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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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Amy Davey. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. None of this would have been possible if my wife. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Pamela Fragomeli. This report. and services. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. I have provided links to online learning examples. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. will be available in early 2007. and support at all points of my career. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . and a bibliography for each of the technologies. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. Carlos Oliveira. along with an index. A third report. Thanks. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. The first report. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. editing. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Operitel’s CEO. Karen Anderson. lists of online resources. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. Grant Hamilton. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. technology. have supported this research from the beginning. Pierre Cahorn. the second in the series. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. Karen. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. Jennifer McDowell. Lise Bye. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. A special thanks to Michael Skinner.

The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. is a 2000 year old “technology. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. They are. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. many different ways to learn. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. and language for communication. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. linear teaching techniques online. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. or “reader. still used in many institutions of higher education. in fact.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word.just the ability to follow an example. But learning technologies have a much longer history. The modern classroom. With these reforms. A third way to learn is by seeing. Technologies are any technique. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Medieval universities followed the same practice. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. Learning became standardized and linear. We tend to forget. the raising of hands. with rows. to quote Donald Norman (1993). and recess. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. There are. class periods. the classroom became industrialized.” Starting in the first century AD. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. fire for warmth and cooking. or device that extends human abilities. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. detentions.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Do not reproduce 3 .” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Schools were started to teach accounting. for example. “things that make us smart. even if the originator of the words is not present. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. as books were scarce. that lecturing. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. material. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation.

2006). Eventually. and standards. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . Thomas Watson. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. At the same time.” In 1970. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Sadly. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets.” Similarly. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. memorizing. chairman of IBM. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. and reciting. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. However. When a new technology is introduced. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. changing the practice of teaching. it needs to adhere to architectures. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. When a new technology first comes into use. For example. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires.Students in these schools learned by reading. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. in 1876 someone at Western Union.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. Like all new technologies. as this is a non-technical guide. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). the main telegraph company in the world at the time. the early days of computer networking. moving pictures (films). 2006). frameworks. Rather than pages. mashups can only be done using computer technology. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers.

Do not reproduce 5 . 2005. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of see the call for papers in Learning Grid.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. presentation and interactive environments. There is authentication and authorization support at every has a number of published documents that. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. January. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. For example. They provide location independence. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. Find it at: Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. Number 3. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power php). In particular.imsglobal. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.

” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.taken together. and makes extensive use of XML. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. interactive learning components. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. In Europe. Major specifications for research.” In late 2005. Bollier ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. http://www. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. While packaged courses still have a place. Instead. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. enabling the search for content.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. http://ltsc. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. “[a] pull economy .aicc. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. http://www. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.Emerging Models for Mobilizing AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.oclc. At the same time. reinforces this The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. In business. They noted that “…in education. http://sourceforge. This is especially true for adult education. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.elframework. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).is based on open. IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. and education administration.adlnet. ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). Instead of just providing courses.

A.pdf Bogonikolos.. R. Switzerland. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. N. Umer.html Anderson. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.. Reggiani. F. 41(2).. K. T. Wired Magazine. K. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. and a bibliography. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. David (2005). Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. Thus. Weiss. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.. 19. ambient networks. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. User-created content.DC/0502051 Alexander. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences.. and Votis. M. 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. From this. In the last chapter. Odeh. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many erm0621. 2004). Italy.bcs.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. is becoming commonplace.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. (2005). http://www. S. June 2005. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.ntnu. Wales.. I hope you will find it useful.wired. and Conte. ege/session1/ s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. F. Web 2. online resources.1 0/tail. those learners are now keeping their own Five years ago. 16.pdf Anderson.educause. http://arxiv. http://www. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . 12(10). Bertolazzi.cscsi. McClatchey. Z. Cardiff. R.. Giotopoulos. Milan. http://www. and wearable computers. 2004. Ali. http://www.. 2005). Lausanne. Ahmad. Zanichelli. 2002. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. (2002). Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented.htm Bollier. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.. (2005). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Sept. 2006) has argued. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Nov. Bibliography Abbas. October. M.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. along with selected examples. M. http://www. For example. M. Chrysostalis. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.. New York: Hyperion. As Anderson (2004.. Chris (2004). G.idi. March/April 2006. the reader can approach any topic in any order. and McGinnis (2004). UK. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. The Long Tail. Bryan (2006). mobile devices. Moreover. Chris (2006). the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. Likothanassis.

aspeninstitute.networking C.. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.bcs. http://ru6. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. http://csdl2. http://www. A field guide to software as a service. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. http://cde. http://www. J. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . and Zhang. (2002).pdf Cerri. Limited. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.act. (2002).com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/ Toc. Aug. V. T. Athabasca University. http://www. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.S..xml.ascilite. http://www. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Stefano (2005). 2003. 6-8. http://www.iadis. pdf He. ege/session2/paper1. WI. D. Triantafillou. J. Portugal. International E-Learning Specifications.det. Luo.5 6 Marshall. http://www. ThoughtWorks White paper. http://www. Web Services . Education. N.. Sept. G. of Education and Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. and Borck.. (2005). Emerging technologies and distributed learning. 13.pdf Millea. April 18. Hao (2003).. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . and Albert. USA. 30.virtual. Hornig.asp Chatarji. Upper Saddle Dede. Norm (2006).html .Dev Shed. Green. C. m/docs/SOA_World. 13-16. J. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.html Hagel. Tsiatsos. Thomas (2004). Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).htm Hohpe. G. of Distance Education 10..pdf R110203.infoworld. Dec.ICALT 2001.xml&DOI=10. Stephen (2004). http://www. Infoworld. (2001). and Brown. E.html Hockemeyer.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. (1996). and McGreal. Perth. I.cancore. Australia. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference..asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. C. 2002 http://ewic.1109/ ergingtechnologies. for the Australian Dept.johnhagel. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. and Putland. W. Madison. Sept. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).enterpriseintegrationpatterns. http://www. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. Working paper. American Jrnl.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research .au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. Oct. Centre for Distance Ed. http://www..pdf Erl.devshed.pdf Friesen. Jagadish (2004). January 2005. 2.xml.athabascau. (2005). /ec/product. 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. 1026-1032. March 2002. J. Gregor (2005). 8/16FEsasdirect_1. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. http://www. Switzerland. Online. 2001. (2005). From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. 14-16. (2005). A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. R.

ACTeN E-Content Report No. 2005. http://www. C. and Ho. Library+information SCORM and the Learning 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. 193–205. and Geys.pdf Norman. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. C.R. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . (Eds.unikarlsruhe.pdf Roberts. Birmingham. 2006. http://ewic. May 15.pdf Spaniol. Harvey. (2005). MA: Perseus. V. G. http://www. R.): 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.Neumann. (2003). J. http://www. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. W. Learning Solutions. Klamma..pdf Pierre. (2000).sinica.pdf /experience_machines. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. April 1. M.acten. S. F.aspx Yang. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. C. http://www.iis.alt. (2004).pdf 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 e-portfolios. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. M. Stuttgart. pp. 911-928. and Wade. G. Peter (2004) -learninggrids.rwthaachen. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. V. Hambrecht and Co. Dublin. 2006. (2005). Zhou et al. http://www. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid ege/session3/paper2. J. Donald (1993). 27 . Trinity College. G. future thinking: digital repositories. Reflective learning. T. Aalderink. Mashups. Berlin: Springer. ICWL 2003. Cook. Cambridge. H. In W. http://www. and Vossen. M. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. and Jarke. April 26-27. Samuel (2006). http://www.28 April 2004. and Oliveira. UK. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research 0509_06. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. R.. Research report. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. http://www.informatik.operitel. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (2006).aifb. 9.. Germany.. Feijen. http://www. Rhonda (2006). International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent s/ 21. and Weggen. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.alt. (2003). Woodill.

online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. selected elearning related examples.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Included are related terms. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section.

and react to human emotions. Affective Computing. 2005).bham.convo. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. http://www. privacy.” ( The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective keystroke patterns.myself-proj. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state.sricbi. understand. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning.” http://www.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. confused. posture. et al. emotions.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. and legality. too. UK. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. gestures. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. speech patterns mainstream. facial recognition.cs. in Italy. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. SRI Consulting (http://www. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. and to respond to them effectively. 2005). Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.. or sad. accuracy.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. emotional design. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural.html Do not reproduce 11 .mit. For example. http://www. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. In online therapy. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with / including the ability to recognize and express Without the ability to understand emotions. security.

Oregon.sics.pdf Kaye. 2005. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli.html Fallman. 2005. listing many links to interesting resources.sics. Wired Magazine. http://emotion. 2005. http://www. Vescovo. April 2-7.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.. Balestra. Portland.sics. http://www. Agliati.. Paper for Evaluating Affective e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. A. Vermersch. (2005). http://www.dis. CHI 2005 conference. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. e_interfaces/Kaye. and Zancanaro. Portland. J. and Zouinar.1 2/love.. CHI 2005. Pachoud.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. including studies of emotions in computers. http://www. M.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Dr.nsma.sics. Oregon. http://www..html In Germany. are available online: http://www.. K. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective al. Y. (2005).sics. e_interfaces/Chateau. bibliographies. P. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Portland.. Yamada. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Lee. http://emotion-research. Nass. The Love Machine: building computers that care. December.. C. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. Oregon. D. D. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 12-15. September 13. Nakajima. April 2-7. O. Brassac. 2005. A. Isbister. (2005). Iwamura.. P.uniroma1. J.sics.unige. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. V. (2005).pdf Maldonado. CHI dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. and Morishima. CHI 2005 conference. Joseph (2005)... October 22-24.arizona. F. Issue 11/12. Portland.. http://www. L. Portland. Z. K. and Laaksolahti. Stock. S. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research e_interfaces/Cahour. University of e_interfaces/Fallman. Salembier. CHI 2005 conference. C. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Hatfield.pdf Cahour. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. M. 2005 http://www. Rocchi. B. Nortillaro.aisb.pdf Interfaces. H. Graziola. and Waterworth.. April 2-7. Zurloni... O. April 2-7. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: Goren-Bar. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Pianesi. I. CHI 2005 conference. China. M. 2005.doc Chateau.. F. N. with many resources.. and Confalonieri (2005). and Merisol. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. I Like It .pdf Diamond. Oregon. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. B. K. J.doc Hook. Brave. Mantovani. April 2-7.. http://www. David (2003) e_interfaces/Hook.wired. (2005). Realdon. H. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.. M. R. (2005). April 2-7. http://www.

edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. e_interfaces/ nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. and Daily. Miami. Charlotte (2005). Ian (1997). (2005).de/emeocomp/co ntent. OR. R. M. Doctoral Dissertation. Tan. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Mandryk. (2004).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/ 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. (2005). Oregon. J. Rosalind (1997). http://www.bham. 2005. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. October 22-24.cs. E-book http://www. Portland. New York: Basic.. M. http://www. Oregon. http://www. China.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. 2005. 2002. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological Mostafa_Japan_Final. CHI 2005 conference. Regan (2005). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Wright. 22.sics.pdf Ruebenstrunk. http://www. and Picard. J.ruebenstrunk. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Oregon. May 26. Paper for WEBIST 2005. University of Birmingham. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. CHI 2005. and Steele. Dec.sics. (2005). Donald A. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005.HTM Steele. Portland. R. CHI 2005 conference. Berlin: Springer. ACII 2005.iste.pdf Norman. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. CHI 2005. (2002).Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.sics.t. S. T. Affective Computing. http://www. S.sics. and Picard.stanford. Helena (2005). Emotional Agents. Affective Computing vs.pdf e_interfaces/Picard. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.htm April 2-7. April 2-7. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. L. Erlbaum. http://www. Gerd (1998).thesis. NJ. / 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.pdf Masum. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. April 2-7. 35(2). e_interfaces/Mentis. Portland. MA: MIT. 2005. http://www. Cambridge. http://www.miv.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. learning/adaptation. 1999). A second agent in the simulation. In this context. intelligent agents program (for example. and both may be found in the same http://w3. Katzlberger. et al. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. autonomous s. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. and many of them can actually learn. not only about environments. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. but Do not reproduce 15 .gu. Second. For example. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals.informatik. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. useful in educational simulations. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. benevolence. She made mistakes. In such situations. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. 2005. avatars. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. veracity. 2004) and are. and the students had to continue to teach her. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. and. 2005). rationality. Fourth. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. 2004). Agents have beliefs. However. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. proactive (goal directed). see the paper by Far et al. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. First. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Third. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Mentor. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Dick Stenmark. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning.. 1999). Viswanath. therefore.

See the article by Williams et Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. expert role-players. (2004): http://www.fsu. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. 2000). User Profile The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. http://liinwww. go to: http://ritl. http://www. Massaro et al.ira. uses seven different types of agents: gents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).editlib. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. Learning Paths Agent 5. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. http://www.old. and expert guides. Content Agent 6. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.also about other agents. http://www. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.liv. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . (1998) developed a conversational agent.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by CodeBaby Corp. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.stanford. acting against other teams of agents.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.uka. For details see: www. They are available as adaptive coaches. Student Assistant Agent 4. go to: http://ldt.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. http://www. Therefore. Skills Manager Agent which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing malceb/0623. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” ( ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. Even though each agent acts Baldi.

TN.editlib. J. A. In Richards. S. Large Complex Systems. In Proceedings. C.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. M. 267-286 http://www. http://csdl. and Tsang.editlib. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Vanderbilt University. G. e-Learning 2005. (2003).. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. (2005). and Ho.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Z.isi. P. 75-80. Hypermedia. Bibliography Baylor. 21-38. (2003). Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL).editlib. Y.. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. (2005). and Palopoli. S. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. (2002). Doctoral Dissertation.netobjectdays.. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. (1999). Doctoral Dissertation. Proceedings. www. (2003). and Telecommunications 2003. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. (2002). 275-285.editlib.. http://www. 1503-1506..pdf Kao. 3. Nashville. http://www.aace. B. G. International Journal on E-Learning. No.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 1353-1356. http://www. http://www.editlib. L..teachableagents. m0235. Hershey. http://www. m0523. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor.. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia..pdf Kim.cfm?fuseactio Zahia (2004).cfm?fuse action=Reader.educause. E-Learning 2003. Krittaya (2005). IEEE Distributed Systems Online. (2005). Paper presented.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. G. S. Germany.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. Educause Quarterly.University of Southern California. Y. (2000).teachableagents. Elan. Inter-active Learning Res. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. http://www. & 004/07/o7004. 459-462. C. & Kim. & El-Khouly. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. July. G. & Ebbers. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.pdf Jafari. & Johnson. and Shaw. Learning by Teaching Agents. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.. VA: AACE.pdf Guessoum. n=Reader. 306-311). 11(3). 2005. E-Learning 2003. A.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2002). http://www. & Lin. www. http://www.aace. Ali (2002). PA: Information Sciences Publishing. (Ed. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and apers/malceb/ Leelawong. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Do not reproduce 17 . Educause 5(7). G. Clarebout. Hypermedia.. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Thomas (2005). 28(2).ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 10 (3). Fuhua Oscar (2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.pdf Lin. Norfolk. E.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. http://www. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. Tennessee.pdf Clarebout. Ng. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. In Proceedings. 4(1).org/index. Nashville. Y. A.). 1659-1666. L. Vanderbilt University. W. S.editlib. Sun.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.

cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. 1632.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Proceedings. (1999).ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. http://www. and Solomon. M. 1999.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 In Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. (2004). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.http://www. PA. and Higher Education 2004.. Petersburg. ED-MEDIA. Adebiyi.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. www. 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Wesley. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Healthcare. and Ferneley. 321333. Finland. 3169-3176. S.editlib.. of California.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).cfm?fuse action=Reader. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Carnegie Mellon University. M. New York: John Wiley & 1415-1420.cse.. http://www. 17(2). Sahin.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. S. Kommers & G.cs. ED-MEDIA 2005. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. E. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. D.). Doctoral Dissertation. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). August. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.editlib.editlib. 194-201. http://dl. R. and Stucky.K. and 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. Proceedings. (2005). Peter (1998). IFIP WG12. (2006). & Lim. A. and Núñ M..pdf Menczer.. 1999. (1999). http://www. J.cfm?fuseactio Cohen. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Atreya. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Beskow.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. http://citeseer. (2005). June 1-4. R. ssaroCole_WECC98. (1999). 18 © Brandon Hall Research . Proceedings. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. O. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.aace. 47-59.vt.utexas.. Government. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. L. and Winikoff. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.. In P. Sandel. V. D. Doctoral dissertation. ( Padgham.lib. H. http://www.indiana. St.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.cfm?fuseactio Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. G. V. W. 14(1). http://scholar. 10 (3).. B. Ferat (2000). G.Media 2005.psu.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2004). http://www. Daniel.. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Doctoral Dissertation.ogi.html Shim. http://www. (2004). G. Russia. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). J. Richards (Eds. & Booth. L. 143-162. ED. & Leelawong. S.pdf Perez. (2005).informatics. M. 61-65. Pittsburgh.aifb. http://www. U. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log Sung.. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Toulouse.uni-karlsruhe. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.

wiley.teachableagents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 N.upc. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Chicago. Michael (2002).com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr In Proceedings. (2004).html 8bis. M. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.editlib... April 18-21. Chun. ED-MEDIA 2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. J. http://ca. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 3000-3002. 2004.pdf Williams. (2004). http://www. Paper at CLAG2004. & Madsen. http://research.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . Gilbert.

Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.000 pre-built animated GIFs. Also. However. motion graphics depiction.htm For a selection of over 400.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. producing animations can be very costly. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. like pictures in a flip book. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. 2003) Finally.” (Huk. a static diagram. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.animationfactory. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials.. improved the understanding of animated ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research .” Lowe adds that “in some cases. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. al. with long hours spent to produce even a short fcon. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. Rather. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Given that. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.topshareware.mindworkshop. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.0 http://www.05 (2003). animations may even prejudice learning. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.Animation Software Related terms Flash. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. et.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. produced the best learning results. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. coupled with imagining how something worked. The results of many experiments have been mixed. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today.

swishzone.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. http://www. the built-in programming language. and rendering tool. http://www.utoronto. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe) A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to nliven. It is part of Final Cut Studio..ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.animats.. For a free x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It animates fall stunts. go to: http://macromedia. http://www. Inc. their 3-D character creation Enliven . effects. animation. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. For information on Flash. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. Version 9 is available: http://www. For more information on Shockwave. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation Maya is a high-end modeling.” n/ SoftImage|XSI .html Lightwave 3D is a http://faraday.softimage.Softimage Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of a subsidiary of Avid Technology.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. go to: http://www. To use ActionScript.newtek.macromedia.html CAT .com/products/aftereffec ts/main. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning afaq.animationonline. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.catoolkit. p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. http://www. go to: http://www. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). http://www.html Falling Bodies .com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. 2004). http://www. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.

T. R. Jonas-Dwyer & R. S. S. /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. ASCILITE Conference. 325–360. never too much. (2004). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. S. and Hancock.pdf Hess.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.psych. http://www.freedownloadscenter. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research .htm Huk. Hancock.. 003/toth.siggraph. Phillips (Eds.ascension-tech.allworldsoft. and Hancock. July 18. http://www. M. S. Cognition and Instruction.aace. http://projekte. FreeDownloads 20HKC. Animation and learning: value for money? In S.unihannover. and Moreno. R.learningcircuits.sjsu.htm Bibliography Castillo. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. M. March 2002. McBeath. (2004). http://esub.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves.ucsb.pdf Lowe.cgi/d17506/Huk_E G.. Learning Circuits. Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. http://dl. 14(1).com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner th04/procs/lowe-r. R. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. (2003).K. (2004). July. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. 21(4). and Floto. G. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. http://www. Learning Circuits. C. and Hess. http://www.. .org/2004/jul20 04/hess. (2003).htm Hegarty. Thomas (2003). Educational Psychology Review. Lehi. Flash Interactive Session. 87-99.html Malheiro. (2003). Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. go to AllWorldSoft. July 2004. C. and Cate. Mayer.rapidintake.htm Hess. Learning ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. http://www. (1). 04/ Kriz. http://www.pdf Toth. (2002). Animation – just enough. Atkinson. (2004).. C. T.

While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. expert systems. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. data mining. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. agents. intelligent tutoring. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. AI. machine learning. So far.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. multiagent systems. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . Nevertheless. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. cognitive informatics.

and the teacher. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. Moreover.” On the other hand. and Aist et al. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. To achieve their goals. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. The reality is that. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. (2003).” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.g. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. While many systems purport to be personalized. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. recommender systems. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. possibly undeliberate manner. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments.learning. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. and data mining. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). including collaborative filtering. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. To seem humanlike. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. the subject matter expert.

(2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. concepts. http://lsa. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. 2002).” http://www. etc) and how they are interrelated. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.e.colorado. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. ation.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is fydiss.” http://www. (2005a. rather than using a single type of knowledge.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. gestures. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.interactions with the system (see Smid et al.iit. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.uic.. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Talking Head Tutor vs. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.unito. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on JAIR. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.di. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.cs.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.

html Founded in 1988.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. Infrature.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ers/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. Task Tutor Toolkit .A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. and INFOMAP. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. and multiagents. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.uc3m.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling intelligent conflict resolution.pdf Oguejiofor et al. http://quantumsimulations. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and Bayesian Networks – Butz et” http://ctat.colorado. see: http://lsa. question answering (QA) techniques. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.cmu. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. e-commerce. Aurora .es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses OguejioforIT-AEC2004.library.” http://www.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. As a result.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. http://ariic. http://www.uregina.iis.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. and engaging. including student monitoring.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. Inc. Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. http://www.leaonline. challenging.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. Stottler Henke Associates. without programming. http://www. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.” http://www. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. so that these systems become more realistic.

usyd. http://www. an adaptive testing Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).ucalgary. skill The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.its2006.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. For more info: http://www2.cmu. and an interactive intelligent tutor.” http://www.learningcircuits.uquebec. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new h/current_computer_science_education_re search.stottlerhenke.For more information on Stottler Henke http://ctat.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. The 2006 conference is in The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.wpi.inf.virtuelage. preferred cadence.cs.aaai.pact.masternewmedia.” Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. see: http://www. http://www.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.htm Do not reproduce 27 . Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.gemini.ed.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. and learning style.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group 000/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. The AIED conferences are held every two Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning x. The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. http://aied.ed.cmu. http://www. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. with the next one in Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and China. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support http://pact. http://www.

edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin Mostow. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. C. (2005).ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Reilly. V. onsubmit. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.). 159-165. Lester. http://www.B.pdf Barcena. and Koedinger. R. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000).technologyreview.ri. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics.di. 6(1) S00inv.J.pdf Aleven. K. Vicari. Hua. E. and Frasson. Baroglio.pitt.Marvin Minsky.. C. I. S. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. In J. and Penstein Rosé. Bibliography ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. 004/Barcena_Read. Paraguaçu (Eds.doi. P.pdf Baldoni.. McLaren. B. http://www. http://www2. V. V. Argamon. T. C. In J. Maceió. http://www. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). a pioneer in artificial intelligence. and Douglas.pdf Brusilovsky.2005. http://www.82 Bhatt. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. http://www. P. R. S. (2004). Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. http://www. Hermann (2002). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Peter (2000).. 482-487. Paraguaçu (Eds. PA: Idea. (1997).aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.nccu.sis. and In Proceedings.pdf Alkhalifa. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society.sbg.pitt.. http://www. Roll. 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . Eshaa (Ed. K. R. http://dx.wpi.. http://lingcog. Lester.) (2006).edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.cmu. (2004). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and Patti. M. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of ml M. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. (2004). C. 22: 3–39. R. J. C. G. R.1109/ITCC. (2002). Vicari. Chicago.Volume I. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. (2004). Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. C. S. S. and Schwarz. M. ITS 2004. and Maguire. http://imlab.html Brusilovsky. Artificial Intelligence riendly_article. M.iit.. & F. (2004). Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. and F. Kobe. Kort. and Evens. S. and Read. Hershey. (2004).html JAIR.).cs..unito.ppt Butz. (2004).pdf Chaffar.

23(4).pdf Frize.iaalab. D. (2004). Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. (2004). of Technology. Doctoral Dissertation. 11(3).sinica. and Hsu. and Jemni. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). Vicarious Learning. M.cs. http://www. Journal of Educational Multimedia and ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging.findarticles. and Fred. 13(2).1 Cho. http://www.pdf Far. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.cs. B. Aleksandar (2001).cs.pdf Graesser. Reva (2000).ca/People/far/.edu/~circsim/documents/ bcdiss. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.. B..library. (2005).edu.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18900 Craig. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation.editlib.iis. and iSTART. and Kloos. http://www. Fossati. 15(4).1 27.Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Byung-In (2000). http://www.pdf Di Eugenio. Chiou.niu. M (2005b).enel.. Davidovic. hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day. D. Fossati. (2000). W. http://ariic. M. Taiwan. 40(4).ips. and VanLehn. 18-22 July. Educational Psychologist. 163-183. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. and Pedagogical Agents. Yu.journal.639. S. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning.pdf Chorfi. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system. (2001). What is an intelligent tutoring system? -e/theme05. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. Ong. http://springerlink.. Univ. C. A.1:105633. (2005). and Glass. http://www. 1-5 March.H.enel. ink2000. D.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. Lu. Netherlands. D. D. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process. http://www. S.uic. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems. http://www.est. B. Illinois Inst. AutoTutor.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 .iit. and Gholson. M (2005a). K. H. of South Australia. 225-234 http://www. and Di Eugenio. C...cs. ITS 2004. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. ICEIS'2001. Yang. Proceedings. (2006). and _331.pdf Freedman..ucalgary. S. J.ncku. Haller. http://www. http://ltodi. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005).uottawa. In ACL05. (2004).5. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.. Amsterdam. and Frasson. Driscoll. C. http://www.leaonline. 433-447.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez. M. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology.linkingpublicationresul ts. A. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. B. (2005).tw/iceer2005/ Form/ H. S. R. DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education. Haller.. 15-16. G. C. 2005. aperapril. McNamara.html Gamboa. D.) Fasuga.metapress.

Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. International Conference on Web Intelligence. J. Person. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A. (ITS). & Pettenati. T. 4NNV88MXQ49. In tions/ITS2004-workshop-Jackson-paperformatted. Illinois Institute of Technology. J. 30 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). P. That's What I'd Do".autotutor.kent.massey. C. and F. Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation 4NNV88MXQ49.) Knowledge Transfer London..pdf Kim. Nikov A. Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. and Trace..iit.. M. Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor. J.cmu. Ma (Ed.-K. Michael. Proceedings. http://ctat. http://www. Vanoirbeek.. http://infosys. Laroussi.Hierarchical Graphs. ations/Gutier04b. pp. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. UK: Pace. New Orleans. yckmai02. Technologies.medianet. R. Lester. 61-64. http://www. and F. PA: Idea Group. Vicari. (2005). A.pdf Johnson. August 5-10. R. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. and VanLehn. Behrooz (Ed. & Patel A. McLaren.). Doctoral Dissertation. Empirical Results.) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. K. In J. O. USA. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. and Graesser.. http://mmlab. (2004). Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference. That's What I'd Do". MAICS-2002. In Z. http://www. M. A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And and Future Directions. Y.L. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. D. http://www. Amsterdam.pdf Harrer. Lester. (2001). C. In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference.. Ahmed. Vicari. I.iit. M.C. Hershey. C. http://prints.Computer Interaction. (1999). (ITS).pdf Kinshuk.. Paraguaçu ( and /PAPERS/wbies-book-pub.pdf Jordon. Vicari. Applications. In kjhdiss. Looi et al. http://www. N..pitt.springerlink. and Rizzo. P. Paraguaçu (Eds. Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.). (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. Chicago. R..L. A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. rs/hcii2001..). http://www.pdf Khaled.K. and F. Evens. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts. (2005). (2004). W. G.cs. M. (2005). M. PA: IDEA Group. (1997). In J.cs. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. A. Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Johnson. (Eds. (2005). Brazil. S. M.editlib.gast.upatras..pdf Hatzilygeroudis. Walker.springerlink.uc3m.pdf Kinshuk and Patel. (2004). E.pdf Kim. P.mulf. http://www. 2001. B. and Prentzas.Hershey. Bollen. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. L.tu-berlin. J. C. http://home. and Ma.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7293 Khan. Lester.doc Jeschke.pact. and Rizzo. Maceió. M.T. M. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Jackson. Chicago.). M. (ITS). In C. Paraguaçu (Eds.

Zongmin (2005). http://nth. R. Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring rs/kt97_dmu. Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. C. Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2004). M. Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications.aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma. G. Evens. and Testing Cognitive Models. Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Design-ing. (2004).795. A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology. and Heffernan. Brazil. Doctoral Dissertation. Hershey. Hatzilygeroudis. Evens.linkingpublicationresults. D. http://ctat. Proceedings.127 .html Kodaganallur. In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive 5zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contribution . Patel A. (2005). C. ts/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeContents . V. M. Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of matter. Educational Technology & Society.). M. (2000). Proceedings. and Rosenthal. A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric R.. http://www. Proceedings of MAICS 2004..wpi. VersaTutor – Archi-tecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor 474. and G.journal. and Evens.cs. (2003). J. A. T. Evelyn (2005). Mccalla. http://www. 4th Edition. Illinois Institute of Technology. Weitz. 002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Martens.pdf Kinshuk.. and Michael. Looi. http://www. http://www2004.aspx? PaperID=26738 Lulis.1 40729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Mainzer. Control and Applications conference. M.pact. Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring Sessions..pdf Koedinger. Amsterdam: IOS Press. http://www.pdf Looi. & Aleven.massey. In C. M. Evens. Building. and 035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis. 2004. IL. 2000. Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED-2005. (2006). W.cs. http://www. (2005).cmu. PA: Information Science. I. Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003).. Pain (Eds. (2004).iospress. Bredeweg. (2004). mind. Chicago.iit. K. http://springerlink. M. http://ifets.metapress. M. Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system. Schaumburg. Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. Lulis.. McCalla.3905. Berlin: Springer.. Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical Web-based Education Conference.actapress. J. and Glass. Freedman. ICCM'03. Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system. /kinshuk. B.pdf Lee. In Proceedings. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió.doc Koutsojannis.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. and Evens.booksonline. 3(4). J. Artificial Intelligence in Education.unirostock. J. and Prentzas. E. Amsterdam. and Michael. and H. E. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based chldial04. Breuker. (2004).p df Do not reproduce 31 .aspx? PaperID=16278 Lee. http://www. R. Alke (2003a). http://www. Klaus (2004).K. C.

pdf Ong. and Bollen. M.pdf Obitko. US Army RDECCOM. Wash.. CWE2004.. (2000).. ICNEE. Schneider. Workshop on Emotional and Social Intelligence in Learning 262800/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 McLaren.kicinger.. E. Matera. Engineering Advanced Web Applications: Proceedings of Workshops. Koedinger.Martens. L. Final Report.htm 32 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Hanover. 409432. (2004). M.pdf Nuzzo-Jones. Bollen. GMDS conference. Simulation Technology Center.editlib. R. pdf Martens.learningcircuits.pdf McLaren.. Schneider.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18899 Moore.. In M. Scheurer. L. S.pact... and Weerasinghe. C. Walonoski. http://lttf.harvard. B. (2005).umontreal.cogsci. A. After the Internet: alien intelligence... A. G. Harrer. Harrer. M. OguejioforIT-AEC2004. A. Paper presented at WASWBE 2005.. (2001) ub_4..informatik.cs. Cognitive Tutoring of Collaboration: Developmental and Empirical Steps Towards Realization.unirostock. http://www. Optimal Emotional Conditions for Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System. T. http://www.PDF Martens. Andrew (2001). T. (2004b). Heffernan. DC: Capitol Press. Koedinger.lcc. 15(4). Learning Gaussian Bayes Classifiers. K. L. R. J. Kurz.pdf McLaren. R. Alke (2003b). Centralize the tutoring prozess [sic] in intelligent tutoring system. Harrer. http://www. The eXtensible Tutor Architecture: A New Foundation for ITS.pdf Martin. http://www.. S. (2000).cmu. L.. http://www. Feb. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: an ontologybased approach. T.pact. http://www. In the Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference (CSCL-05). N. Bernauer.cmu. and Ramachandran.mgh. K. Paper presented at ICALT.. Paper. Web Engineering. M. http://www. A. M.. and pers/nuzzo. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on New Educational Environments. James (2000). and Seitz. Sewall. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: the what and the how. M. Online.pact. August.. MYMIC LLC (2004).ed.cmu.doc Oguejiofor. and Livak.mymicsurveys. Paper presented at the AEC2004 Conference. DB-Suite: experiences with three intelligent Webbased database tutors. and Bernauer. A. (2004). and Bollen. A Flexible Architecture for Constructing and Executing Tutoring Processes.uma. http://ctat. J.pdf Ochs. and De Jong. Comai (Eds.cs.pdf Mitrovic.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Towards Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative. Martin. http://www. K. 4/refs/moore_gaussbc12. B.. A Framework for Constructing Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems.. Paper presented at the AMIA 2000 Conference. Popovici. Suraweera. P.).cs. A Flexible and Adaptive Tutoring Process for Case-Oriented and Web-Based Training in Medicine. tory/ (ITS-2004). (2000).. J. Arciszewski. http://adams. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A. A. B.. ssoncr. http://www. Bootstrapping Novice Data: SemiAutomated Tutor Authoring Using Student Log Files. (2004) 000/ong. (2005). E. Outstanding Research Issues in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and Glucksmann. http://ctat. (2004a). /pap-039-obi. J.iro. Learning Circuits. Web-based environment.

In A.formatex.. and Peters. A. J.pdf Rodrigues. Annals of Academic Medicine Singapore. Automated Story Direction and Intelligent Tutoring: Towards a Unifying Architecture.. E. Spain.wpi. Low.. htm Rosé. Peters. M. (2000). E. B. Brazil...stanford. Mesa González ( apers/ITS2004/Submitted(not%20final)/Le ena/etutor_workshop_final. Brazil. J. and Russell.pdf Pon-Barry.P.html Pon-Barry... (2004b).edu/twiki/pub/Public/ SemlabPublications/ICALT_2004. (2002).. H. K. Lai.upatras. Amsterdam. Bárcena.. L.F. R. Schultz. Hill. (2001).pdf Patel.. Paper presented at the AI and Education 2005 Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments.. http://www. and Garofalakis.pdf Schultz.Ong.wpi. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems.. http://www. 0509/V34N8p499. Gonzá 2004_Workshop. B. (2005). 499-504. C. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). In Proceedings. 34. S.PDF Prentzas. (2004a). 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and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. making it hard to escape assess-ment. computer mediated assessment (CMA). affective. once only done by a human assessor. When combined into a “360° evaluation. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. quizzes. 1956). computer-based assessment tools. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. are already available. and (4) computer marking. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. More sophisticated forms of automated. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . eassessment. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. in the near future.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. evaluation. In a business situation. rubrics. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. Assessment software can generate templates. or performance samples. aptitudes. for example. samples. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. and psychomotor. the automated scoring of essays. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. and output. online assessment. self-evaluation.learningandteaching.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s ng/solo. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. computer based assessment (CBA). For example. quizzes. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. However. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. We can expect that. and documents for assessors to use. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan.

com For an online assessment of your foreign language You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. from Resources Management Services in the U. skills. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). http://www. Find them at: http://www. http://www. preview pages for all question types. institutional Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research .redinq. http://nt. Diploma.horizonwimba.respondus. http://www.pedagogue. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment Testcraft.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. For information on latent semantic ETS.0. Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. personality. For details.xstreamsoftware.” organized by academic discipline.uc. on its Web the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of The Evaluator.ets.rmsuk. reporting. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. http://www. has recently won awards for its performance.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. See more at: http://www. multilingual support. http://www. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. and past work behaviors..brainbench.flaguide. surveys. and adminis-tration features. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. and services useful for outcomes assessment. an online assessment system with support for high stakes Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. formance_analyzer2. learning tools. http://www. see: http://lsa. a completely customizable report engine. Review it at: http://www. http://www.testcraft.operitel. and self-study. a customizable look and feel. ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.” Pedagogue Solutions has developed tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.vantagelearning.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www. and adaptive question Hurix Systems has developed Red Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.fasfind. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.dialang. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.epistema. see: http://www. check out the Dialang web /

com/029. http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test sment. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. M. with a list of 34 strategies. Gregory (1973). & Rodríguez.pdf Atherton. http://www. Carro. including a useful listing of assessments and The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.thinkinggear.html Bibliography Alfonseca..” http://www. http://www. learning/03/online.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. 5365.unimelb.unt.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. Do not reproduce 37 . Steps to an Ecology of Mind. http://www.200 references. (2004). 8 (3).com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. (2005). http://www.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment ssme/online. G. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment assess.htm Atkinson. R.uka.nestafuturelab.ict4lt.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80. http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. Freire.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of ng/solo. Online views/10_01.htm#2.oir.heacademy. http://school.quintcareers.learningandteaching. with over 1.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. M. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.scit.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. http://www. James (2005).tasainstitute. Explore the links at: http://www. /arc/ ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. http://www. London: Paladin.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.umuc. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www.ira. D.rmcdenver. T.ifets.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. Pérez.. http://www. Obtain a copy at: is available from: http://liinwww. E.cshe. http://cba. Educational Technology & different tests from its The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.3 Bateson. and /cba.

computer. Arlington Heights. eSchool News. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. http://www. N.htm. J.assess. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.pdf Brown J. 3rd Edition. K. Ciravegna (Eds. In S. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. (1989). (2003). and Marcu. Kay (1999).amazon. L. Kaplan (Ed. In R. Online paper. Daniel. C. New York. McNamara.htm Burstein. K. M. (1997). B. J. & Olsen. http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. http://www.. Rethink testing for future success. Jill C. V.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . Martin.pdf Biggs. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Daniel. B. Jill. RC23.). & Leacock. (2001). Langu-age Learning and Technology. and Hirschman.pdf. Shermis and J. Educational Measurement. Missouri. Louis. New York: Oxford. S. Hillsdale. IEEE Intelligent Bernstein.ets. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". http://www.http://www. http://www. August Burstein. In M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. New York: McKay. http://llt. 2005. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. (2002).. and ursteinj. Burstein (Eds. Burstein.. http://www. Taxonomy of Educational 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. http://www. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Mexico. In the R..assess. Acapulco. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. J. IL: Skylight. Linn ( toryts. 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Harabagiu and F.. (2003). St. Robert (2005). June Bloom. Marcu. NY: Brown. (2003).cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. How to Assess Authentic Learning.iltaonline. Burstein (Eds. http://www.iltaonline. (1956). Jill. http://www. and O'Hagan. Inouye. In M. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. J. Brumfield. D. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Kevin (2003). CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Jill. and Knight. S. http://www. New York: Academic Press. www. 1. Shermis and J. (2001). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Chodorow. (1982).eschoolnews.msu.

http://wwwpsych. (Ed. Nathan.soton. Micheline. RC23..html Davies. Language Learning and Technology. 5.. http://www. University of Tasmania. L. EdMedia '99. http://www. 0Fall%2002/Frase.) (2005). & Landauer.Proceedings from a Workshop. http://www. http://mason.. No.utas. New York: Basic Books. E. 2. and Grellett. (1999).pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Board on Testing and Assessment. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (1999).au/worldcall/str5. W.htm Cebrian.) (1999). Foltz. (2001). (Eds. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. http://www.. Howard.unimelb. (2001). ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. Howard (1993). Seven technologies for assessment. (1998).. M. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. t.Hershey. P. html/1. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. In Proceedings. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL 9.nap.gmu. and Parry. http://llt. Tests. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. http://www. Micheline. http://eprints. n. Language Learning and Technology. http://llt. (2004). v. National Research Council. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". W. velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. (2002).htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). D.html.ecs. (2001). Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. category/write/107610. Morgan. London: ault.msu. PA: Information 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . 2: Chalhoub-Deville.Carr. C. v. May.iltaonline. O’Reilly.pdf Dunkel P. Y. The Student Assess-ment Handbook.html Frase. S. Online paper.softwaresecure. Howell. 4. Chalhoub-Deville. March 9. 5. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. T. Language Learning & Technology 2. C. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. (2004). Lawrence. S. Writing assessment: a position 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.htm. and Howell. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. May. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. College Composition and Communication M. N. (2005). Online newsletter. Robert. http://www. Language testing and technology: past and future. http://llt. P. Online newsletter. D. K. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.msu. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.hlc. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. 2.msu. St. n. Millard.pdf Hricko. and Sclater.

amazon. National Center for Education Statistics. In ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. B. Tim (2006). Self. R (2002).com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. (2005). & http://www. Patrick (2000). J. (2006). M. M. 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. (Eds.. and Ward.pdf Landauer. J.proexam. 5(2).. (1979). J. Learning. and Malabonga. H. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. W.. http://www. DC: U. /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. May. Graham. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://llt. (1998). http://www. pp. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware V.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. http://www. Fremer.. K. K. Weller.. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.) (2005). and . http://escholarship. http://www. N. R. 259284. & Mason. & Leacock. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Foltz. Online Assessment. http://www. New York. McArthur. and Skinner. Language Learning and Technology. and Watt.. PA: Information Science. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. http://www. Government. M. Fitzgerald. 4(6). and Ma. Hardas. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.ed. D. C.. C. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . Discourse Processes.) (2002).com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. (Ed. S. Howell.ed. NY: Guilford http://eric. M.pdf Kenyon.html Khan. Measurement and Evaluations.pdf MacDonlad. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (1999). France. Compiegne. (2005). and Hricko.LSAintr o. (2000).Jones.bc. M. (2006). Burstein. Handbook of writing research.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. 403-416. D. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.msu. D. G. http://www. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. (Eds. D. Hillsdale. Howard. and Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. M.pd f Weiner.) (2000). The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts... and Writing. http://nces. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Washington. P. A. 25. Problem 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.kent. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.colorado. University of Gothenburg.S. S. (2001). Journal of Technol. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Mahwah. & J. Information Science Publishing. International Journal on E-Learning. W. Reports from the Institute of Education. 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Do not reproduce 41 . Operitel white paper. http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.

Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. The quality of online audio depends on many factors.e. (i. For example. depending on the file size). compared with even a few years ago. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . podcasting. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners.. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history.5 megabytes. the rest of the file has time to arrive.e. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. According to Crofts et al. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. is podcasting. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Provides another channel for material review. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. (i. One audio application of interest to educators. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. to personalized media). including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Provides feedback to learners. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . in part. Assists non-native speakers. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. (2005). which is gaining in popularity. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. This frag-mentation is being fueled. You can’t add your own notes. such as those for iPods. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.. while it is playing. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. or by “streaming.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and.

com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. or sentences from audio Web sites. enhancing.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. including podcasting.edupodder. Microsoft Windows. and other operating systems.thepodcastnetwork. http://www. open source software for recording and editing Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa SearchSync software allows you to search for specific http://www. recording.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . Audio and video und.htm For a list of podcasting 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. http://recap.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. and utilities for conversion. http://www.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast http://www. http://www. go to: http://www.71. http://www. http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.rds. htm RECAP Ltd.avsmedia.masternewmedia. http://www. phrases. http://www.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.podcasting-tools. Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. sound editing. freeware. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. CD audio extraction.purdue. tools. It is available to download for Mac OS X.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires http://www.audiotoolsdirect. http://www.ibritt. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. DJ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. playback. http://www.48.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. GNU/Linux. Audacity is” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. and broadcasting are all found on this site. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities ex.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. including software to record and play podcasts.

Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate rofts/index. http://firstmonday. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. B. C. April 2005. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. In G.educause. J. Fox. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. June 2005. 2005. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. s/AAI9929186 Crofts. N. (2003). Peter (2005).learningcircuits. VA: AACE.multitrackstudio. Dave (2005). http://edmarketing. e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. University of Government. Podcasting and (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Scientific Computing World.h tml Canali De Rossi.cakewalk. http://www. Learning Circuits. Dion Cory (1999). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. 45-50.bias-inc.. (2005). http://www. and Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/ 005/0506_trends Meng.htm Jobbings.A number of audio editors are available on the Web.html Bias Audio Peak Pro Cakewalk SONAR http://www. pdf Noakes. First Monday.html Curtis. 44 © Brandon Hall Research . Podcasts. and Swenson. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Sound Sense.editlib.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. http://www.html Girvan.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Retsema. May Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.. Brenda (2001). http://www.html Kaplan-Leiserson. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. September. L. Robin Good’s Blog.adobe. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides).org/index. Chesapeake. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. http://recap. Ray (2005). and Higher Education 2003 (pp. 10(9).aace.audiolink.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Richards (Ed. 417-419).unl. July 2005. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). http://digitalcommons. P. and Lomas. Dilley. Doctoral main. Luigi (2005). Healthcare. M. Eva (2005).

many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Design. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. (For details.s html). For details on each Microsoft product. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Implementation.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. and Evaluation) processes. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. see: http://www. either directly or with third party tools. In this vein. and. in the end. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). content Since its acquisition of Macromedia. please see http://www. Development. rapid Further. 2005). simulations. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. No authoring tool does everything. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. As well.brandonhall. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (

copycatsoftware.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint Anark . htm Composica .articulateglobal. – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. buttons.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.htm Bernard D&G . video. and images and turn them into 3-D training. music. Integrates various media. hotspots.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/contentpoint. http://www. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. and PowerPoint slides.Media – Import 3-D Acroservices .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.Content Point .acroservices.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.allencomm. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. XML.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and Allen Communications . . Counterpoint .atlanticlink. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.brainshark. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . oint-presentations-index.htm ActiveSlide.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.htm Brainshark Articulate . www. http://www.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.turbodemo. http://www. CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.adobe. Business Performance Technology . Station 2. rich text. http://www. There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning products/acrotrain. http://www. pop-up messages.asp Bridge People and Technology . as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint and marketing applications.lersus. Builds quizzes.Composica Enterprise . http://www.Thinkcap Studio .anark.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this Agile . http://www. http://www.ilessons.activeslide. video. go to: http://www. For details on each Adobe product.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .Designer’s DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. http://www. INTEC . Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.shtml Dynamic Media .e-learningconsulting. Post the characters on any Web site.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop x_eng. HTML courses. http://www. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www.intecllc. http://www.dynamicpowertrainer.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .com/products/ Pro. Element K .WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/products/forceten.hunterstone.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.elicitus.Enables courseware developers to create and publish Eclipsys Corporation . and installation files. Hunter Stone . Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.gen21.exe files. without programming tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. http://www. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .experiencebuilders.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with http://www. http://www.e2train.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www. CD Rom. http://www.seminar. http://www.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. and animation. audio.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. such as the following: imc AG . http://www. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.elementk.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. http://www.sculptoris. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool Imaira Digital Media . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous ml E-Learning Consulting . Information Transfer .com/Solutions/Elearni ng. video. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.php e2train . http://www.lecturnity. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. stand alone .com/ Integrated Performance Systems Impatica .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.Digital Workshop .horizonwimba.

http://www. http://www. centralized knowledge base. graphics. combining multimedia content like MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.maxit.php MindOnSite . and animations with tests and interactivity.maxit.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios .com/ OPTX International Learn. with a built-in learning management . and PowerPoint into a set of templates. create courses specifically on how to use computer NetPlay Software . . dex.knowledgequest.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/index. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning chure. Built-in testing – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. http://www.LEARNERLand – MindIQ . Works with SAP Learning KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. Has its own built-in learning management system. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.elearninginabox. http://www. with no programming and no plugins.mindiq. audio.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation e.learn. MyKnowledgeMap .com/ KnowledgeXtensions .customcourse.pdf Intuition . http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.mckinnonmulherin.mohive.authoring tool based on Flash templates. shtml Itaca .jsp Knowledge Planet . http://www.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.instant-demo.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.intuition. . PowerPoint Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. Ready-made button and navigation erv. http://www.mindonsite. http://www.easyprof. http://www.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.Used to create presentations without programming skills.knowledgepresenter. http://www.learnerland. http://www.ipsinc.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.htm MediaMaker . http://www. http://www.

p hp?from=menu SumTotal .sensalearning. image http://www. http://www.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.toolbook. and highly interactive elearning content. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. http://www.suddenlysmart. a customizable.asp TEDS .Publisher Professional . and Flash.respondus.In minutes.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash Qarbon .com/ Savvica . interactive Flash presentations and online training. and course player all in one software mate.htm podia . http://www. er-web/sb_author.readygo. http://www. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and Respondus .softchalk. image hotspot activities. http://www. When content is developed.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. http://www. French.qarbon. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. without knowing Scribe Studio . http://www. http://www.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.toolbook. Microsoft PowerPoint.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. JPEGs. http://nuvvo.E-Learning Objects ReadyGo .pointecast.Nuvvo . http://www.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . http://www. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.SNAP! Studio – A course Percepsys PointeCast .com/ SumTotal .htm Do not reproduce 49 . customizable flashcards.cfm Serco (technical) .ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in ateRefer.podiaOnDemand .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. Courses can be Rapid Intake . http://www.htm Suddenly Smart .An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. popups.reusableobjects. matching games.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. http://www. m Techsmith . crosswords.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. http://www.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single and assessments.techsmith.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.shtml Reusable Objects . course publisher.teknical.teds.or SCORMcompliant. or Spanish.students. http://www.

Doctoral C.asp TrainVision . Government. and Riesbeck.lectora.trainvision. http://workforceconnections. right in their browser with no additional software required. S. T.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. and wizards.oswego. video. Montreal.pdf Ramp.time4you GmbH .com/ Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www.. 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. publish blogs. Illinois. and Pahl. www. Blessing.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool.xplana.funeducation. Evanston. images.time4you. http://www.westcliffdata.2-conformant objects and assessments. and rapid simulation.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the http://www. http://www.dol.oswego. De Bra. E.. http://www. http://www.Presentation Studio .Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. interactive and intelligent educational software.webex.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.pdf s/edmedia2005. and Ainsworth.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author .xstreamsoftware.cs. June 2005.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. L. http://www. Berlin: Springer. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. P. Healthcare. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference.htm Zapatec . and inersoft/trainersoft8. McMullen. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web ime4you/ibt/en/start.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.tue. and host online Webex .bloki. E.. (2003). http://www. http://www. Lin (2005). Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).com/products/products _xwb. Northwestern University.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop US Government . and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . CD. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Qiu. templates. or Network. S. http://www. and _rb40eval. M.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. http://www. P. (2005). Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. http://www. C. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. (2005).html Westcliff – SCObuilder. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. content conversion. (2005).

Canada. Gary (2005).editlib. Vancouver.learningcircuits. BC. Reuben (2005). http://www. 004/tozman.. (2005). W. Nov.2005).brandonhall. http://www2. 2004. Sunnyvale. CA: Brandon Hall Research.htm 005/ E.s html Do not reproduce 51 .learningcircuits. Technical Univ. June 2005. October 2428. AACE. Reuben (2004).htm Woodill. The myth about tools. Eindhoven. NL. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning Another new paradigm for instructional design. Learning Circuits. http://www.htm Tozman. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. http://www. Learning s. A. Masters Thesis. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.pitt.

In some situations. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. http://blogoehlert. for example. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. Similarly. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.sculptoris.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience.typepad. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. games.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. in the broadest sense. http://www. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. and generally simulates human activity. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. especially in gamebased learning > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.codebaby. the avatar may represent an actual human being. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.Avatars Related terms Agents. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. but in e-learning. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human 2006/07/top_20_educatio.telsim.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www. In the context of elearning. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.” Maldonado et al. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.

offering a large number of supportive functions. New Zealand.. and Weber. Inc.vcom3d. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. C.tmmy. http://www. modular application. Y.oddcast. In the toolkit. Suthers. http://www. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .” which are avatars that teach. A.pdf Online Resources In Europe. http://ww. http://www. eLearning Developers’ Journal. (2004). The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Chan (Eds. Try them at: http://www..elearningguild. Raj (2003). (2005).. S.html 2005 .uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. http://www.pdf Maldonado.. www..Training Education & Education International Conference. 503DES-H. edings_03/pdf/255. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. C. and Morishima. New York-based Oddcast Inc. D. http://www. M. users are represent-ed as avatars. 25. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional ado. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. Koschmann.. 2005. Iwamura. Nexus Media.W. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. H. Yamada. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. R. (2005).) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. Brave. SI. http://www. S.. Aug. Ahad. K. J. B.knowledgeenvironments.pdf Jung.exodus.. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. and Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.redwoodelearning. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Bibliography Deuchar. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. and T. In T.pdf Seth.

Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the


However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the


© Brandon Hall Research

structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > 26753.html ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs)

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at:

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs)

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique., July 14.,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. w.pdf

Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. m#feature


© Brandon Hall Research

Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. ( What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. ( The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >


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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. n/browsers_list.php3

Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/ m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch., July 30, 2006. 072900038.html?referrer=email


© Brandon Hall Research

the costs and headaches multiply. clickers. The use of clickers has several advantages. corporate. However. The devices keep students alert and involved. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. costs can be an issue. integrated with other types of learning technologies. 2006. giving almost instant feedback. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. Beatty.einstruction. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. management. http://www. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students.” In spite of the costs. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. or clickers. and military settings. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. display. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. increasing their motivation to learn. training the faculty member to use the software. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. higher education. both for students and for those supporting their use in the H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 .Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. classroom communication systems.

March 3.gtcocalcomp. Tom (2004).elearning. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.pdf Burnstein. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. es/cps/ECARCRS. http://inside. http://www. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response erwrite.pdf The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. Anne (2006).pearsoned. The Physics Teacher. Volume 2004. E-Learning CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.ubc.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. 41(5).edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active and Lederman. No. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. 2006. Eric (1997).au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/ 60 © Brandon Hall Research . Research Bulletin.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). July 7.cua. Upper Saddle River. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.educause.jmu.qwizdom. https://sharepoint.learnstar. Q. (2003).com.physics. http://www. R. Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. including material on the use of classroom response systems. http://www. Inside CUA. 3. The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.” http://www.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. http://www. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. 2004.utexas. NJ: Prentice Hall.optiontechnologies. Educause Learning Initiative. Feb. Ian (2004). http://www.Publishing textbook. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. ce-response-systems/index. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. http://www. pdf Cassidy. 272-275.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.

uq. Melbourne. Australia.pdf Do not reproduce 61 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.itee.

.com/products/i ndex.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . e. through brainstorming).g. and There are many different ways to collaborate. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. and collaborating. The Institute for the Future. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. social as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. http://www. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .advancedreality. reduction. it requires skill and experience.teamspace. Advanced Reality – Jybe . and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. social networking building. clarification.zoho.. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.g.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.html?ad-main Annotea . organization. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.g. many respond. http://www. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. doing. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). collaborate. evaluation. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. organize.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.

share Blenks – In-team . version control.bookmarks. and communicate with – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . http://www.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. flexible workflow.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. discussion forum. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. voice and data collaboration.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www. jot down notes. and individual users. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. . Web conferencing. http://www. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. robust document management. m/index.backpackit.inteam. http://www.Unified MeetingPlace .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of Bantu – Bantu Messenger .php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.courseforum. expert location. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing Digite – Digite Enterprise . collaborative file management. Features include IM.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. calendar. http://www. alerts. http://www. markup of data.comotivsystems. contacts.opencroquet. project planning and EMC² .com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system.Web conferencing software to address the needs of t/index. http://www. search.digite. share information.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.citrix.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . with templates and workflows for product Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.centraldesktop. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . and ps5664/ps5669/ Cisco .brightidea.bluetie. http://www. intellectual property management. and information technology adoption.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.gotomeeting. and instant access to the group workspace. recordable Central Desktop – Central Desktop .asp?contentID=13976 https://www.w3.Documentum eRoom .jsp http://software. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). http://www. instant messaging. Includes document organization and sharing.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . http://www. http://www. and meeting manager. and Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. office. http://www. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. document versioning. and searchable discussion threads. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. Presence (see who’s online).com/English/ps2/product s/product. http://www. http://www. and upload photos.avecomm. and instant messaging. non-profit.

meeting. presentation tools.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting.features a project navigator. interactive whiteboard. Web-based extranet tool. http://www. invite workspace Forum One – ProjectSpaces . The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. It provides working groups with simple. and images. Features include the following: Accessing documents.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.flypaper. http://www. http://www. quantitative project management. project management. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . and sending workflow tasks.Live meetings and Web conferencing.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share ation. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft /GSII. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. and organizational process performance. Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. data and process tracking.exactamerica.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. and corporate instant messaging.shtml Hewlett Packard . and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.ezmeeting. resource information sharing.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. allow members to update and edit files. http://collaboration. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.facilitate. universal file viewer for MS office documents. tracking the status of assignments. Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.gliffy. http://groups. http://www.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .Halo Collaboration Studio powerful.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. and team management. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. The system streamlines project planning.A Webbased collaboration environment for software Exact Software – e-Synergy . product quality assurance. It has tools for managing multiple teams. http://www. /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. categorizing. attach threaded discussions to files. Google – Google Groups – Create. voting. including whiteboards. 2001. scheduling and using EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . easy to use online collaboration system. and creating action plans. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. http://www. http://www. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. drawing tools. conducting eZmeeting . and document management. http://www.epam-pmc. assign file editing rights and completion dates. Features include interactive data collaboration. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. require-ment and risk management. software construction. share files and documents.groove. snapshots. recording and playback.gordano. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. desktop sharing.grapevinesoftware.

a Wiki.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. http://kgroups. contacts. cts. Features include the following: Business email. online calendar. Integrated suite of multiuser. and file commenting.kGroups provides a number of tools.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. http://www03. integrates with MS Office.Lotus QuickPlace Interwoven . Functions include the following: Share documents. instant messaging and presence indication. private interactive access or exchange of text. Customizable Web directory. video.uwc.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.webofficepoint. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. security levels. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. Outlook.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. image libraries. and ment_management/index. IBM . including versioning. and secure peer networking architecture. realtime chat. data.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.hyperoffice.iceweb. Apps.jotlive. calendars.hotComm . a powerful. http://www. http://www.inquesttechnologies. bookmarks and bookmark sharing ( eting/default. http://www. structured. partners. JotSpot .com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . http://www. scalable. and Lotus Notes.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. link sharing). and provides search. versioning control. search archiving. voice. http://www. including file sharing. discussion forums. Features include the following: Document management. and Microsoft Outlook integration.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. online document management.interwoven. and extensibility. Web resources. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees.ilinc. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. and lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.jdhtech.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.Jotspot Live. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. online contact management. podcasting. blogs (Weblogs).hotcomm. and shared customers. iLinc Communications . efficient. Features include the following: Shared calendars. Microsoft – Live Meeting .microsoft. and customers on the Web. online editor.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. task manager. an interface to a mailing list server.mayeticvillage. folders.

and contact and document management functions. processes. real-time application sharing. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. MyWorldChat Communicator .com – eStudio . milestones. providing the best of both worlds. schedule and track events and / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. organize and discover content through categories and tags. moderator functions.rallypointhq. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. calendaring.Corporate quality communications center. http://www.mspx Near-Time – Flow .com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . called an online community.Rallypoint .com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. share knowledge. Workflow Automation. http://www. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. Features include the following: Interactive Santa Cruz Networks .opentext. and presence management solutions. resources. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get Oracle .Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. http://www.A suite of persistent group messaging. http://myworldchat.santacruznetworks.Community Zero . author and review pages individually and across the group. Document Management. http://www. http://www. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. Within each area.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. tasks. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.communityzero. file transfer.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. see each other in real time using cameras.same-page.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Same-Page.html Rallypoint . Allows people to talk to each other.performancesolutionstech. and systems both within and beyond the organizational teams. instant Ramius .com/ Raissa Publishing – http://www. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. information. text chat. http://www.parlano. http://www. instant 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. http://www.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. and MP3 audio recording. and files. audio and Webcam. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. and share data or applications while they are online.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective Novell – Groupwise .ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. and communicate. task management. http://www. team events. Enables individuals.Microsoft – SharePoint .

desktop document folders.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. search.sharemethods.webcrossing. live ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.00.seldensystems. e-mail server. and instant messaging. Webbased whiteboarding. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration .WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . http://groups. and other business communications. and information sharing.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. workflow and task management. http://www. http://www. newsgroup server. and business relationships.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. http://www. http://www. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . chat server.html Trichys – WorkZone . and business partners.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.04.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .Forum ZX . productivity XML-RPC server. and calendaring SiteScape .com/contentmanagem ent/0.Processes email. http://www. voice and Web conferencing. http://www. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software.sitescape.25. http://www. and more. FTP server. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. or use it to build a Web application.Collaboration software that includes document management. and breakout ShareMethods – ShareMethods .com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. collaboration. and use live / and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. partners.webasyst. and prospects – without leaving their desks. threaded Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 .com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. documents. http://www. application Vignette .2097. expertise. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future http://www. Use it out of the / SpiderWeb Communications . video. http://www.cyber-grad. view and edit documents or images together. instant messaging. project. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. and share. http://www.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. store files.vignette. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. Web conferencing server (in-house). project teams.writely. collaboration.tacit. calendar sharing. Includes VoIP.stalker. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.

project tracking.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. Access to the tool is also given to clients. content button. and asynchronous group meetings PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . http://www. http://www.projectdox. and payments.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related scheduling Nagarro .myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. annotation Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. and Web pages. project planning. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from applaud and meter. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .Web event calendaring. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. http://www." virtual collabor-ation.nexprise. and graphics in a structured online learning applications. custom stamps.Intuitive project management software for work teams.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.tomoye. http://www. and share documents.generation. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www.opmcreator. and collaboration to timesheet management. whiteboard pages.In-house tool developed to assist in project management.0 software_development_project_manageme nt. affordable. print icon.caucus. http://www. http://education. and communicate with their project teams. http://www. form to submit nProducts/Products. http://www.Projistics . simple. feedback. navigation. assign tasks. invoicing. discussions.project-open. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. files. set user permissions. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional onProject – myonProject . calendars.Features include Hands up.Instant set-up. identify and resolve potential problems.brevient. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope. review button. Share multiple projects with multiple users. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . Works with Microsoft Project. http://www. private/group chat. video. and HP . and data into a single storage area. exit and help. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. connects peers. attendee list. http://www.saba. data.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. content. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.hp. scaleable. and save to disk icon. Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.HP Virtual Classroom .nagarro.teamdynamix. 68 © Brandon Hall Research .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.elluminate.

batipi. http://www.interwise.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time.glance. http://www. e-mail invites. http://www.linktivity. Allows holding live. and text chat. and videoconferencing. shared desktop. integrated content management system. http://www.0 . Web. video. iVocalize . shared whiteboard and present-ation.intralinks. and phone use. and more. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. attendee lists. Features include shared documents. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. how eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .photoninfotech. and by Linktivity _imc. synchronous online lectures. and Webconferencing specialists. Webcasts. guest lectures. transparency tools.adobe.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . annotations. and meetings. notes. http://www.A secure.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference ew/16/108/ messaging. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. visual.genesys. learning.Photon Infotech – SPARK . Multilingual. toll-free conference calling. instant Do not reproduce 69 .Synchronous virtual classroom – Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. including Web conferencing.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.horizonwimba. remote mples.Synchronous Webconferencing software.ivocalize. and a change presenter ability. broadcasts files. online classes. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Record classes or Webcasts. and Web conferencing with WebEx. and real-time Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with Intralinks . and content display. desktop sharing. For example. http://www. virtual office hours. polling and quizzes. http://www. and collaboration features.Delivers unlimited voice.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. record and playback. pre-recorded broadcasts. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. http://www. sales presentations. meeting management.mixmeeting. URL sharing. http://www. http://www. hand Batipi – Batipi .liveoffice. keyboard and voice Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. instant messaging. e-learning classrooms. teleconferencing. http://www. online seminars.convenos. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.LiveOffice provides Communique – Audioconferencing with LiveOffice – IMConferencing . http://www. http://www. video. breakout rooms. and presentations to audiences spanning the internet_conferencing. private whiteboards for each participant. session reports.elluminate. and collaborative content-building sessions. http://www.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. office hours. live Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. application sharing.

http://www. discussion forums.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . publishing. and moderation of Webcasts.meetingone. conference WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. the Internet. set up labs and conduct Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . http://www. http://carbon. e-learning. Requires only a browser and a phone. and system One – Click&Share. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.To support large ing. editing. Solutions include Web meetings.webtrain. The suite manages the creation. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.radvision.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.Web and audio conferencing services. and into the enterprise. http://www.cudenver. or an entire WebTrain – Communicator 4 . A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this ervices. and document collaboration. any application. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. http://www. send text messages. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. tour Web sites. show rich multimedia content and documents.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. course. text messaging. present PowerPoint slideshows. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . teleconferencing. Webinars. remote support.vodium. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services. http://www.Powers online meetings.netspoke. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. http://www. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. audio. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .raindance. Radvision – Click to Meet .edufolio. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.telnetz. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.webex. http://www.voxwire.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.wave3software. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. http://www. or meeting. Web conferencing. share other applications.

htm Mitre Corporation. Brazil. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum.clomedia.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.pdf Bonk. Creating an eCommunity. Collaborative scientific. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. D.collaborate. Dalton. D. Page. http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.criticalmethods. Komzak. Curtis (2002). September. 2002. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.globalschoolnet. also has a great list of collaboration tools.. Potter. http://collaboration. 2003.. M. also known as “ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in es/clo_feature..” http://www. http://www. and Coleman. and wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Bryan (2006).educause. Michaelides.1 Bibliography erm0621. communities. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Web 2.. 2002. http://cde.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.usabilityfirst. http://www. J. A.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. Models of dex.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.springerlink.. http://www. N.. 41(2). Q2Learning White Paper. Fred (2002).collaborationloop. (2004). http://www. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. 2006. Beshears.diglib. 4. http://www. http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/ x.writely. J. Japan on July 13-14.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer..htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).athabascau. Sign up for free at: Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.. Shadbolt. http://www. Buckingham Shum. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. M. J. (2003). http://www.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. Chief Learning Officer. Maceió... http://www. De David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work S.soton.ctcevents. Nov. Eisenstadt.collabtech. T. S. and businesses to provide collaborative Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.htm Butler.thinkofit. K. http://www. March/April 2006. ces. Bill (2004).html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 .

http://www. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.. University of 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. Luigi (2004b). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. (Eds. http://wscg. Collaboration First. J.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. August /ewing. D.learningcircuits. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.htm Canali De Rossi.. Soren (2002). Technologies of Cooperation.. J. (2004).Canali De Rossi. and Thomas. K. W. Then Knowledge Management. Robin Good Blog. K. http://www.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. 3. 002/ hnology_of_cooperation. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. (2004). 5(1).masternewmedia. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. e-Book. June 22. 2003.).masternewmedia.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. R. Kirschner. 2004. Price.rheingold. J. January A. CMS Sept. D.) (2003). R. In Crawford.. P.athabascau. and Jochems.masternewmedia.. http://www.htm Canali De /kreijns. Robin Good Blog. http://www. M.. Educational Technology & Society. http://www. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. (2002).PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. Elliot.. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . The State Of Collaboration Technologies.html Munkvold. and Martens. http://www. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. A. Luigi (2003a).. and Forster. Live ELearning. J. and Sharifi. R. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2003b). (2002). January 2005. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.html Hurst. (2005). CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Willis. A. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.cmswatch. I. June 5.cfm/files/pape .pdf?fuseaction=Reader. June 30. Bjorn (Ed. Learning Circuits. VA: AACE.editlib. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. J. P. Kirschner. and Miller. Robin Good Blog. C. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.html Kreijns.pdf Strijbos. Findlay. & Weber. Luigi (2004a). /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.editlib. D. (Eds. Palo Alto.masternewmedia.. Chesapeake. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Institute for the Future White Paper.N.. 827-829). Robin Good Blog. J. A. http://www. Educational Technology & Society. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Aavani. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. http://ifets. Matthew (2004).ieee. CA. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. London: Springer-Verlag..pdf Kaplan. May 2. Luigi (2005). http://www. (2002). http://cde. 5(1).htm Canali De Rossi.) (2004).cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.masternewmedia.htm # Clapp. http://www.html Institute for the Future (2005).

(2004).. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.. Studies in Learning. http://www. 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . 24. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. Callan.cqu. & 1(2). http://sleid. J. Evaluation. Innovation and Development. Nov.

Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. discussion groups.48.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. Hegarty et al. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. telepresence. whiteboards.conversate. and videoconferencing in an educational context: ml The Learning Place in Queensland. a process referred to as “text Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . discussion forums. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. chat. VoIP. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. http://www.71. and yet tailored and For students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. including communications tools. blogs.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. http://www. re-usable. http://www.janison. instant developed in Brazil. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. For example. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. telephony.jisc. labs.” http://goldenswamp.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. UK. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. It is being developed into a The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. Find her work at: http://64.editlib. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.

formatex. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. Hegarty.htm Garner. M. J. University of Warwick.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. (2004). CAP e-Guide. s/usingoutlook.html Morgan. R. 13-20. and telephony tools. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.ngfl. UK. Learning Circuits. and Collins. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. distance-learning course at Keele University. (2000). Aug. Technologies of Online Learning. and Bortolozzi. m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. Diana (1993). Sven (2002). s. 2002. http://cde. elegi/session1/ S. http://www.elearningcentre. 31. http://www2.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. > http://www. (2002).pdf esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. (2005). Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.editlib. E-Learning 1. http://safety. e-Book. http://www.thinkofit. http://www. and Elliott.. Komzak. chat. London: Routledge. /sb%20cf%20tool. Pattie (2005)..ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .htm http://www. J. 31 (3).com/wwwtools/m/2645. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. s/ 2005 http://www. and Cerri. Working Knowledge Newsletter. Jan. James (2005). University of Athabasca. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. and Wales. Bostock. June. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. (2004).learningcircuits. Francis. F. rmed35. J.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. September 23.charityvillage. 2002.jisc.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.warwick. British Journal of Educational Technology. (Mlearn 2002).fasfind. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: 199-212.athabascau.elearningcentre.html . 20-21.hbs. I.elearningcentre.cfm?fuseactio . University of Birmingham. Nick (2002). Computer Mediated Communication.pdf Kadirire. Mark (2004). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. CharityVillage. The short message service (SMS) for schools/ 002/elearn. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.pdf LaCroix.html International Journal on E-Learning. 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. M.. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. J. A. http://dircweb. (2002). 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view.king. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. and Briggs. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .Stone. 20-21.

The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. W. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.itsc.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. skills verification. For a large list of competencies for physicians. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies ( /Competencies. organizational and personal goals are tied together. see below) and performance or talent management entering defined competencies into a matrix. skills. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. skills inventory. 2005).” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. performance appraisal. and carry out proper procedures.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are Physicians need to be able to gather data.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Edwards Deming. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. In 1973. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical dex. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. https://launchpad. a Harvard psychologist.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Description According to Sanders (2001). diagnose symptoms. 2000). go to: www. David McClelland. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open.imsproject. competency-based training. IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.cpgvision. http://www.htm Online Resources 050425/technologylife01. activities.syberworks. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.” R. Benjamin (1956). London: Wiley. Ken (2000). (1982). objectives. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.wmich.desire2learn. measurement.E.expresscomputeronline. and development interventions. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.learningcircuits. Read their white paper at: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. See the list of competencies at: The competent manager: a model for effective es/clo_article.ncrel.html The 001/competencies. http://www. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. New York: AMACOM. a Canadian Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Josh (2006).php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. For Hogg. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel ethods/assment/as7scans. http://www. New York: David McKay. http://www. Competency and competency Oracle Learning Management System http://www. Chief Learning Officer. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. Building a skills inventory.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. Sudipta (2005). Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. htm Many companies have their own competency models.hrsg. 78 © Brandon Hall Research /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. April 25. 2005. regardless of industry or sector. Express n_resources/ 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. http://www. Clare (2005).

Michael. E. Godfrey (2005). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Ethan (2001).collectionscanada. N. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. L. (Eds. 001/competencies. 1-14. Study 706. Competency Frameworks. http://www. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Learning Circuits. White paper. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.htm Parkin. Fall 2000..learningcircuits. v.linezine. (2001). (1999). American Psychologist.html Radsma. Rankin. http://www. E-Learning Competencies. Creating a Culture of Competence. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. F.html Sternberg. and London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. (2005). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational Woodill. Gary (2004).ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/ /DispForm. S. University of Toronto. http://www. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. http://www.pdf Rankin. and 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 .amazon. UK: Cambridge University Press.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. N. 2005.cipd. New York: John Wiley. London: G.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. London: IDS. http://www. Operitel Corporation. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. March t/competnces/comptfrmwk. P. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell.1/features/ewet te. http://www. Sanders. Rankin. 2nd ed. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. P. N. 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books ompetency-based-learningmanagement.) (2003). Cambridge. (2004). Miller. and Hollyforde. April 30.28. David. White paper from Operitel Corporation. and Cahorn. and Expertise. London: IRS. http://www. and Grigorenko. The Psychology of Abilities.operitel.htm S. Ellen (2000). Competency based learning management. http://www. http://www. (2001). Master's thesis. (2003). Competencies. (2000). (1973). (2001). Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. http://www. R. Parkin’s Lot.

If you could afford it. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. With the advent of learning objects. rather than complementary. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. I feel that closed. manage. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. such as registering users.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Today. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. Learning objects. Unfortunately.” http://drupal. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. and “topic maps. LCMS. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. According to its official Web site. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. to date. and reporting. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. in fact. you could hire a company to build a private. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. 2006). functionality to an ECM. They have designed competitive. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. launching courses. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. Repositories.atutor. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. displaying a course catalogue.” As well. 80 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. the standardized railway system still works while private. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central Drupal is an open source content management system.

Chief Learning Officer Magazine. PA: Idea Group. Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. http://www. http://www.ntua. March 2005. Scott (2005).com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. Dec. (2006). EdTechPost blog.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. http://plone. 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. 2003. Gerry (2003). Strategies for managing scalable content. elearnspace blog.html Cisco (2005). Van (2005). 2005. and Carmean. S. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. June 9.cmsmatrix.asp Woodill. B. P. It allows training and e-learning providers to author The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. “Monoliths. March 3. 2005. (2004).. January 23. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. A. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. 40(3).cisco. ( onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. Budapest. http://travelinedman. and publish to multiple outputs. http://sakaiproject. Ed.educause. New Thinking Blog.. http://www. Hershey. C. May 15. McGovern. San Jose. S.topicmaps. and Brantner.edtechpost. C. http://www.htm Simon. 2003.softlab. Learning Solutions.pdf Weigel. May/June. Why content management software hasn’t worked. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. reuse in many places. 2003. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental http://www.htm Siemens. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Curtis (2005).com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. Bibliography Leslie. http://www.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 689. and > > http://www.operitel. Educause Review. http://www. 18. Cisco Corporation White Paper. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. G.html McGee. TravelinEdMan blog.gerrymcgovern.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. http://www. (2005). George (2003). 2006. http://www. 2005.elearnspace.e-learningcentre.pdf Cohen. es/clo_article.clomedia. Content Management: our organized future. ntmanagement. (2003).edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533.

2001). GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. delivery models and infrastructure investment. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. Consequently. Luan and Willett. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. personalization methods. knowledge discovery. 2000. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way.

1--34. (2004). Do not reproduce 83 . In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Alex (2002). B.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. Thalheim. 68(8). TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. New York: Springer. School Business Affairs.pdf Iskander. http://www. Feb. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Long Beach. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. http://pami. http://www. G. 1996.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. K. knowledge ted/Deveaux. Samuel (Ed. G. P.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical Bibliography De Veaux. Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. hammouda-elearning. Both products are from Convera. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.kdnuggets. Data Mining in e-Learning. M 2001) http://www.cs. What’s Not. Smyth. In Pierre. text mining.pdf Jantke. and Web mining.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.. http://www. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.. hammouda-elearning.soul.hkuspace.cs. http://www. and Smyth..usyd. K. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. P.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. dex.html Hammouda. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. AAAI Press/MIT Press. and Tschiedel.kent. U. pp. and Kamel. (1996). rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.amstatonline.uwaterloo.wfu. B. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. http://www. x. Grieser.pdf Fayyad. Data Mining: What’s New. http://www. Grigoriev. Piatetsky.. New York: Springer. 13-16 http://asbointl.kdnuggets. by applying fuzzy roducts/product_profile/ Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. (2000). Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. Robert (2002).uwaterloo. edited U. R. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. http://pami. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. http://www. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. (cited in Luan and Willett. http://imej. G.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. (2006).com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. California.pdf Freitas.. Australia.. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. and R. Uthurusamy.

238-241. 39-40.actapress. http://www. C. Train. and K. and Ullrich. K. 3(1). 2004 (7). and Yacef. J.pdf Pahl.-Dec. (2004). International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://www.pdf Monk. Oct. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. analyze for more adaptive teaching.pdf Mor. Yacef (2005). Billerica. Advances in Management Information.unisb. http://archiveedutice. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. C. 15(4).aace. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. M. http://www. http://www2004. J. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). Fuzzy logic and data mining for Japan. http://www. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. May 17-22. Gord (2004) In Proceedings. A.2004. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. David (2005). Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. 2006. C. 3(4). A.. 47-55. 13-16..Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. http://imej.ccsd.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://csdl2. A. (2006).pdf Merceron. MA: WIT Vol 4.ejel. Portugal. http://www. A. Data Mining in e-Learning. E. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. K.ags. 7(1).pdf McCalla. Porto. 264. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. Feb. and Ventura. 41-54. ports/dmkm. http://www.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . (2001). and Minguillon. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. T.informatik. NYC. S. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.unikiel. and Cheung. Oliveira.cabrillo. http://dl. Claus (2004). RP Conference DF/Merceron_Yacef. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. and K. and Willett. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. http://wwwjime.editlib. Maomi (2004).pdf Merceron. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. (2004). (2006). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Yacef (2004).compmech. Romero.asp Merceron.pdf Loo. International Journal on ELearning. Scholl. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Innsbruck. (2004).

The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.sal. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. 4) develop an action is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.decisionarium.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. and 6) document results.une. http://www. 5) carry out a survey. in their case study of medical education. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. http://www.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). sion_support_tool/index.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. 3) vote/prior-itize. For example. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. http://www. http://www. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .utoronto.whichbook.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).bnhexpertsoft. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. 2) http://www. http://www. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given .

pdf E03DaMiT. Memmel.html Rhyne.. Information Systems for a Connected Society. http://dssresources. 23(4).edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.hicss.. http://damit. Raimo (2003).com/ (2000).com/ .2004. http://www. Aachen.. Porto. White paper from BNH Expert Software. Gerhard (2003). http://www.unikiel. 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. 317-328.. Jim (2002). Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. 101-110.hut. Manchester. H.pdf Chakrabarty. B.hut. 6-9.html Scott. and Frasson. Grieser. August 16-18. Online manuscript.hawaii. and Koskinen. Thalheim. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. For newsletters. SIGGRAPH publication. O.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. P.pdf Ounapuu. http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. http://www. USA. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.sal. 2005. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. http://www.. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).dfki. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Jay (2004).html Hamalainen. Enn (2005). Grigoriev. Dan (2003). Hamalainen. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. August. Jan. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. M.pdf Knolmayer.pdf Power. (2004).actapress. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.. Rostanin. http://www. V. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . 238-241. Kauai.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. K. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects.dssresources. S. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/” http://dmoz. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Hawaii. R. (2004).uottawa. Theresa (1998). Kankana (2005). books. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. In Proceedings.manchester. and Tschiedel. bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. B. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. 12(2-3). and information on this area. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.pdf Frize. Germany. aperapril. Enn (2004). M. http://www. Thalheim. and Tschiedel.pdf Jantke. G. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. http://science. C. June ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.bnhexpertsoft. see: http://www. K. (2003). http://www.are located in different places and have incompatible Hawaii. B.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.pdf Jantke. DSE'2003 Workshops

Oct. PA: Idea Publishing. (2006). T. de Carvaho. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Shimizu. 9. M. Hershey. and Do not reproduce 87 . http://www. Vol. 2002.ideagroup.the curriculum.uniserve. /vol9/scott. CAL-laborate. F.

com/ http://killer. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. lighting up theater size screens. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. In the near future. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. Electronic paper could change that some day.P rojector.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners.theregister. head mounted displays. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.cmu. digital paper. in cooperation with overview NTERA. electronic paper. projectors. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.” Selected Examples Samsung. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. monitors. This can be a holographic image.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. > > http://www.io2technology. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. For air displays. intelligent /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .theregister. By stacking a second projector. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. Finally.ntera. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels.siliconlight. In regards to digital paper.Displays Related terms Digital ink. viewers see a floating midair image or video. /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.ices. big enough to be projected on large walls. still/video camera. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible set/homeframeset.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.html Promera is a hand-held computer. http://www. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.

com/timwang/ paper?start=0 T. In 2005. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing First Monday is a journal on new technologies. A. Vancouver. http://thejournal.H. G. E. http://ad. Germany. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. S. (1996).informatik. M. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.provisionentertainment. Livingston. Hamburg. 3. see: http://ad. http://www. Tim (2005). Dec. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. py/2005-eLearn..php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. To access the articles. ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.fogscreen.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. State. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. In G. Pisano.informatik. Oct. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. See a demo at: (2005). T. Hirota. Healthcare.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Government. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display Whitton.firstmonday. M..acm.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . http://www. London: Springer. http://blog.. Largest LCD and video projection.jisc. For a list of his publications.unifreiburg. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. Canada. and Pizer. see: http://www.). Richards (Ed.pdf Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. s. http://portal.technorati. and Ottmann.unifreiburg. pages 3053-3068.E.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. W. 2005..

a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. http://www. http://www. My first report in this series.livetext. maximum dex.educa. In this report I look at the tools available for developing http://www.imsglobal. http://www. http://www. s.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. http://www. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www. http://www.htm http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) 90 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and ortfolio/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.paisley.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through olios. evaluation. thus. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. helping to transform education and training. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. http://isle.educause. http://www. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. http://www. 2005).E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. open source electronic portfolio. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.nottingham. and simple usability.elearnspace. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. http://www.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.pupilpages.htm Educause.elearningcentre.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.

Educause Quarterly. Educause Review. white_paper_2005. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio Cohn. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.educause.. M. http://www. and Werdmuller. no..educause. FD Learning White Paper.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.cfm Dubinsky. Cook. http://www. vol. (2005).educause. (Focus on Teaching).edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. Gary (2004). Dec. http://www. George (2004). Business Communication Light. http://www. 4.campustechnology.. 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. (2004). 2004 http://www. http://www. Fleming.. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. and olios. V. an online resource on dscape. T. P. Bob (2004). J. S. J. D. J. 37(2). Dublin. G.criticalmethods.thejournal. Feijen.. B. m0441. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. Online. B. W. Dec. http://www. D. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. Online erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. July/ August 2004. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. future thinking: digital repositories. and McKean. (2003). D.educause. Lee. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.. esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.doc Banks. 16. G. Educause Quarterly. http://ferl. B. Reflective learning.pdf Lorenzo. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. (2005). ePortfolios. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. http://www. E. J. Trinity / ortfoliopaper. J.. (2002). e-portfolios. 28–37.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. April 1. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in Do not reproduce 91 . http://www.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web Graham (2005).. An Overview of m0224. and Haywood..pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. and Hibbitts. Trent (2002).eradc. Online paper. Bryde. March. (2002). 31(3).org/collab/v. Frederick (2005). e-Portfolios: their use and 3001. (2005).becta.. http://www. and Ittelson.pdf ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Vol 27 No 4. elearnspace.htm Tosh. Bibliography Achrazoglou. 39. College of Education http://www. THE Journal Online.. University of Iowa. with many links. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Fall.elearnspace. (2004).amazon. has a section on e-portfolios. Love. 2005. Aalderink.pdf Greenberg. Harvey. G.pdf Batson.educause.

and portfolios.. research. (2002). C. & Figgins.cjlt. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.citejournal.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . 144-169.A. h/article1.3/tosh. 2(2).A.http://www. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. ml Young.

and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.freescale. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. Constance Steinkuehler. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. complex problem solving. http://www. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. play. The toolset. For a brief review of these Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. Facebook.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to /homepage. from the University of Wisconsin. individual and collaborative learning across multiple Softimage. simulations. 2003). http://www.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game http://us. and learning (Amory. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.hive7. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .” says that “in the mod world. This game allows users to play. as such. http://www. allows members of a game development team to work together. There is a free 30-day trial version. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. 2005). Cyworld.myspace. serious games. helping speed up the game creation process. http://www. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer In 2005. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. identity work. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. http://www.facebook.cyworld. Making such changes is part of what modding is MySpace. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. dubbed XNA Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. games.thinkingworlds. writing about “first person shooter games. Examples include Hive7. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. create. Marc Prensky (2003). see: http://news.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. and Second Life.

softimage. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.seriousgames.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. Sign up at: http://www. along with their Web sites. http://www. http://www.for the Xbox.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game ames/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.mpjgaBKQ dAe.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.htm The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.magnetargames. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. For example.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. produces educational games for training.” Read her research at: http://website. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. They also hold an annual Game Developers Dr.aspx 8/index.digiplay. You can read about them at Pluginz. Review them at: http://esub. researchers. implementation.muzzylane. Started in North America. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game See the selection of games at: Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.” http://www. or go directly to the Softimage Web site. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player 94 © Brandon Hall Research .nasaga. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. Many of their learning games resources are The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. Thiagi. http://www.uga. > > The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.wisc.programmersheaven.siggraph. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.

549-567. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. and Biswas. Multimedia learning in ns/ ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Developing Serious Games. Jan. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://jason.php Rieber. R. 9(1). C. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. and Michael. http://www.pdf In Richard /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. R.pdf Michael. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. Clifton Park. http://www. http://llt. see: http://www. (2005). Mayer (Ed. Fourth /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.uwf. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. C. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Rob (2006a).pdf Godwin-Jones. 2006. http://www. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.teachableagents. 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. and Inform. http://www.ukzn. http://www. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.itc. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.uwf. D. (2005). http://www. H. SRI-BI. (2006). 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Hawaii. Games and Education = Oil and Water. January 2. S. Beers. and Maurer. June 25-28.pdf Bergeron. Lloyd (2005).pdf Swamy.iicm. Honolulu. S. 2005. 19. (2005). 2003. 2003. IT-University Copenhagen. 17-22.pdf Prensky. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. and Chen. Technology Trends for the Year. pdf Reynolds. Bob (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 95 . Clifton Park. http://www. Train. hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Marc (2003). http://website.cambridge. N. 2006. University of Wisconsin Madison.php Reynolds..Bibliography Amory. Learning on Demand Bulletin. sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. G.pdf Guetl.. Constance (2005). Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem and Swamy. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Language Learning and Technology. http://www. Xplanazine. Alan (2003). Rob (2006b). Simon (2005).. Oct. (2005).marcprensky. Gupta. Bryan (2006). Williams.xplanazine. /01/technology_tren. Chapter Dreher. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. .org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. D. http://www. June. simulations and microworlds. Doctoral dissertation. N. H. March 10.. 2005. Gamasutra. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Serious Games: Games That Educate. /03/ The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.

Michigan State University.Tye.msu. theses/mudcraft/thesis. Masters Thesis. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.commtechlab. http://woz.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Jason (2004).

tudelft. Report No. Bibliography Allen. including identifying commercial products. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.ucsd. http://www.html Research by Dr. was held in Southampton. at the University of California. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. 2008.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.smartkom.. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. M. Artificial intelligence techniques. FG2006. looking for particular sequences.pdf London. http://www. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.pdf Borghi. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. and robotics in elearning.ecs. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. artificial intelligence. .fg2008.fg2006. such as Markov models. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.” http://mplab. Munich.soton. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 3. haptics. http://www. Aug. Porta. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Michael (2003). affective computing. FG2008. F. 803DES. UK. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. April 10-12 2006. Lombardi. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . (2005). Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.elearningguild. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. Nicole (2001).. For a list of papers: http://www. Ludwig-Maximilians University. The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.

Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks.D. (2002). Las Vegas. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and (2005). J.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat.actapress. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.cse. and l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. Nevada. H. L. /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).acm. 21(9). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. http://www. 675 . 47(1). http://doi. S.. T. Deller. 2004.clayton. J. Geiger. 57-64. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.pdf Wilson. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning.pdf paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. encedwall. Y. http://www. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.recveb. J. and Yang. and Chang. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Proceedings. Wong. C. 0/paper/or03/027. Communications of the ACM. (2004). Y. Y. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.1 50 Nakanishi. J.ieeecomputersociety. 442-446. and Kim. L. http://www. Hand gesture recognition based on decision Visualization. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information (2005). October ws/enw63/hci. (1997). http://www. IEEE Transactions. A. 27-30. Lee. and Bobick. In Proceedings.1109/ICALT.fsu.rutgers. http://portal. Chen. 2000. (2002). A. http://www. Gao. Vancouver. (2004). Lai. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.. M.. Fussell. In Proceedings. Wesson. Michael (2004). P.2000. Pittsburg. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. 242-245. January.ercim. http://cbcl. Annual International Computer Software and Applications ns/ps/siggraph02. J. 1999.F (1999)..ucsb. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.ogi. and Poggio.110 9/ Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.. 19(7). G. Sato. and Carreira. http://www. R.884693 Chen. M. D.2005. Y. A. http://csdl2. IEEE Transactions.Computer Communication. C. and Ma.pdf Loi.. T.. S. (1997). July 22-27.pdf Corradini. W.pdf Lee. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. British Columbia. (2005). Park. Canada http://cims. A. July 202004. Shi-Kuo (2000). P. and Bender.html Chang. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. http://interact. Computer vision in the interface. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 884 – 900.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. (2003). C. Setlock. September 2002. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).pdf Daugman. and Koike.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk.pdf Peixoto.pdf Ou. J. (2000).research.. PA.676 http://lcv. Korea.stat. and Cohen.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.

aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2533–2543. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. variations.hindawi. http://www.

acdamerica. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.techillustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. and playback.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.avs.blender3d. Download a copy: http://www. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.html Blender . and in his recent 2006 book. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the Canvas Professional http://www.adobe.corel. animation. Designing Web-Based Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.2. rendering. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Horton applied these in his 2000 x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 100 © Brandon Hall Research . tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. the same principles apply to user interface design. In acquiring Macromedia. interactive creation. Nevertheless. e-Learning By Design. http://www. Pheonix. and Uyar. Tokyo.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. Richards (Eds.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > Designing WebBased San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The most listings are for 3-D software. (2005). Tools and Techniques for ELearning.). Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In P. Gloria (2004). The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation William (2006). NY: John Wiley.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG) 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. Germany. (2004).amazon.indiana. Japan · Sept 7-10. Proceedings. Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005.carto. ED-Media Tools Usage Survey Results. http://www.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Fu-Kwan (2004). http://www. S. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC William (2000). A.siggraph. New York: John Wiley. William (1991).IBM CATIA http://www306. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. Potsdam. http://esub. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. e-Learning by Design. June 1-3. SmartDraw http://www. X. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.pdf McConnell.pdf Qiu. Kommers & 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning Do not reproduce 101 . http://grids. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .

Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Evidence and Narrative . CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Edward (1997). http://www. Edward (1990). Edward (2001). http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.pdf Envisioning 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. STC. 2nd al/dataShow. Frances (2004). Carolina Chapter. 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 http://www. CT:

forcedimension. suits. Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.handshakeinteractive. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. > > http://wwwpercro. There are distinct subcategories in the field of conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .se/index. When used approp-riately. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. http://www. Haptic devices come in many forms. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. gloves. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. including pens.” http://www.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.immersion.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.miralab.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.sssup.html http://www. http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.sensable. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . joysticks/ joypads.pureform. Read the press release at: llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. http://www.mpbtechnologies. on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). and force-feedback mice. who becomes directly involved in experiencing Do not reproduce 103 . Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual m_ghost/phantom.

S.1109/ICALT. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive 30/1059480393138. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.html Ross. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. The Haptic Museum.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. C. L. 2003. A. Upper Saddle River. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide 2004.2005. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics.1_release-public.html Levesque. CA. Vincent (2005).edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. A.phptr.mcgill. 3-5 June 2004. 2005. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.pdf Rowell. G. Deliverable D4.haptics-e.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. http://www. Santa Clara. Technology and Haptics.B. Japan. N. Prentice Hall online article. ss/ACC239. and Essl. (2005).ht ml pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. McLaughlin. Abbott. 917-921. 2005.. Proceedings. Medioni. J. 22.. Iwane. (2000). http://www. New York Times (Online). 2003.pdf O’Modhrain. Report delivered January 15. April.isfh. Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics http://csdl2. McHugh. M. Italy in March.piaggio. July 3. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). Research report..” http://www.ccii. http://www.pdf O’Modhrain. (2005).xml&DOI=10. Blindness. M.. (2003). Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).. David (2003). M. M. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). McGill University. Reaching through the net to touch.roblesdelatorre.digicult. (2004).edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2.” http://www. http://haptex.. G. Dobreva.ra. and Jaskowiak. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis.S.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002).org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. M. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. Y. Sukhatme. M.smh. http://web. Matsubara. M. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.ethz. Inoue.. Reality s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.pdf Hespanha.pdf McLaughlin. Chapter on Haptics. Wired News.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report http://www.unige. G. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. Daithí (2003). J. professional. M. M..html O’Malley. Donnelly.usc. Shahabi. (1997). http://www.informatik. Centre for Intelligent Machines. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. and Gillespie.unitrier. July 31.pdf Ó Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Haptics Laboratory. and Sukhatume.unipi.. and http://www.. The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.cim. Oct.. and Ichitsubo. M. http://www. Proceedings. G.. Laurie (2004).miralab. and /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.

com/articles/printerfrie ndly. & Do not reproduce 105 . Journal of Vision. Y. 1(3).. http://www.http://www.informit. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. (2001).asp?p=345621 Sakano. H. Kaneko. K. 250a.

com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. digital paper. input s. experience computing. In 2005. Writing will require special digital pens. wearable computing. haptics.” http://www.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. they must interact with it through an interface device. > > http://killer. gesture recognition.html http://killer." http://web. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon bleDisplay. handwriting recognition. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. tangible computing.html Sony.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.html Description For humans to use a computer. However. monitors. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. and some. / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. textures. electronic paper.cmu.buffalo. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory.cmu. Called Librié. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with see: 35n17/articles/ link. like digital ink and paper. http://www. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. display technologies. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. head mounted displays. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. see: http://www. human-computer interaction.eink. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.dottocomu. For a review. Now in the research and development phase. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).com/b/archives/00 2571.

http://www. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.becta. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. http://www.cs.wired.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.05/ff_digitalink_pr. http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and On their “Experience Computing” Web site. consisting of a pen and a charger.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition hiteboards.swan.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://www. Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. it is constantly being improved and updated.lifehacker. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. Although this technology has been around for a few years. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB http://www. 3) throw. http://www. afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive 3/home. These methods are 1) touch. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital http://www. . http://whiteboards.cs.elearningcentre.devx.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. 4) bend.usask. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the and graphic. See their advice and resources at: http://www.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. Following are three such articles: > tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic human computer interaction. 2) 1 Over the aging/resources/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive iteboards. and 5) ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.

6. http://www. 2003. Edinburgh.uclan. Nicole (2006). 15(3). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. Springer. King’s College. 2004. http://www. Bandoh. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. University of London.html In (2004). Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard.10577. M. Australia.mspx Bibliography Cogill. (2003). 26. http://dl. http://ad. Haag.1585516.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed.htm Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Michael (2005).10577. Indurkhya.pdf Otsuki.aace.informatik. Jan. (2006). Guardian Unlimited. 2006. http://ad. April 7.1116483. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors.html Wong.. Oct. Julie (2002).org. H. Alan (2004).de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/ Read all about their award winning technology at: . Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Tablet PC Developer.> > http://www. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . The Mercury News. T.. http://education. 2004. and Nakagawa. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research Read.). C.. 257-269. (2005). Richards ( K.08/epapers. http://www. Y.eschoolnews. NewScientist Magazine (Online).com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. Fri. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems.wired. is described in a 2002 press . py/2006-tabletop. HCI2005. June 1. Scotland. N. T. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. Will (2004).04/ ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. The most flexible paper yet revealed.virtuallearning.devx. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. http://www. with its use of digital ink. and Ottmann.00. (2005). F. Kato. Jan. ory. J. and Ottmann. S. Adelaide. 2006.informatik.pdf Mohamed. Phil (2004).unifreiburg. K. January http://www. story/0.pdf Cross.html eSchool News. 2004. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. eSchool News Online. December 22.00. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream news/business/technology/14286388. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Peltason.wired. http://www.pdf Revell.. Chalk one up to the whiteboard.anoto. Guardian story/0. Vancouver.newscientist. J.

elearning portals. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made.. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Whenever possible. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. Content management. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. Course Management Systems (CMS). the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. 2005). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). conversation. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation.e. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes.

net/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. and other academic services. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer Gyrus .allencomm. a search engine.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. The roles. IBM .IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).gyrus.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. The LMS companies.geolearning.GeoMaestro http://www.elementk. content-driven forums run by experts. a contact management Element K .trainingpartner.cornerstoneondemand. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.” http://elgg.compendiumcorp.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.avilar. To quote the Frontline Data Solutions. .com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.gen21. GeoLearning Inc. . a leading open source learning management Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.Training Partner http://www.fldata.WebMentor LMS http://www. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.php EVE.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. a communic-ation platform. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.KnowledgeHub http://www.TrainingMine http://www. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning Cornerstone OnDemand p103. one of the LMS vendors listed below. is available as a free download. http://www. in alphabetical order. more control over the learning environment For institutions.academici. .com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. groups. Compendium Corporation . more control over their own data For faculty. oodle_Sample_e-book.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). . a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).

com/ mGen Inc.SAP Learning Solution http://www. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.SSA Learning Management http://www.asp Saba .com/ MaxIT .CourseMill LMS LMS http://www.operitel.strategia.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite Websoft Systems Novasys Information Services WBT Systems .com/flashhom e. TrainingOffice Audit Syntrio .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .aspx RISC .com/ Technomedia Training Inc.intralearn. .learnsomething.IntraLearn XE _01_01.outstart.LearnCenter http://www.PeopleSoft Learning Management SSE .sap.mGen Enterprise http://www.jsp Operitel Corporation .http://www.html IntraLearn Software Corp. – TEDS http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www. .htm SAP .saba.redbooks.Ed Training Platform http://www.technomedia.LMSLive TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.SSElearn Portal ng/index.plateau.meridianksi.Vuepoint Learning System .teds. .jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .vbtrain.html OutStart Inc.Net http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.Plateau Learning Management System Inc.teralearn.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.Isoph Blue Vuepoint . Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.iPerform Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.ssaglobal.TeraLearn LCMS http://www. .com/ Strategia .TotalLMS http://www.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.DOTS . . – KnowledgeBridge SSA Global Technologies Inc.webraven.ips-inc.mgen.knowledgeplanet.InfoSource soft/hcm/ent/module/ Tracker. .cfm TEDS Wizdom Systems Meridian Knowledge Solutions Do not reproduce 111 .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.novasys-corp.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) .KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite Intellinex LLC. Integrated Performance Plateau Systems .com LearnSomething Inc.LearnFlex LMS http://www.Oracle Learning http://www.LearnerWeb http://www.html Trivantis Corporation .com/ NetDimensions . .aspx Oracle USA Inc.Intellinex LMS http://www.TM SIGAL n_resources/learning. .com/portal/ InfoSource Inc. .wizdom. .TopClass LMS http://www.

ac.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems.The Learning Manager http://www. http://www. 005/adkins.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. http://www. http://www. October. . Virtual Learning Environments.71. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Pierre (2000).pdf Cohen.nxtbook. .org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central. .org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.e-learningcentre. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64. (Online edition). Building educational virtual environments. Molinari.learningcircuits. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. Chief Learning Officer. James (2003).htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .mq.htm Bouras.” and open source course and learning content management systems. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. C. Workshop on virtual learning environments.48. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.cetis. Ed. June 20-21. A. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. http://incsub. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .pdf Dillenbourg.building new education strategies for schools.jisc.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. 2006. Proceedings. (2006). and Tsiatsos.. M. Incorporated Subversion. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).A possible future for online learning.learningcircuits. University of Birmingham.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. (2002) For a review of leading open source learning management systems. by Sam from the JISC in the c/clo0806/ Colazzo. http://lttf. L.xtention. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits.melcoe. Sam (2005).xstreamsoftware. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features." http://www. and XStream Software gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. James (2005).pdf Dalziel. 2005. Xtention Teresa A. http://www.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. http://www.PDF Farmer. 21.unitn. August. ICALT2002 p103. http://www.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. http://www. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. (2002). Jan.

au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport.anadolu. Browne. Proceedings. Derek (2004) Plzen. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .educause. Maomi (2005). http://wscg. Exeter. Jan. and Sharifi. May 2006 http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .bath.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.cfm?fuse action=Reader.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual 5/Poster/J03-full. http://www. http://www. 4.aace. J. and Higher Education 2005. Educause nakos. 2005. Vancouver.pdf http://www. Van (2005). Healthcare. L.. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.pdf Wise. M. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March survey_2005. Aavani.pdf Tsinakos. 5(2). T. November 2004. Avgoustos (2004). Report published by UCISA. 40(3).manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. (2005). and Walker. http://tojde.ucisa. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in October May-June. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. April. LMS Governance Project Report. and Quealy. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. J. Czech Republic. Government.pdf Ueno. R.pdf Morrison. Proceedings of ALT-C. M (2005). http://www. Report for the Melbourne..ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. 2005. WSCG Conference 2005.infodiv. (2006).

learning object model (LOM). As online educational materials are produced. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. reusable learning objects (RLOs). this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. The acronym SCORM.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. a well-known standard for learning objects. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . does not mean the intended learning has taken place. At the simplest level. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. computer-use practices. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). curriculum. They are emulations of “software objects.” This use has been more successful. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. 2006). learning object repository (LOR). As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. sharable content objects (SCOs). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors.” such as a graph. However.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. Rather. 2004. SCORM. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Beyond that. This idea is based on older. intelligent tutoring. rapid learning. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. of learning objects. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. Learning objects have several uses. culture. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. Wiley.

html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.unsw.utoronto. for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://www.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.uvic. goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www. Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .uwaterloo. and they can be general or subject The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college preserves. http://www. http://www.goenc. with almost CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.koha. http://www. http://dspace.dist. stores. http://www. FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.rice. http://nsdl. with a focus on information literacy.arizona.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. and distributes digital research material. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://web. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.sir.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.oise. http://learnware. resources for grades K-12. http://www. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.wisconsin. http://mlor.000 O/cloe_stories.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.merlot. http://ideas.educanext.profetic.mcli.maricopa. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.

dis. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. 116 © Brandon Hall Research .html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.9. International Journal on E-Learning. & Strijker. The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ b.irrodl.html For a highly critical view of learning us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.L. Celentano.html Edusource (2003).org/guidelines/ Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.aace. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. 2(1). and Anderson. http://www.jcdl. B. http://www. http://www. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.elearnspace.nmc. 681.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. C. (2004). Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. Bibliography Barritt.uniroma1. Downes.doc Christiansen. (2000). http://www. (2003). M.. (2004). http://www. J.html http://www. CANCORE. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.uwm.htm Collis.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. Stephen.uis. Online document.publiclibraryofscience.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. Online paper. F. http://dl. And Longo..” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. http://www.uwm. The Need for and Nature of Learning etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 is available at: http://www. authored by Rachel Smith.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.lornet. http://www. Software Architecture cts.edtechpost. (2004). http://portal. 1(3).it/~lhci/002. http://www. and Alderman. 2(4).1/downes . International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. Version .unesco. EdTechPost.dicole. http://www. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. T.itdl. http://www.

learninglab. Rory (Ed. T..php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Do not reproduce 117 .eduserv. Fredinand (2004).edu. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. Aug. Richards. M. Friesen.html McGreal. usability.htm Friesen. Elizabeth (2004). http://www. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Anderson. Babin. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. R. Hatala. Paper presented. K.Rafts or Battleships? .bath. 12.itdl. Jan. Norm (2005). Wolfgang (2004). (2004). March. http://proceedings. http://www. Krauss. http://ideas. G. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. A Primer on Learning Objects. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.Part 2. D. S.htm Morrison. Learning Material Repositories .learningcircuits. June.http://www.Rafts or Battleships? .Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. (2002). G. http://www. V. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. S. and Pragnell. (2005). D. and Freisen. Downes. http://www.bath.cfm/files/pape r_11841. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.) (2004). Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Derek (2004b). T. and Schafer. http://www. July 14. (2004).cancore. Derek (2004a). Online. April 2002. 01. (2004).. Roberts. 2004.kth.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. Norm (2006). 1 (3). Lori (2002).. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of rimer. March. Warren (2000). Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.edusource. e/morriblog_comments. Research Report. N. and Mohammed. Learning Material Repositories .doc Fiaidhi. Rachel (2006).. Rossano.. Learning Circuits.cancore.p df Roselli.pdf Richards. G. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. McGreal.. N.usq. J. http://www. T. http://www.learningcircuits.html Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference.informingscience. MacLeod. Learning Circuits. Mattson. http://www. 1(3).itdl. Final Project e/morriblog_more.. A Repository for the Teaching http://www. and Morales. INTERACT 2005. 2004. Online 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.htm Nejdl. S..html Heery. Online Education Using Learning Objects.. Paquette. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and 03.html Friesen. London: Falmer.html Leeder. http://www. http://www. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). 7(1).Part 1. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. InSITE March. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance 002/ cts. PADLR-final-report. M.

it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. and Senteni. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.p df no-paper. Brigham Young University. Online. David A.htm Shepherd. A. David : Jan. David A.pdf http://www. M. Govinda. (2004). (2006). 1(7).fastrakconsulting.> > http://www. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.itdl. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (Ed.dis. http://www. Wiley. (2000).org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002).pdf Santally. Iterating Toward Openness.. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. 2.uniroma1.). http://opencontent. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.htm Wiley. (2000). http://www. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. Doctoral jects.. 9. http://opencontent. Objects of Interest.

frappr. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. PDAs. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. location-based systems are found in museums. proximity tools. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). including cell Clark Labs . there are potential disadvantages to locationbased ESRI. findability.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content.http://www.esri. galleries.http://www. gaming MapInfo . as with any new technology. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. laptops. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. Do not reproduce 119 .S. including privacy concerns. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. and security issues. http://www. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.http://www.http://www.http://www. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. more demands for a person’s Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. However. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information.mapinfo. users will be able to use a variety of devices. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . personal media Intergraph . The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. navigation.clarklabs. and wearable Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information.cadcorp. geocaching. Department of Defense. galleries. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars. http://www. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.biogeomancer.leeds.pangonetworks. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. http://www.searchable from a Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. similar to what a GIS system cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. archaeological sites in the state. http://www. at: http://www. 120 © Brandon Hall Research Platial enables anyone to find. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. the national mapping agency for Great Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.berkeley. See their complete range of The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. http://www. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. it is a great tool for teaching science. While not very useful for most people. as well as papers on trends in GIS.geog. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. http://www. http://www.” Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. http://local.

3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. http://www. DigiCULT Newsletter. Earth. Abbott.html /jisctsw_05_01. Pavlidis.C. 15..http://www. IBM Systems A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: 004/kaplan2. and Rusbridge. Eva (2004).info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031. Location systems for ubiquitous has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.pdf Tsirliganis.directionsmag. Heather (2005).. M. and Chamzas. 38(4). http://www.eoscenter. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. http://www. J. C. (2003). Guardian Unlimited. http://education.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. 2003. J.. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. and Location-Based industry /gis05..research.pdf Do not reproduce 121 ...opensourcegis.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). http://www. N. story/0.00. (2001). Online article.bc.intergraph. Issue 6. (2005).pdf Spohrer.learningcircuits. Arnaoutoglou. The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. and Information in places. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. A.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. and students. Jan 2004. http://www. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. 1999.jisc.1642288. Cardinali..digicult. Part II. We learning: social software and Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial 84/spohrer. http://elearningeuropa. tory. Future LocationBased Experiences. and visualize spatial information. Steve (2005). Dec. Dobreva. > > http://geotags. S. Geotags. Chapter on Location Based Devices. e/education/index. M. CAD.intelresearch.geocomm. 2005.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information Fabrizio (2005).. m The theme of the 2005 Geography.. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. F.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. http://www.htm McLean. enthusiasts.wisc. (1999).geography. http://www. see: http://www. A.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage D. A. Mapping. manipulate. IEEE Report. Learning Bibliography Benford. 2005.

” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. also called “object interoperability. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. A “mashup. etc.. Mashups are constructed in several ways. For example. to a lesser extent. hybrid applications. of how to communicate with each other. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. For two or more programs to talk to each other. document management. API clouds. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. Many of these objects are software programs. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. such as those for collaboration. or protocol. Programs can be “stand alone. the rules for sending files across the Internet. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.” that is. or through “Web services.” Using SOAP. Similarly. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn.Mashups. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). integration. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. all expressed in binary code. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. tag clouds. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. run all by themselves. providing an informal collaborative environment. 2004). has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. composite applications. communications. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. at the same time.” then. personalized. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. in schools and universities. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic.

htm Torres.bctechnology. Douglas (2004). Vol. Many have educational value. Elearnspace. J. 2002. March 6. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. Web Services. > > E-Learning Interoperability & Web ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. Paul (2002). E-Learning for the BC Tech ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.icio.” It has many examples of mashups. January 2004*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063.emilychang.techlearning. 2005. and mutate. Learning Solutions. George (undated). 2006.programmableweb. Robert (2005).icio. and Padron. http://en.businessweek. Vol. a writer for Business Week.elearnspace.html Rob Hof. http://www.businessweek. January 2004 http://lttf. Galen (2006).com/products/print_fr iendly. Curriculum as Mashup. /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. http://www. and chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.0 APIs.deitel.operitel.programmableweb. Issue 1. Dec. As Warlick (2006) has ey-dec0602.wikipedia. SOAP.pdf Seimens. Business Week ResourceCenter. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. 6. 6. Issue 1. techLEARNING. 2006. July 25.html Woodill. Learning Technology http://www. Enterprise mashups. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.pdf Stacey. David (2006).htm services..aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. (2006).jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. Learning Technology newsletter. (2004).Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. 2006. Infoworld. Mix. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.html Hof. gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. G. ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. Mashups. C. http://www. http://www. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. http://www. July 28.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Bibliography Gruman. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. http://del. May 15.html Warlick. J.

and artificial intelligence are being developed.umbc.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. http://www. C. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data tadata/index. and institutional stores. http://www. June 2004. 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. A. in the context of information technology. Bibliography Abel.. Ohio. H.cancore. C. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. F. http://ebiquity. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular Delphi Group report. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Perich. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.html Description At the same time that learning An ontology.php?id=25 Chen. Benayache. (2004).uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.. Lenne.. 7(4). so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of /105.ifets. MA. 98-111. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning... T.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. Finin. repositories.. M.pdf Delphi Group (2004).Metadata. http://simile. http://libraries.imsglobal. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to 124 © Brandon Hall Research . schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. pervasive computing.educause. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. http://dublincore. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. http://metadata. and Joshi. http://www. =O4E. Boston. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. to develop metadata standards. In Proceedings. and services. search A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. D. metadata. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. and Chaput.cetis.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. Barry. (2004). A. http://www. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).

Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. http://www. and Diaz. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Building a Metadata-Based Website. P.. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Ellyssa (2005). The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Defining “taxonomy”.aace. http://www.pdf Oin. (2003). W. J. NISO Press.greenchameleon. (2004). http://www. A. Dec. 2004.. 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. Norway. http://www. http://dl.htm Gruber. Presentation to Tag Camp. and Nejdl. Pouloudi. Thomas (2005a). Green ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. 82-97. eibel. 2002. D-Lib Magazine.. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.ppt Ricci.cancore. October-December. July/August. April 18. and Poulymenakou. Patrick (2006). Adam (2004). M. N. aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.boxesandarrows. http://www. April 9.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). http://www.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.dlib. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.htm pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. International Journal on E-Learning. 2005. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus BoxesAndArrows. http://www. 26-28. Dolog.blogsome. TagOntology .boxesandarrows. and Mosoiu. 2005. N. May 22. Norm (2005). (2004). S.tagcamp. 7(4). Learning Circuits.adammathes. I. epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. B. November. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Mathes.php?id=25 Kroski. Trondheim.ecdl2003. G. April 21.niso. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. October 29. Journal of Educational Technology and detail/defining_taxonomy University of Illinois graduate paper. and Godby.html Wodtke. eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson.php?id=25 Tozman. D. and Shao. http://www. http://infotangle.learningcircuits. 2004. (2004). http://tomgruber.delphigroup. 2003. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. http://www. 2002. (2003). http://www. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). 7(4). Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Do not reproduce 125 . http://www. http://tomgruber. Christina (2002). Thomas (2005b).html Another new paradigm for instructional design.pdf Henze. J.http://www. Nov.pdf UnderstandingMetadata. (2002). Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. http://www. Christian (2004).org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.. 7. 004/tozman. Understanding Metadata. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. 2006.. Online article. http://www.ifets. Wagner. Reuben (2004). A. Stuart (2005). 11(7/8).ifets.

info/issues.ifets. 7(4). 70-81. http://www.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research .

and wearable computers in teaching and learning. strong search capabilities.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. using ambient intelligence. improved identity creation. personalization. collaborative learning. Do not reproduce 127 . in Japan. brokerage. laptops. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. 2004).” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. such as increased computer literacy. Cited in Prensky. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. powerful support for effective learning. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. instant messaging (text. pervasive computing. tablet PCs. location-dependence. However. multimedia. it is predicted that there will be 2. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. wearable computing. (2004). communicative skills and community building. there were estimated to be 1. MP3 players. 2003).6 billion units in operation by that year. Essentially. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. rich interaction. cellular telephones. tablets. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. and mentoring. personal digital assistants (PDA). particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. time and space. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. location based technologies. personalization. cell phones. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. delivery and tracking of learning and information content.” Two years ago. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. conversational learning. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. video) and distributed databases. mLearning. podcasting. Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in 25255.harvard.cs.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.” They have a “firefly watching system.ccu.elearningcentre. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.ccu.pdf location-specific text. or a combination of media. of the University of Oulu in Finland. pictures. http://csdl2.cs.” > > > http://m. and a g/index.htm Jari earning. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. http://www. US. resources.” and a “bird watching learning 7. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/ applications.fasfind.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across papers/JECR-2005. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. including 128 © Brandon Hall Research . Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.pdf http://www.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.telus. The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and papers/AINA2004-final.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.pdf http://www. movies. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. http://urbantapestries. technologies. Learn more at: http://www. http://www. activities.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.” > > > papers/bird.mobilearn.ccu. Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.fasfind. 7. http://www.” a “butterflywatching learning system.cs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture. Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. and pre-service teachers.beta80group.

jisc. wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. http://www.iadis. (2002). M. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. (2005).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.pdf Anderson. http://213.94.htm JISC (2005). J. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. E. Bryan (2004).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.ccu.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. September 2005. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance rs/JCAL-2003. EDUCAUSE Review. 5. Gaming. 39. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Language Learning and Technology.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. R. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.eee.msu. http://llt. 2006 in Dublin. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous Bob Jasola.pdf Godwin-Jones. Ireland. Sept.m-learning.bham. Emerging technologies: Messaging.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. (2004). http://www. 2(9). 9(1). Learning and Skills Development No. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.pdf Geddes. and ndex. L..232. Y. Paul (2005). Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Report. Univ. A. http://www. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. /edition06/download/geddes. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. http://www.pdf ations. Bob (2005).html Grew. (2005).. 19. and Pagani. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. B. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. 17-22 http://llt. (2003).html Chen. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.educause. Kao. M0451.135/ipodined/ 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. P. JISC Guide. and Sharma. A. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.J.formatex.jisc. Jill (2005).idi.pdf Do not reproduce 129 .org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. January and Sheu. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.flexiblelearning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.pdf Colazzo. T. http://www. http://www.cs. James (2005). http://www. http://www. Vol.itdl. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. http://www.html Kadirire. of Birmingham http://www. No.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.pdf Bibliography 04. For example. Ronchetti. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for

asp Liu. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting 2490. http://21st. David (2006). E.. June 27. E-Learning on the move. 40(3). Donnelly.. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. Greece. L. D.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Budapest. June/July 2005. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://www. ASCILITE2005 (2004).ascilite. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.1490476. Brisbane. Neil (2003). Presented at WMTE 2002. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Galasso. (2005). 2005. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.2002.doc Meisenberger. Proceedings.pdf Metcalf.acm. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment.110 9/WMTE.pdf Thomas. al.. http://www. UsabilityNews. H. Kristóf (2002). Feb. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. EDUCAUSE Review. Pigozzi. Marc (2004).info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Australia. M. Hungary. m0532. Taylor. and Nischelwitzer.. E. A. M. and Vavoula. Växjö.00. G. Draft paper submitted for publication. Peter (2005).phil-inst.innovateonline. S.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. http://education. Sharples.usabilitynews.1039222 McLean. and. M. computer-aided. rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. http://portal. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). T. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Romagnoli. April 2005. A. A theory of learning for the mobile M-Learning: Mobile comment/0.. 2005. M. and Cultural Heritage. Amherst. http://www. August 29-30. 1(5). 40-53. M..clomedia. Vecchietti. May/June 2005. J.ieeecomputersociety. Christopher (2005).org.bham.. Malavasi. Enabling Mobile Learning. Feb. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. ning. es/clo_article. http://www. http://www.html von Koschembahr. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.pdf Scagliarini. Ellen (2005).. Understanding. Växjö University.htm#Implications Prensky. (2002).hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. and Dobreva. http://www. T. http://www. Ann (2005). Mike (2005).asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner.. Archeology.. http://drei. Chief Learning Coralini. T.oucs. and Yang.fhjoanneum. (2005). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.Light... Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Roffia. M. Glyfada. (2001) Cinotti. multimediabased learning application.educause.pdf Mellow. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Proceedings. Teleborg Campus... F. Conference on Virtual Guardian Unlimited. Learning in the Mobile Age. http://www. J. Michael (2005). Sweden. and Sforza.2. Chan. May 23.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. MA: HRD Press. Wang.

i.” See also Jordan et . found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. (2004). The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).e. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. http://www. Kim (2000). Di Eugenio. Do not reproduce 131 . Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. et al. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. machine translation. http://tcc.elsnet.lexxe.itc.ldc. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.york. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. Description According to Coxhead (2001).org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Lee et Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.cs.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . (2004). “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. tools. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. rather than just returning Web pages. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. and standards. http://wwwusers. http://www.aaai.upenn. natural language understanding. research. (2005a. speech recognition. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. speech synthesis.translating one natural language into another. http://dmoz.. natural language generation.

this activity.

Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8


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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. yzdiss.pdf

Do not reproduce


Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft



Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing


© Brandon Hall Research

Corporation. Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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135 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.

Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. 002/hofmann.html


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track. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. for the learner. such as search engines. and through a variety of technologies. there can be no electronic interaction. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. blogs..bham. but these are only available to members of the course. as learners move between institutions. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. work places. Secondly. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. wikis. Running on the learner's PC. A PLE must support lifelong learning. In many cases. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. chat. social environments.cetadl. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Individualization in an LMS is weak. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. To practice real-world Learning happens everywhere and at all times. e-portfolios. amongst institutions. etc.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various efault. and. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution.). and review his or her learning activity. A PLE is structured by the learner. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. learning management systems. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. whiteboard). This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. manage. discussion forums. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). learners need to be in real-world situations. it helps the user plan. without an offline client to the LMS. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. and social bookmarking sites. http://portal. This requires support over time. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. libraries. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. often only for the purposes of the course. (Cortlett et al. Technology needs to be situated. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits.

php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Online case study paper. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning 2006.mlearn.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://incsub. James (2006).cetis.cetis. Las Vegas. Incorporated Subversion.pdf Farmer. http://www..edublogs. tt. Bibliography Anderson. T. PLE Reference / es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ rces/cdm_ple_session. Nevada. e/morriblog_more. January 9. J.. 2006. e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. Proceedings of HCI International Milligan. Chan. UK. Ting. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).ac. M. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. http://www.jisc.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. http://www.bath. 11. (2005).cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. 22-27 July 2005.elearning. Terry (2006). Sharples. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . and Westmancott. Colin (2005). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Edinburgh.

rule-based filtering.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.elenaproject. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.). 2005) Once the user data has been a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. or it can be an implicit model. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. and/or presentation of materials. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. learning environments.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. through a questionnaire).hcrc. http://www. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. (Filippini-Fantoni. picture. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 .g.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . However..Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. http://www. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. These techniques include content-based filtering. navigation. 2005). have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. PDAs).ac. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. Furthermore. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. artificial intelligence. etc. collaborative filtering.g. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.g. the personalization can be applied to content. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Often.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. etc. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. Keenoy et al.ed. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.

Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.(2001).ecdc. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.ascilite. A. HATII. Online http://www. http://www.firstmonday. (2005). University of 20PDF/ Bibliography Abbott. T.. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).arts. A.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Melbourne. http://www.hatii. https://www.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. (2004).noekaleidoscope.. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. and Cook J. William Niu. Borda. A demo is available at: http://www.pdf Callaway. http://www. > > http://www. http://www.. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.arces.cs. G. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.emarcon.pdf Online paper.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Kay. wireless networks.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. C. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty De Carolis. J.unimagdeburg. The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art... J. S. 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of 140 © Brandon Hall Research .calimera. (2005). Ngo. and FilippiniFantoni.virtualmuseum.. A. dynamic user profiling /museomarmo. with a particular focus on the museum sector.directa. PowerPoint presentation.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.html http://www.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. Ler.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. http://www. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. S.cognitive traits. Cozzolongo. and Kuflik.CY/0409055 Boyle s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.pdf materials/access_lecture. http://www. The Future of Access (or. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Pizzutilo. http://smart. (2004). K. A. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. and Nuguid. onal/ Bowen.. http://www. http://adiret. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.gla. Daisy (2002).pdf m/index.pdf Cavalluzzi. D.beta80group.calimera. A.. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.

The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. N. Dominik (2003). Comparison of museum/city tour guides.www2004.pdf Fuschi. P. Stock. New York.pdf Copa. Online paper.jpbowen. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. F. http://www. X. FutureLab report. Silvia (2003). N. http://www. Hershey. M. Dagger.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.futurelab. PA: Idea Group l4RESULTS2004V2.. A. C. V.. G. M. I.2004-1213. Gallipoli. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.tcd.p df Green. (2002).org/posters/ moulin. W. May 25. /aims04.Information Access. L.uniud. Sanna. Paris.p df Filippini-Fantoni.. http://tmtfactory. Italy. Soro.. M. Facer. (Eds. M. Italy. M. 2004. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Henze. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. and Humphreys. (2004). and Boavida. May 2004. May 25. Montreal. George (2005). C. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic ions/copa-reshaping-education.acm. Personalization and Digital Technologies. Roy (2004). and Sintek. and Zancanaro. In Mizzaro. and Verdaguer. Ecole du Louvre.pdf Eirinaki. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. (2005). Moulin. P. Barcelona. (2005). Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website.ichim. (AVI 2004).. 2004. S. http://www.uniba. Web mining for web personalization. T.dimi.. 1–27.pdf Heckmann. Issue and Numerico. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. https://www. Málaga.di. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. September 2002. S. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Dolog.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. http://lrnlab. interactive services in home automation.. May 2002.. onalisation/report_01. D. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Gallipoli. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. February..cs.ppt Correia.1145/643477. S.Info. F. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . (2003).usyd. (2002).semanticweb. Rocchi. (AVI 2004). http://w5. s/2p170. T.edfac.uni- Do not reproduce 141 .. DigiCULT . Dillon. (2003). http://www.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. and Cardinalli. Pianesi.cs. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. (2005). nloads/futurelab_review_09. C.itc. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work s/informal/resources/File. Personalization through IT in museums. 2005 www. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. Nejdl. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education.pdf Ceccaroni. Subramaniam (Ed. O.. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives.. FutureLab. science centres and and Vazirgiannis. Wade. Online paper. Magical Mirror: (2004). J. http://iswc2002. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. http://www. PEACH http://peach.) (2002). 3(1).pdf Conlan.designshare. or200406..pdf Goren-Bar. Rudd. O. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. R.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. and Paddeu. University of Sydney (2004). Graziola. D..nestafuturelab.htm Hawkey. URL: http://doi. (2004). April 2004.pdf Giroux. Kuflik. In R.24_Conlan. and Tasso. scrutable_pums.. /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. R. and Montandon. pums. J. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic yNiu05. Levene. W.. http://www. UK http://homepages. and Zancanaro. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. M. Final Version. and Conejo.unihannover. P..pdf Klobučar. Busetta. Jones. Online paper. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. Proceedings of IIT. K.ed. http://csdl2. Turcsanyi-Szabo.pdf Kay. Brasher.dcs. J. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. P. Rocchi. 2004.. O. Online paper. Callaway. Kaszas. Lum. 2005. P...bbk. and Nejdl. UM W. S. N. T. Martin (2004).ippr.p df Iwazaki. SeLeNe .itc. Goren-Bar. and Zancanaro.. Stock. (2005). Personis: A Server for User 9/01/keenoy1. Yasuda. (2004).inf... Online and Blažič. L.1. Henze. de Freitas.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.pdf Johnson.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. (2005). (2005). B. P. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02).de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22... M.usyd. B. 142 © Brandon Hall Research .de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum.. A. V. (2002). Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. http://www. Levene. P.ijs.2. Yokoi. P. and Lauder. PIA Conference. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. 23-30 July 2005. J. (2004). 2004 http://www. M. http://w5.. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents.cs. (2002). Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. (2005). May 25. IEEE Computer Society. In Mária Bieliková. Nicola (2005). Dolog.pdf Kay. P. Kummerfeld.. Bratislava. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. (2001). http://www. Italy. B. A.fiit. A. http://www. 7(4):70-81. M.pdf Kuflik. T. http://eprints.pdf gs/icce/2002/1509/00/ K. J. . Jaroslav. K. W. WP4 Deliverable 4.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). Online paper.pdf http://www.pdf Henze. http://adiret. T. Kummerfeld. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. Penserini.l3s. (2004). In: De Bra.pdf Kay. (2004). Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. and Peterson.. http://www. T..unimagdeburg.Self E-Learning Networks.usyd. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server.pdf Kuruc. Niu .pdf Del22. and Niu.. Gallipoli....cs.cs. Brusilovsky. October 2004. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.kbs. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). (eds. and Okamoto. editor. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments.PDF Kay. pages pers/PeachUM2005. (2004). S.. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML... and Lauder. T. http://peach. Seničar. Educational Technology & Society. Waycott..

pdf Martinez. and Modritscher. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal.. L.. Y.H..nott..cs. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.. M.lsc. Jones. Kaszás. and Levene. Bossung.html Schmidt. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning.pdf Ng M.pdf Mizzaro.. A. B.depaul. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000... Z. F. Stewart..ecs. J. Margaret (2002).. /ldr12-supplement. Armstrong R. Turcsányi-Szabó. 02. (Eds. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). Hungary. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in and Tasso. 43(8):142–151. Spain..mrl. (2002). R.pdf Pivec. (2004b). A. Online paper. May 7. F.. May 2004. Mehta.pdf http://eprints.... Schmidt. Montandon.www2004. Italy. Lejeune.utokyo. Ken (2000).. Stuart. Sehring.pdf Sakamura. B. (2005). Malaga. http://www. J-P..bbk..2. H..1. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version). Enric and Minguillon. C. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS).sts.2.learninginprocess. (2000). Keenoy. Keenoy. A. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Hall W.. Faure. A. Gutl. A Multi-Dimensional. (2004). August.. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.. http://www. http://www. Muller.fraunhofer. (2004). Julia (2004). J. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization.dcs.. David. J-P. Barrios... Cooley.pdf Do not reproduce 143 . K. Preis. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st s/2p264.. January 2004. S. http://www. New York. /01/ nalise/ Schoonenboom. C. Paper presented at EDEN 2004. (2004).ipsi.soton.bbk.. C. /proceedings/ 0605. M. M. http://www. Jones. K. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Málaga. Blake.http://senet. Pluhar. Communications of the ACM. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. M. Montandon.. http://www.dimi. Visualising trails as a means of fostering _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final.tuharburg. M. Goita.. and Srivastava. Spain. available from www. and Levene. D.) (2002). P.uniud.pdf Reeves. pp. P.dcs. C. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. ACM Press. Turcsányi-Szabó.pdf Niederee. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. Lejeune. 702dss-h. H. May 2002. Winterhalter.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004).de/papers/2005/SeBS05a. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. URL: http://maya. (2004a). Budapest. http://www.2. A. Kaszás.pdf Schoonenboom. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information m.. M. V. Maier P. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.elearningguild. C. Diagne. and Hemmje. May 25. 2004 http://www2. Flypad Report. 2002. (2005). Online paper. available from www. sonalization/ Mor. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.iicm. J.

. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. Ando... 27-31 March 2004. A. IL. 2002. Proceedings. and Ioannidis. Yoshida. Demiris.Sparacino. http://alumni.. http://www. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous. Chicago. M.unige. s/flavia_mw2002. T. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. Boston.pdf Tanikawa. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002). K. V. N.pdf Vlahakis. H. plus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised. April 17-20. Y. M. Flavia (2002). Yamashita.. Online context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004). USA. Pliakas. IEEE Computer Society. Wang. and Hirose.. (2003) gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257.

2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. which form a dynamic user profile. http://www. instructorled.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. the portal offered information on more than 20. vendors.elearningeuropa.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . content management. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. Knowledge Management. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. In the business world. 2001). There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. learning management systems.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. collaborative environment. and real-time training and documents in a Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . As of early 2006. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.Portals Related terms Collaboration. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.

online meetings with text. Campus Technology Magazine. category. (Eds.asp Element K – Access to over 2. May 2000. Learning Circuits.executrain.300 online courses m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.students. go to: http://www. and schedules. A. http://www. baby! E-learning portals. http://h20219. students.worldwidelearn. school For a demo of SharePoint. Tom (2000). and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.teach-nology. Bray (2001). calendars. t/prodinfo/demo. and shared lists for tasks. R. http://www. instant messaging.700 online courses http://www.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.ittoolbox.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. PA: Information Science Publishing. (2003). and universities. You’ve come a long way.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic 003/technologies/sharepoint/ 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true 2000/Barron. A Portrait of Learning Teach-nology – Access to over 27.asp?id=9028 Barron. M.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. museums.tamtam.000 online courses http://www. http://www. Ron (2004). http://www. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://blogs.000 lesson plans http://www.htm Brockbank.Education. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings and Aucoin.000 publishers worldwide http://www. news and Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of he/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . including educational uses. and Sheehan. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.www2. e-mail distribution Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. interactive discussion Campbell.hp. wledge_center/index.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. instructors. Heidi (2001). Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. document management World Wide Learn – Access to over ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. administrators. audio and/or video.campustechnology. K. In Jafari. March 1. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom New York: AMACOM.

J. Richard & Associates (2002). San Francisco: JosseyBass. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. (2003). M.educause. C. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.htm Do not reproduce 147 . New York: AMACOM.asp /eqm04113.learningcircuits. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.Collins. http://www.. Reviewed at: http://www.asp Terra. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. and Sheehan. ub5006. Heidi (2003). and Gordon. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. September 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. ( 000/Weggen. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www.) (2003). Cornelia (2000). Hershey.educause.

http://icampus.masternewmedia.macromedia. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Skypecasting. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. http://www. While it is expensive. In fact. in partnership with Dreamworks. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. However. http://www.lsc. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.replayhq. webcasting. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by c_home. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Hewlett-Packard. Experience them at: See the TEAL Project at MIT. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. webinars Consequently.” In the Middle Ages. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. virtual earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing http://www. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . It is clear that in this age of entertainment.elluminate. Online presentations can be very boring. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. when experts are not readily available.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. although many are trying to change this practice. web conferencing. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.

groupware. and partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. forums and message boards.elearningcentre. > > /web_presentations.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.htm http://www.adelaide. social software for online collaboration. press/2005/051212xa.lsc. http://www. Web seminars. Web conferencing.hp.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. presentation and streaming presentation tools.kolabora.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. instant messaging.00.ccimeet.e-learningcentre. http://buyersguide.htm Captivate. virtual meetings. http://www. although it does not have to be. and A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.html#a1185 and e-learning.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. videoconferencing.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live s/live.kolabora. virtual teams.eweek. Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. online conferencing. m Human Resource Webinars is a free.elearningcentre. and Web presentations. Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. online meetings. http://cde. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.htm http://www. Coursebuilder. http://www.humanresourceWebinars. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.380 0005416. and ngadobe.39155030. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon ach.elearningcentre. a columnist at See live video from the operating room at: http://www. http://www.elearningcentre. / TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. independent listing of Webinars. Do not reproduce 149 .> > http://www.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as 5/01/ 5/02/25.” > http://www. http://www. virtual classrooms.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. > > ferencesolution. brain. intranets. http://www.acue.

pdf Bibliography Agarwal. http://www.pdf Scott. May 15. Live and Online!: tips.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Christine (2001).. Jennifer (2004). Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Robin Good Blog.filesland. (in two parts) > > http://www. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. Sept. Luigi (2003c). http://labnol. http://www. and Quick. Digital Inspiration. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. Belinda (2003).com/software/present ation. 2005. Best Online Resources For Web http://www. /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. Luigi (2003b).aace.asp McNally.blogspot. v7n3_lazarus.programjunction. http://www.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.htm ch. July 26.htm Canali De Rossi.http://www.htm Duckworth. and Furr. 2004.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. April 30. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in Part2.htm Canali De Rossi. Armit (2005).presentations. There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. 01/duckworth.learningcircuits. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.. P. Live etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE Part1. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. July 8. http://www.pdf http://www. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. http://www. http://www. (2002).html Canali De Rossi. P. http://m.masternewmedia. Russ (2004).fasfind.russellmcnally.downloadjunction. 150 © Brandon Hall Research .masternewmedia.masterviews. July. http://www. essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. Sept. Luigi (2003a). 2003. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).com/presentatio ns/index. (2004). 2003. Learning Circuits. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.html Using Apreso software. 7(3). http://www. Robin Good /software/795/index.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.

http://www. L.http://kmi. Choose your presentation tools etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Zielinski. Feb.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. and Equipment.pdf Spielman. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. Dave (2002).com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1.infoworld.presentations. but… Presentations Magazine.. and Winfield. AMACOM. 11. S. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. Choices are great. InfoWorld. ns/delivery/article_display. Choose the Right Vendors. Start Saving Time and Money Today. Software. 2005. (2003). Dec.

or where the online information frequently changes. easy to use. graphics. extreme e-learning. such as creating links. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online.. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. In the second sense of the term. It is best suited to text-based materials.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Deploys easily . by necessity.automatically assures that all navigation works. It can refer to learning something quickly. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. tests. Navigation built in . and communicate deliverable expectations. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. FAQ. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. For example. including tools and templates. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. 2003). Tools for rapid e-learning are. but not always good for you. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Instructional design built in. Assign SMEs who are committed. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . Does not require any advanced skills. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. simple. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. In the first case. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings.versus high-interaction). Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. According to Ready Go!. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. just-intime e-learning. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. E-learning produced this way can be very boring.does not require any plug-ins. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. virtual classroom. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. learning objects. Advanced features. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Leverage professional project management methods and tools. or HTML knowledge. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Standardize approaches. low.e. 2003). where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. manage the content and the users. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. programming. are built in. Reduce the number of development vendors. microlearning > down pages. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. glossary.

clomedia. Edit. http://www. Kendrick (2006). June Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme http://www. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Penny (2004). Reusability. http://www. See sample templates at: http://www. April.” Find out more: http://www. http://www.access to a clear project plan. http://www. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. and Publish. Tips and Techniques. January. http://www. computer games.readygo. Mark (2003). http://www.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. centrally located ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online 2004).com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. which contains information on resources. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.elearningguild.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Future-Proofing. Lane (2002). July 306dev-h.learningcircuits. Larstan Business Reports. Josh (2004).ltimagazine.elearningmag.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened es/clo_article. 2004.htm Bibliography Abell.asp Bersin. 005/archibald. version control protocols. J. Do not reproduce 153 .html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. http://www. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Bill (2005). Jennifer (2004). Dianne (2005).co.bersin. 2006.pdf Crosman. http://www. July 2. http://www. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Josh (2005). LTI Newsline. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. conferences. http://www.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De es/clo_article.raptivity. schedule and due _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. January 23.htm Bersin. Chief Learning Officer. June. San Francisco: Pfieffer. http://www. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Learning Solutions.pdf Aldrich. tools. Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity ticle/articleDetail. http://www.masie. Jay (2005). Templates. LTI Newsline. E-Learning for short attention Web site. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational pid. Learning Circuits. Paper. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Making rapid e-learning work.elearningguild. and Bersin. article/articleDetail. http://www. and other good stuff. Transform Magazine.pdf Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. August /US/English/managing_knowledge1. (2004). See a demo at: http://www. Clark (2005). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Chief Learning and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.articulate.

Chief Learning Officer.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Mar.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004a). (2004b). April es/clo_lettertoeditor. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Eric (2003).clomedia. http://download. http://www. February 2005.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.elearningguild.learningcircuits.pdf Macromedia pid_vft_v1. January 2003.pdf Gustafson.elearningguild. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Bersin and Associates White Paper. 2006. 2005. Ray (2005) arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Jan. Nick (2005).pdf /default. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.adobe. January 16. Learning Circuits.ltimagazine. June arning/ ticle/articleDetail. Press release. http://download. 2006.pdf Mayberry. Clive (2006). Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. e-Learning Crop Circles. 004/mayberry.trainingpressreleases.macromedia. http://www. Kevin (2002). 10. es/clo_article. hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Learning Solutions. Mobile and Device Based Learning. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. Macromedia White es/clo_col_elearning.htm Masie Center (2005). Rapid Intake White Paper. Macromedia White sstory. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.clomedia. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Learning. http://www.pdf Jimenez. The Training Foundation online article. http://www. Nov.clomedia. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Vignettes for Training White Paper. http://www. Ray (2006). Stephanie (2006). Learning Solutions. Garin (2004). Simulation. http://www.jsp?id=150619 Hess. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.e-learning programs in weeks. 2006.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. 9. http://www. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.pdf Shepherd. LTI Newsline.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia tracts/index. Ed (2004). Joe (2005). Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.macromedia. http://vftraining. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. http://www.

gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. technology. http://mindstorms.ri. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. engineering. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. http://www.aad. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. engineering.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. http://www. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. and Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://www. simulation > http://www.whmsi.botball.rec. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. http://robotics. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. > http://www. technology. Inc. for underwater exploration. http://www.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial Do not reproduce 155 .com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. and mathematics. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.edurobot. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. one child at a The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.

com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. and Hempel. (2005). k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. and Mataric. H. http://www. Basic Books. (1980). Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. http://www. and the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. Computers. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. Run by NASA. lmenau2004F. and exrobotics. http://robotics. http://robothaven..php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in See also: http://www. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of oster. /June22/educational-robotics. Keating. (2004).irc. Hohmann.pdf Papert. J.pdf Cooper. H. Yanco. Sept. U. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Miller.fhbrandenburg.. Germany. It features news. D.brynmawr. Proceedings. 156 © Brandon Hall Research . Blank. and Wagner.. http://www. http://www. Germany. June. Find out more about this group at: http://www..pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational for accessible education. D.wtec.atr. Robots in the classroom . Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. http://zeus. and Dautenhahn. I. lip movements.. M. L.microworlds. (2001).. and Powerful C. (2004). Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.kipr.l3s.. > > http://www.. M.pdf http://www. http://www.uml. Mindstorms: Children. New York. New York: Syngress Publishing. Heinsohn.nasa. (1999). http://www.ams. R. AAATE Conference 1999.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. particularly robotics. Düsseldorf. I.pdf k/papers/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.l3s. G. Meeden. Kumar. D. W. http://www. and vocal tics. (2004). Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.cmu.. D. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics L.. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. /edu. By donning motion sensors.eng. Kumar. and Loose.pdf Boersch. Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2004). http://www. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.cs. Ferrari.andrew. and other information on robotics. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. Lathan. November.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.profetic. go to: http://www. Paper at the American Assoc. K. S.pdf _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.php Bibliography Blank. Harwin. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.

Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. Donnelly. Ottawa. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . D.. Dobreva.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. A. (2001). (2005). S.ccmlab. M. McHugh. 28-30. Sept. 001-Robots_Education. http://rob. R. and West.digicult..pdf Stewart. T. http://www. Ontario. M. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. and Rusbridge.

collective intelligence. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. One is the problem of finding relevant. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. information retrieval. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. Meta–search engines. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. for a variety of reasons. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. federated search. such as Yahoo. which submit queries. meta-search engines. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. as this section of the report shows. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. data mining. dependable and Alta they take the structure of the Web into account. Ezzy (2006a.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. a rich user experience. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list.examples are early yahoo. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. But. search engine optimization. While search engines have improved over the past several years. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . in parallel. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Web directories.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. collaboration. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. resource discovery. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . One new approach is called “federated searching. 2004). Examples are Google and Overture. They bring into the equation user preferences. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. each with their own defining feature sets. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. such as Google and Altavista. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet.

net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://oaister. Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://www. Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www. and the Web.gigablast. Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. http://www. http://www. AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).com’s search service http://a9. http://www.icerocket. http://www.gravee. AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://search. http://search.umdl.looksmart.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.grokker. Gravee . Gnod – A self-adapting discovery – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.hotbot. HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.General search engines: A9 – Grokker – Clusters results by subject.aeiwi. Clicking a cluster makes search more Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://www. Answers.lexxe.ask.msn. and PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. get answers – Features hundreds of searchable topics.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. video.alltheweb. Shares advertising revenues with content Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://www. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. – Narrow a search to specific categories for better Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. rather than just returning Web IceRocket – Searches images. http://dmoz. then fill in the search Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www. Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. http://getoutfoxed.

http://www. http://swicki. FactMonster.gnoosic. Clicking a cluster further refines a Gnoosic – A search engine for Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.squidoo.psu. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://scholar. ArtKIDSRule.healthfinder. Citeseer – Citations of academic Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. http://tagjag.qelix. cast lists and theatre HealthFinder — A medical search engine. 160 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. Wink – Using social Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www. http://vivisimo. books.Clusters results. Much of this information is hidden from ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . http://www. & KidsClick!. Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. and Clicking a cluster further refines a Internet Movie Database – search within plot StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. AwesomeLibrary. http://www. Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. Internet Movie Database – search within plot Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://citeseer. http://www. http://www. Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://kids. > > http://firstgov.topic appears. users tag their favorite results and block spam.koders. Other engines that are searched include reviews. Yahooligans. AolKIDS.ithaki. Wink then diplays the Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search http://www. http://www. Ujiko – Clusters results. http://infomine. FASTUS – Extracting information from real world Google Book Search – Search just for Froogle – Google’s shopping search Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://www.

com/ MediaFinder . http://www. http://lawcrawler. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes. http://www. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ Omgili .nlm. SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.pandora.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.truveo.nih.4 billion links.seekport.rrzn.findlaw. http://techsearch.liveplasma. Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.Krugle – A search engine for MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.searchking. as of this Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.technorati. PubMed – Search engine for medical information.rawsugar.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.krugle.columbia. http://www.A legal search Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.” Content-based search engines for TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology LitLinker . http://wang16. LawCrawler .last. http://www.acm.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www. http://www. http://www.searchedu.htm Do not reproduce 161 chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://smealsearch1. http://www.ncbi. http://www.psu.merl. http://wwwqbic.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and SearchEdu . http://www.columbia.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.f cgi QBIC .edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk / RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).gov/entrez/query.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information Last.

and Web mail for the topic entered. health information sources. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://searchenginewatch. movies. http://www-rocq. lottery is a valuable resource for researchers. http://www. http://www. and links the clusters. earcheng. http://www. focused searches on topics they care provides reviews and links to several hundred search Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. http://www. and their relationships. therefore.researchbuzz. Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www. http://www. or federated searching. clusters. pictures.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://www. A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. Info – Searches reference works. weather.htm Ixquick – Searches many A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www. flights. Kartoo – S search engine that clusters Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. city ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. companies.cs. maps/directions. Known as “meta-search” engines. Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. Unlike other search SearchTools.inria. eBay.ixquick. hotels.zoominfo.intute. http://nlp. yellow pages. including a set of international telephone directories. greeting cards. white pages. classifieds. and notes. Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. apartment news sources. http://www. and tracks a user's search Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. video. Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. dating and personals. http://www.kartoo. games. the user's community has total control over the Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. shopping sites.

See what is happening in New York at: Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European TVEyes provides the technology and the content. and Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. http://infomine. 2006. Pat (2005). International Journal on e-Learning. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. John (2005).uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. F.ala. _thematic_issue_6_lores.0 TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. http://swicki. Ebrahim (2006). http://www.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. http://www. is against the idea of federated searches. http://www. 6. 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De arch_20_vs_tr.downes. or swicki. http://www. No. Exchanging. can be published on the user's site.html Battelle. Search 2. July 20. Part 1. July-Sept. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.htm Ezzy.cfm?fuseactio 7-12. Resource Discovery . http://www.php Geser. Stephen olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.readwriteweb. Part 2. Y. arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. (2005).pdf Ensor. and Apprato. For example.netmasters. This search arch_20_vs_tr_1.php Ezzy. Read/Write Web.citysearch.tveyes. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Search 2.digicult. 2004. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.eurekster. December. First Monday. June 2004. 10(12).ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). July 25. http://www. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. (2004). Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. Guntram (2004). New York: Portfolio. Traditional Search. http://www. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. or topic .. Frank. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. 6.searchenginecolossus. > > http://firstgov. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.editlib.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://www. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. Do not reproduce 163 . Traditional Search. Ebrahim (2006). http://www. O. Users can also browse by subject category.0 vs. http://www. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage http://www.gpoaccess.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. DigiCULT Thematic Report. and Searching in eLearning Systems. phrase.just as a search engine is used for _12/aharoni/index. Read/Write works.

com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. Oct. 2004. m ublications/dissertation. 2003.htm Part II: http://www.00. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.asp Wyman.infoworld. Stanford University.eweek.. Parts I and II. http://homepages. InfoWorld. Search engines don’t 05/mary_hodder_poi. June 30. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials.pubsub. J. 2005. 2004. and Hilf. Bob (2005).com/links/article . http://www. Schlenker. 5. http://www. (2004). http://bobwyman. May 8. J. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. E.isnoldenburg. 5/42FEsearch_1. Oct. Part I: http://www. and Gupta. Major Search Engines and Directories. 149-166. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. 10. 15. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. B. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning toryts.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . http://dl.html Heck. A.php/2156221 Vaas.useit. Richard (2004). Prescient Digital _thematic_issue_6_lores.digicult.aace. It’s Gada. 4(1) n/eunis04. SearchEngineWatch. InfoWorld. Danny (2004). (2005).com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. International Journal on E-Learning. 2004.eschoolnews. they’re just limited. Lisa (2005). W. White paper. html Porco. http://www.prescientdigital.http://www.html Kumar. Doctoral dissertation..pdf Gincel.washington.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. (2000).pdf Sullivan. Oct. (2005). Mittal. eWeek. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Simple advice for complex search solutions. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. April 28. S. http://www.pdf Murray. 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Corey (2005). eSchool News.ed. Jakob (2003). Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. http://www. Oct.18 Low. and MacColl. http://www.ischool. Refining enterprise search. 2005.prescientdigital. Mimkes. Kashyap. 15. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Carmine (2006). Mike (2004).

Like it or not. http://www. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. http://www. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic semantic grid.alphaworks. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). are now falling short of earlier promises. microformats. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). search. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. near The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. http://www. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.elenaproject. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. founder of the World Wide anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. but it will not be in general use for some time. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). It has both its advocates and its critics. Selected Examples In Europe. 2003). (2005) note that “historically. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. Abbas et al.aktors.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. taxonomies. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. such Do not reproduce 165 . and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. ontologies.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing.

B.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .. Huber. Odeh.. H. The semantic web.php?http://www . Wahlster. The first issue is free. (2004).com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. Salvachua. Antoniou..hp. Web Services. M. A. and Lassila.. http://www. implementing. Markus.ideagroup. Tim (2003).. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing.semanticweb. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. http://www-jime. D. MA: L.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. J.aimatshape. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). http://edutella. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).. http://www.jxta.ifets. Brantner. (2003). http://www.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning.ifets. T.. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. J. http://www.pdf Anderson. R. xi. MA: MIT Press. (2005). 2005. (2005). In Fensel. May 2001. Z. http://www. Lieberman... S. Olmedilla. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. Z. (2001). S.sciam. 051.) (2003). http://www. Hendler. T. D. May 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. May 29 June 1. Miklos. and Bibliography Abbas. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. Ali. McClatchey. ( KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. http://www.. and Whitelock. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Scientific http://www-jime. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications.. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. and Hendler. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. M. Sobernig. F.pdf Daconta. and Smith. A Semantic Web Primer.. Umer. O. A. http://arxiv. Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web Mark (2005). S. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. semantic infrastructural services. The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. Cambridge. and van Harmelen (2004). New York: Wiley. and Aguirre. and Knowledge Management. Forward. http://www.seco. semantic portals for ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.tkk.. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. (1).. Obrst. G. Greece. 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. D. K.upm. Simon..

L.jisc. DevSource. N. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web (2004). Nack.kbs.scipub. and Gouarderes. Cambridge. A developer’s introduction to pdf Doctorow.) (2003). and Neagu. and Shadbolt. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 4/ Passin. Semantic Web Technologies. Syllogism. (2005). and and Naeve. http://www. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. Lieberman. Journal of Computer Science.html Haack.downes. Sweden. 2001. France.cwi. http://www. 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. http://www. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 .. L. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. M.pdf Nilsson. and Worldview”. Nicola (2005b). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report.cgi?post=31624 Fensel.. Online article. J. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. Greenwich..unihannover. 1195933/printArticle Lytras. Brian (2005).nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. Jennings. Stephen (2005). Cory (2001). A. Nicola (2005a). Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05.semanticgrid.well.. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.pdf Henze. 10. Oct. http://www2002. H.kbs. Paul (2003). Rutledge. http://www. http://www. 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford.00. and Hendler. PA: Information Science Publishing. The Netherlands.. 2005. (2002). M. Lund. 18-22 July 2005. (2001).) (2005). Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. Semantic Networks and Social Networks.1961106. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Paper presented at the GLS http://www.pdf Kraan. 2006. A.ftrain. Palmer. W.9/semgrid. D. http://www.. CETIS Online /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. Oct. CT: Manning. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . Mauthe. http://www. htm 1(4). H. M.cetis. A. and Zetti. MA: MIT Press. M. /ie_aied05. C. T. Online article. Wilbert (2005). (Eds.pdf Henze. Phil (2006). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Sikora. 500-504.pdf Downes. Amsterdam. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic /waswbe05. Hershey.devsource.189 5. Thomas (2004). http://www. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. http://www.. http://homepages. (2001).com/~doctorow/metacrap. http://www. http://www.Some Architectural Guidelines. F.De Roure.unihannover. Stephen’s Web. May 27. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again.asp Hatem. (Eds. -504.

http://www. story/0. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. 2003. Scott (2002). December 3. http://www.asp Udell.p df 1. WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. January 17. and Stumme. K.unikarlsruhe. Karenos. (2003).infoworld. H. D.pdf Scott’s Workblog. Darwin. Scott (2005). http://www.. Staab. John (2004). eLearning based on the Semantic elegi/session2/paper12. gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).00. http://www. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Online article. CETIS Online Updegrove. L. G. G.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for Weinberger. InfoWorld. Davis. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. Networks. Marketing Profs. trust. and Davis. D. and Miller.. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. Clay (2003).inria. http://www. http://www. 2628. 7 (4). E. David (2002). http://poorbuthappy. Who said that? 168 © Brandon Hall Research .aifb. 3/49OPstrategic_1.sop.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast.pdf Tao.. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. http://eprints. 2005. M. C.ifets. The Semantic Web. Andy (2005). 2004. New York. Millard.. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. R. and Diaz. USA. Semantic Web.bcs.html Stojanovic. Schmitz.shirky. Syllogism. 2002. http://www. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. June 21. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. and Woukeu.html Wilson. Peter (2003). L. Economics and Culture. Del3. F. (2004).info/journals/7_4/5. http://www2004. August 2. Lytras. (2004).com/login/sign up. http://education. (2005). Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. (2003). http://www. (2001). A. Online article. Wagner. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. New York. June 14. 2004. Nov. Woukeu. http://www. 7.pdf Shirky. yllogism.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.ecs. and Christodoulou.pdf Sampson. 2005. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. and the Semantic Web. and Studer. May 17– 171444/printArticle Wilson. S. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. and Worldview.dcs.html Van Dijck.981948. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. 2003. http://ewic. (2005) /column.

and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding Winters et al. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.calt. According to High (2004).calt. role-playing.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. i.arcscience.uiuc. angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. It is an innovative solution to showing global Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.insead. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://sos.calt. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. 2005).” My first report in this series.insead. in a dynamic and reflexive S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.icherubini. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.calt. http://www. http://www. reviewed simulations as an online content format. microworlds.calt. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.insead. http://cave. participants will be motivated to evaluate. http://www. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. It was decommissioned in 2005. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. especially ones set by themselves. games. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).noaa.e. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.ncsa.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. but information about it remains on the Web. http://um3d.intermezzon.adobe.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash Biographix . http://www.adobe.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.insead. Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.lsa.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.berkeley. Forio .html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. http://www. and Mac OS X. > > Kaplan IT Learning Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three" http://www. go to: http://www. http://crme. For example. http://www. At the Earth System Research Laboratory. with many examples to try. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research .ht m Intermezzon ." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. heart sounds. A guide’s voice prompts the hpro/ Assisma .gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.edcenter. and murmurs. to play in a virtual fishtank. breathing. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. http://www. http://www.sdsu. Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.shatters.experiencebuilders. pulse rate.atghome. http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing eoWall/index. However.geo. http://www. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.html weather forecasting.forio. It runs on Windows. http://www. Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .umich.edcenter. html Muzzy Lane Software of without programming ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. http://www. they are only available for Macintosh computers.soe.http://www.sdsu.ISLE .Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.

qarbon.elearningcentre.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www.stagecast.sdsu. Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www. Knowledge Planet .htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. http://www. including MaxIT .edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.bc.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.knowledgeplanet.knowledge-director.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.” http://www.maxit. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www.teds.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? Outstart – SoftSim – With this Reusable Objects .the click of a mouse.asp Knowledge Quest mulation.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www.virtualcontrolroom.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. Integrates with many media types.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . which can then be used to build simulations.knowledgepresenter.stottlerhenke. Do not reproduce 171 . http://www. http://www.learning2005. MaxIT . http://www. http://www. Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer is/ Elliot The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this / Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. a well-known e-learning consultant and Kookaburra Studios .KnowledgePresenter Simulator .org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand. d/Links/ – With the built-in software simulation http://www.knowledgequest.percepsys.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. http://coe.reusableobjects. http://www.icherubini.

Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.htm High.clomedia.learningcircuits. studies. Mazloumian. Aaron (2005). 172 © Brandon Hall Research . and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. Simjour. Sept. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. San Francisco: Billhardt. Utrecht. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Taghiyareh. http://www. Financial Times. Implementation and Evaluation. http://www. computer games.html Linser. H. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. A. and Wilensky. M.html Lunce. June. Learning Circuits. T.. (2002).htm eSchool News (2004)..projects. (2001) http://www. October 15-19. and McCloughlin. (2001). Learning Circuits.pdf Swaak. October 2004. F. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). M. http://www. eSchool News. /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. J.. 2002.html Karrer. http://www. 2004. AACE conference.learningcircuits. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. R. A. Laser. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. (2005). http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.learningcircuits. 2004. Jennifer (2004). (2004). Simulation levels in software training. A. A. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. How playing power drives lessons home. 8. U.blikstein. P.PDF Blikstein. (2002). Gash.html Learning Circuits. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. 1(10).com/content/templat es/clo_feature. Shannon (2004). July. m Sloman. http://www. The promise of online simulations.html Sobeih. Aug. A. Bjorn (2004). Clark (2005). Viswanathan... http://www. http://www.htm Aldrich.cs. Holland. & de Jong. Montréal. T. 004/aldrich. Kamau (2004). 4. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. 2004. and Sund Martin. and Bostan. and Hou.uva.medialabeurope. Making the most of software 004/estabrook. p. J. 12. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.pdf tory.bbk. Rasmussen. L.for Philosophers and Engineers. Six criteria of an educational simulation. October. A. apers/sobeihTR04. Chief Learning Officer. Department of Computer Science. Learning Circuits. Online 004/bersin. Clark (2004). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. Paper presented at Robocup conference. http://www. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. http://www..pdf Cherubini. http://www. (2004). Les (2004). and Ip. B. Computer simulations in distance education. J. International In Interaction Design and ts/poplog/packages/ 001/karrer.ft.

icherubini. _white_paper. USA.pdf Turkle. Online paper at: http://lsm.pdf Do not reproduce 173 . The American Prospect.pdf Tjaden.protonmedia. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 8(31). Cherubini. In Association for Computing Florida.knowledge.prospect. Fort Lauderdale.uc. http://www. http://www.dei. 1997. and Strohecker.. Gary (2003).it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.. http://www. (2003). N. Sherry (1997).-Apr. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. CHI2003 Learning Workshop 291013Discovery%20simulations. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.html Winters. Mar.. 284-294. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. April. 17. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. M.

especially in museums and for outdoor education. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. While controversial. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. grease. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: obiles/m02. optical tags. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy..cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. especially for tagging retail items in stores.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. or water. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. http://uitspress. http://www.” http://vis.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the easily changed. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four . RFID technology is developing rapidly.iu. For a full discussion of this issue. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.checkpointsystems.iu.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. 2005).ala. http://cnm. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. which transmits over short distances. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. They are programmable and. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. symbology tags tag to continuously power the infrared (IR) tags.

Donnelly.pdf Osawa et al.. van Kranenburg. (2006). (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. Shibuya.2005 .. R.1109/WMTE. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. in a 2005 online standards.html infrared tags x.digicult.pdf Salcedo. April 13. T.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.msu. In Kommers. H. Noda. N. James (2006).cfm?fuse action=Reader. Michigan State University. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). http://www. Oct. Masters 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. R. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal.eschoolnews. hesisFinal.pdf Robinton. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.aace. Y.asp?id=1222 Ross. Ando. http://www. G. Technology Watch Report 1.). 2004. http://www.rfidnews. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. (2005).csmonitor. 3_01_low. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). ry. 2005. RFID: frequency.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. http://www. P. and Case. S. Infoworld.. & Richards. Bibliography Borck.infoworld. http://www. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. 7s01-legn.jisc.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . January 1. Toc.. 5. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Tsukagoshi. 261-263.msu. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.digicult. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. M.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Ogata. 4(3).uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. e. TD Monthly. (2004). Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. (2005).. Andrew (2005). http://www. http://www. M. C.. http://www. March. Aparna (2004). K. and Yano. Noma.66 Ward. Corey (2004).aace. http://www. eSchool News Online.toydirectory. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. (2003).edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.toydirectory. Proceedings. and Dobreva.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. & Kondo. (Eds...cfm? 3_01_low. A. M.xml&DOI=10. S.. adoption and innovation. http://csdl2..html?s=feature Heining. June 27.pdf Murray. e. and Backhouse..

net/ CiteULike . so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. in turn. For example. describe. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. they act as an “outboard memory. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. get inspired. As of April BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. Web site (http://del. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. http://ask. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. share references with colleagues. music. 176 © Brandon Hall Research . share their Blinklist . taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms.connotea. Third. For instance.citeulike. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. researchers at all levels (students. and search for a specific user's Blinks.” However. Students.A free service to help academics share. while users of the del. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. and organize the academic papers they are reading. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective.First. as each member can upload resources discovered. ontologies. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. search. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. Blink also provides tools to sort. or check out what everyone wants to do. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. Fifth. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. store. Also.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. http://www. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. Fourth. and to share them. http://blogmarks. users can see what others are Blinking. They can save references. http://www. faculty. and Web links. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects.metafilter. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. Second. no matter their location or timing. tagging. connect with Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. post their favorite Web sites. or distributed in e-mails. search others’ references.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. The result is something called a tag cloud. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. metadata. and books. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress.icio. Flickr held over 100 million images.icio. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.

music. http://www.netscape. http://consumating.networkltd.icio.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Magnolia . sort. and/or books and find them again. and non-hierarchical editorial Kaboodle . http://www.northwestern. Jots . Do not reproduce 177 . users submit stories for review.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.html Linkroll . index. and discover relevant links. http://www.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with Flickr – Store.memeorandum. share. http://del. Digg .com/ Simpy – Search tags. Also retrieve it easily. http://projectpad. With Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.Consumating Furl .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://jots. the users decide. but. .search. Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. similar to Digg. Tags can be shared or kept Project Pad .net/ Jookster . updated in near real time.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. http://www.A technology news Web site that combines social Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.gnolia. based on what is happening in the news media. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related Del. http://www. http://www. http://www. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. and share photos with others.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. date/index. http://www. blogging.A Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.digg. or enter new items and tag them.feedmarker.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://www.shadows. http://www. http://www. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://flickr.Browse the Web and save any page with a Clipmarks . http://myweb2.pageflakes.

A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and SWiK . If a city is not there.” http://www.html http://tagsonomy. ntology_is_overrated_followup.veotag. http://www.zvents. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.quickonlinetips.A.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.yelp.spurl.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.html http://www.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital Wists – A social shopping 558.wists. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. Web elicious.html Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with about how tagging works with del.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. and Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. and social bookmarking. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. Flickr.fasfind.tagzania. Bryan (2006). Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. errated. http://www. http://www.icio. http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. Online Resources Jon Upcoming – An events calendar by place. http://www. Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. http://upcoming. and share it with Suprglu . with contributions from users.quickonlinetips. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.wink.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. http://unalog. http://tabblo.S. 41(2).com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.” > > http://magazines. March/April s/m/7172. http://www.quickonlinetips. > This site then displays a map of the location of the posted s/m/6350.fasfind.suprglu.smugmug. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.

html Coates.. The New School of Ontologies. T.educause. http://www. 20.html Mathes. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.html Mote.pbs.pdf Richardson. Keynote address. http://www. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. http://www. Tom (2005). and Huberman. (2005).org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. Social consequences of social tagging. and Scott. erm0621. 11(4). Ideant.. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. http://www.sid19_gci1195182. April 2005.pdf Mejias. July 20. Webblogg-ed. 0/30OPstrategic_1. Aug.dlib.hpl.html Udell. 2006. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. May 5. 2005. Tom. ntent/0. http://many. http://www. 2005. (2005). Hammond. Flack. Plasticbag. Nicholas (2004). http://searchcio. http://tomgruber.typepad. B. D-Lib Magazine. 5/facilitating_th. (2005). 11(4). http://ideant.infoworld. Ulises (2005).asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Jon (2004). August s/tags/ ias_dtd. http://www.ascc. http://www. and Hannay.shtml Golder.ejournal. B.adammathes. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Will (2005).edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Jon (2005). 2006.plasticbag.. June Sept. Many2Many.. April 2005. SearchCIO. Online Paper. http://ideant. Trusted Sources. Andy (2006). ammond/04hammond. M. Lund.isi. Ulises (2004).. 2005.. Shamus (2006). Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.php Lund. http://dlib. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.289142. Liz (2005). (2005). HP Labs Report. T. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. InfoWorld. B. .infoworld.html Lawley. J. 2005.techtarget.http://www. mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Online paper. May 20. Adam (2004).ht ml 0/34OPstrategic_1.typepad. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. T. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). D-Lib Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.corante.html McGillicuddy. Udell.htm Hammond.html Do not reproduce 179 .org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.00. Tags vs.pdf Gurber.

The sites are places to meet people with common interests. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. photo albums. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. communities of practice. online personals such as Match. e-mail. http://www. shared link libraries such as del.” that is. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. etc. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. etc. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals.classmates. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. photo sharing sites. 2005). tagging.) Relationship Management ( 180 © Brandon Hall Research . e-mail. Networking Related terms connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. work. My first report in this series. etc. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. reviewed social networking as an online content format.icio. dating sites. etc. and the military. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers.) Experience Sharing (blogs. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. social software. social networking sites such as Friendster. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. shared links. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors.

html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual Friendster – Build a network of friends on this can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. video. and geographic regions.orgnet.esnips. It costs several thousand dollars. in associations.html Platial – A site to create social maps.orkut.faceparty. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .spartasocialnetworks. Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.freeopendiary. http://www. http://www.netminer. http://www. upload photos. MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. photos. List who a person knows and find out who others My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.xanga. documents. http://www. and files and then make them available to Orkut . and within “communities of http://www. Facebook has networks for – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar Live Journal . and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://www. http://www. which is then open to other readers. as a blog. http://www.livejournal.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. Share it with others if desired.” http://www.linkedin.last. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.diaryland.codeville. http://360.intronetworks.stumbleupon. Users share their writings and meet each other.myspace. Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.friendster. http://www.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. http://www.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting ESnips – Add Web snippets and high schools.facebook. Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. https://www. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. https://www. or as a social network. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this For an example of the use of social networking analysis.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at and the list of related articles using social network analysis. licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.

links to similar sites. Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-


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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > ec2003/kaplan.htm an2004/kaplan2.htm /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.


© Brandon Hall Research e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005.,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005.

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is


© Brandon Hall Research

org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. e/CJKPresenceProd. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.hig.fakespace. Cambridge. http://www.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. http://gaim. http://www. L. A. Online memo. MA: MIT Press. and Naeve. Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.pd f Fontana. http://www. (Eds. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).txt Knudsen. BSD. Telepresence and Virtual Ken ( eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. Hubert (2001). The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Network Working Group (2000). (2001).networkworld. Bibliography Dreyfus. Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. Nils (2000). and Windows.html http://www. John (2004).org/teleimmersio n2. Naeve. and Handberg.nada. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://laimuz. the /tele/ Internet Society. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. > > http://www.percro.pdf Knudsen. Online Resources Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. The driver sits in a box.. 6.“Simultaneous Presence. http://www-142.aim.advanced. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. http://messenger.html Goldberg.) (2000). and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.ieor." Do not reproduce 187 .ebuddy. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. http://www. MacOS X. (2002). The production of presence – distance techniques in is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. Network http://get. and Pejas.acs. In Soldek. London: Routledge. 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. as well as news. Jabber – An open. http://www. A. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. http://www. http://www. On the Internet. Presence applications poised for takeoff. http://www2.advanced.

DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. H.Learning. http://cid.swedishlearninglab.pdf Udell. Davide. Regina (2004). effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. http://www. Germany: (2005).650 64-0. A. Alberta. Donnelly.infoworld. F. http://www. and Rusbridge. H.html Riva. D. January 2005. et al. S. Ins and outs of teledildonics. Wired News. Being There: Concepts. Jon (2005).. M. Jan. June 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. C. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. A. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. 2002.nada. Knudsen..wired. McHugh. nts/Sponberg. In Hoyer. and Lynn. (2001). 8/05OPstrategic_1. http://www. M..html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .. http://www. G. Amsterdam: IOS Press. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. September 24. W. and Handberg. (Eds. Dobreva.pdf Sponberg. Calgary.) (2003). 28.kth. (Eds.

television. screencasting. Do not reproduce 189 . sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. My first report in this series. 2002). even a video plug-in for Skype. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. in all its formats. Video blogging has become common. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Further. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. video blogging. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. IPTV. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. As the following examples show. bandwidth becomes an issue. A new version of television. videocasting. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. telepresence. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). PDAs. Britain's largest telecom firm. In spite of the limitations. tlearning. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. However. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. according to Foroohar (2006). streaming video. reviewed video as an online content format. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. 2005). the largest Internet telephone service. Once video goes on the Internet.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. vodcasting. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. cell phones. BT. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. amateur and professional video cameras.

http://www.html Dialcom Networks. and divide them into chapters or segments. and multimedia content to At YouTube.bittorrent. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to http://www. voice. http://www. BitTorrent. the Internet telephone service. is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. employees.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the tag them. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. the “triple play” of video.veotag. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. users can tag their own videos and post them to the For an example of a video The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV see Rocketboom. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. http://www.” Users can upload video clips for http://participatoryculture. http://video. See the current selection at: http://video.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. video. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.rocketboom. desktop. low bandwidth video stream. partners. See examples at: http://www. with IPTV. http://www.bittorrent.xstreamengine.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing 190 © Brandon Hall Research Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. whether dial-up.dfilm. improves the satisfaction of the Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. See samples at: http://www. or students through a high quality. veotag allows users to upload videos. http://www. or set-top The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. a three-minute videoblog.htm According to Axor Corporation of Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.brightcove. and maintains VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology In 1999. It is still going strong at: http://www.axor. cellular.addictingclips.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. ses. http://www. PDA.

http://www.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. http://www. t-learning Study . through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. For example.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. by m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “ http://www. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. but business models are” http://www.” Bibliography 7005. Online article at: http://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.” Subtopics include video and streaming m Canali De Rossi. read “Ten video sharing services compared. and visual levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t eaminglearning. Luigi (2005b). http://www.500 vlogs organized by popularity. Bardia. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. termed “mobile Robin Good Blog.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.thinkofit. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .com/ The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.pjb. 2005. The site already contains nearly m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about… David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.masternewmedia.” study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.upenn. which users can submit. Pradeep (2004). Dec. http://www. http://eduscapes.masternewmedia. http://www. http://www.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.masternewmedia. Beyond Wireless Broadband. P. Luigi (2005a).mefeedia. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. http://www.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.” http://www. D. and Bates.educause. and by tags.elearningcentre. (2003). Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is or 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. Peter (2003). 1.spider. 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. https://www.dvguru. www.” http://knowledge. Wi-Fi.hpc.

Asensio. IBM Institute for Business Value study. S. Taplin. Brian (2002). http://www. Changing Channels. M. April 26. Tom (2005). 2005. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. http://www1.). Matthew (2005) ( The IPTV Campus Technology. 7. UK: JISC Click and Go Video 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).pdf 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. IAT Services White Paper. http://www-rcf. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. and Young. In Richards. 417-419). (Eds.msn. Dec. pdf Nolle. Online paper.bcr. Newsweek (International Ed. 8-9. http://www.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb.).aace.cfm?fuse action=Reader.networkingpipeline. discussions and implications. Brian (2005).usc. http://www2. 2. Mon. Nov. 2005. site/newsweek/ Friedman.campustechnology.. Jonathan. 2005. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.htm Curtis. and Swenson. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.msnbc.XMax Goes The Distance. NC: Duke University. http://www. http://www. 2005. (2003).ac. June 6. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Networking Pipeline. 2005.asp?id=7769 Meng. Feb. University of Robin Good Blog.pdf Thornhill. Podcasting and VODcasting: e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. http://www. http://www. Peter (2005).com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.) (2002). (2005).masternewmedia. C.umist. G. Rana (2005). The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . Durham. .com/showAr ticle. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. http://www.

Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. Shape has developed the ects/arc/arc. exchange enabling.equator. Videoconferencing is not required. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the simulation. and Religious Studies department.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. http://solipsis.netofpeers. http://www. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www. and the aim of the virtual experience. http://ancient. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.kahootz. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. http://www1. Near Eastern. augmented virtuality. Exploration and discovery are enabled. http://www. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. skin color. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Creed. mixed reality. distributed virtual environments. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Depending on the level of realism achieved. and re-experiencing or reusing past In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). and storytellers. inventors. designers. desktop virtual reality.arts.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.cs.columbia.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. interaction.futurelab.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual annah/savannah. By using aspects of game play. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. To do this. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.

healthdatamanagement. http://ru6.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. http://www. Hornig. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.opencroquet.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. and Tsiatsos.coe. and (2001).com/article. (2006). Paper presented at ICALT Bouras.intuition-eunetwork.ergonetz. Triantafillou. http://ru6. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Luigi (2004).pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). http://www. e-Learning through distributed virtual m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future > > http://www. http://vrlab.html The U.cfm ?PostID=19660 > Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. T. http://ru6. including education. and uide/sect34. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. A. Campus Technology. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. C. .asp?id=18952 Canali De e/index..S.. Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. T. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. C. T. > http://vads. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. G.informationinplace.. (2001).html Bibliography Bouras. For example.hpc. The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality 7. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.pdf http://www. 2006. http://www. C.cti. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. Philopoulos.campustechnology.cti.spider. August . The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. Technology Area .mil/index.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Research report. East Carolina University. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. http://www. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.cti.

Bertolotto.digicult. G. http://www. Donnelly.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.10577. http://courseweb. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). http://www. Conlan. M. La Coruna/Spain.. M. P. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. http://www. International Archives of Photogrammetry. 2004. M. 1(2).monash. (2004).ie/Owen. A. Sept.Good Blog. Sept. P. 27.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. C. http://www.pdf Ross. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.learningcircuits.. Petridis. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. 28. Dobreva.unihannover. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. July 9-16.1314022. Istanbul. Ekaterina (2005).html Jones. and Seyedarabi. & Sester.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. A. Stephen (2004). 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.. McHugh.pdf rs/Queen. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Gerard (2002).html Liarokapis. (2004). Eva (2004). D. Monahan. (2005). and Sester. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.tcd. and Rusbridge. R. Trend: augmented reality check. 2004. http://www. M. G. http://education.elearning. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. S. J.actapress. Proceedings. Lister. and Guardian Unlimited. 35.. C. (2005).unibo. F. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. Dec. (2005).00.. and Mangina. (Section on Virtual Reality). dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. http://www. Learning Circuits.eng.. O. http://www.htm Dickey.icc2005. No. 004/0412_trends. (2002). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Vol. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 Michelle (2003). M. Web Based Education 2005 conference. http://www. Proceedings.pdf Katterfeld. https://www.actapress.unt.. Prometeus Journal of /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.pdf Hoare. 2005.ikg. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Web-based Education 2005 papers/ 2004/ Do not reproduce 195 . Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.actapress.oln.htm story/0.p df Prasolova-Førland.masternewmedia. January 2005. E. (2005). and Hicks. http://www. 2004. M. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. Abbott.

Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money.zoomclouds. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. index.unifiedfield. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data 196 © Brandon Hall Research . entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. such as a blog. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. 2003). They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. and data rendering. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. allowing for innovation or new understandings. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. http://www. GIS. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. cybercartography.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. data mapping. location based Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. http://www.inxight. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. My first report in this series. For an example.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. pattern recognition. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. The educational advantages of visualization are many. Finally. See some amazing demos at: http://www. cognitive collage. On the other hand. which showcases their potential. 2005).ucar. http://www.dpc.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. see ZoomClouds.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. reviewed visualization as an online content format. graphics.semagix. dynamic displays. Flash. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. visualization can represent alternative points of view. geographical information systems. http://www. data Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. mapping. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. et al.ontopia.

The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.” Paul Nixon.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image intro. http://www. http://www. Free demo at: / “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. Sample the collection at: http://svs.cs.”’ BBC News. FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. http://news.typorganism.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.esa. 2004.gsfc. and display (without glasses!). http://www. http://www. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.nixlog.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. a young graphic Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.bham. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . Be sure to explore the “zoo. http://www.0 authoring system.ddd. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.ubc.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat It has images of space and the earth from Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.” http://www.marumushi. See: http://www. http://www.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of sible_human. formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform and visualization Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations Web site in Tokyo. Museum Edition.idc. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.medibolt. See his list of resources at: English or Spanish. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.html For a practical application of visualization. April 7th.

com WorkPlace Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.html XCelsius ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.semagix.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.vicodi.nlm.spotfire.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. http://makingmaps. anatomically The Visible Human Project is the creation of es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. galleries.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.S.arcscience. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage oard/ Using time as an added dimension.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.umd.owu. http://www. Digital Dashboard http://msdn.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge index.idashboards.cs. http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.cs. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See their tool set and examples of their work.unifiedfield. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human CenterView http://www. for sible_human. retrieval.html Top Tier http://www. http://research. one million items. http://www.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions. http://clustrmaps.gfdl.feedtank. http://www. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .ambientdevices.htm How do users visualize very large data sets. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. in the U. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. See this technology in action. http://www. on. http://www. and information Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.vrvis.

mit. for 2-D and 3-D graphing. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. http://research. http://www. animation. http://www. http://www. networks. http://tangible.” TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. including the following: Online Resources Visualcomplexity. associations.visualanalytics. http://www.visualcomplexity.golden. MapViewer.timemap.advizorsolutions. for digitizing and coordinate ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.goes far beyond static JPG map images. Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. Try a demo at: form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. trends. http://www. and. and rendering links to several hundred visualizations of complex data VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.topozone. for thematic and analytical mapping. Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. Carrara.accurender. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Grapher. http://www. and rendering. Didger. http://www. Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.5-D modeling and rendering software. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . Over 30 are “knowledge networks. Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.musanim. for 3-D data visualization. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www. Clicking a related term extends the process. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. many of which are unique.formz. for 3-D modeling. including the following: Voxler. for 3-D landscaping and Pixologic is Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. They have worked with the U. http://www. and anomalies in Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.

org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.. 31-49 (1999).edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. P. EXYSTENCE network. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.gvu. 14(1).com/ http://www. Paris: La Haye. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.topicmap.sdsu.pdf Bertin.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.complexityscience. J.ualbert / San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. http://www. http://www. and Shneiderman.iu. Working Paper. 2_AndersonWoodill. together with their estimated depth of http://benfry. > http://www. Paier.gvu. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. and Resetarits. B.agocg.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis He finished his Bibliography Alpert. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. > > http://acg. both visualization companies. les Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Jacques (1983). It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. is available online. Following are two: > > nfovis/ > http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. > > http://www. les réseaux. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. A. http://www.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. J. http://coe.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.editlib. http://www.complexityandeducation. (Eds. Sherman (2003).edu/eet/ esearch.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.fakespace. http://www.topicmaps. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.liveplasma. Mackinlay.gatech. Madison: University of Wisconsin.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . on_design_and_data_visualization.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. G.cs. The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. M. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.edwardtufte. http://acg. Jacques (1967) ey/visurvey. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. Proceedings. The Semiology of Graphics. and Woodill. Journal of Interactive Learning Research..pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. (2003). (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.” Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.gatech. http://www.pdf Bergmann.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.

educause. 2. http://itdl..html Ross. June 1.psycho. 1-34. Information Visualization. 17-30. 16(4). K. http://www. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. No.digicult. C. http://www.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Yvonne (1996). J. A.slis.indiana. Brian (2002). A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. Morales.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. and Rusbridge. S. May/June. http://www. Theresa (1998). Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes.siggraph.K. Vol. No. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. Ruth (2003). K. M. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling tracts/index.. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. 41(3).Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.elearningguild. and 2ml/ Botturi. Siggraph. http://www. (2006). and Bertoline.cfm/files/pape r_5994. Educational Media International. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. 4th Edition. available online at http://www. 69-82.agocg. Abbott. 3. and Woolsey. (2004). and Pagalthivarthi. M. 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. http://www. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. /papers/externalcognition.istituti. 46: 461-488.campustechnology. 4(1). Vol. eLearning Developers’ Journal. August 11. Lugano. J. G.pdf Shneiderman. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. A. Dobreva.editlib. http://www. S.. (1998).org/index.univparis5. Switzerland: University of Do not reproduce 201 . August.asp Mittal. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.html Rhyne.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. http://www. (2001). http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. pp. http://www. EDUCAUSE Review. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 3(1). Campus Technology. (2005). http://nivea. Mike and Rogers. L.asp?id=11222 Metros. Canadian Journal of Psychology.pdf Scaife.pdf? Goldfarb. http://www. McHugh. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. http://www. Arns. 42. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.aace.html ey/visurvey. (1992). Luca (2003). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. England: m O'Regan. 185–213 http://www. Donnelly.. 2005. Robert. Luca (2005). (2005).. More than just eye candy: graphics for 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance (2005). P. pp. D. G. International Journal on erm0638. January 2005. 329-351. Durham. (2005). K. MA: Addison Wesley 45. Brent (2006). (Section on Visualization).org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. NC: Duke University. Reading.

Cheshire.edwardtufte. (2004). Edward (1990). Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education. CT: Graphics Press. David (2002). Fall. Edward (2001). 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . CT: Graphics 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. Envisioning Information. Matt (2002). 2nd Ed. http://www. David (2005).com/tufte/index evidence and narrative. Sharpe. http://www.edwardtufte. Visualization. M. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the Tufte. Edward (1997).com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. Digital Information Graphics. http://www. 2nd Ware. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Threshold. CT: Graphics Press. Colin. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Cheshire.edwardtufte. Information Visualization: perception for design.

the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. and a microphone. http://www. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.html Do not reproduce 203 . An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.spectrum. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Steven (2005). communications 8 Fitzpatrick. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” 8/ Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in Bibliography Cherry. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance Internet telephony.weblogsinc. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. requiring an Internet hookup. IEEE Spectrum Online. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. but it is rapidly Geraldine (2005). Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.envisioninc. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. March 2005.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.jajah. http://www.elearningcentre. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www. http://www. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Using VoIP. In the near future. Internet telephony is relatively simple. http://www. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. Join the discussion at: with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone http://www. 1996).com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. in remote communities. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. headphones or speakers. http://www.voipreview.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.avaya.

Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://llt.msu. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.nald. http://www.pdf Ottoson.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 gfx. (2005).Ganchev. Meredith (1996).. Stojanov. Language Learning and Technology. 9-12. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Mobile distributed e-learning center. M. I. http://ieeexplore. 9(3).pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . and O’ . September. Robert (2005). A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. S.

learnexact. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. ubiquitous computing > http://www. including wearable computing. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. or repairing complex machines. anytime. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. http://www.checkpointelearning.pdf http://www.cmu. especially for comercial training to do their 690.cmu. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.cs.hubuska. Selected Examples In where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. http://wearables. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. Do not reproduce 205 . the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. In January ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. It is controllable by the user r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. like a wristband or jewelry. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. 6. The entire system.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. http://killer. For example. It is observable by the user 4. and other organizations involved in ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. the automotive industry.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. including batteries. weighs less than three pounds. http://killer.ices.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. 1998): 1. managing. m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.bris.sportbrain. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. training. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.

edu/ http://wearcam. Evaluating the development of wearable is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired http://www.pdf ml content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. ellaWVAC.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. JISC Technology and Standards Watch ables/index. May 12-13.wired. ICWC98. The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.704 81-0. March 24. and Niedzviecki. Toronto: Anchor Books. especially in the area of wearable cameras. (2002). VA. and Lupisella.toronto. Steve (1998).aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. 1. and Levene.technologyreview. March 8. http://isd. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Simson (2004).uk/index. Dec.eecg.nasa. http://www. Wired News. Technology Review (Online).ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable is a rich source of references.eee.htm Mann. http://www. See: > > > http://genesis. S. http://www.html Garfinkel.bham.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. http://www. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.gsfc. http://www. http://www.html The design of “smart cle. Business Week Online. Fairfax. Wearable Computing for the Commons.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. Olga (2005). Mmoma (2006).ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/wearables/mithr il/index. http://wearcam. Wearable computers that you can slip into.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.eecg.http://www. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.jisc. H.eyetap. M. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).” including computers built into S.ethz. M. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. What you’ll wear in 10 years. (2003). (2004).

brightcove. Awasu http://www. Attensa a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. and Atom is the format). The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Aggie http://bitworking. podcasts. Here is a list of 48: 1. CompleteRSS http://neosmart.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. basic text format for quick review. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. social bookmarking. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.” as its content is changed by the author. job searches. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of 7. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). with all the potential for viruses and spam. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML.disobey.bloglet. TV guides.bloglines. feeds. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. PDAs.attensa. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. photo collections.html 6. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. and electronics. listings of the latest books. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. CDs. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. When changes are made to a Web site. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. and laptops. Bloglet 5.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . To read content from a Web feed. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. 8. including cell phones. Brightcove http://www. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in 9.html 2. BlogLines 4. and course offerings. Amphetadesk desk 3. > For learners and teachers. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. each with its own features. this method of finding out what is new is spam Express.

My RSS Toolbar http://www.fuzzyd. NewsIsFree http://www. SharpReader m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. FeedForAll 24. Thunderbird http://www.http://www.2 For a list of more aggregators. Edu_RSS see: http://www. RSSReader http://www. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.10.feedreader. Sage http://sage. StepNewz EaZy RSS reader http://www. Syndirella http://yole. LearningFeeds http://www.shtml 11. Fuzzy Duck http://www.mozdev. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Topix http://www.html hange/ d/ 48.U. Feedtier http://feedtier. To have a blog 19. OnFolio 31.rssbandit. RSS Software 44.newsisfree. Protopage http://www. RSS Bandit / 000877. FeedScout http://bytescout. RSSCalendar tml 36. Project / 23. FeedReader http://www. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research 29.feedpublish. FeedBurner 42.mozilla.pubsub. PubSub http://www. including listings for various electronic 17. RSS2Exchange 30. Feedroll . Gregarius http://gregarius.somee.hexamail. Newsgator http://www. Feedster http://www.videora. Videora http://www.downes.protopage.h tm 12.learningfeeds. Reader 37. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. Pluck http://www. RSS Orbit http://www. Feed-Directory ml 20. feedbeep http://feedbeep. FeedPublish 26.rssreader. Rojo http://www.

Luigi (2004).htm D’Sousa.wcc. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .dist. D.eschoolnews.vccs. http://www. B.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.Possible Future Evolution. http://www.pdf Gannett. Eva (2004).com/gems/weblog ged/ Lamb. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. July/August 2003. maintains a long list of RSS resources. http://timyang. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. May 2004.htm Harrsch. May 19. Oct.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.mcli. 2003.learningcircuits. RSS: the next killer app for education. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in RSS: grassroots support leads to mass 004/downes.htm David.. Stephen (2004). 2004/0405_Trends. June 2004. Mary (2003). A. Aug. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. RSS: a learning mc1003/ The Fuss.downes.maricopa.maricopa. erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.ubc. Online paper. An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.dist.learningcircuits. sify.htm Downes. http://www. Downes. Online paper. Learning Circuits. USA Today (online). and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Robin Good Blog. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for University of North Carolina. The Technology Source Archives. and D’Arcy Norman. Version 1.downes.elearningguild. (2003).teachinghacks. 20for%20Educators111. 5-8. Dan (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. RSS could transform online communications. Anh (2005). Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.teachinghacks. a blog by Alan Levine. Quentin (2006). Stephen (2002). Learning 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. Do not reproduce 209 . 2004. RSS Ideas for Educators.php 2003. http://www.htm Stephen Downes has also set up tory. Brian Lamb. 31.htm Levine. -08-01-rss-research_x.lo. BC. and 903DEV-L. http://www. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Kaplan-Leiserson.contentious. Brian Lamb.downes.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. http://www. Aug. Aug. Bill (2003). 20for%20Educators111. Read his article written specifically for educators. eSchool News.pdf Canali De Rossi. http://www. http://www. 3.

oreillynet. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. Aug. Using RSS for data integration.xml. 2005. July 7. http://googlereader. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Shelly (2005). 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. O’Reilly Network.html?page=1 Udell.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. k_rss_white_paper.html Powers. http://www. June 18. March 23.Levine.html Samuel. 2006. Jon (2005). Otherwise Engaged. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. 3.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research .com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. InfoWorld. s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. RSS: the next big thing online.pdf Parparita. T.oreilly. 3/13OPstrategic_1. Jenny (2005). Namespaced extensions in feeds. 2005.alexandrasamuel. MediaThink White Paper. The Shifted Librarian. http://www. http://www. (2006). 13.mediathink. Mihai (2006).com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. 2006. Google Reader Blog. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). 2005.html MediaThink (2004). Alexandra (2005). pub/a/2002/12/18/ eeds/index.theshiftedlibrarian. and Webb.

com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.sourceforge.300. features. http://www. 2005). social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. Content is ego-less. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. For wikis to work. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. and email See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.” Essentially. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing it is a platform for open collaborative software development. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. the software used to run Wikipedia. an image gallery.gilbane. Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. http://www.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. With some basic instructions. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.wikipedia.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. My first report in this series.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. wikis can be important tools for educational and never finished.10. http://www.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Do not reproduce 211 . 2. 3.seedwiki. and projects.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. RSS. http://www. can be used by a team for joint writing.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. See the progress at: http://edu. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. http://wikipedia. There are now over 1.sourcewatch. Anyone can add to it. it is important to have several contributors. http://www. custom permissions. approaches. http://www.tikiwiki. Wiki Tools: There are hundred of “wiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and is available for other applications.

Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to mlaut.ikiw.” Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.elearningcentre.infotoday. maintains an extensive list of wiki entwikis..fasfind. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.html Bibliography Aronsson. http://whiplash. Operation of a Large Scale. Andrea (2003).wikibooks. Phantom authority.elearning. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.71. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown Not all uses of wikis in education work well. http://m.htm#Wikis Stewart th04/procs/augar.learningwiki. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. http://careo. of the University of British Columbia. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. Australia. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.html Augar. Dec. http://www.different.pbwiki. http://www.” is a rich source of information on wikis. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.48. http://en. N. http://www. First mattison.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. http://www. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .ucalgary. including wikis. adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://64. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.ascilite. http://weblog. Perth. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.Weblogs. as well as an analysis of how they work. SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. W. that she updates regularly. 8(12). (2002).com/ Jon Udell. is provided by David Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.html Ciffolilli. L. has lots of resources on wikis. The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.shtml Brian Lamb. Raitman. http://kairosnews. (2004).uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.” http://writingwiki. http://www.’s first nine months in Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki ries/wikis/2004/02/16.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www. Swiki. A free trial is available. and Zhou. 5-8. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. including a section on wiki tools. http://flosse. “ The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. His article. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his

(2004).com. 12(10). International Journal of Information Ethics.pdf Fountain. Sept.14 02872. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. Online paper. Brian (2004). April 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. Jon (2004). David (2003).ac. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.html Tomkin.. 2004.asp Schmitt. Wiki Tools.educause. _002_09_ebersbach. Twiki. and Webb. Richard (2003). July 7.Oct. Educause W. Lauren (2005).infotoday.html ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).00. http://www. Online article. Profetic: dossiers Schwartz. Online article at: http://www.ariadne. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. Nov. Issue 42. Online 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .zkm.php3?id_rubrique=110 Lamb. http://c2.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://www. S. Wiki pedagogy. Oct. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. http://www. Searcher. Ariadne. M. Udell. Neil (2003). January. M. 2. J. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.. 0/19.1/technot e_xxvii. 19.. Online article at PCMag. http://www. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . http://gilbane. Cossarin. Why Wikis Work 7004.usemod. Quickiwiki.irrodl. Clark. Bo & Cunnin. David (2004).html Stafford.oreillynet.pdf Leuf. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. http://www. O’Reilly Network. April 2004. The wiki way. UniversityWiki. Swiki. 2006. and Rudolph. Renée (2005). http://Weblog. Making the case for a wiki. Anja (2004). http://container. (2006). Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.shtml Rubenking. mattison. Emma (2005). International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). (2001). 36-48..pdf

Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. in turn. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. floppy disks. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . CD-ROMS. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. After a product has been successfully launched. which. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. However. which can then lead to inventions. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems.

video games. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. and decline. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . Further. But not all technologies will travel this road. For a variety of reasons. The technology of e-learning. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. or may never become commercially viable. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. in part. peak. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. and computers. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. means that they actually think differently. This is due. this approach is now rapidly changing. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. 2003). it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. some will never leave the development stage. Some will die quickly. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. in both formal and informal settings. change itself seems to be inevitable. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. The experience of younger learners with television. to the complex. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. while others will last for decades. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. However. In any field. ascend the curve. mature. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. both in classrooms and online. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Ontologies.

But they are usually disap-pointed. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. wearable computers. until we become habituated.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . For example. generally went to work earlier. commercials. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. designers of Sesame Street. the space race. In approaching electronic educational media. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. surprise. digitization of smell. the civil rights movement.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. the baby boomers. However. mobile phones. touch and taste. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. the computer. p. sex. The children of the baby boomers. 1994). results in an action by the other participant. 28). the learner. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. television. The speed of change increases with each passing year. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. Because of this. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. video games. that is all about to change. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. 2002. and personal digital assistants.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. It works for a time. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. libraries. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. movie theaters. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. To keep our attention. gaming consoles. In North America. For the older generation. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. ecological disasters. we will see the restructuring of education and training. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. born in the 1970s. mind-altering drugs. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. in a back-and-forth exchange. In contrast. huge data wall displays. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. whereby the action of one participant. Once we master the art of reading. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. Then even more movement. With feedback. or violence is needed to keep our attention. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. Generally. Their children. global warming.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. Within the next five years. terrorism. and digital ink and electronic paper. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education.

it will be a giant collaborative workspace. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. creative 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Bibliography Prensky. New York: Collins. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. (2001).com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . Guides are optional. Dallas. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Digital Game-based Learning. Texas. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. http://www. May 2006. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Seidensticker. Gary (2006). Marc. In the next the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Bob (2006). technologies and services for the next 5 years. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. shortly. portfolios.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. http://www. At the individual level. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://www.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. or can be more bound up by the technologies. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar Woodill. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Two hundred years ago. Douglas (2005). James (1994). Clayton (1997). and the mapping of everything.

auburn. Marc Schrö Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG al. D. 1515 Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. UK http://www.Portugal Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del e. New Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . Palo WEBIST Av. Box 513. Den Dolech 2 Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.myself-proj. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.umu. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Humaine Project c/o Dr. 27A 2º esq. 2910-595 Setúbal .51. L69 7ZF.nngroup. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. 3400 Hillview AiLive Inc.cs. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. Manuel I. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva Auburn University Auburn. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. CA 94304 USA http://www.O.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Building 5. 17th 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.unige.ailive.

1900 East Tenth St.animats. Washington. Box 5200. L69 7ZF. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.ascension-tech. O. Box 2124 Menlo Park. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Box 527. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. Bloomington. (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 Alchemy Mindworks Apple Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.animationfactory. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 CodeBaby Corp.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 Educause 4772 Walnut Extempo Systems. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.W.informatics.indiana. #1910. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. P. Edmonton. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Ascension Technology Corporation P.O. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. W Toronto. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.adobe. Suite 206 Boulder. Inc. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 s/ Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.isi. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.rit. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 .edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.educause.mindworkshop. Huntsville. Secretariat. 10004-104 CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.

cs. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. Pty Ltd The Basement. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. Suite #480 Cognitive Science Society Department of Character Animation Technologies Avid Technology. TN 38152 USA http://www.htm Macromedia. PO Box 24478. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.San Rafael.818. NewTek.autotutor. 190th Street.6450 http://www.pact. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 tylab.cognitivesciencesociety. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. San Antonio. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. 220 © Brandon Hall Research . Suite 100 Menlo CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Inc. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. 110 Cuba Mall. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.html Ulead Systems 970 W.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 AutoTutor c/o Dr. One Park West Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.460.viewpoint.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.macromedia. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. Tel: +1. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.asp EI Technology Group. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.aclweb. Avid Technology Park.aaai.catoolkit. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.A. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. Santa Barbara.

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3rd Floor Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo. Johannesburg. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.podia. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.screenwatch. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 http://www. Inc. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www. Laurent Blvd. Suite 200 Ottawa. Ste.Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc. Inc. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 Cedar Ave & Napier Do not reproduce 227 .com Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Courtice. 110 Fourth Ave. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.westcliffdata.webex. Ontario. Warwick. Suite 150 Lindon.reusableobjects. CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 RapidGuide c/o XStream Software. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www. Ontario. ON. 150 Hamlet Court Road podia Ltd 6th Floor. Richmond. Suite 400 New York.westcliffdata.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. 2280 St.respondus. Laurent Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications.allencomm. 2280 ontent=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www.digitalworkshop. 200 South.xstreamsoftware. mate.5709 http://www. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 ime4you/ibt/en/start.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.turbodemo.83 01 616 ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. Germany Tel.suddenlysmart.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.. DA Group The Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd 10004-104 Avenue. 323 Newbury Street Boston.sensalearning.maxit. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.respondus. Inc. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.seminar. Suite 1550 San Avatars CodeBaby SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.4259 Fax: (760) 635. Gandy Blvd.funeducation. Suite 200 Tampa. Inc. Ste 202 Sensa e-Learning 4465 Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.percepsys.qarbon. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. +49(0) Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 Trainersoft FunEducation.thinkingcap. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Edmonton. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. 76133 Karlsruhe. CA 92101 USA http://www. ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. 250 The Esplanade time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. 55 South Market St.

Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.mozilla. 6th Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.daden. Inc. Ste. Mumbai Nesbit Rd. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 WaveMarket. Dale Mabry Oddcast 589 8th Browsers Flock 100 View Street. Mary Apts. P. Suite 260 Orlando. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. W Toronto.flock.. Inc. USA GTCO CalComp. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Birmingham.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington OmniWeb Omni Development. Mazgaon. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. 11th Floor New York.knowledgeenvironments.wavemarket.omnigroup.html Knowledge Environments.opera. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford mniweb Opera Software ASA P.vcom3d.. Suite 900 Austin.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. CA 94043-0801 USA Moorestown.telsim. 2707 NE Blakeley Street TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.qelix. Inc. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.redwoodelearning.O. 219 Tampa. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 .com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Inc. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www.O. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. B13 9SG.

Orlando. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Brevient Tel: 414. Suite# 404 Fifth Avenue. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Batipi 11 St. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. 6th Floor New 230 © Brandon Hall Research .com udienceResponseSystems/Home. Suite 101E Falls Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. 12617 Meridian E.backpackit. Inc.944. 100 North Lake Avenue. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.smartroom. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.0162 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto. Puyallup. Inc. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.telnetz.bluetie. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.Columbia.physics. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. Jospeh Street.pearsoned. Inc. SW. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. 1192 East Draper Parkway. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Amherst. Suite 522. NJ . Breeze c/o Macromedia. 601 Townsend Street San Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 Centra c/o Saba. #205 Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.qwizdom.inteam.saba.aspx Smartroom Learning Solutions. Inc.bantu.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.batipi.brevient. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.adobe. Central Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Pleasant St. Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St.W. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. 1034 Cisco Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. Lauderdale.html Citrix Systems. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.digite. 170 West Tasman Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.collaborationloop.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.. Suite 950 Portland.digi-net. Digi-Net Technologies. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 ps5664/ps5669/index.centraldesktop. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 Digité. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. San Jose.communiqueconferencing.convenos.elluminate. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 Collaboration Loop CMP Media 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. Inc. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. 82 Pioneer Way. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Suite 630 McLean.same-page. Inc.emc. Sanibel FL. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 eStudio c/o Same-Page.comotivsystems. 795 Folsom LLP PO Box Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. 57th Street Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.courseforum. Ontario. Suite 600 Ottawa.epam-pmc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. 232 http://www. 6th Floor San Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.

Inc. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 c/o Citrix Systems. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. ON. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.gotomeeting.4517 B. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.ezmeeting. Inc. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.groupsupport.novell. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. Suite 2300 New York. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.hyperoffice. El Camino Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .com Groupwise c/o Novell. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.groove. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.glance.hotcomm. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.facilitate. #115 Rockville. Clevedon. Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Global School Net 132 HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 Glance Networks. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.V. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 Groove Gordano 18 Kenn Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San GroupSupport.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.gordano. Suite 500 Markham. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. 395 Encinitas.

com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 onProject.meetingone. 11th floor New LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 300 Torrance.inquesttechnologies. 25 First Street. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.ivocalize.mspx LiveOffice. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 Near-Time. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren iLinc Communications 2999 N. Inc. Inc. IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.ilinc. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.mitre. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 Do not reproduce 233 . Suite 412 MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 Interwise. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. Suite 1401 Denver. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Fordham Blvd. Sunnyvale. 44th St. 3 Wing JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.liveoffice. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.linktivity.jdhtech. Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. 1289 ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. default. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn.netspoke. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.

3679 Concord ml Parlano 10 S. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 Selden Integrated Systems. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. P. Riverside Plaza. Suite B.seldensystems.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.project-open. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Raindance Communications. Box 3325 York. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. 1175 58th SpiderWeb Communications. Suite 1450 Chicago. Inc. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 Cactus project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. New No. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. 17-17 State Highway OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Harbor.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 RADVISION Inc. Ste 275 Mill 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.performancesolutionstech.Adyar Chennai.raindance. Suite 440 San Jose. Suite 200 Greeley.sharemethods. Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. Photon Infotech Inc. Suite 210 Maynard.

AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.tacit. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.O.teamdynamix. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.webofficepoint. Suite 950 TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. Suite 1050 Do not reproduce 235 .com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. Kierland Blvd. Inc. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. Ontario M2N Web Crossing. Chicago IL 60622 USA ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain WebEx Communications. Suite 100 Teamware Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia WebAsyst PO Box Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. Box 135 FIN-00381 Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.Box 2900 Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo dex. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.O. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 Vodium 1629 K Street NW. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.trichys. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.webtrain. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.vodium. Suite 810 Toronto. Suite 100 Scottsdale.axista. Canada http://www. P.viack.txl Viack 14811 N.webcrossing.webex.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7


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Tel: (514) 745-4010 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620

Do not reproduce


Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK

Fax: (781) 890-828 Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300


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Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4)

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071

Do not reproduce


Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 LearnCenter c/o, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915


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maxit. Inc. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal. ng/ n_resources/learning. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 SSElearn Portal c/o TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.plateau.teralearn. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. 500 West Madison. 550 Queen St. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Suite 2200 Chicago. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.meridianksi. Suite 260 Foxborough. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. East Glebe TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 TEDS Inc.sselearn. West. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 1300 Iroquois Avenue VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 mGen Enterprise mGen. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 350 Toronto. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.wizdom. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. PO Box 100 Fair Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. Suite 700 Arlington.saba. Louis.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Do not reproduce 241 .com.outstart. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.ssaglobal. Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. LTD 671 N. Suite 1280 San Francisco.isnewmedia.teds.

org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.vbtrain.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. Box 9752 Boulder. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. Laurent Blvd. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. 4th Floor Oakland. eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .O.sumtotalsystems. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 240 Bay WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Inc. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Suite 101 Houston. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.edutools. Inc.fldata. 17041 El Camino Real. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.wbtsystems.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 122 West Way. 10130-103 Street Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Tracker. Inc. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Suite 200 Ottawa.arizona. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.gyrus. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. Suite # 105 Columbia.cdlib.sir. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th 2280 Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. 4 Expressway Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.xtention.trainingpartner.risc-inc. NY.ttg-inc.

org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.O.netera. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. Suite 1600 Tucson.4464 Markham Street Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. Hertfordshire. Box 3000 ENC Learning National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. Houston.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.merlot. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Norton Road. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.cadcorp. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.O. Sterling Court. Rice University.goenc. CT 06459 USA http://www. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.lornet. Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. Box 1892. Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.dist. Suite 3100 San GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Do not reproduce 243 .com/gis4mt/index. SG1 m ESRI Suite 300. ETRAC. Fondren Library.lolaexchange.maricopa. 5151 East Broadway. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. AZ 85250 USA Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .org/eng/scientifiques. MS LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.

Inc.knowledgepulse. 959 Concord Street. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.5372. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 MapInfo One Global View Troy. Suite 100 Menlo MOBILearn c/o Dr.eee.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Spotlight Mobile. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.O. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Box 240000 Electrical and Computer Engineering.imsglobal. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Metadata. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. Inc.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.O. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. BL3 5AB UK PanGo Networks. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.aaai. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Suite 501 CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .smm. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. Suite 100 Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . 17 SE 3rd Avenue. of Geography. Austria Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.asp?path= 500.bham. html ELSNET Trans 10. PMB #112 Lake Mary. Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 . Groove KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. Whisman Road Mountain View. National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.itc. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.movedigital. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Suite internet2. Inc. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 Victoria. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 3000 Richmond Rive Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. NY. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.upenn. Italy Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.asianart. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 1000 Oakbrook Drive.Project Coordinator CSI .se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . 19104-2653.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.stockholmchallenge.sun.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Oleg Liber University of MoveDigital.internet2. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.llearn. Inc.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 10010 USA http://www.groove. 1st Floor A . Deane jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.lockss.overnet. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Elluminate Canada Suite 304.elementk. Alberta. 3º 08021 Macromedia.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. Suite 600 Alpharetta.elearningeuropa. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Suite 225 Santa Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.trainingregistry. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Teachnology.17th Avenue SW Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Portals CyberU. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 50 S. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. Box 172 1039 .com ProQuest 789 E. 15-4-A Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.cyberu.apreso.virtualmuseum. 3016 5th Ave. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. Inc. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 World Wide Learn Suite 100.6526 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. 3333 http://www.333.worldwidelearn. NE CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.presentations. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 ns/ Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.O.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Slate Hill.genesys.rmv. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Ninth St.executrain.saba. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Alberta. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.proquest. Eisenhower Parkway P. New York 10973 USA http://www.

eng. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Lindsey Bldg.ife. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.readygo. Numerical Analysis and Computer Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Union St. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 Raptivity P. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.html Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. O. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 Evolution Robotics. ReadyGo Euron c/o Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 Henrik I Christensen. Michigan.whmsi.ed. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Radstock Somerset. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 Chilcompton. Centre for Autonmous Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.evolution. Suite B Orion. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. Box 2827. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. Inc.raptivity.cmu. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Woods Hole Marine Systems.rec.. 130 W. Ste. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.hp. Inc.aad. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Pasadena.nasa.euron. Kungliga Tekniska Hö Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. CA 94040.

google. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. Box 29141 San Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.6100 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.findlaw. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 Healthfinder Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.gigablast. KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.ask. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica. Box 1133 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Ask. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. Suite 500 Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 Gada.dogpile. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.Search Engines 229 West 43rd Street New York.gnod. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 Copernic 360 Franquet Street.alexa. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 Headquarters 555 12th FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. Suite 60 Quebec. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201. Google. DC 20013-1133 http://www. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.convera. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.kartoo. QC G1P 4N3 Canada Koders 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .com Gnod.intute. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. 42nd Floor New Google (including Froogle.healthfinder.excite.koders. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604

metacrawler. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 23rd Oklahoma Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. 6th Flr. 625 Second Street San Francisco.netscape. 601 108th Avenue MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. Mumbai 10.krugle. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 Pandora Media.lexxe..W.mooter. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.cfm?doid=10 56808. Mazgaon. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. 360 22nd Street. Inc. 23rd Floor San Francisco.1057022 LookSmart.lalisio.nyu. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.looksmart. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.82152 Martinsried Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. 2400 N.searchking. New York. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 . CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. Inc.pubsub. Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .com SearchKing. Inc.pandora.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Suite 211 Palo Alto . VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.rawsugar. Inc.qelix. Suite 1200 Bellevue. 64 Fulton Street. Nesbit Truveo. 7th floor. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace..msn. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. Proteus Project 715 Broadway. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 LitLinker c/o Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. An AOL Company 333 Bush Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Mary Apts. NY 10003. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Seventh Floor New York.technorati. 17th Floor New Technorati 665 3rd Netscape AOL VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 PubSub Concepts.truveo. Suite 207 San Francisco. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.convera.http://www.acm. 250 © Brandon Hall Research .com Flash c/o Macromedia. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.elena-project. Box 1558 New Canaan.zoominfo. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. 1st Floor A . GreenPark Reading. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.biographix. Inc.columbia. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.macromedia.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.Project Coordinator CSI . Assima Ltd. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.seco. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.stt-global. Yahoo http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Captivate c/o Macromedia.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 Semantic Computing Research Group c/o chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.atghome.macromedia.New Zoom Information Inc. 10 Old Bailey. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West EC4M 7NG IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Inc.htm Yahoo! Inc. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.

Newburyport.nexlearn.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street ts/poplog/packages/simagent. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 SimCorder c/o TEDS Softsim Outstart Studio.knowledgepresenter. Ontario.. Inc.stt-global. B15 2TT. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.learning2005. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.bham. Suite 1550 San Jose. Suite 200 Ottawa. Suite 360 San Mateo.Tel: (717) 790-0400 Do not reproduce 251 . Taschereau Ouest. Suite 400.assima. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 6essai. Tel: (276) 783-6991 STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. Suite 300 Wichita. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.eduperformance. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.outstart.virtualcontrolroom. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.knowledge-director.xstreamsoftware.fsl. Laurent Blvd.cs. Suite A-207 Brossard. 2280 RapidBuilder c/o XStream Stagecast Software. 1821 Walden Office Square. Light & Acoustics.. Schaumburg. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. 55 South Market St.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Inc. England http://www.noaa. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. CA . LLC 100 South Main Street. Inc.muzzylane. PO Box 397 Saratoga Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 MASIE Center. Québec. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. Suite 240 Atlanta.stottlerhenke.

com Friendster. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Menlo Rojo Networks. mag. Suite 900 Austin. 101 Wolf Drive. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.zvents. CA 94089 USA http://del. Classmates Online. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. 625 Second Street San Francisco. CA. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. Suite 224 Bloomington. Inc. 655 High Street Palo Alto. 795 Folsom Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.tagzania.. Morton Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.gnolia.netscape. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.rojo. WA 98055 USA http://www.analytictech.. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.networkltd.furl. FURL c/o LookSmart. Suite 125 San Diego. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. 2001 Lind Ave. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco. Suite 500 Social Bookmarking c/o Yahoo! Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. SW.socialtext. CA 94105 USA http://www.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. Inc. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 Spurl Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Box 920089 Needham.icio. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Eventful c/o EVDB. Thorofare. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Veoh Networks. Inc 1 Infinite PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. Suite 115 San Diego. 7220 Trade Street.percro. LLC 15 Skehan Street Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.1011 CM Amsterdam.futurelab. Inc. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . One Cambridge Center Sparta Social Networks.spider. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.spartasocialnetworks. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. New Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. CA 92121 USA http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.sociosite.xstreamengine. Box 1641 Denver. CO 80201-1641 USA iTunes Apple Virtual Reality Activeworlds Jabber Software Foundation CA 90028 USA Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.html Jabber Software Foundation Suite 1001 Los Angeles. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Do not reproduce 253 . 4th Floor Fakespace 11 E. Church Street. CA 94105 USA PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.hpc. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. Cupertino. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. VA 23461-1924 https://www.hp.jabber. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Box 1641 Denver. BitTorrent 201 Mission Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .veoh. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.dfilm. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .apple.

Williams Building College Park. 350 South 400 West.ecu. Inc.coe. Troy. HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. 1333 Butterfield Rd.cs. Golden ESRI Suite 300. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .501 North Morton Street. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. Suite 280 Downers iDashboards 5750 New King Street.mapinfo. Danvers. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.feedtank. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Suite 3 Brooklyn. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. IC ISIM Box Intuition DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.esri. Suite 100 Virtual Reality Lab FeedTank 590 Grand St. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Mapland c/o Software Illustrated Intergraph Corporation P.xcelsius.epfl. Box 240000 Huntsville. Draper. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.formz.intuition-eunetwork. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.O. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. 809 14th Tracy. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.accurender.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 ADVIZOR Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.ambientdevices. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.intergraph. Suite 317 San Diego. Suite 110 Troy. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 MapInfo One Global View. Suite 206 Bloomington. Cambridge. Inc. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.idashboards.

mccrackendesign. 94043 USA http://www. Unit A2 Visual Thesaurus c/o JAJAH Inc. Ontario L4V 1T8. 2513 Charleston Road.topozone.Tel: (209) 832-7353 Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. California. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 73 Princeton VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.inxight.musanim. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue. FL 34108 USA http://www. 869 97th Ave N.softill. U. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 Vicodi Edvins Snore. Suite 305 North Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Spotfire. Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.S. NY 10012 USA Visual Analytics Inc.ontopia. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Suite 3A New York. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 3 East 28th St. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Inc. Inc. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. ETZ H Electronics Lab.unifiedfield. MA 01863 USA http://www. CA 94712 USA http://www. Unit # 1 VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.sportbrain. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Inc. 9th floor New York. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.pixologic. Unified Field. Ltd.nih. 500 Macara Avenue Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.spotfire. Donau-City-Strasse Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.jajah. A-1220 sible_human. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 155 Spring Street. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. Suite 102 Mountain Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.

. Hanover. CA 95008 USA FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.feedforall. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .feedreader. 64 Fulton Street. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.. San Francisco. Broadway.rssreader. Rojo Networks. Inc. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. Seventh Floor New York. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.V. Building K Mountain View. Inc. Estonia http://www. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 Brightcove. South #358 FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz JotSpot. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.pluck. Suite 605 San Francisco. 2nd Floor Palo Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. Suite 2260 Portland.attensa. 200 2nd Ave. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 Feedster. 116 New Montgomery Street. Suite 100 Campbell. 3rd Floor Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Inc. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. First StepNewz c/o Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. PubSub Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.wearable.ethz. Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Valdeku Web Feeds Attensa. CA 94043-0801 USA Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. P. Switzerland http://www.feedster.rojo.onfolio. Suite 900 FeedForAll PO Box RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.O Box 1909 CH-1211 OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.pubsub. Nederland Tel: +31. Suite 381 Vancouver.1001 W. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 11211.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.715135858 Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.feedburner. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. Inc. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Tallinn.brightcove. 795 Folsom St. Coldbrook Business Corp. 167 Hamilton Ave.mozilla.

com Do not reproduce 257 .Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

122. 165. 36. 128. 177. 209 Augmented reality. 189. 94. 171. 94. 35. 85. 140. 31. 193. 160. 209. 112. 130. 90 Assessment. 52. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 145. 54. 74. 27. 189. 196. 6. 86. 93. 21. 174 Bayesian probability. 170. 24. 18. 29. 48. 201 Adaptive systems. 42. 23. 78. 74. 135. 132. 205 Animation. 196 Dashboards. 18. 199. 191. 60 Clickers. 91. 50. 69. 70. 191. 46. 48. 89. 194. 8. educational. 174. 46. 215 Communities of practice. 137. 196 cognitive maps. 45. 109. 82. 70. 26. 67. 69. 71. 59. 161. 118. 63. 190. 203. 146. 80. 209. 74. 90. 197. 93. 195 Authoring tools. 39. 66. 34. 27. 160. 112. 207 Classroom response systems. 219. 179. 159. 109. 88 cybercartography. 216 Affective computing. 101. 184. 57. 196 collaboration. 21. 89. 198. 47. 16. 172 Audio. 93. 217 Collaboration. 46. 97. 17. 85 Blogs. 137. 5. 47. 11. 21. 198 Data mining. 16. 65. 180. 47. 190. 196. 79 Complexity theory. 63. 70. 127. 45. 15. 77. 63. 159. 62. 85. 51. 231. 35. 72. 116. 2. 81. 211. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 171. 201 cognitive collage. 67. 191. 46. 146. 18. 28. 180 Competency Tracking. 7. 27. 127. 74. 53 barcodes. 44. 211. 64. 58. 127.Index 3-D graphics. 24. 23. 165. 165 Air display. 100. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 74. 15. 165. 193. 136. 159. 72. 4. 83. 67. 203. 174. 170. 125. 49 AJAX. 4. 177. 71. 207. 69. 226 Authorware. 45. 119. 145. 65. 95. 25. 35. 189. 160. 199 Architectures. 33. 45 Avatars. 177. 149. 27. 178. 47. 211 Communications Tools. 65. 26. 63. 194. 24. 97. 144. 84. 50. 218 Agents. 193. 25. 46. 93. 81. 66. 114. 170. 150. 57. 78. 169. 196. 39. 59. 23. 122. 180. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 91. 127. 101. 149. 57. 110. 16. 170. 69. 50. 28. 72. 36. 113. 109. 24. 196. 42. 180. 223. 84 Adobe. 22. 117. 83. 153. 169. 100. 190. 203. 66. 52. 162. 69. 193. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 85. 48. 212 Boolean searches. 40. 121. 37. 194. 66. 20. 84. 145. 139 assessment. 100. 125. 46. 181. 43. 55. 49. 176 Cell phones. 123. 137. 141. 139. 20. 18. 28. 21. 91. 29. 93. 75. 22. 145 Conversational learning. 74. 80. 64. 127. 65. 67. 203. 180. 122 Ambient computing. 197. 50. 43. 196. 68. 36. 127 Cooperation. 15. 116. 44. 170. 12. 65. 176. 103. 80. 181. 156. 5. 39. 176. 13. 26. 208. 23. 128. 200. 216 Computer based assessment. 48. 110. 112. 60 Cognition. 50. 121. 4. 171. 50. 211. 209. 128. 192 Browsers. 193. 15. 56. 35 Content management. 140. 35. 138. 59. 122. 23. 21. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 146. 66. 129. 211 Broadband. 41. 52. 27. 184. 29. 158. 30. 70. 148.

80. 25. 58. 37. 196 Graphics. 89. 146. 203. 85. 108. 162. 201 Grid computing. 90 Experiential learning. 13. 158 Informatics. 21. 210 formative assessment. 8. 17. 201. 74. 196. 199. 141. e-learning. 165 Handwriting recognition. 59. 51. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 27. 119. 86 Deep Web. 64. 26. 158. 100. 239 Individualization. 153. 90. 161. 65. 5. 80. 54. 125. 186. 101. 187. 26. 160. 23. 121. 25. 60. 33. 97. 69. 30. 63. 6. 189. 11. 34. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 78. 83. 106. 162. 71. 94. 25. 225. 215. 137. 216. 63. 163. 85 Extreme learning. 84. 70. 104. 116. 180. 202. 11. 217. 45 dynamic displays. 64. 88. 122. 80. 123. 238 Geocaching. 11. 169. 197. 196 Immersive environments. 32. 93. 109. 93. 132. 68. 66. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 162. 124. 133. 162 History. 137. 216 Director. 196. 121. 16. 110. 45. 31. 89. 3. 106. 187. 34. 9. 107. 173. 106 Healthcare applications. 91. 20. 86. 166. 214 Human-centered computing. 49 Google. 16. 74. 84. 30. 103. 11. 152. 45 Displays. 175. 170. 119. 57. 122. 85. 37. 88. 47. 59. 22. 70. 26. 110. 103. 193. 198. 100. 27. 178. 75. 163 Findability. 153 Facial recognition. 114. 217 images. 107. 196 e-Commerce. 109. 179. 24. 47. 158 Design. 174. 52. 13. 152. 199 Gesture recogntion. 170 Federated searches. 196. 97. 200. 5. 201 FrontPage. 170. 98 GIF graphic format. 81. 155. 8. 134. 196. 55. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 4. 184 e-Science. 193.Decision support systems. 57. 139. 191 Games. 86. 46. 199. 97. 215 Informal learning. 248 graphics. 125. 5. 119. 53. 12. 124. 193. 20. 7. 146. 176. 100. 154. 35. 169 Expert systems. 7. 88. 79. 205. 33. 9. 57 Flash. 45. 88. 24 e-Portfolios. 106. 194. 89. 127. 217 Instant messaging. 183. 74. 48. 134. 95. 23. 75. 49. 103. 131. 159. 174. 29. 114. 60. 23. 169. 158. 9. 149. 205 Hybrid systems. 120. 26. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 28. 4. 91. 94. 120. 35. 151. 190. 88. 189. 170. 167 evaluation. 166. 63. 47. 52. 101. 152. 122. 66. 49. 134. 42. 4. 120. 3. 216 Distributed systems. 119. 93. 106 Haptics. 72. 106. 197. 19. 49. 210. 169. 88. 180. 158. 70. 26 Emotional design. 16. 35 Frameworks. 250 Folksonomies. 198. 152. 219 Infrared tags. 67. 149. 20. 5. 18. 27. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 11. 197. 106 Head mounted displays. 94. 15. 193. 119 FireFox. 48. 193. 184. 9. 107. 13. 134. 26. 164. 134. 80. 16. 154. 69. 200. 197. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 196. 123 Hype in e-learning. 25. 156. 176. 127. 109. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 25. 215. 172. 15. 204 Dreamweaver. 178.

110. 180. 144 Navigation. 130. 119. 233. 80. 17. 25. 108. 139. 196 Mashups. 146. 57. 148. 64. 156. 174. 176. 34. 7. 26. 226. 119. 70. 135. 45. 215 Interoperability. 125 Lab book wiki. 76. 130 Mobile computing. 42. 4. 123 Medical applications. 65. 122. 138. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 65. 80. 8. 127. 246. 149. 146. 120. 80. 110. 113. 196 Pedagogy. 153 Microsoft. 148. 230. 135. 114. 166. 171 Metacognition. 139. 45. 62. 193. 85. 244 Meta-search engines. 181. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 69. 115. 162. 183. 138. 4. 128. 141. 156 Legacy materials. 47. 124. 43. 158. 21. 183. 125. 97 Ontologies. 172. 171 M-learning. 43. 77. 119. 23. 249. 192. 205. 60. 139. 176. 85. 130. 115. 114 learning object repository. 124. 111. 199 Neural networks. 216. 40. 45. 192. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 149. 165. 21. 141. 15. 145. 90. 122. 30. 128. 148. 36. 107. 145. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 137. 22. 137. 143. 66. 90. 165 pattern recognition. 58. 137. 6. 136. 127 Podcasting. 124 iPod. 109. 114. 6. 63. 53. 178. 43. 18. 17. 16. 121. 152 Lecturing. 121. 180. 80. 140. 193. 241 Learning Management Systems. 31. 20. 48. 189. 116. 47. 140. 47. 175. 48. 26 Metadata. 189. 170. 25. 176. 255. 178. 140. 241. 145. 62. 137. 238. 93. 206. 190. 127. 145. 26. 182. 32. 204. 100. 169. 111. 135. 69. 139. 114. 97. 199. 68. 24. 129. 81. 114 Learning Objects. 134.Interface devices. 211 Knowledge management. 174. 234. 134. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 143. 89. 23. 124. 191. 147. 42. 78. 223 Portals. 146. 155. 35. 145. 112. 246 Location based tools. 7. 4. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 128. 205 Macromedia. 246. 154. 131. 114. 49. 150. 49. 7. 215. 68. 29. 109. 135. 95. 20 Museums. 23. 2. 134. 65. 213. 112. 45. 187. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 152. 152 Networks. 119. 140. 120. 7. 172. 6. 5. 59. 237. 159. 86. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 78. 6. 142. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 46. 101. 179 Optical tags. 80. 45. 65. 178. 48. 100. 80. 36. 35. 98. 129. 211 latent semantic analysis. 240. 242 learning object model. 146. 116. 124. 81. 144. 191. 165 Microlearning. 127. 127. 189. 127. 190. 165. 54. 153. 109. 123. 161. 15. 134. 165. 120. 125. 122. 54. 174. 171. 91. 107. 42. 26. 26. 129. 106. 199. 42. 150. 166 Pervasive computing. 244 Motion Graphics. 128. 11. 196. 109. 116. 143. 256 Microworlds. 191. 46. 93. 6. 220. 65. 82. 250 mapping. 125. 74. 114. 42. 189. 216. 166 PowerPoint. 26. 26. 139 Personalization. 139. 113. 174. 103. 134. 191. 60. 124. 163 Microformats. 186. 77. 190. 54. 34. 44. 239. 119. 79. 180. 160. 66. 160. 63. 107. 127. 152 Libraries. 180. 149. 161. 122. 27. 194. 47.

116. 155. 170. 181. 179. 42. 35. 30. 129. 171. 163. 57 T-Learning. 11. 174 Project management. 122. 37. 196 Serious games. 20. 50. 141. 134. 120. 169. 48. 125. 65. 5. 184. 74. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 93. 178. 131. 158. 174. 49. 211 Skypecasting. 52. 49. 188. 112. 197. 156. 174. 225. 77. 35 Semantic Web. 46. 48. 185. 114. 36. 75. 199 Turing Test. 122 Tagging. 35. 57. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 81. 90 Reusability. 124. 64. 35. 22. 191 summative assessment. 94. 117. 139. 168 résumés. 169. 154. 174. 123 Simulations. 173. 158. 181 Speech recognition. 48. 174 self-evaluation. 134. 133. 87. 114 Screencasting. 4. 49. 80. 180. 62. 36. 186. 165. 148 Smart labels and tags. 148. 166. 47. 191 Tangible computing. 39. 97. 191 Tours (online). 160. 69. 71. 246 Privacy. 152 Thin clients. 174. 131. 176. 215. 152. 38. 26. 114 Repositories. 124. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 189 Search engines. 179. 54. 66. 114 Robotics. 8. 47. 125. 35 Symbology tags. 7. 40. 190. 160. 178. 215. 26. 216 Tests. 189. 177. 115. 74. 156. 207 Social networking. 149. 191. 35. 162. 124. 37. 170. 57. 155. 150. 161. 144. 165. 125. 16. 199 Single-user wiki. 169. 168. 131. 62. 118. 55. 138. 247 Role-playing. 211 Tags. 177. 119. 174. 88. 122 sharable content objects. 217 Translation. 115. 183. 189 Television. 141. 9. 175 Rapid e-learning. 175 Tag clouds. 83. 171 Science. 9. 74. 84.Presentation tools. 155. 9. 116. 116. 166. 38. 148. 203 Telepresence. 175. 93. 54. 91. 47. 176. 89. 47. 70 Radio. 135. 179. 132 Streaming video. 177. 180. 93. 154. 124. 114. 110. 11. 152 Projectors. 172. 26. 175. 9. 27. 174 Social bookmarking. 48. 109. 247 rapid learning. 141. 170. 114. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 165. 83. 106 Proximity tools. 48. 5. 167 reusable learning objects. 159. 119. 52. 54. 46. 15. 122. 182. 171 Scenarios. 94. 26. 159. 36. 35 Quizzes. 203. 40. 54. 163. 45. 215. 119. 180. 153. 172. 34. 189. 221 SCORM. 161. 110. 150. 64 Telephony. 109. 47. 199 Taxonomies. 176. 46. 141. 177. 50. 134. 47. 95. 189. 106. 82. 178. 68. 137. 209. 193. 72. 27. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 167. 36. 6. 88. 46. 125. 35. 50. 189 Security. 227. 153. 21. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 189. 176 Team management. 150. 86. 119. 137. 91. 205 Shockwave. 119 quizzes. 4. 39. 11. 59.

174. 137 Virtual reality. 200. 217 Word. 210. 90. 106. 239 Wikipedia. 159. 51. 74. 189 virtual classroom. 60. 13. 65. 62. 68. 107. 124. 130. 150. 67. 66. 256 Woodill. 145. 182. 212. 123. 187. 193. 100. 211. 81. 112. 198. 210. 88. 192. 160. 209. 106. 189. 150 Webinars. 236. 109. 46. 215. 203. 182. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 108. 165. 187. 255 Web conferencing. 98. 74. 164. 123. 253 Videocasting. 215. 213. 177. 3. 45. 256 Webcasting. 5.Ubiquitous computing. 44. 148 Virtual classrooms. 200. 194 Video. 189 Vodcasting. 149. 9. 211. 206. 7. 196. 106. 80. 205. 11. 255 Wearable computing. 89. 91. 113. 40. 216. 212 Wikis. 64. 193 Visualization. 214. 148. 137. 154 Virtual learning environments. 197. 199. 121. 108. 79. 216 Vlogs. Gary. 4. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 176. 49. 57. 56. 148. 211. 208. 191. 127. 9. 43. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 148. 57. 131. 69. 148 Whiteboards. 207. 177. 22. 74. 190. 119. 205 Usability. 209.