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. H.kth. Amsterdam: IOS Press.. A.. Jan.. http://www. Davide. Jon (2005).modes. Knudsen. 2002.Learning. Being There: Concepts.swedishlearninglab. In Hoyer. Ins and outs of teledildonics. http://cid.pdf Lynn.Banff. Germany: Hagen. M.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1.org/docume nts/Sponberg.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.) (2003).digicult. and Handberg. A. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. et al. http://www. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. Wired News.pdf Udell. http://www. Donnelly. January 2005. http://www. McHugh. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Abbott.. M. S. InfoWorld.. G. Dobreva.pdf Sponberg.wired. W..650 64-0. and Rusbridge. Calgary. (2001). and IJsselsteijn. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.html Riva.se/pdf/CID-206.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. Alberta. http://www. L. D. F. Regina (2004). C.infoworld. September 24.

Once video goes on the Internet. My first report in this series. television. IPTV. In spite of the limitations. according to Foroohar (2006). video blogging. streaming video. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. screencasting. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Further. PDAs. amateur and professional video cameras. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. even a video plug-in for Skype. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. tlearning.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. BT. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). vodcasting. 2002). bandwidth becomes an issue. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. 2005). reviewed video as an online content format. telepresence. A new version of television. As the following examples show. the largest Internet telephone service. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). cell phones. in all its formats. Video blogging has become common. Do not reproduce 189 . However. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. Britain's largest telecom firm. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. videocasting.

ar/iptv_en. and divide them into chapters or segments. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. http://www. improves the satisfaction of the client.html Dialcom Networks. a three-minute videoblog. http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.brightcove.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. It is still going strong at: http://www. the Internet telephone service. PDA.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.axor. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.on2. http://vpb. see Rocketboom.dmeurope. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.com/index_about.bittorrent.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. desktop.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. and multimedia content to customers.com/nara. http://www.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. http://www. See the current selection at: http://video. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.medialogic.ourmedia.dfilm.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.google. http://www.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.com For an example of a video blog.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.addictingclips. voice.apple. tag them.veotag. the “triple play” of video. partners.bittorrent.com/ BitTorrent.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. low bandwidth video stream.uk/index. http://www. http://participatoryculture.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://www. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://www.rocketboom. employees.com/default.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. whether dial-up.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. http://www. See samples at: http://www.rocketboom. or set-top box.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. See examples at: http://www.” Users can upload video clips for free.concord.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. http://www.co. http://www. or students through a high quality.com/pressrelea ses. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.org/ At YouTube.youtube. http://video. http://www.xstreamengine.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. with IPTV. cellular.google.com.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. video.org/ In 1999. and maintains loyalty.

veoh. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .upenn.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.dvguru.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. http://www.co.masternewmedia.” Bibliography Atwere.500 vlogs organized by popularity.” http://www. http://www. by alphabet.pjb. 1.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning. 2005.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.uk/files/pdf/1443. video.masternewmedia. Online article at: http://www. www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005.thinkofit.” http://knowledge.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.org/doing/media.streamingmedia.ht m Canali De Rossi.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. https://www. For example. Pradeep (2004). http://www.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. D.masternewmedia. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.spider. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.com/ http://www.” http://www.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. t-learning Study . but business models are fuzzy.navy.com/seeds/index.co.educause.mefeedia.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.uk/tlearning/contents. which users can submit. Wi-Fi. Luigi (2005b). http://eduscapes. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. http://www. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. Dec. and Bates.mil/index.wharton.com/article. http://www.com/webconf/video. http://www. termed “mobile television.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. http://www.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. read “Ten video sharing services compared. The site already contains nearly 6. Luigi (2005a).org. (2003). and visual resources.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.” http://www.hpc. P.lsda. Robin Good Blog.pdf Bardia. Wi-Max. Peter (2003). Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.elearningcentre. and by tags.iptv-industry.elearnspace.edu/articl e. Beyond Wireless Broadband.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.masternewmedia.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.

2005. http://www. http://www. http://www1. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. Brian (2002).com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. (2003). Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. Brian (2005).com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . G.).com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb.XMax Goes The Distance.pdf Klass. and Young. Robin Good Blog. http://www.amazon. Manchester. 2005. Rana (2005). http://www.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.ibm. Networking Pipeline.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.msn. (2005).php Taplin. http://edmarketing.apple. In Richards. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. 2005.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .. Peter (2005). Changing Channels. Nov.bcr. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. 417-419).edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.umist.msnbc. L. The IPTV Revolution.cfm?fuse action=Reader. 2005. http://www2. Dec. June 6.networkingpipeline. 2.campustechnology. Feb. http://www-rcf. 7. Online paper. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.usc. P.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.ac. IAT Services White Paper. Matthew (2005). (Ed. S. http://www. 2005. (Eds.htm Curtis. C. University of Missouri. Durham. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Tom (2005).com/showAr ticle.masternewmedia.com/article. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. 8-9. http://www. Asensio. Newsweek (International Ed. pdf Nolle. IBM Institute for Business Value study. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. April 26. and Swenson.pdf Thornhill. Mon. Jonathan.org/newdl/index. http://www.asp?id=7769 Meng. discussions and implications. M.) (2002). NC: Duke University.aace. Campus Technology.

uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). desktop virtual reality.shapedc. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.org. exchange enabling. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. augmented virtuality. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.cs. and Religious Studies department. Shape has developed the augurscope. http://www.ubc. http://www. Videoconferencing is not required. http://solipsis. inventors. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. mixed reality. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.ca/index. By using aspects of game play.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. Exploration and discovery are enabled. virtual environments only on end-users' machines.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc.futurelab.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. and the aim of the virtual experience.ac. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. designers.kahootz. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.netofpeers.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. distributed virtual environments. Near Eastern. http://ancient. Depending on the level of realism achieved. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. http://www.org/highlights/augur. http://www1. simulation. and storytellers.arts. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.net/wiki2/index. Creed.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. http://www. interaction. skin color.columbia.equator. To do this. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry.

” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.campustechnology. A. (2006).as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. http://www.ergonetz.com/edu/index. Philopoulos.cti.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.html The U.. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. August 9. For example.ch/About/about_index. Campus Technology.cti.spider. and Tsiatsos. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.pdf Bouras.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. T. and Tsiatsos. including education.opencroquet.navy. 175-199. http://www.org/index. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). (2001). (2001).coe.healthdatamanagement. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.com http://www.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.ac. East Carolina University.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 .htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.ecu.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.ac.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. C.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . http://ru6. C.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). Hornig.epfl.edu/vrel. and Tsiatsos. > > http://www. G.pdf Bouras. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.. Research report. T.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.intuition-eunetwork.com/article.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. Luigi (2004). Paper presented at ICALT 2001. C. T. 24. 2006.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7.hpc. http://www.. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. Triantafillou.secondlife. http://vrlab. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.informationinplace.S. http://vr.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. V. https://www.activeworlds. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. http://ru6. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://www.cti. http://www. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. > http://vads.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.mil/index. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. http://www.ahds. Technology Area . http://ru6. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.html Bibliography Bouras.ahds.

Gerard (2002).oln. M. M. Conlan.ikg. http://www. M.tcd.Good Blog. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.edu.unt. (2005). 2004. Proceedings. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. July 9-16. 35. http://www.00. Donnelly. M. Eva (2004). https://www. McHugh. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Guardian Unlimited. M.htm Dickey.icc2005.actapress. and Seyedarabi.actapress.html Jones. Monahan.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (2005). Learning Circuits.pdf Ross. January 2005.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. and White.com/PaperInfo. Dobreva. M. 2004. (Section on Virtual Reality).ie/Owen.1314022.htm Katterfeld. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. http://www. E. C.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. Istanbul.cs. Web Based Education 2005 conference. http://www.pdf McArdle.masternewmedia. http://courseweb.actapress. A.learningcircuits. G.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. S. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. G. Trend: augmented reality check.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Michelle (2003).. (2005). (2004). Ekaterina (2005).pdf Hoare. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. F.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . http://www. La Coruna/Spain. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE)..guardian..monash. Dec. Web-based Education 2005 conference. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.unibo.p df Prasolova-Førland. (2004). J. and Hicks.10577. 28. 27.eng. and Sester. 2005. Lister.pdf Katterfeld. http://www. D. http://education.html Liarokapis. Abbott. Stephen (2004). O. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. T. C. and Mangina. http://www. (2005).org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends.digicult.. http://www. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Bertolotto. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. 1(2).unihannover.org/htmleng/english.elearning.com/Reference. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. A. http://www.uk/elearning/ story/0.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld.. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. Sept. ISPRS. Petridis.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. & Sester. and Rusbridge.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. 2004.com/PaperInfo. P.co. F. Sept. No.. P... Proceedings.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. http://www. 2004. R. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. 1. Vol. (2002).

allowing for innovation or new understandings. My first report in this series.ontopia. Humans analyze visual information better than written text.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. http://www. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. cybercartography.unifiedfield. and data rendering.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. see ZoomClouds. 2005). Finally. cognitive collage. reviewed visualization as an online content format. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. geographical information systems. dynamic displays. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. Flash. 2003).net/omnigator/models/ index. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. pattern recognition. et al. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. graphics. visualization can represent alternative points of view. location based systems. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. http://www. data mapping. data filtering. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. mapping. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. GIS. such as a blog. The educational advantages of visualization are many.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. which showcases their potential.com/solutions.ucar.inxight. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.dpc. http://www. On the other hand. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. See some amazing demos at: http://www.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.semagix. images. For an example.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input.zoomclouds. http://www. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation.

html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. http://news. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www.esa. http://www.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. VR. a young graphic designer.ul. Sample the collection at: http://svs.0 authoring system.skyscraper.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://chatcircles.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.org/timeformations/ intro.com/VBody.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.ac. It has images of space and the earth from space.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.medtropolis.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.edu/index.edu/ Paul Nixon.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.idc.typorganism.” http://www.vista. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . http://www. and visualization applications.alice. See his list of resources at: http://www.ubc. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.nih.in English or Spanish.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.esrin.com Web site in Tokyo.nixlog.ddd. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever. http://www.mit. http://www. April 7th.bham.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch.co.marumushi. delivery. See: http://www.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.”’ BBC News. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.bbc. http://www.” http://richie. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.html For a practical application of visualization.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. Museum Edition. http://www.cs.vrco. and display (without glasses!).pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.media. http://www. 2004.nlm. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. http://esapub.lecielestbleu.nasa.medibolt. Free demo at: http://www.gov/index.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival. http://www.utexas.gsfc. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.tmm. Be sure to explore the “zoo.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.

http://www.edu/postcartoaag06. http://www. http://www.vicodi.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. retrieval.S. http://makingmaps.owu.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.nlm. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. http://www.com/solutions.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.com CenterView http://www.at/home.umd.ambientdevices. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www. http://www.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.spotfire.com/index.com/applicati on.com/omni.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.amnh. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/cat/dashb oard/index. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/index.microsoft.com WorkPlace http://www.feedtank.nih. one million items.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. and information presentation.cs.cs. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.arcscience.ontopia.gfdl.unifiedfield.net/omnigator/models/ index.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.semagix. http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. See their tool set and examples of their work. http://www. http://www.html XCelsius http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. http://clustrmaps. in the U.mccrackendesign.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.idashboards.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. anatomically detailed. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. for example.corda. http://www.vrvis.noaa.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.org/about.html Top Tier http://www. http://research.xcelsius. See this technology in action.ibm.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.at: http://www.indiana.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.

microsoft. including the following: Voxler.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. MapViewer.visualthesaurus.pixologic.” http://www. http://www.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. and. including the following: Bryce. http://www.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.visualanalytics.softill.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. animation. and anomalies in data.mit. for thematic and analytical mapping.media.daz3d. and rendering software. for well log and borehole plotting. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.S. and rendering. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .formz. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. many of which are unique. Strater. http://www. http://www. http://www. trends. http://www.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.com Pixologic is 2.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.advizorsolutions.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.musanim.topozone.com/mam/mam. Didger. for 3-D landscaping and animation. http://www.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. http://research.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. They have worked with the U.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. http://www. for 3-D modeling. associations.intergraph.oziexplorer. for 3-D data visualization. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.5-D modeling and rendering software. modeling. Clicking a related term extends the process. http://www. http://www.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. http://www.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.golden.esri. http://tangible. http://www.goes far beyond static JPG map images.accurender.mapinfo.timemap.okino.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.visualcomplexity. http://www. http://www. for 2-D and 3-D graphing. Try a demo at: http://www. Grapher.com/vc/index. Carrara. http://www.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. networks. http://www.

http://www. B. is available online. EXYSTENCE network.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.com/ http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.” http://vis.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. Paris: La Haye.masternewmedia. http://www. M. and Resetarits. K.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. http://www. les réseaux.mit. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.org/index. Mackinlay.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www. Following are two: > > http://graphics. http://coe. Jacques (1983). P.iu. He finished his PhD.complexityscience. http://www. > > http://acg.edu/index. J.. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist..com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.ubc. 31-49 http://www.stanford. http://acg.topicmaps. Proceedings. both visualization companies. les cartes.net/printRec. The Semiology of Graphics.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.com/ Bibliography Alpert.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.cs. http://www. 14(1).agocg. > > http://www.ac.media. and Woodill.edwardtufte. J.mit. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.topicmap.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research .editlib.edu/eet/ Ell. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.gvu. Working Paper.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. G.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. A.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. http://www. together with their estimated depth of influence.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.edu/research/r esearch.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.media.pdf Bertin. Sherman (2003). Paier. Madison: University of Wisconsin. (Eds.ualbert a. (2003).infovis.gvu. > http://www. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences..liveplasma.fakespace.) (1999).edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. http://www. and Shneiderman.gatech.complexityandeducation.sdsu.pdf Bergmann. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. Jacques (1967).vrco. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.gatech.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. J.

DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. Educational Media International.digicult. A. and Woolsey.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Donnelly.pdf Shneiderman.pdf Scaife. (2005). Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. (1998). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 3(1). (2004).cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Campus Technology. G. M. available online at http://www. (2006). http://itdl.html Ross.org/index. Robert. Durham.com/publications. http://www.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . J. J.html Rhyne. http://www. http://www. P. 4(1).org/dl/index. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.univparis5. S. August.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell.html Madhavan.. http://createdrealities. Spence. Harlow. (2005). K. C. 46: 461-488. (Section on Visualization). Yvonne (1996).org/Journal/jan_06/article02. http://www.asp?id=11222 Metros. Mike and Rogers. pp. Dobreva.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. eLearning Developers’ Journal.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. http://www. August 11. http://www. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. Abbott. 4th Edition. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.pdf Goldfarb.. M. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.istituti.fr/CanJ/CanJ. and Knezek.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. http://www.amazon.ht m O'Regan. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. Switzerland: University of Lugano. 2. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. England: AddisonWesley.campustechnology. 185–213 http://www. Theresa (1998). A.com/articles/abs tracts/index. 2005. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. http://nivea.psycho.amazon.siggraph.asp Mittal. L.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Ruth (2003). 45. Information Visualization. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. pp. Vol. K. NC: Duke University. June 1. 3. (2005). G.editlib. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. B.aace. No.slis. Morales. Luca (2003). Vol. and Pagalthivarthi. 41(3). A.indiana.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. September. Brian (2002). http://www.. 17-30..agocg. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. 329-351. 16(4). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. and Rusbridge. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. Brent (2006). (2001). 1-34. International Journal on E-Learning.K. (1992).ac. Reading. and Bertoline.amazon. Luca (2005). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Arns.elearningguild. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Siggraph. McHugh. 69-82.com/article. January 2005. Canadian Journal of Psychology.usilu.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638..Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.educause. Lugano. http://www. EDUCAUSE Review. http://www.cfm/files/pape r_5994. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. (2005).com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. D.. 42. http://www. No. K. S. May/June. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.

and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Edward (2001). Threshold.com/tufte/index Ware.ciconline. Visualization. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Matt (2002).edwardtufte. http://www. http://www. http://www. Envisioning Information.com/tufte/index Tufte.E. M.amazon. From multimedia to multisensory education. Information Visualization: perception for design. Colin.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Press.com/tufte/index Tufte.amazon. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon.edwardtufte. David (2002). Amsterdam: Elsevier. evidence and narrative.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Edward (1997). 2nd Ed. 2nd Edition. http://www. Sharpe.org/threshold Tufte. Cheshire.edwardtufte. Cheshire. Fall. http://www. (2004). New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Edward (1990). http://www. CT: Graphics Press. Computers. David (2005).596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. Cheshire.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. CT: Graphics Press. Digital Information Graphics.

cogs. 1996).ieee. In the near future. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. http://www.skype.ac. http://www. March 2005.elearningcentre. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Internet telephony. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. Geraldine (2005).htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.voipreview. http://www.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. http://www.susx.html Do not reproduce 203 . http://www.spectrum.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. http://www. requiring an Internet hookup.weblogsinc. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. communications tools. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Join the discussion at: http://voip. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Internet telephony is relatively simple. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. http://www.envisioninc.jajah.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. http://www.infoworld. headphones or speakers. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. Using VoIP.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.org Bibliography Cherry. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. in remote communities. Steven (2005). and a microphone. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. http://www.avaya. but it is rapidly improving.co. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. IEEE Spectrum Online.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.

Ganchev.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Meredith (1996).org/xpl/freeabs_all. I. (2005). M. Robert (2005).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. http://ieeexplore. 9-12.pdf Ottoson. Language Learning and Technology. 9(3). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. S. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.. Stojanov. http://llt.msu. http://www.nald.ieee. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. and O’Droma. September. Mobile distributed e-learning center.

and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.edu/design/VuMan. training to do their jobs. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.sportbrain.co. The entire system. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. http://killer.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.cmu. Do not reproduce 205 . thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. It is attentive to the surrounding environment.checkpointelearning. Selected Examples In Europe. anytime. including wearable computing. http://killer.ices. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. http://news.com/Home/Home.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.cs.hubuska. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. For example.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. It is controllable by the user 5.pdf http://www.learnexact. In January 2006.bbc.cmu.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. or repairing complex machines. http://www. the automotive industry.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. It is observable by the user 4. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. especially for comercial airlines. http://wearables.ices. http://www. ubiquitous computing > http://www. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. including batteries. 1998): 1. training. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. like a wristband or jewelry. and other organizations involved in inspecting. 6. managing.ac. weighs less than three pounds.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.edu/design/Ion.bris. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.

See: > > > http://genesis.htm Mann. Wired News.org/index_graphical.com/read_arti cle. S. http://www.http://www.gsfc. May 12-13.ethz. M.ac. Olga (2005).cs.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.edu/ http://wearcam. Wearable Computing for the Commons. Steve (1998). Simson (2004).ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.nasa.wired.html The design of “smart clothing. ICWC98. http://www. VA.ht ml http://www. and Lupisella. http://www. http://www. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.eee. March 24.bham. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. March 8. Mmoma (2006).704 81-0.wearable.mit. http://www. especially in the area of wearable cameras.org/index.wired. C. Wearable computers that you can slip into. and Levene.eyetap.com/news/culture/0.technologyreview.businessweek.eecg. Fairfax. (2004).org/icwckeynote. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.html Garfinkel.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.edu/research/wear ables/index.eecg. http://about. 1. and Niedzviecki.org is a rich source of references. (2002).toronto. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.uk/wear-it http://www. http://www.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. Technology Review (Online).pdf Kharif. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.com/news/culture/0. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Dec. H.jisc. 2006. Business Week Online. What you’ll wear in 10 years.” including computers built into underwear.704 81-0. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Toronto: Anchor Books.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. 2004.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. S.uoregon. (2003).shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.media. http://www.ac. http://isd.toronto.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. 2005.amazon. http://wearcam.uk/index.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. M. http://www.

Both RSS and Atom are written in XML.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. and laptops. and electronics. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. CDs.com/productBlog Express.com/ 7. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.awasu.com/ 5.bloglines. podcasts.” as its content is changed by the author.com/ 8. each with its own features. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources.html 6. Attensa http://www. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. blogs. TV guides. Aggie http://bitworking. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. job searches.com 9.net/dl. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.com/ 4.com/ampheta desk 3. > For learners and teachers.0 format). with all the potential for viruses and spam. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Here is a list of 48: 1.org/Aggie. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. basic text format for quick review. including cell phones. and course offerings.brightcove.attensa. Awasu http://www. Bloglet http://www. Amphetadesk http://www.bloglet.html 2. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. and Atom is the second. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. To read content from a Web feed. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). When changes are made to a Web site. photo collections.disobey. Brightcove http://www. listings of the latest books. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. BlogLines http://www. PDAs. social bookmarking. feeds. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one.

rojo.ht ml 20.bytescout.newsgator. FeedScout http://bytescout.puremis. FeedPublish http://www.newsisfree.onfolio.com 28.projectdu. Project D.feedroll.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.com 40.com/ 19.rssreader. Reader http://www.topix.com/v2 33.mozilla.feed-directory. FeedBurner http://www.hexamail.net/ 26.com/ 46.com/ 42.com/today/ 36. Feedster http://www. Newsgator http://www. To have a blog aggregated. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.feedpublish.uk/rssreader / 23.com 14.rssreader. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .2 http://www.mozdev.com/ 30. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. RSS Software http://www.feedster.sharpreader.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. Fuzzy Duck http://www.fuzzyd.com/ 15.feedburner.com/ 34. SharpReader http://www.com/ 25.http://www. Videora http://www.com/ 43. Feed-Directory http://www.php.org/ 37.com/ 22.downes.html 27.feedzilla.com/rss/ 39.org/ 44.net/ 24.com/ 31.rssbandit.feedreader.10. Feedtier http://feedtier. including listings for various electronic devices.shtml 11. RSS Bandit http://www. FeedReader http://www.com/myrssto olbar.com/ 21.learningfeeds.pubsub. feedbeep http://feedbeep.sh tml 41.com/rss2exc hange/ 38. Edu_RSS 0.blogplanet.U. Thunderbird http://www. Protopage http://www. LearningFeeds http://www. Sage http://sage. Feedroll .net/index.somee.ca/edurss02. StepNewz http://www.protopage.com/thunderbir d/ 48. My RSS Toolbar http://www. OnFolio http://www.feedforall. RSS2Exchange http://www.net/ 45. NewsIsFree http://www.rsscalendar. EaZy RSS reader http://www. Syndirella http://yole. PubSub http://www.com 18. Gregarius http://gregarius.co. FeedForAll http://www.com/ 17. see: http://www. RSS Orbit http://www.com/ 13.com/feedscout. RSS-to-Javascript http://www. Pluck http://www.com 32. Rojo http://www.videora.com/ 29.com/ 16. RSSCalendar http://www.h tm 12. Topix http://www.hebig.com/ For a list of more aggregators. RSSReader http://www.pluck.rss-to-javascript.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.

htm Downes. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.downes.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.com/news/showS tory. Stephen (2002). 2005.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. 3. USA Today (online). Learning Circuits. Robin Good Blog. 1. Lamb.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.1.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. maintains a long list of RSS resources.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. D. Vancouver.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. 5-8.htm D’Sousa. http://www. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.elearning.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. University of North Carolina. Aug. a blog by Alan Levine. Eva (2004). Stephen (2004). and Norman. June 2004.vccs. http://www.usatoday.teachinghacks.htm Levine. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.dist. http://careo.masternewmedia.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.ca/files/RSS_Educ. Version 1. B. 31. May 2004. Luigi (2004). Online paper.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. RSS: a learning technology.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.eschoolnews.ca/files/RSS_Educ.pdf Canali De Rossi.com/wiki/doku.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.htm David. http://www. http://www. May 19. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.ubc.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. Quentin (2006).edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. (2003).contentious. http://www. Bill (2003).redjupiter. Dan (2004). and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Oct. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. eSchool News. RSS Ideas for Educators. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.mcli.htm Harrsch.maricopa. http://www.Possible Future Evolution. The Technology Source Archives.pdf Gannett.php 2003. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . Aug.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends.ca/edu_rss..teachinghacks.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. Do not reproduce 209 . RSS: the next killer app for education.elearningguild. http://www.ca/cgibin/wiki. http://www.downes. and D’Arcy Norman. Brian Lamb. Anh (2005). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. http://www. July/August 2003. http://timyang. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. Learning Circuits.mcli.maricopa.wcc. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. 2003.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. http://www.dist. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.downes. Brian Lamb. Aug.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. Mary (2003). http://www. http://www.lo. 2004. http://technologysource.learningcircuits.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. A. 2004. BC.learningcircuits. Online paper. Read his article written specifically for educators. RSS could transform online communications.

mediathink. http://www.infoworld. 2005.html MediaThink (2004). 13. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. InfoWorld.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index. http://www. Google Reader Blog.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Alexandra (2005).html Samuel.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. http://www. Sept.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.Levine. http://www. Namespaced extensions in feeds. http://www.html?page=1 Udell. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.oreillynet.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Using RSS for data integration. 2006.xml.theshiftedlibrarian.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. and Webb. 2006.alexandrasamuel. July 7.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . March 23.pdf Parparita. Jon (2005). M. 3. T. RSS: the next big thing online.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. http://googlereader. Jenny (2005). Aug.html Powers.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Mihai (2006). MediaThink White Paper. http://www. (2006). 2005. The Shifted Librarian. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. O’Reilly Network. 2005. Otherwise Engaged.blogspot. Shelly (2005).oreilly. June 18.

000 articles in English in Wikipedia.org/tiki-index.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. and email notification. custom permissions.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.net/features. http://www. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. For wikis to work. http://www.sourcewatch. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. Do not reproduce 211 .com/cgibin/wiki.10.” Essentially.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.usemod. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. http://www.wikipedia. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. can be used by a team for joint writing. http://www.usemod. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. RSS. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. Anyone can add to it. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. 4. With some basic instructions. 2005). an image gallery.org/index.tikiwiki. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. http://www. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. it is important to have several contributors. 3. the software used to run Wikipedia.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. There are now over 1. Content is ego-less.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.seedwiki. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.gilbane.sourceforge. features. http://www.300.com/cgibin/mb.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. is available for other applications. http://www. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. 2. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. and never finished.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. approaches. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.schtuff. http://wikipedia. time-less. and projects. My first report in this series. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.com/artpdf/GR12. See the progress at: http://edu.

His article. A free trial is available.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. Andrea (2003). Australia. http://www.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. http://flosse.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. http://careo. Operation of a Large Scale. R. Dec.com/ WritingWiki.ubc. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. http://kairosnews.co. Twiki. and Zhou.infoworld.Weblogs. 5-8.se/wikipaper. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. is provided by David Mattison.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.nu’s first nine months in service. http://m.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. Perth. including a section on wiki tools. Swiki.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://whiplash. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. including wikis. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.org.socialtext. that she updates regularly.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.html Ciffolilli. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .html Augar.jot. Phantom authority. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. http://radio.48. http://www. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Raitman. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.com/wwwtools/m/25242.elearning. http://www.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. http://64. “Quickiwiki.html Bibliography Aronsson.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.ucalgary. http://www. http://www.infotoday.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. http://www. http://weblog. http://aronsson. (2004). Teaching and learning online with wikis.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.dicole. as well as an analysis of how they work.com/ Jon Udell.pbwiki.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16.different. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis..elearningcentre.learningwiki.” is a rich source of information on wikis. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. 8(12). Dec.wikibooks.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. http://www.ascilite.” http://writingwiki.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. First Monday. http://en. of the University of British Columbia. L.shtml Brian Lamb.ikiw.” http://tlc. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. W. N. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.71.org has lots of resources on wikis. (2002).uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.fasfind.

amazon. 19. Educause Review. David (2003). http://gilbane. (2001).. and Webb. http://www. July 7..org/content/v5. Wiki pedagogy.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Anja (2004).zkm.14 02872. M.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. International Journal of Information Ethics.html Tomkin. L. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.pdf Fountain. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.pdf Kulisz. Jon (2004). http://c2. T. David (2004). The wiki way. Bo & Cunnin.shtml Rubenking. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. http://www. http://www.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.html Stafford. Emma (2005).Oct. (2004). W.00.educause. Issue 42. Cossarin.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004.oreillynet. 2006. 2005.com.html Wood. July. Online article. January. Lauren (2005).. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. http://www. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.http://firstmonday. Online article.pcmag.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).infoworld.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. UniversityWiki.com/article2/0.. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Clark.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Nov. Searcher.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. 36-48.uk/issue42/ Udell. Oct. and Rudolph. J.profetic. Online article at: http://www.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer. Quickiwiki. Brian (2004).com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Swiki. Richard (2003). 2. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. April 2003. http://www. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.irrodl. (2006).infotoday.usemod. Wiki Tools. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. S.ac. Renée (2005).10.1/technot e_xxvii. 12(10). April 2004. Ariadne. http://www. Neil (2003).php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. http://www.com/artpdf/GR12.asp Schmitt.pdf Leuf. Online paper.com/cgibin/mb.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.4149. http://www. http://Weblog. InfoWorld. O’Reilly Network.ariadne. Why Wikis Work Not. 2004. http://container. Twiki. Making the case for a wiki. Sept. Online article at PCMag. M.

Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. in turn. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. After a product has been successfully launched. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . floppy disks. which can then lead to inventions. which. CD-ROMS. However. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears.

professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. ascend the curve. to the complex. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . However. in part. The experience of younger learners with television. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. video games. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. or may never become commercially viable. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and decline. while others will last for decades. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. in both formal and informal settings. For a variety of reasons. change itself seems to be inevitable. Further. means that they actually think differently. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. Some will die quickly. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. mature. this approach is now rapidly changing. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. Ontologies.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. some will never leave the development stage. both in classrooms and online. In any field. The technology of e-learning. This is due. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. But not all technologies will travel this road. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. and computers. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. peak. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. 2003).

For example. the space race. However. digitization of smell. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. the civil rights movement. in a back-and-forth exchange. video games. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. results in an action by the other participant. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. The children of the baby boomers. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. mobile phones. terrorism. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. 1994). wearable computers. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. commercials. Then even more movement. and personal digital assistants. In contrast. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. Once we master the art of reading. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. For the older generation. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. that is all about to change. Within the next five years. huge data wall displays. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. sex. surprise.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . gaming consoles. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. we will see the restructuring of education and training. 28). Because of this. the learner. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. But they are usually disap-pointed.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. With feedback.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. p. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. whereby the action of one participant. 2002. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. It works for a time. television. In North America. libraries. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. until we become habituated. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. To keep our attention. ecological disasters. generally went to work earlier. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. The speed of change increases with each passing year. In approaching electronic educational media. touch and taste. movie theaters. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. mind-altering drugs. the computer. global warming. or violence is needed to keep our attention. the baby boomers. born in the 1970s. designers of Sesame Street. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Their children. and digital ink and electronic paper. Generally. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande.

com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. http://www.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Likewise.amazon. Bob (2006). Gary (2006). Marc. Clayton (1997). Dallas. Texas. At the individual level. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content.amazon. portfolios. (2001).amazon. Douglas (2005). The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. shortly. May 2006. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. http://www. Rushkoff.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. or can be more bound up by the technologies. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. Two hundred years ago. Guides are optional. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. James (1994). It is already a place for massively multiple player games.operitel. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. technologies and services for the next 5 years.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. and the mapping of everything. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. http://www. http://www. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. In the next wave. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). New York: Collins. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.amazon.com Bibliography Christensen. http://www. New York: McGraw-Hill. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Digital Game-based Learning. creative products. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler.amazon.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 .

informatik.auburn.ac.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. 2910-595 Setúbal .agentlink.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. Palo Alto.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. 3400 Hillview Avenue.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.se/~muse/hom e. Box 513. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.unige.de/link/affective_port al.cs. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.org/ AiLive Inc.media. Building 5. New York.umu.bartneck. Manuel I. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.51.webist.O. 27A 2º esq. UK http://www.bham. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .net/ Auburn University Auburn.myself-proj. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. CA 94304 USA http://www. 1515 Broadway. 17th Floor.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. D. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. Den Dolech 2 P.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.mit. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.Portugal Tel.ailive.com/ WEBIST Av.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.nngroup. L69 7ZF. Marc Schröder.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.

com/ Apple Computer. N. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.computer.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.au/index.com Alchemy Mindworks P.ascilite. Washington.isi. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Box 5200.ascension-tech.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.W. O. Box 527. Inc.org. L69 7ZF.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. Bloomington. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . Huntsville. Box 2124 Menlo Park.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.ac.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.animationfactory. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue. #1910.extempo.apple. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. W Toronto.O. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. Inc.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.O.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Secretariat.codebaby.csc. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. 1900 East Tenth St.edu Extempo Systems.informatics.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. Edmonton. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.educause. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Suite 206 Boulder. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.indiana. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.mindworkshop. P. Burlington.animats.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.redwoodelearning.rit.adobe.liv. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.

California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.org/ SWiSHzone.com/home. TN 38152 USA http://www. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.A.com/index. Avid Technology Park.com/ NewTek. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.cognitivesciencesociety. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.San Rafael. Suite #480 Torrance. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . Inc. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.aaai. 110 Cuba Mall.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.pact.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research .460.macromedia.viewpoint. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.newtek.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. Tel: +1.cs. Inc.autotutor. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com Pty Ltd The Basement. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.siggraph.massivesoftware.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. PO Box 24478. Santa Barbara.autodesk.catoolkit. Wellington. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.asp EI Technology Group. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.com/ Avid Technology.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.aclweb. 190th Street.S.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.psych. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. San Antonio.eitechnologygroup.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.htm Macromedia.com/pub/index.818.avid. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. One Park West Tewksbury.org/home.ucsb.6450 http://www.html Ulead Systems 970 W.cmu.swishzone. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.

Stuart Building 235 Chicago. 100 Sherbrooke St.cs.enel. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.ca/eng/inde x. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. u. 1. Suite K.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Suite 1500 Montreal. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. H-1111 Budapest.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.virtuelage.cmu. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.edu Quantum Simulations.10th Street S. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. Inc. Calgary. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.iit. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.W.ke-corp.cis. Calgary.umuc.stottlerhenke.it. CA .com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www..licef.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. Chantilly.wpi.eden-online. East Adelphi.cs. Alberta. West Montreal. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.uquebec.edu.W. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.com/index. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.org/eden.ucalgary. Suite 360 San Mateo.brainbench.usyd.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.com Do not reproduce 221 .cs. Egry J.edu.unisa.gemini.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.teluq.

edu National Institute for Science Education University of Wisconsin-Madison 1025 W.rmsuk.tcet.pedagogue. of Wolverhampton Technology Centre Wulfruna Street.horizonwimba. FL 32720 USA http://www. Norwalk. Suite 105 Princeton.ac.O.uk/home. Box 317 New Hartford.questionmark. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 212 533 1775 Fax: +1 212 533 6041 http://www.au Computer Based Assessment Project Univ.org Latent Semantic Analysis @ UC Boulder University of Colorado.scit.Centre for the Study of Higher Education The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Tel: +61 03 8344 4605 Fax: +61 03 8344 7576 http://www. Measurement and Evaluation Room 247 Armory.unt. MC-528 505 East Armory Avenue Champaign.quintcareers. Newtownabbey.com Questionmark 535 Connecticut Avenue. NJ 08541 USA Tel: (609) 921-9000 Fax: (609) 734-5410 http://www.com Red inQ c/o Hurix Systems Private Limited 4064 N Lincoln Ave. Suite 201 Peterborough. TX 76203-5280 Tel: (940) 565-4433 http://www.edu/home University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources c/o Kathy Duvall. Colorado 80309 USA Tel: (303) 492-1411 http://lsa.uk/cticomp/CAA.ingeniousgroup.redinq. html Resource Management Services The Old Vicarage 10 Church Street Rickmansworth Herts WD3 1BS England Tel: +44 (0)1923 770077 http://nt.com Quintessential Careers DeLand.flaguide.org Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte Street.oir. NJ 08540-3674 USA Tel: (609) 921-7585 http://www.ets. IL 61820 USA Tel: (217) 333-3490 http://www.operitel.colorado. Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (705) 745-6605 Fax: (705) 745-1248 http://www.O. CT 06057 USA Tel: (888) 541-4896 Outside the U. CT 06854 USA Tel: (800) 863-3950 http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft c/o Ingenious Group LLC P.: (860) 738-2231 Fax: (860) 738-2241 http://www.ht ml 222 © Brandon Hall Research .htm CTI Computing Faculty of Informatics University of Ulster at Jordanstown Shore Road.com Texas Center of Educational Technology P.com Pedagogue Testing c/o Pedagogue Solutions 100 Thanet Circle. Suite 100.S. Suite 753 Madison. Co.cshe. Suite 2300 New York. WI 53706 USA Tel: (608) 263-9250 Fax: (608) 262-7428 http://www. Boulder.uiuc. Antrim BT37 OQB N. Ireland Tel: +44 (0) 1232 368020 Fax: +44 (0) 1232 368206 http://www.unimelb.com/redinq/html/index.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.wlv.html Diploma c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Wolverhampton WV1 1SB UK Tel: +44 1902 321402 Fax: +44 1902 321478 http://cba. Box 305280 Denton. Suite #282 Chicago IL 60618 USA Tel: (773) 769 3100 Fax: (773) 409 5470 http://www. Johnson Street.edu.ac.com Educational Testing Service (ETS) Rosedale Road Princeton.ulster.

OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 Do not reproduce 223 . Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.edu iTunes Apple Computer.vantagelearning.com Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www.cakewalk.com/AudioTools/inde x.sonicfoundry.com Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Madison. Suite 200 Ottawa.accordent. Inc. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www.com/home.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd.automaticsync. Inc.com Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston.com XStream Software.envision.xstreamsoftware.. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www. West Perrysburg.html Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www. Suite 100 Newtown..com/ AcroServices c/o L.com Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Laurent Blvd. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Continental Blvd. 50 Hunt St. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www.com/lipsync/ind ex. 2280 St. Ontario.e-learningcentre. S1 2NS UK http://www.com Accordent Technologies 300 N. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.avsmedia.com AudioLink. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma.purdue.bias-inc.A.epnweb. CA 951102704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. San Jose.adobe.com Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www.aspx BIAS. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. Cooper Buildings.Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive.com Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh.org e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www.uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Inc.audiolink. 860 Sandalwood Road. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Arundel Street. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www. Suite 200 El Segundo..adobe.co.apple. Grime and Associates.. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.multitrackstudio. Sheffield Technology Parks. Sheffield. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www. Watertown.

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com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. Ste 202 Encinitas.com/coursegen.5709 http://www. Inc. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. 4.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. Suite 200 Tampa.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www..codebaby.seminar. 55 South Market St.thinkingcap.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.sensalearning.com Trainersoft FunEducation. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Gandy Blvd.turbodemo. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.83 01 616 http://www.com DA Group The Lighthouse.com/products/study mate.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.qarbon. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. SC. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.suddenlysmart. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.xplana. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. #1910.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. 323 Newbury Street Boston.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. 10004-104 Avenue. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. Inc. Germany Tel.respondus.hunterstone.time4you.syberworks.co. CA 92101 USA http://www.percepsys.funeducation. Edmonton. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.4259 Fax: (760) 635. +49(0)721.maxit. Suite 1550 San Jose.toolbook. Redmond. 76133 Karlsruhe.

opera. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.com GTCO CalComp.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.html Knowledge Environments. Dale Mabry Hwy. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.co. 6th Flr.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. Birmingham.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.co. CA 94608 USA http://www.redwoodelearning.com WaveMarket. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.qelix. USA http://www. INDIA. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.daden.flock.vcom3d.oddcast..O.cramersweeney. 219 Tampa. Mumbai 10. B13 9SG. Suite 900 Austin. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. Nesbit Rd.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.uk/chatbots.omnigroup. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 ..com Moorestown. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Inc. P. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Moseley. Mazgaon.active-learning-site. W Toronto. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. Suite 260 Orlando.com/v2/index.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Inc.com OmniWeb Omni Development.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Inc. Mary Apts..mozilla.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. 11th Floor New York.knowledgeenvironments.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Ste.telsim. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.wavemarket.tmmy.blogburst.. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.O.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Inc. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.

2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.bantu. Suite 522. Ontario.com Brightidea. 6th Floor New York.pearsoned. SW. NJ .com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.physics. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Inc.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. Somerset. Jospeh Street. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.com 404 Fifth Avenue. Puyallup.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. 12617 Meridian E. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.optiontechnologies.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.qwizdom. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.edu Batipi 11 St.Columbia. Draper. Inc.com BlueTie. Inc. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. Amherst.brightidea.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.bluetie.adobe.brevient.944.com Centra c/o Saba.gtcocalcomp. Pleasant St.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research .inteam. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.backpackit.caucus. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. 1192 East Draper Parkway. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. 100 North Lake Avenue.umass.telnetz.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Suite# 401.aspx Qwizdom. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.avecomm. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Suite 103 Toronto. Orlando. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Inc.batipi.smartroom. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Suite 101E Falls Church.saba.com.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. #205 Pasadena. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. Inc.0162 http://www. Pittsford.

edufolio.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. 6th Floor San Francisco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.communiqueconferencing. Inc. 1034 N. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.digite.communityzero.epam-pmc. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.convenos. San Jose.citrix.com Digi-Net Technologies. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.html Citrix Systems. Suite 600 Ottawa. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.cisco.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.engineering. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . 57th Street Gainesville.courseforum.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.centraldesktop.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. Lauderdale.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.emc. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. Sanibel FL.elluminate.comotivsystems.W.com LLP PO Box 325. Inc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.com Cisco Systems.collaborationloop.com Engineering. 170 West Tasman Dr.com Digité. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. 232 http://www.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft..digi-net. Suite 630 McLean. Inc. 795 Folsom Street. Inc. Suite 950 Portland. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.same-page.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Ontario.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. 82 Pioneer Way.

PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.V.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 395 Encinitas.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. Suite 2300 New York.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.4517 http://www.com GoToMeeting.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.net Groove Networks.hotcomm.com B.com Groupwise c/o Novell.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Clevedon. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.facilitate. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.gotomeeting. Suite 500 Markham.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. El Camino Real. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.groupsupport.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.ezmeeting.exactamerica.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. ON.gordano.hp. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.forumone. Inc.glance.genesys.com Glance Networks.grapevinesoftware. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.horizonwimba.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.globalschoolnet.hyperoffice. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.groove.novell. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Inc. Inc.com c/o Citrix Systems. #115 Rockville.net GroupSupport. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.flypaper.net Global School Net 132 N. Ste.

MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.jdhtech.microsoft.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.netspoke.meetingone.com Do not reproduce 233 .interwoven.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.mayeticvillage. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.ivocalize. Inc. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.org/tools. Phoenix. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Suite #150 Herndon.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. Inc.com onProject. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Inc.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.interwise. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. Suite 1401 Denver. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com Interwise.intralinks.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. Suite 300 Torrance. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. 25 First Street.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. Suite 100 Tucson. 11th floor New York.liveoffice. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. 3 Wing Drive. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Suite 412 Cambridge.ilinc.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.ibm.inquesttechnologies. Sunnyvale.onproject.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Fordham Blvd.com Near-Time.linktivity.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.mspx LiveOffice.mitre. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. 44th St. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Suite 6500 Woburn.iceweb. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.near-time. 1289 N.http://www03.

ht ml Parlano 10 S.performancesolutionstech.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.parlano.radvision. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.photoninfotech. 3679 Concord Road.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Ste 275 Mill Valley. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Suite 200 Greeley.sharemethods. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .com/collabsuite/index.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Suite 210 Maynard. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.opmcreator.opentext. 1175 58th Avenue.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. P. 17-17 State Highway 208.com SpiderWeb Communications. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.oracle. Suite 1450 Chicago.com Selden Integrated Systems. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. 35.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Harbor.Adyar Chennai. 51.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. Cactus Rd. New No.com RADVISION Inc.sitescape. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.com Photon Infotech Inc.O.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Box 3325 York.project-open.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Suite B.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 445 Scottsdale.nagarro. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. Inc.microsoft. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.raindance. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.cyber-grad.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. Inc. Suite 440 San Jose.peoplecube.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. Inc.projectdox.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Riverside Plaza.com Raindance Communications.q2learning.seldensystems.

com Web Crossing. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.axista. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Inc.webtrain.tacit.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.vodium. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Suite 950 Washington. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Kierland Blvd.Box 2900 Alameda. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.sumtotalsystems.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. P.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.trichys.teamspace.tomoye. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. Suite 810 Toronto. Inc.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite 100 Scottsdale.viack. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.usabilityfirst.webex.teamdynamix.. Canada http://www.com Teamware P.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.webofficepoint.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.stalker. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Suite 100 Austin.backpackit.vignette.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.O.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.com/content/default. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.com/groupware/in dex.wave3software.webcrossing. Ontario M2N 6H8. Suite 1050 Vancouver.com Do not reproduce 235 . FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.net WebEx Communications.txl Viack 14811 N. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.webasyst.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.teamware.O.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.teds. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.outstart.saba. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.oracle.ca Do not reproduce 241 . MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. Suite 700 Arlington. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.technomedia.Suite 350 Toronto. Inc. 550 Queen St.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.sselearn. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Glebe Road.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Louis.isnewmedia. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Suite 260 Foxborough. 100 Foxborough Blvd.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com TEDS Inc.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. St. Chantilly. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.mgen.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.plateau. East .ssaglobal. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. Suite 1280 San Francisco.oracle.maxit.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.com. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. LTD 671 N. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Inc.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. Fifth Floor Montreal. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. West.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.meridianksi. 500 West Madison.teralearn. Suite 2200 Chicago.syntrio. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.sap.wizdom.com mGen Enterprise mGen.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.

NY.edutools. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. 4 Expressway Plaza. Victoria. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.sumtotalsystems.xtention. 122 West Way.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Box 9752 Boulder.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. 4th Floor Oakland. 240 Bay Street.O.avilar.ttg-inc.uwm.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.com Tracker.sir.wbtsystems. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.gyrus.vbtrain. Ontario. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Suite 200 Ottawa.info/index.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Suite 101 Houston. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Laurent Blvd. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Suite # 105 Columbia.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.cdlib.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.trainingpartner. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Inc. Inc. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. 17041 El Camino Real.arizona.risc-inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc. 2280 St.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.fldata.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.xstreamsoftware.vuepoint. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.

4464 Markham Street Victoria. AZ 85250 USA http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300.llearn.O.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.clarklabs. CT 06459 USA http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. Houston. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.geocomm. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Suite 1600 Tucson.plos. ETRAC. 5151 East Broadway. Fondren Library.unsw. SG1 2JY.com Do not reproduce 243 . OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.rice. Box 1892. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.dist. P.esri.cadcorp. Sterling Court. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.ca ENC Learning Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.mcli.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. Stevenage. Rice University. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.goenc. MS 44. Norton Road.lolaexchange.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.maricopa.eoscenter.org/eng/scientifiques.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.netera. Hertfordshire.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.O.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.lornet.edu/DesktopDefault.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. Suite 3100 San Francisco.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.thegateway.lrc3.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .merlot. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. AZ.com/gis4mt/index. Box 3000 Boulder.edu.

959 Concord Street. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.aaai.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.eee.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.edu. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.imsglobal. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. PMB #112 Lake Mary.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.berkeley. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.uk/handler/defaul t. Suite 501 Portland. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.mapinfo.mobilearn. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.ac. html ELSNET Trans 10. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.cancore. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.smm. Austria http://www.fi/english/page.com Metadata. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.cetis. Inc. of Geography.stockholmchallenge.O.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.org/ Spotlight Mobile. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.O. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. Inc.edu PanGo Networks. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.pangonetworks. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.knowledgepulse.org/aitopics/html/natlang. Dept.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Box 240000 Huntsville. P.5372. Suite 100 Framingham. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.intergraph.asp?path= 500.bham.ac. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.

1st Floor A .elena-project. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. Deane Rd. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.elsnet.ldc. 10010 USA http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com Groove Networks. Suite 300.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.com MoveDigital.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .asianart. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.internet2.stockholmchallenge.overnet.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.sun. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.seti. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. NY. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.org/site/pp.lexxe. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.movedigital. Inc.advancedreality. 19104-2653. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. PA.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.cetis. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .it Victoria.llearn.lockss.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Inc.net internet2.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. Italy http://tcc. Inc.ac.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.itc. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.upenn. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.groove. Whisman Road Mountain View.

17th Avenue SW Calgary.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Inc.333.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.elearningeuropa. 3016 5th Ave. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 3º 08021 Barcelona. Box 172 1039 . Minneapolis. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Suite 225 Santa Monica.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com ProQuest 789 E.com Presentations.virtualmuseum. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.rmv.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.apreso. Alberta.saba.proquest. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. Suite 600 Alpharetta. 3333 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.ca Slate Hill.executrain.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .lsc. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.macromedia.elluminate.cyberu.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.6526 http://www.teach-nology.mit.com/presentatio ns/index. New York 10973 USA http://www. NE Calgary.com Portals CyberU.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. Ninth St.presentations.worldwidelearn. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Alberta. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Inc.org Macromedia.microsoft. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.genesys.com 50 S. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.elementk.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.trainingregistry.com Teachnology.saba.

hp. Lindsey Bldg.html Norman.generalrobotics.com ReadyGo Inc. Michigan. SE-100 44 Stockholm.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.articulate. Box 2827. Union St. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.irc. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.org Evolution Robotics.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.ams.cmu.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Henrik I Christensen.evolution.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. D. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.aad.active-robots. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.raptivity. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Redmond.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.euron.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.atr. Suite B Orion.ac.ed. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Radstock Somerset.eng.whmsi.com Raptivity P. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. CA 94040.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. O.nasa.botball. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. Inc. Inc. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Centre for Autonmous Systems.gov.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.scate.rec. 130 W. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.com/halo/index.. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.osaka-u.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. SWEDEN. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . Chilcompton.org Euron c/o Prof.ri.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Pasadena. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.ife. Ste.readygo.

Suite 500 Oakland. Box 29141 San Francisco. DC 20013-1133 http://www.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.kartoo.dogpile. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.about. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.com Gada. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.ask.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.net/ Healthfinder P.gigablast.com Gnod.ac.koders.convera.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.gnod. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.Search Engines About.net Koders Inc.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com Google (including Froogle.findlaw.excite. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.healthfinder.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.6100 http://www.ixquick. Chicago.alexa.O.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.google.intute. 42nd Floor New York.info. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com Info. Inc. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.O. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.com excite.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Google. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Box 1133 Washington. Suite 60 Quebec. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.icerocket. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.copernic.com Ask.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .

INDIA. Suite 211 Palo Alto .com LitLinker c/o ACM. Inc.com/v2/index.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.edu/ PubSub Concepts. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. 23rd Oklahoma City.ibm. 6th Flr.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.netscape. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.biz Truveo.com SearchKing. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www.almaden.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. NY 10003. Ltd. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.82152 Martinsried http://www. Inc.metacrawler.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Suite 207 San Francisco.cs.searchking.nyu. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.seekport.com/ Netscape AOL LLC. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. 601 108th Avenue NE.pubsub.looksmart.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.truveo.cfm?doid=10 56808.http://www.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. Inc.technorati. 7th floor.W.org/citation.1057022 LookSmart. 64 Fulton Street. Mazgaon. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.W..convera.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . Inc.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Mary Apts.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Inc.qelix.com Pandora Media. Mumbai 10. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. Nesbit Rd. New York. 23rd Floor San Francisco.rawsugar.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp. 625 Second Street San Francisco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Seventh Floor New York.lexxe. 17th Floor New York. Suite 1200 Bellevue. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.pandora. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.krugle. 360 22nd Street. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 2400 N. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.mooter.msn.lalisio..acm.

CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.htm Yahoo! Inc. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.knowledgequest.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. 10 Old Bailey.com Assima Ltd.experiencebuilders. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.tkk. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.macromedia. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.New York.Project Coordinator CSI . CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.intermezzon. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. GreenPark Reading.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.O.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.ibm. Box 1558 New Canaan. EC4M 7NG London.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.zoominfo. Ontario. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.alphaworks.com Zoom Information Inc.com Flash c/o Macromedia.stt-global.forio.atghome.macromedia. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .elena-project. Inc.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.assima.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.ee.yahoo.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research . 1st Floor A . Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.personal-reader.biographix. Inc. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.seco. Yahoo http://www.columbia.

K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Taschereau Ouest. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.com Softsim Outstart Studio.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.eduperformance.cs. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. Suite 360 San Mateo.knowledgepresenter.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Inc.teds. Ontario. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Suite 1550 San Jose. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.knowledgeplanet.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Suite 300 Wichita. Québec. Laurent Blvd.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.muzzylane.com MASIE Center.. CA .maxit.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.com Stagecast Software. Schaumburg. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.net Do not reproduce 251 . Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. B15 2TT. Suite A-207 Brossard.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria..stt-global..com/English/t 6essai. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.qarbon. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. 2280 St. Light & Acoustics. Newburyport.stagecast. LLC 100 South Main Street.virtualcontrolroom. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.ac.com NexLearn.fsl.outstart.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. Suite 240 Atlanta.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Inc.knowledge-director. Suite 400. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.nexlearn.learning2005. 55 South Market St.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.xstreamsoftware.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Inc.noaa. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.assima.stottlerhenke. England http://www.bham. 1821 Walden Office Square.

friendster. Morton Street.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.classmates.tagzania. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. Suite 900 Austin. Box 920089 Needham.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 101 Wolf Drive.O.com/ mag.rojo.socialtext. SW. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Classmates Online. Suite 500 Renton.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. 2001 Lind Ave.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.analytictech.furl. WA 98055 USA http://www. CA 94089 USA http://del. Menlo Park. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.edu/index.shadows.us Eventful c/o EVDB.. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.com Spurl ehf.zvents. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. Suite 224 Bloomington. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.iu.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.eu Rojo Networks.checkpointsystems. Inc. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.networkltd. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. CA 94105 USA http://www.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Inc.gnolia. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.spurl. 655 High Street Palo Alto.. Thorofare.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.icio. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 625 Second Street San Francisco.icio. Inc. Inc. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.com Social Bookmarking del. Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text..netscape.com FURL c/o LookSmart. Suite 125 San Diego. Ltd.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. CA. 795 Folsom St.com Friendster.

Inc. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.html Jabber Software Foundation P. Suite 115 San Diego.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. CA 94105 USA http://www. Church Street. Box 1641 Denver. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Cupertino.dfilm. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com/halo/index.hp.spartasocialnetworks.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.sociosite.spider. CA 90028 USA http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.percro.1011 CM Amsterdam. CA 92121 USA http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . Suite 1001 Los Angeles.advanced.futurelab.org Veoh Networks.brightcove.bittorrent.apple.com Jabber Software Foundation P. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.O.com Do not reproduce 253 .com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. New York. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com iTunes Apple Computer. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com Brightcove. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.percro. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. Inc. 4th Floor Marshalltown.O. VA 23461-1924 https://www.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.jabber. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.net Sparta Social Networks. Suite 900 San Francisco. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.navy.org Fakespace 11 E.hpc.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.veoh.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.org.xstreamengine. Box 1641 Denver.activeworlds. 7220 Trade Street.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.jabber.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.fakespace.ergonetz.

Suite 3 Brooklyn.intergraph. Suite 280 Downers Grove.feedtank.esri. Suite 206 Bloomington.epfl.O.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway..idashboards. 1333 Butterfield Rd. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.accurender. Inc. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.mapinfo.501 North Morton Street. Suite 100 Lindon.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.cs.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.com/ MapInfo One Global View.ambientdevices.golden.xcelsius.advizorsolutions. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Draper. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.O. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.umd. Golden.edu/vrel. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.vista. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Inc.coe. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. IC ISIM VRLAB.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.com ESRI Suite 300. Cambridge.com Golden Software. Troy.ecu.V.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions.corda. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.informationinplace. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. Inc. Suite 317 San Diego. Danvers.daz3d. Suite 110 Troy. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.intuition-eunetwork. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. Columbus.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.ac. Williams Building College Park.bham. Tracy.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.com Intuition 9. 809 14th Street.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Box 884. 350 South 400 West.formz.

73 Princeton Street. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.topozone. California.com Spotfire. Unit # 1 Mississauga.softill.S.okino.musanim.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.org Visual Analytics Inc. 94043 USA http://www. Suite 102 Mountain View.microsoft. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. 212 Elm Street Somerville.nlm.skype. 20010 Fisher Avenue. A-1220 Vienna. RIDemo Brivibas 183. U.com Unified Field. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.vrvis. 155 Spring Street.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.spotfire. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Inc.inxight. Inc.pixologic. 2nd Floor Poolesville. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 869 97th Ave N. Inc.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.vicodi. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.nih. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Donau-City-Strasse 1.visualthesaurus. CA 94712 USA http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Inc. FL 34108 USA http://www. 2513 Charleston Road.jajah.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.sportbrain. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Ltd. Ontario L4V 1T8. Inc. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . Suite 3A New York. Unit A2 Naples.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.mccrackendesign. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.visualanalytics.ontopia. Riga. MA 01863 USA http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.net Pixologic.com JAJAH Inc. 9th floor New York.unifiedfield.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. 3 East 28th St.

Broadway.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.feedburner.org JotSpot.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.microsoft.onfolio. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.jot.brightcove. 200 2nd Ave. CA 95008 USA http://www.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.com Brightcove. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.attensa. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .ethz. Hanover.ch Web Feeds Attensa. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.V.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Inc.1001 W.mozilla.. Estonia http://www. Suite 100 Campbell. Suite 2260 Portland.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.pubsub. San Francisco. 167 Hamilton Ave.bloglines. 116 New Montgomery Street. P.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Suite 381 Vancouver. Tallinn. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Seventh Floor New York.feedforall.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Suite 900 Austin..com Feedster.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Building K Mountain View.feedzilla.rssreader.wearable. Inc.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Nederland Tel: +31. Inc. 64 Fulton Street.rojo. Valdeku 100.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. 795 Folsom St. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.feedster. Suite 605 San Francisco. 11211. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Inc. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Coldbrook Business Corp. First Floor. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.feedreader.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Switzerland http://www.com PubSub Concepts. South #358 St.pluck.715135858 http://www. Petersburg. Inc.com Rojo Networks. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

39. 64. 165 Air display. 139. 203. 35 Content management. 211. 52. 65. 189. 218 Agents. 159. 174. 101. 171. 18. 122. 197. 24. 83. 179. 13. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 169. 145. 51. 205 Animation. 57. 84. 91. 42. 193. 121. 24. 47. 192 Browsers. 59. 137. 39. 80. 195 Authoring tools. 170. 94. 57. 90 Assessment. 21. 30. 46. 139 assessment. 26. 35. 5. 42. 46. 43. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 15. 45 Avatars. 148. 89. 198. 66. 17. 45. 203. 191. 63. 46. 181. 50. 64. 196 collaboration. 67. 203. 69. 170. 16. 196. 6. 216 Computer based assessment. 85. 23. 23. 91. 91. 162. 20. 127. 189. 178. 97. 176. 114. 78. 198 Data mining. 8. 161. 48. 85. 70. 145. 70. 112. 190. 44. 26. 94. 140. 54. 146. 15. 127. 21. 11. 197. 118. 170. 82. 29. 27. 50. 180. 4. 93. 132. 149. 21. 145. 47. 53 barcodes. 65. 209 Augmented reality. 23. 21. 193. 48. 29. 63. 22. 59. 75. 158. 71. 52. 28. 56. 67. 199 Architectures. 69. 110. 46. 72. 226 Authorware. 26. 211 Broadband. 211. 12. 81. 81. 74. 101. 215 Communities of practice. 74. 109.Index 3-D graphics. 90. 49. 201 Adaptive systems. 150. 2. 66. 208. 196. 144. 50. 65. 50. 184. 116. 184. 211. 48. 85. 15. 153. 27. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 121. 122 Ambient computing. 79 Complexity theory. 74. 27. 31. 35. 80. 24. 93. 100. 112. 43. 119. 74. 5. 103. 65. 193. 63. 196 Dashboards. 25. 156. 174 Bayesian probability. 50. 170. 66. 24. 141. 86. 88 cybercartography. 70. 149. 27. 46. 127 Cooperation. 199. 84 Adobe. 52. 28. 193. 191. 69. 45. 127. 203. 66. 165. 28. 85 Blogs. 49 AJAX. 209. 160. 170. 212 Boolean searches. 95. 33. 27. 16. 176. 177. 69. 77. 18. 190. 67. 110. 189. 176 Cell phones. 207. 18. 22. 113. 122. 146. 29. 165. 125. 36. 135. 40. 15. 71. 159. 196. 44. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 174. 123. 200. 80. 93. 35. 16. 194. 66. 62. 201 cognitive collage. 196. 216 Affective computing. 21. 128. 171. 169. 4. 223. 83. 4. 36. 93. 160. 23. 20. 35. 146. 100. 59. 211 Communications Tools. 69. 117. 74. 50. 159. 60 Clickers. 217 Collaboration. 109. 70. 93. 63. 34. 207 Classroom response systems. 194. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 180 Competency Tracking. 25. 136. 138. 165. 36. 130. 23. 47. 74. educational. 100. 180. 97. 48. 196 cognitive maps. 7. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 172 Audio. 219. 127. 67. 145 Conversational learning. 194. 122. 128. 180. 209. 109. 125. 57. 171. 128. 160. 129. 116. 112. 78. 84. 190. 41. 196. 37. 46. 191. 231. 55. 209. 127. 39. 89. 65. 177. 47. 45. 72. 140. 72. 137. 58. 177. 193. 18. 68. 137. 180. 60 Cognition. 181.

23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 66. 154. 217 images. 162 History. 153 Facial recognition. 162. 119. 23. 7. 122. 120. 104. 9. 93. 16. 64. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 225. 127. 141. 216. 60. 20. 30. 203. 27. 238 Geocaching. 29. 32. 131. 64. 13. 94. 26. 69. 100. 119 FireFox. 45 Displays. 103. 6. 191 Games. 170. 72. 250 Folksonomies. 103. 52. 100. 158. 164. 173. 174. 11. 197. 167 evaluation. 184. 90. 86 Deep Web. 16. 122. 91. 196. 110. 57. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 215 Informal learning. 174. 33. 153. 27. 89. 15. 109. 186. 90 Experiential learning. 169 Expert systems. 101. 123 Hype in e-learning. 166. 119. 166. 80. 93. 169. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 4. 25. 71. 106 Haptics. 97. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 184 e-Science. 11. 108. 116. 219 Infrared tags. 69. 169. 106. 24. 28. 85 Extreme learning. 59. 187. 170.Decision support systems. 196. 180. 179. 114. 155. 86. 160. 151. 134. 79. 217 Instant messaging. 193. 91. 49 Google. 97. 106 Head mounted displays. 169. 196 e-Commerce. 81. 65. 88. 198. 21. 152. 163 Findability. 5. 24 e-Portfolios. 53. 31. 100. 54. 89. 106. 26. 37. 201 Grid computing. 146. 84. 134. 68. 156. 75. 25. 5. 35. 190. 84. 149. 194. 137. 74. 16. 172. 163. 35. 183. 216 Director. 13. 70. 106 Healthcare applications. 57 Flash. 97. 22. 176. 7. 51. 210 formative assessment. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 107. 4. 48. 20. 109. 23. 27. 109. 199. 158 Design. 159. 205. 200. 9. 158 Informatics. 178. 132. 125. 125. 216 Distributed systems. 60. 119. 196 Graphics. 88. 46. 200. 11. 127. 161. 66. 137. 189. 149. 93. 106. 152. 34. 30. 83. 85. 165 Handwriting recognition. 178. 121. 26. 70. 196. 11. 47. 18. 193. 110. 189. 26 Emotional design. 114. 88. 193. 134. 158. 120. 95. 9. 94. 80. 52. 88. 193. 197. 17. 122. 120. 5. 152. 193. 98 GIF graphic format. 11. 63. 19. 67. 3. 215. 121. 215. 35 Frameworks. 49. 48. 204 Dreamweaver. 33. 74. 49. 12. 124. 15. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 74. 57. 214 Human-centered computing. 175. 152. 162. 187. 180. 170. 45. 248 graphics. 89. 197. 107. 106. 94. 58. 210. 134. 124. 239 Individualization. 85. 201 FrontPage. 42. 139. 63. 25. 123. 45. 199. 146. 162. 13. e-learning. 133. 8. 198. 202. 86. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 25. 103. 25. 80. 37. 154. 88. 26. 88. 196 Immersive environments. 119. 20. 80. 3. 26. 4. 9. 23. 197. 49. 8. 217. 47. 101. 196. 134. 107. 34. 63. 75. 47. 78. 196. 45 dynamic displays. 5. 201. 199 Gesture recogntion. 170 Federated searches. 16. 59. 205 Hybrid systems. 55. 158. 176. 70.

34. 31. 69. 35. 137. 152 Networks. 174. 241 Learning Management Systems. 165. 176. 129. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 35. 64. 23. 161. 230. 124. 26. 45. 120. 17. 70. 196. 112. 86. 135. 166 PowerPoint. 74. 42. 180. 160. 178. 145. 11. 107. 80. 98. 152. 255. 15. 125 Lab book wiki. 18. 65. 97. 146. 127. 114 learning object repository. 180. 80. 47. 145. 135. 128. 250 mapping. 196 Pedagogy. 143. 43. 148. 241. 144 Navigation. 46. 93. 149. 175. 23. 85. 127. 216. 122. 27. 77. 130. 135. 48. 139. 66. 66. 134. 6. 124 iPod. 58. 127. 26. 43. 121.Interface devices. 153. 42. 82. 125. 78. 124. 220. 191. 54. 147. 216. 139. 45. 161. 22. 244 Meta-search engines. 4. 2. 166. 174. 114. 183. 134. 165 pattern recognition. 189. 21. 192. 23. 180. 162. 127. 165. 65. 32. 93. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 190 Knowledge base wiki. 191. 127. 49. 238. 7. 199 Neural networks. 144. 239. 107. 190. 127 Podcasting. 36. 193. 139 Personalization. 165. 125. 139. 48. 158. 4. 103. 8. 80. 156. 155. 205 Macromedia. 131. 111. 176. 110. 114. 121. 115. 233. 174. 137. 115. 149. 199. 68. 26. 116. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 213. 114. 181. 5. 127. 169. 46. 171. 79. 65. 186. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 49. 145. 76. 62. 215 Interoperability. 120. 134. 190. 240. 26. 109. 246 Location based tools. 130. 119. 211 latent semantic analysis. 81. 136. 256 Microworlds. 45. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 95. 100. 101. 112. 109. 42. 152 Libraries. 143. 122. 128. 42. 6. 122. 109. 146. 145. 62. 130 Mobile computing. 183. 135. 237. 110. 54. 150. 246. 114. 138. 45. 119. 145. 223 Portals. 36. 119. 6. 122. 40. 150. 113. 189. 189. 80. 171 M-learning. 199. 21. 205. 116. 141. 204. 242 learning object model. 226. 178. 120. 26 Metadata. 60. 140. 7. 170. 29. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 91. 108. 163 Microformats. 4. 34. 85. 123 Medical applications. 77. 125. 80. 244 Motion Graphics. 182. 156 Legacy materials. 128. 187. 7. 193. 81. 114. 189. 15. 114 Learning Objects. 148. 153 Microsoft. 172. 178. 165 Microlearning. 107. 97 Ontologies. 160. 211 Knowledge management. 139. 172. 119. 42. 190. 129. 246. 141. 45. 159. 176. 65. 16. 249. 191. 25. 25. 106. 116. 166 Pervasive computing. 26. 54. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 30. 6. 63. 90. 24. 152 Lecturing. 65. 90. 26. 17. 148. 53. 139. 59. 143. 194. 146. 113. 180. 146. 44. 140. 171 Metacognition. 124. 129. 191. 140. 138. 78. 6. 142. 234. 196 Mashups. 80. 69. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 89. 215. 128. 63. 43. 20. 20 Museums. 174. 60. 123. 109. 140. 137. 124. 47. 68. 154. 111. 47. 100. 47. 134. 206. 179 Optical tags. 124. 48. 192. 134. 149. 137. 119. 57. 7.

115. 129. 116. 150. 227. 167 reusable learning objects. 150. 75. 150. 171. 47. 203. 217 Translation. 148 Smart labels and tags. 191 Tangible computing. 95. 155. 132 Streaming video. 88. 54. 141. 141. 37. 174 Project management. 215. 122. 124. 166. 158. 106. 174 self-evaluation. 165. 125. 153. 50. 180. 134. 199 Taxonomies. 119. 109. 49. 16. 94. 191 Tours (online). 48. 175 Rapid e-learning. 152 Thin clients. 137. 170. 4. 69. 177. 52. 199 Turing Test. 109. 155. 125. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 152 Projectors. 89. 9. 123 Simulations. 144. 189. 81. 163. 36. 86. 180. 35 Quizzes. 64 Telephony. 88. 59. 80. 124. 47. 170. 65. 169. 139. 48. 35. 93. 174 Social bookmarking. 50. 52. 110. 40. 152. 211 Skypecasting. 215. 175 Tag clouds. 114 Robotics. 39. 155. 124. 179. 122 sharable content objects. 38. 11. 115. 42. 171 Scenarios. 57. 70 Radio. 48. 36. 37. 148. 35. 5. 178. 66. 36. 8. 178. 174. 11. 177. 47. 141. 34. 114 Repositories. 175. 54. 47. 35. 38. 54. 45. 170. 112. 134. 26. 172. 191 summative assessment. 159. 138. 177. 141. 72. 134. 203 Telepresence. 93. 181 Speech recognition. 175. 21. 183. 114. 174. 197. 156. 161. 91. 35 Semantic Web. 133. 149. 94. 119. 30. 216 Tests. 131. 205 Shockwave. 114. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 90 Reusability. 166. 124. 189. 48. 46. 179. 189. 118.Presentation tools. 20. 116. 159. 35 Symbology tags. 247 rapid learning. 68. 77. 189 Search engines. 199 Single-user wiki. 6. 5. 82. 196 Serious games. 160. 211 Tags. 180. 163. 74. 83. 135. 114 Screencasting. 247 Role-playing. 91. 167. 189 Television. 169. 207 Social networking. 22. 114. 11. 177. 39. 181. 57. 168 résumés. 26. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 168. 176. 62. 176. 50. 191. 119 quizzes. 46. 120. 131. 165. 54. 62. 125. 119. 117. 122. 110. 106 Proximity tools. 35. 74. 172. 48. 174. 46. 97. 179. 246 Privacy. 9. 160. 71. 171 Science. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 215. 186. 173. 27. 9. 184. 57 T-Learning. 27. 174. 225. 137. 83. 174. 119. 93. 47. 55. 40. 122 Tagging. 182. 154. 46. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 7. 84. 116. 154. 35. 169. 9. 74. 148. 188. 193. 15. 178. 47. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 131. 49. 158. 87. 165. 161. 189 Security. 36. 176. 153. 49. 185. 189. 26. 176 Team management. 190. 64. 26. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 209. 125. 221 SCORM. 162. 156. 4.

124. 9. 74. 43. 255 Web conferencing. 199. 159. 108. 148 Virtual classrooms. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 74. 239 Wikipedia. 210. 137 Virtual reality. 200. 106. 119. 192. 74. 106. 214. 187. 182. 189 Vodcasting. 215. 209. 196. 3. 165. 9. 65. 112. Gary. 69. 187. 100. 149. 57. 206. 209. 79. 4. 205. 56. 91. 68. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 203. 107. 211. 207. 191. 45. 51. 90. 216 Vlogs. 127. 57. 5. 7. 177. 189. 40. 194 Video. 189 virtual classroom. 113. 160. 123. 148. 154 Virtual learning environments. 150 Webinars. 215. 256 Webcasting. 89. 208. 67. 22. 177. 168 Do not reproduce 263 .Ubiquitous computing. 11. 200. 130. 60. 121. 137. 174. 148. 236. 66. 213. 198. 62. 123. 148. 253 Videocasting. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 148 Whiteboards. 44. 145. 49. 205 Usability. 80. 182. 190. 13. 255 Wearable computing. 216. 211. 98. 197. 46. 164. 176. 81. 88. 108. 106. 217 Word. 256 Woodill. 193 Visualization. 212. 193. 109. 210. 131. 64. 150. 212 Wikis. 211.