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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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and I thank them for their support and encouragement. technology. Carlos Oliveira. and services. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. None of this would have been possible if my wife. Pierre Cahorn. the second in the series. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . Jennifer McDowell. have supported this research from the beginning.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. I have provided links to online learning examples. will be available in early 2007. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. Lise Bye. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. Karen. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report. Amy Davey. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. Pamela Fragomeli. Thanks. The first report. Grant Hamilton. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Operitel’s CEO. along with an index. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. editing. lists of online resources. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. Karen Anderson. and support at all points of my career. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. A third report. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript.

Learning became standardized and linear. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. We tend to forget. There are. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. With these reforms. fire for warmth and cooking. detentions.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology.” Starting in the first century AD. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. class periods. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. material. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . Do not reproduce 3 . A third way to learn is by seeing. or device that extends human abilities. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. even if the originator of the words is not present. “things that make us smart. or “reader. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. The modern classroom. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. as books were scarce. with rows. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. the raising of hands. for example. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. linear teaching techniques online. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. is a 2000 year old “technology. and recess. many different ways to learn. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. the classroom became industrialized. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. and language for communication.just the ability to follow an example. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Technologies are any technique. to quote Donald Norman (1993). The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. But learning technologies have a much longer history. still used in many institutions of higher education. in fact. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. that lecturing. Schools were started to teach accounting. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. Medieval universities followed the same practice. They are. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing.

and standards. Eventually. changing the practice of teaching. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. However. as this is a non-technical guide. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. it needs to adhere to architectures. When a new technology is introduced.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Rather than pages. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. the early days of computer networking. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. moving pictures (films). Sadly. mashups can only be done using computer technology. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. 2006). When a new technology first comes into use. Thomas Watson. and reciting.” Similarly. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. For example. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. chairman of IBM. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. in 1876 someone at Western Union. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. memorizing.” In 1970. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. frameworks. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars).Students in these schools learned by reading. At the same time. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . 2006).24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. Like all new technologies. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen.

fr/publication. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. presentation and interactive environments. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. January. 2005.free. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. For example. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. They provide location independence. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network.imsglobal.org) has a number of published documents that. In particular.org). Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. Do not reproduce 5 . the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Number 3. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.accessgrid.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).grid. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. php). Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.

org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. http://www.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. http://ltsc.” In late 2005. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). http://www.taken together. http://sourceforge. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).adlnet. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Rather. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. They noted that “…in education. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. and makes extensive use of XML. While packaged courses still have a place.is based on open.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.elframework.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. and education administration. “[a] pull economy . From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). research. At the same time. Instead of just providing courses. http://purl. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . Instead. This is especially true for adult education. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. In Europe. In business. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. reinforces this theme.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times.ieee. http://imsproject.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. Major specifications for e-learning. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. Bollier says.oclc. enabling the search for content. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .aicc.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. interactive learning components.

N. 2006) has argued. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.html Anderson. (2005). Odeh. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. I hope you will find it useful..” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. David (2005). K.org/abs/cs. and McGinnis (2004). http://arxiv. http://www. M.pdf Anderson. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. M. 12(10). User-created content. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.. Thus. Weiss.com/wired/archive/12. Italy. In the last chapter. the reader can approach any topic in any order. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor..amazon. mobile devices.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Wales. 2005). (2005).educause. 41(2). Ahmad. Moreover.. R. and Conte.ntnu. M. McClatchey. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Lausanne. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Bryan (2006). ambient networks. and Votis.. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. M.cscsi. along with selected examples. From this. and wearable computers. R. October. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005.. Giotopoulos. http://www. http://www. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. Cardiff. F. Sept. Z. M. New York: Hyperion. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Reggiani. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. The Long Tail. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. S. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. http://www.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. those learners are now keeping their own records.idi. Milan.. 2004. T.wired. Chris (2004). Montreal. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Chrysostalis.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. G. March/April 2006... 16. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. 2004). I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. UK.. June 2005. Bertolazzi. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . K. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. online resources. Wired Magazine. A. Umer.DC/0502051 Alexander. http://ewic. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. is becoming commonplace. Five years ago. As Anderson (2004. Nov. and a bibliography. http://www. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Bibliography Abbas. Switzerland. Ali. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. F.. For example. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Likothanassis. 2002.pdf Bogonikolos.1 0/tail. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Web 2. Chris (2006). M. (2002). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Zanichelli.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1..htm Bollier.. 19.bcs.

asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. 13. WI.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. W.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research .iadis.bcs. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.pdf Knorr.gmu. and Borck.ca/protocols_en.co m/docs/SOA_World. Porto. T. L. Upper Saddle River.htm Hohpe.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.. Green..infoworld. Aug. International E-Learning Specifications. Hornig. Web Services . I. http://www. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. C. Sept. and Zhang. Perth. J. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. (1996).asp Chatarji.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 4-36. T. G.2005.devshed. Working paper. J. of Distance Education 10. 6-8. http://www. Madison. January 2005.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. (2005). R. 13-16.html Kong. N.com/paper_pushpull. http://ru6. (2005).. Triantafillou.cancore.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.1109/CIT.ICALT 2001.johnhagel.xml&DOI=10. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . for the Australian Dept. of Education and Training..virtual. Sept. Australia..org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa. and Brown. Norm (2006). Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. http://cde. Luo. http://www. (2001). J.pdf Cerri.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Portugal.Dev Shed. 1026-1032.xml. http://www..amazon.. Jagadish (2004). Dec. Thomas (2004). http://csdl2. http://www. 2. 2002 http://ewic. 2001. (2002). http://www.pdf Erl. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). C. E. 14-16. 2004.. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.det. http://www. Online.pdf Millea. NJ: Prentice-Hall. American Jrnl. http://www.html Hagel. and Albert. C. http://www.edu/pdf/ajde. V. http://www. Stephen (2004). and McGreal. April 18. http://www. March 2002. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). J.networking technology. 2005. http://www.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. (2005). Emerging technologies and distributed learning. ThoughtWorks White paper.athabascau.gov.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. Erlanger. Tsiatsos. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . J. (2002).S. Athabasca University.org/celda2005/index. Centre for Distance Ed.cti. Switzerland.au Limited. (2005). Gregor (2005). USA.ascilite. G. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. A field guide to software as a service.pdf Friesen. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.org.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. and Putland. 30. Infoworld. Oct. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE.com.xml. Education. pdf He. 2003.html Hockemeyer.aspeninstitute.5 6 Marshall. D. Hao (2003).act. Lausanne. Proceedings.computer. Stefano (2005).

In W. V.unikarlsruhe.pdf Woodill.ac. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. (2005). J. http://www.aifb. G.pdf Pierre. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. F. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.R. W. Germany. Klamma.. C. C. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . http://www.acten. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. http://www. http://www. Mashups.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. Feijen. Cook. J. Reflective learning. ICWL 2003. and Oliveira. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.pdf Norman. Stuttgart. 27 .pdf Urdan. Lee. (2006).bcs. C. Learning Solutions.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. Peter (2004). Zhou et al.amazon. May 15. http://www. e-portfolios. and Vossen. 9. Journal of Information Science and Engineering.aspx Yang. April 1. Library+information Show. M. (2004)..edu. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. (Eds. Trinity College. Berlin: Springer.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids.operitel.pdf Werkhoven. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. SCORM and the Learning Grid. and Ho.. Dublin.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. G.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. 193–205.28 April 2004.ac. http://ewic. V. S. http://www.astd. pp. http://www-i5. and Wade. Birmingham. G. Aalderink. Research report. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. R.alt.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2. (2003). (2005). Hambrecht and Co. 2006.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. http://www. H. UK. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. and Weggen. http://www.pdf Roberts. 2006. and Jarke. Rhonda (2006). M.alt. M. (2000). T. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.rwthaachen.informatik. http://www.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines.com/publications. (2003).iis. Cambridge. R. and Geys. MA: Perseus. 21. 911-928. April 26-27. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.sinica. W.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. ACTeN E-Content Report No.): Proceedings..Neumann. Donald (1993). future thinking: digital repositories. Samuel (2006). An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture...pdf Spaniol. 2005. Harvey.amazon.

Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . selected elearning related examples. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. online resources to learn more about each technology. Included are related terms. and a bibliography for each section. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.

it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. 2005).sricbi. in Italy. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. Without the ability to understand emotions. Affective Computing. posture.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.” (Anolli. http://www. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. emotions.co. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. In online therapy.cs. gestures. and to respond to them effectively.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. speech patterns mainstream.bham. For example. understand. et al.mit.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. and legality. facial recognition. 2005). computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. and react to human emotions. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. SRI Consulting (http://www. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. too.” http://www.. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.media. accuracy.ac.html Do not reproduce 11 . emotional design. or sad. confused. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning.myself-proj.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. keystroke patterns.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. UK.convo. http://www. security. privacy.

J. Stock. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Oregon. Joseph (2005).arizona.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. (2005). (2005). P.doc Chateau. Vescovo. Dr. http://www. B. and Morishima. CHI 2005 conference. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. http://emotion.pdf Diamond.bartneck. N.sics. B. Mantovani. M. CHI 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . R. J. Rocchi. http://www. Pianesi.. and Merisol.. Iwamura. http://emotion-research. A. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. (2005).de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. M. 2005. Portland.. F. Portland. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. (2005). D.doc Hook. I. April 2-7. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Balestra. Nakajima. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli.informatik.sics.. 2005 http://www. Z. Oregon.. Portland..unige.com/wired/archive/11. C. O..org.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. 2005. October 22-24. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces..sics... Realdon. CHI 2005 conference. April 2-7.. F. April 2-7.. and Zouinar. and Laaksolahti. Y.de/link/affective_port al. with many resources. Graziola.. K. Vermersch.. and Confalonieri (2005). K. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. 2005.sics. H. (2005). and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.sics. Oregon. A. M.1 2/love. C. Portland. and Zancanaro. April 12-15. April 2-7.uniroma1..unitrier..wired. April 2-7. including studies of emotions in computers.it/~lhci/009. D. Brassac.. Bouraoui. Lee. Wired Magazine.. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. China. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.html Fallman. 2005. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Hatfield.. I Like It . http://www. listing many links to interesting resources. L..nsma.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. Brave.pdf Cahour. Salembier. Oregon. September 13. Portland..edu/emotion. Portland.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. H.dis. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. O. CHI 2005 conference. Oregon. UK. http://www. http://www. bibliographies. CHI 2005. Yamada. April 2-7. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.pdf Interfaces.. are available online: http://www. Pachoud. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Nass. and Waterworth. J. K.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. J. Issue 11/12. V. Oregon.pdf Kaye. 2005.sics. Nortillaro. http://www. December. C.. (2005). M.html In Germany.pdf Maldonado. Agliati. Isbister. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.pdf Goren-Bar. University of Hertfordshire.. David (2003).net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. CHI 2005 conference. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. The Love Machine: building computers that care. http://www.aisb. P. Zurloni. S.

HTM Steele. and Daily. http://www.sics. Dec.doc Wright.cs.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. R. Rosalind (1997). Portland. Regan (2005). MA: MIT. S. Ian (1997).stanford. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard.ac. R. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. M. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Oregon. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. CHI 2005.pdf Masum. Erlbaum. L. (2005). Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.sics. China.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Berlin: Springer.amazon. (2004). Donald A.pdf Mentis. ACII 2005.thesis. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. http://www.elearningreviews. J. Gerd (1998).org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.de/emeocomp/co ntent.t. 22. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Portland. University of Birmingham.pdf Ruebenstrunk. OR. http://www.Next 10 Years! Mahwah.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. (2005). 35(2). http://www. Affective Computing.miv. October 22-24. Beijing. May 26. Miami. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. NJ. and Picard. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. 2005. http://www. Emotional Agents.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. 2002. (2005). E-book http://www. http://www.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.pdf Mandryk.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. S. Tan. 2005. http://www.utokyo. M. (2002).jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final.. CHI 2005. Helena (2005). New York: Basic. Cambridge. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures.pdf Norman. CHI 2005 conference. Portland. Portland.amazon.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. and Steele.htm Tao. April 2-7.ruebenstrunk. Charlotte (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. April 2-7. 2005. April 2-7. J. Oregon.bham.ac.sics. Oregon. and Ishizuka. T. http://www. Affective Computing vs.iste. 2005. Paper for WEBIST 2005.sics.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Mentor.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. and many of them can actually learn. not only about environments. 2005). learning/adaptation. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. et al. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. First. therefore.. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. A second agent in the simulation. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. She made mistakes. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. rationality. Agents have beliefs. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. avatars. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. 2004). proactive (goal directed). of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. In this context. but Do not reproduce 15 . In such situations. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. see the paper by Far et al.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. intelligent agents program (for example. 2004) and are. and the students had to continue to teach her. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). autonomous agents. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Dick Stenmark. veracity. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. 2005. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. 1999). Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. benevolence. However. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. Second.informatik. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. useful in educational simulations. Third. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Fourth. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. and. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. 1999).gu. Katzlberger. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. Viswanath. and both may be found in the same http://w3. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. For example.

ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/index. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents.old.editlib.redwoodelearning. http://liinwww.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. Therefore. go to: http://ldt. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. 2. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. (2004): http://www. go to: http://ritl. http://www. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .stanford. Learning Paths Agent 5. http://www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Content Agent 6. Student Assistant Agent 4.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Massaro et al.ac.also about other agents. User Profile Agent.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.com/ CodeBaby Corp. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.extempo.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. Baldi.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. Even though each agent acts independently.liv. They are available as adaptive coaches. See the article by Williams et al. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. http://www.csc. For details see: www.uka. 2000). (1998) developed a conversational agent. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. expert role-players.fsu.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623.codebaby.netobjectdays. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. acting against other teams of agents. uses seven different types of agents: 1. and expert guides. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. Skills Manager Agent 3.ira. http://www.

org/index. G. E-Learning 2003.isi. Doctoral Dissertation. 2005. Krittaya (2005). Large Complex Systems..old. July.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523.pdf Lin. www. Clarebout. 267-286 http://www. Inter-active Learning Res. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.editlib. Hypermedia.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623.org/16948 Leelawong. G. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. http://dl.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. Paper presented. S. & Bengu. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. and Ho. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. & Johnson. 1353-1356. In Proceedings. (2000). 3. VA: AACE.editlib.aace. (2003).org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.teachableagents. (Ed.editlib. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. http://www. (2005). Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Hypermedia.computer. J. Educause Quarterly.teachableagents. http://www. http://www. Proceedings.. (2005). Ali (2002). W. Johnson. e-Learning 2005. 11(3).aace. 5(7). B. Z. 10 (3).edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. 459-462.org/newdl/index. P.. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. Hershey.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.org/index. A. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). http://www.. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. International Journal on E-Learning.. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. Nashville.University of Southern California. S. and Tsang. Germany. http://csdl. & Kim. (2005). G. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. In Proceedings. L. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. E-Learning 2003.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vanderbilt University..netobjectdays.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. http://www. http://www. Tennessee. A. 275-285. Zahia (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. C. Y. E.pdf Kim. C. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). www. & Ebbers. A. S. S.educause. Doctoral Dissertation. & Lin. Erfurt..educause. http://www. 75-80. 1659-1666. Y. In Richards. (2003). 4(1)...pdf Clarebout. G. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. (2002). Do not reproduce 17 . Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Ng. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. M. Learning by Teaching Agents. Y. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.editlib. Thomas (2005). (1999).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay.. G.pdf Kao.org/index. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. No. and Telecommunications 2003.pdf Guessoum..org/index.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. J. and Palopoli. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 1503-1506. Educause Quarterly. http://www. Jrnl.org/index. Sun.pdf Jafari. 306-311).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vanderbilt University. (2002).). TN. & El-Khouly.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Elan. Koono. 21-38.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Nashville. and Shaw. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. (2002). W. Norfolk. (2003). Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.editlib. http://www.org/index. 28(2). L.

France. (Ed. ED-MEDIA 2005. http://www.pdf Perez.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. http://www. Adebiyi..lib..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.vt.. In Proceedings.. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. Healthcare.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. Doctoral dissertation. L. (2006).pdf Menczer. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Wesley.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/16968 Sahin. R. W. A. Doctoral Dissertation.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). and Winikoff. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Proceedings. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents..org/index.ogi.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood.amazon. M. Petersburg.psu. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. of California. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. In Richards..org/index. Richards (Eds. 321333. Sandel. Atreya.. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. August. K. Peter (1998). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.de/BIK/vpa/109. D.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.Media 2005. L. Ferat (2000). (2004). Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.indiana. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning.aifb. S. ED. Cohen. O. (2004). (2005). Pittsburgh. http://citeseer. M. and Ferneley.edu/565321. New York: John Wiley & Sons..html Shim. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.K. 1632. Carnegie Mellon University. J. http://scholar.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. Russia.cse. & Lim.utexas.amazon. M. & Booth. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://dl. & Leelawong. 1415-1420. PA. and Núñeza. (2005). 143-162. 47-59. Proceedings. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.ist. G. (2004).edu/fil/ Padgham. www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. (2005).informatics. S. (1999). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. R.. K. 17(2).editlib. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung.editlib. St. Beskow. http://www. 14(1). 61-65. http://www. U. 1999. http://www. 3169-3176. IFIP WG12.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. D. and Higher Education 2004. R. Daniel. M. 194-201. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Kommers & G.editlib.org/index. and Stucky. http://www. In P. Biswas. June 1-4. Doctoral Dissertation.editlib. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Finland. G. L. V. (1999). ED-MEDIA. http://www.aace. E. http://cslu. G. Toulouse. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. 10 (3). J. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno.). S. B. 1999..cs. 18 © Brandon Hall Research .uni-karlsruhe.org/index. (1999).org/index. and Solomon.editlib. and Cole.aace. V.. http://www.).org/newdl/index. H.. Government.

2004.teachableagents.ac.upc.pdf Williams.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. http://ca. (2004). M.ppt Do not reproduce 19 .http://www. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. April 18-21.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. ED-MEDIA 2004. N.editlib. Gilbert.org/papers/15 8bis. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. (2004). Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Paper at CLAG2004.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. Michael (2002). 3000-3002. Chun. J.html Yan. Chicago. In Proceedings. http://research. New York: John Wiley & Sons..wiley..edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.org/index. & Madsen. http://www.

Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. like pictures in a flip book. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. 2003) Finally.Animation Software Related terms Flash.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. Also.com/alchemy/gi fcon. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. al. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research .htm For a selection of over 400. a static diagram. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.000 pre-built animated GIFs. Given that. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.mindworkshop. et. producing animations can be very costly. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner.animationfactory.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. produced the best learning results.topshareware. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Rather. animations may even prejudice learning. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.” (Huk.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. However. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. coupled with imagining how something worked. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. motion graphics depiction. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.. (2003).0 http://www.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.05 http://www.topshareware. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. However. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. The results of many experiments have been mixed. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today.

It animates fall stunts. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.newtek. go to: http://www.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.swishzone. animation. http://www.massivesoftware.” http://www. effects. go to: http://macromedia.animats. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.apple. http://faraday. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. For a free demo. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D.com/gallery/default.catoolkit.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium.com/products/aftereffec ts/main. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. http://www. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. http://www.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.html CAT .com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages..macromedia. It is part of Final Cut Studio. Version 9 is available: http://www. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment.. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. To use ActionScript. http://www.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.html Falling Bodies . and rendering tool.autodesk. go to: http://www. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. animating. http://www. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. For more information on Shockwave.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI .Softimage Co. 2004).Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.softimage. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.adobe.com Maya is a high-end modeling. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias).com Enliven .utoronto. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. For information on Flash.com/pub/products/e nliven. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques.eitechnologygroup.com/dynamics/demov ersion.viewpoint.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling. http://www. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. Inc.animationonline.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq. http://www.physics. the built-in programming language.

org/2004/jul20 04/hess. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003.siggraph. M.com. ASCILITE Conference. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. 14(1). 325–360.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. http://www. and Floto.. (2003). March 2002. S. and Hess.org.pdf Hess.. FreeDownloads Center. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference.htm Hegarty. and Cate. Educational Psychology Review. http://www.. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. T. Animation – just enough. 21(4). Phillips (Eds. Atkinson. C. G.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. July. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. 2003. (2004).htm Hess.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. M. http://www. (2003).learningcircuits. July 2004..ascension-tech. S. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. (1).rapidintake. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . C. 1046-1048. (2002). and Hancock.org/12937 Mayer.learninglab. and Hancock. S.psych. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. G.htm Huk.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. http://www2. T. Cognition and Instruction.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. (2004). never too much. Thomas (2003). http://www. Kriz. McBeath. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.aace. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. (2003). R.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Steinke. July 18. http://esub. go to AllWorldSoft.allworldsoft. C.freedownloadscenter. Hancock.pdf Toth. and Moreno. http://www. S. D. (2004).pdf Lowe.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. Jonas-Dwyer & R. G.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003.K.. http://dl.learningcircuits.org/2003/aug2 003/toth. http://www.ucsb.ascilite.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r. Learning Circuits. Flash Interactive Session. Lehi. http://projekte. http://www.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. R.com/books_catalog .unihannover. S. Learning Circuits.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. 87-99. Learning Circuits.sjsu.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.learningcircuits.html Malheiro. R.de/pub/bscw.htm Bibliography Castillo. (2004).) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.

whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. agents. expert systems. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. data mining. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. So far. intelligent tutoring. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Nevertheless. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. AI. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. cognitive informatics. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. machine learning. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . multiagent systems.

Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. To seem humanlike. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. including collaborative filtering. To achieve their goals. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004).” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). recommender systems.g. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. and the teacher. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. and data mining.. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. possibly undeliberate manner. (2003). a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. While many systems purport to be personalized. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. the subject matter expert. Moreover. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. and Aist et al. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks.” On the other hand. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.learning. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. The reality is that.

uic.di.cs.” http://www.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.e.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays..interactions with the system (see Smid et al. Talking Head Tutor vs. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain..edu/papers/daveDissert ation. concepts. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.unito.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. rather than using a single type of knowledge.iit.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. gestures. http://www. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. (2005a. http://lsa. objects. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.cs. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. 2002). etc) and how they are interrelated.” http://www.colorado. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.

ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . challenging.infrature.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. http://ariic.colorado.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. Stottler Henke Associates. so that these systems become more realistic. Task Tutor Toolkit .htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.it.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. and INFOMAP. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. and engaging.uregina.edu.com/doi/pdf/10. http://quantumsimulations. http://www.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. http://www.library.” http://www.cs.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. http://www. http://www. and multiagents.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.iis. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. intelligent conflict resolution. including student monitoring. http://bach. Aurora .com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories. question answering (QA) techniques. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. Inc.gast. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.pact.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.kicinger. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.edu.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.uc3m. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.cmu. without programming. As a result. e-commerce. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.html Founded in 1988.ucalgary. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.” http://www.leaonline.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b.unsw.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.cs.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.sinica.” http://ctat. Infrature.com/index.pdf Oguejiofor et al.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.enel. see: http://lsa.

virtuelage.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.ke-corp.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.” http://www.gemini.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. http://aied.its2006.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. http://www.com/s10. and an interactive intelligent tutor.ca/eng/inde x.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.ed. For more info: http://www2. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.cs.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.edu.inf. The AIED conferences are held every two years.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. with the next one in 2007.pact.stottlerhenke. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.uk/aiedsoc. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.inf.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.enel.licef.autotutor.uquebec.cs. http://aied. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. China.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. http://pact.org/AITopics/html/tutor.ed. preferred cadence.ac.usyd.ac. http://www. skill gaps.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.it.cmu.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://www. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.aaai.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. Taiwan.learningcircuits.masternewmedia.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.org/2000/feb2 000/ong.org/cfp. http://www.cmu.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.teluq. http://ctat.” http://www. http://www.cs. http://www.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .wpi. and learning style. see: http://www.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.htm Do not reproduce 27 .ucalgary.

B. Reilly. E. http://www2. E.pdf Baldoni.sis. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). R.cs. (2004). Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.Volume I. (2002). R. http://nth.ppt Butz.. 22: 3–39. V.org/10. Hermann (2002). G. (2004). Kort..). I. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. C.doi. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. and Maguire. B.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read.edu.1109/ITCC. J. Paraguaçu (Eds. Ritter. M. (2004). http://www.pitt.pitt.cs. and F. http://www.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS.J. 482-487. and Evens. and Douglas. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. Kobe. K..di. C.amazon. V. (2004). http://imlab. R.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.B.wpi. (1997). 6(1)..uregina. McLaren.unito. and Penstein Rosé. http://www..edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv.ht ml Aleven. K. Peter (2000). Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). S.html Barker. ITS 2004. In Proceedings. http://www.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. M. Mostow. http://www. Maceió. S.edu/pubs/pub_4073.nccu. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. S..edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. http://lingcog.pdf Brusilovsky. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. C. M.. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.eurodl.2005. (2004).sbg. Hershey. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems..it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. http://dx. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. and Read.pdf Alkhalifa. and Patti. P. R. Vicari. PA: Idea.pdf Barcena.pdf Chaffar.).ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. (2005). Paraguaçu (Eds. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . Brazil. In J..ac. In J. Chicago.pdf Aleven. C. and Koedinger. (2004). R.82 Bhatt.com/printer_f riendly_article. http://www.iit. S. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Baroglio. and Frasson. C. & F. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Lester. Roll. C. and Schwarz. Vicari. P.cmu. Argamon. Bibliography Aist. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. M.Marvin Minsky. (2004). In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. Hua. Lester. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.) (2006). http://www.html Brusilovsky. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Eshaa (Ed. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. T. Artificial Intelligence Review. S.technologyreview. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04.. 159-165. http://www. and Picard. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . V. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04).ri.

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Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-011106-070108/unrestricted/turnert. Devedzic. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks.org/iwalt2000/slides/maomi _uno.. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer..pdf Vasilakos. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development.. S. Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense. http://www.editlib. Svacek.. Australia.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Peter (2004). http://www. David (2001). P. Doctoral Dissertation.stanford.pdf Zhou. Feng-Jen (2001).com/gp/product/0262 691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Smid. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000). Jason (2005). Doctoral Dissertation.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. Brazil. 15 (4).pdf Wiemer-Hastings.wpi. and Peters.edu/~circsim/documents/ jaydiss.edu/twiki/pub/Public/ SemlabPublications/aied-final. NZ. V. http://nth. a second-generation dialog-based tutor. Terrence (2005).iit. 299-318. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Z.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. P. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003). pp. Chicago. The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor. Kinshuk.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski. Maceió. Jay A. Doctoral Dissertation. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Chicago. http://www. http://lttf. University of Colorado. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.colorado. Cambridge. Norfolk. J. MA: MIT. http://www. Owen Bratt. Illinois Institute of Technology.wpi. http://nth. July 20-24. Maomi (2000). (2005). Palmerston North.ieee.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. W. T. Sydney. The Sciences of the Artificial. Illinois Institute of Technology.wpi. MA: MIT Press. and Pedrycz. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. Worchester Polytechnic Institute.ppt Ureel. Brazil. http://www. Clark.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18895 Walonoski. Innsbruck. Chicago. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning.cs..pdf Thornton. http://www. Austria. http://lsa.iit. Cambridge.org/index. Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. (2002).Simon. (2004).pdf Yusko. Masters Thesis. http://www. Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. Maceió. (2004). http://www. Yujian (2000).pdf Yang. http://godel. E. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System.. 3rd Ed.com/gp/product/0262 700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner. Illinois Institute of Technology.pdf Ueno. and Volf.pdf 34 © Brandon Hall Research . Doctoral dissertation. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied Informatics. Chris (2000).com/PaperInfo. On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models.pdf Thomsen-Gray.cs. Schultz.iit. K.wpi. Masters Thesis. L.amazon. B..actapress. VA: AACE.cs. (2003).amazon.aspx? PaperID=27013 Steinhart. Herbert (1996). http://www.

affective.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. Assessment software can generate templates. computer-based assessment tools. and output. and documents for assessors to use. However. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. 1956). More sophisticated forms of automated. rubrics. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive.info/learni ng/solo. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). which is usually much more reliable than human marking. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. once only done by a human assessor.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. samples. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. aptitudes. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. For example. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. the automated scoring of essays. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. We can expect that. making it hard to escape assess-ment. evaluation. self-evaluation. eassessment. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. When combined into a “360° evaluation. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy.learningandteaching. for example. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. are already available. and psychomotor. in the near future. quizzes. computer based assessment (CBA). quizzes. or performance samples. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. online assessment. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. and (4) computer marking. computer mediated assessment (CMA). In a business situation.

http://www. abilities. from Resources Management Services in the U. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. http://www. and adminis-tration features. Review it at: http://www.0.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. personality. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. For details.colorado. a customizable look and feel.com/redinq/html/index.com The Evaluator.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.vantagelearning. http://www. http://www. reporting. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.rmsuk. has recently won awards for its performance.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.K.epistema.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. Find them at: http://www. http://www.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft. For information on latent semantic analysis. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).horizonwimba. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. on its Web site.org/ ETS.org/english/index. surveys. see: http://lsa.com/wwwtools/magazines. and services useful for outcomes assessment.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry.xstreamsoftware. http://nt.operitel.brainbench. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.flaguide.uc. and adaptive question branching. multilingual support.fasfind. see: http://www.testcraft.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.ets.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. check out the Dialang web site. http://www.questionmark. and past work behaviors. learning tools. preview pages for all question types. See more at: http://www. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. institutional evaluation.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. Diploma.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.redinq. http://www. and self-study.pedagogue. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. http://www.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. a completely customizable report engine. http://www.” http://www.dialang.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.” organized by academic discipline.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting..respondus. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. skills.

html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.learningandteaching. & Rodríguez. 8 (3). R.economicsnetwork.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.cshe.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.wlv. Gregory (1973). P.tasainstitute.ulster.thinkinggear.htm Atkinson. http://www. (2005).uiuc.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. Ortigosa.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. 5365.” http://www.. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.heacademy.com/029.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. London: Paladin.info/journals/8_3/6. Carro. D.edu. http://school. Obtain a copy at: http://www.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy.ac. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba.ac.ict4lt.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.org/en/en_mod41.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.learnflex. M.rmcdenver.scit. http://www.com/career_asses sment. http://www. http://cba.3 Bateson.discovery.ac.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. http://www. E.nestafuturelab.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment. Explore the links at: http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.unimelb.com/schrockguide/ assess.pdf Atherton. http://www. http://www. http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas..uka.org/research/re views/10_01.. G.uk/cticomp/CAA. Do not reproduce 37 .tcet. James (2005). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. http://www.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. http://www.umuc. http://www. is available from: http://liinwww.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Educational Technology & Society. (2004). http://www.quintcareers.au/assessing learning/03/online.com/tools/rubrics.000 different tests from its database.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.ira.htm#2. and Davies.. Online paper.unt.info/learni ng/solo. T. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Pérez.html Bibliography Alfonseca.. Freire. A.ac.200 references.uk/home. with over 1.oir. with a list of 34 strategies.ifets.health. M.

) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. eSchool News. & Olsen. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. Langu-age Learning and Technology.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. (1982). Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. K. and Hirschman. http://www.iltaonline.. http://www. http://www.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein.amazon. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.ets. and Knight. IEEE Intelligent Systems.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . (1989). Kaplan (Ed. Jill. Missouri.computer. 1. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. In M. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.msu. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. B. J. Burstein. D.com/news/showS toryts.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. In S. J.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. (2003).. Jill C.pdf Brown J. and Marcu. and Chodorow. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (2003).amazon. C. Linn (Ed. and Collis. http://www. Mexico. & Leacock. Kevin (2003). (2003). http://www. Harabagiu and F. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. In the R. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement.amazon.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. Hillsdale. Jill. Acapulco. IL: Skylight. Ciravegna (Eds. Marcu. New York. S. V. C. (2001). (2001).amazon. Louis. T. Chodorow.assess. St. and O'Hagan. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein.. Daniel. How to Assess Authentic Learning. Hillsdale. S. NY: Macmillan. Inouye. Online paper. Kay (1999). Arlington Heights. J. New York: McKay. http://llt. J.eschoolnews. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. L. New York: Academic Press. Burstein. (2002).assess. www. A. (1997). Martin. Iwashita. Shermis and J.amazon. Rethink testing for future success. Burstein (Eds.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. Burstein (Eds.com/Books/b39739. http://www.. Educational Measurement. Daniel. 2005. http://www.htm Burstein. http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. June 22. August 2003.pdf. M.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. Jill. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. K.amazon. Shermis and J.pdf Biggs.org/intelligent/archives.http://www. N. http://www. 3rd Edition.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield..com/Books/b39739. L. In R.iltaonline.. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".htm.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. http://www. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. (1956). Robert (2005).). McNamara. In M. New York: Oxford. B.

Louis. 4. M. n. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. (2004). (2004). S. http://www.. PA: Information Science.soton.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Foltz.ncte. (1999).au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.au/worldcall/str5. L. http://www. EdMedia '99. D. T.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).msu. Gardner.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. (2001).Proceedings from a Workshop. (1999).) (2005).msu. K. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. W.amazon.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. May. http://www. http://mason. http://llt.gmu. Seven technologies for assessment. Loughborough. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. No.doc. (1998). N. 2. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.utas. http://www.nmsu. M. Morgan. and Howell.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. Y. http://www. Online newsletter.. Micheline. C. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. http://llt. v. http://www.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault. 2.amazon.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Writing assessment: a position statement. 2: 77-93. E.Hershey.ac. W. Board on Testing and Assessment. 5. College Composition and Communication Online. Micheline. M. Nathan.msu. Language Learning and Technology. Millard. http://www. Online paper. (Eds. National Research Council. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. St. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.nap. Howard (1993). (Ed. (2005). May. (2002).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Language Learning & Technology 2.htm Cebrian.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. Robert. B.ecs.htm. Laham. n.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .. Cambridge: University of Cambridge..pdf Hricko.edu.Carr.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. Language Learning and Technology. http://eprints. University of Tasmania.html Davies. Howard. http://www. www. S.html. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. March 9..iltaonline.unimelb.html Chalhoub-Deville. Language testing and technology: past and future.softwaresecure. Lawrence. London: Falmer.. In Proceedings. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.html Frase. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". C. and Grellett.) (1999). O’Reilly. & Landauer. H. Davis. v. and Sclater. P.com/pdf/Paper Tests. and Parry. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.pdf Dunkel P.amazon. P. D. New York: Basic Books.hlc. (2001).edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. Online newsletter.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase.edu. Howell. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. http://llt. http://wwwpsych. (2001). 5. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Chalhoub-Deville.

Online Assessment. J. Learning.edu/cgi/viewcontent . P. and Malabonga.pdf MacDonlad. A. http://www. and Writing. (2000).amazon. http://llt. C. W. and Watt. Howard.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Burstein.medianet. Language Learning and Technology.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. http://www. (Ed. Self. 4(6). Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.LSAintr o. S.amazon. 259284. and Assessment. & Mason.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. & J.msu. and Hricko.gov/pubs2000/2000195.ed. Reports from the Institute of Education. May.ed.pdf Kenyon.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.proexam. M.. D. Handbook of writing research. (1998). Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Weller.. N. M. Patrick (2000).. Hillsdale... Mahwah. DC: U. & Laham. http://lsa. Problem Solving.pdf Landauer. Fremer. D. J. Journal of Technol. Hardas.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. PA: Information Science.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. and Skinner. B. and Gifford. Washington. S. Howell. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. & Leacock. M.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. T. France. NY: Guilford Press. 25.) (2000). (Eds. In C. M. http://www. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. (Eds. http://escholarship. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. http://nces. Compiegne.) (2005). Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. M.S. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. 403-416. pp. R (2002). W. V. (2005).com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. (2006). Graham.kent. http://www. New York.amazon. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. (2005). McArthur. Information Science Publishing.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. H. 5(2).html Khan. Hershey. and Ward. K. J. University of Gothenburg.Jones. http://www.bc. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts.. M. http://www.amazon. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.. K. G.. (1979)... NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. Tim (2006). National Center for Education Statistics.pd f Weiner.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. Potenza. Discourse Processes.amazon..edu/papers/dp1. R. Foltz. C. (1999). Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. D.colorado. Y. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. http://eric. (2001). http://www. Government. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. International Journal on E-Learning.) (2002). (2006). Fitzgerald. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Measurement and Evaluations. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. and Ma. D. J.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www.amazon.

com Do not reproduce 41 .a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. Operitel white paper.operitel. http://www.

. For example. (2005).e. to personalized media). Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. is podcasting. Provides another channel for material review. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. or by “streaming. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. podcasting. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. You can’t add your own notes. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. while it is playing.5 megabytes. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. One audio application of interest to educators. (i.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes.. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). the rest of the file has time to arrive. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. such as those for iPods. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. This frag-mentation is being fueled.e. (i. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. compared with even a few years ago. which is gaining in popularity. in part. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Provides feedback to learners. Assists non-native speakers. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. depending on the file size). According to Crofts et al.

and broadcasting are all found on this site.scientificcomputing. GNU/Linux. http://www.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.audiotoolsdirect. http://www.envision. It is available to download for Mac OS X. phrases.uk/podcasting/index. playback. including podcasting. sound editing. http://epnweb.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.rds. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.com/blogs/doug/index. http://www. enhancing.com/resources/dc_media. shareware.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.com/scwmarapr05sonification. http://recap.automaticsync.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. http://www.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. freeware.thepodcastnetwork. htm RECAP Ltd.purdue.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.edupodder.com/lipsync/ind ex.apple. or sentences from audio Web sites.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.71. and other operating systems.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. http://www.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.masternewmedia. http://www. http://www.podcasting-tools. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.ltd. go to: http://www. and utilities for conversion.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . open source software for recording and editing sounds.avsmedia. CD audio extraction.co. including software to record and play podcasts.com/AudioTools/inde x. tools. http://www.ibritt.com. http://www.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.elearningcentre.htm For a list of podcasting tools.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://sourceforge. http://www.48. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. http://www. Microsoft Windows.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. http://64. recording. DJ mixing.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. Audio and video software. http://www.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.

B. J. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. L. Retsema. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng..html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.bias-inc. Robin Good’s Blog. A. Dilley.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. Fox. S. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.multitrackstudio. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Ray (2005). P.h tml Canali De Rossi. http://firstmonday. pdf Noakes. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. Learning Circuits.cakewalk. 45-50. Podcasts.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman.uk/articles/podguide. (2003). May 20.com/home. Luigi (2005). Podcasting and Vodcasting. M. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models..com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. http://www.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.unl.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. University of Nebraska. Government. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. Dave (2005). Sound Sense. http://edmarketing. Scientific Computing World. September.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.html Curtis.audiolink.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research .. http://dl. C. Healthcare.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. N.ltd. http://www.scientificcomputing.editlib. http://www. Brenda (2001). http://digitalcommons. http://recap.com/scwmarapr05sonification. Dion Cory (1999). (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.htm Jobbings.aace.adobe. Peter (2005). http://www.learningcircuits.html Girvan. April 2005. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). 10(9). Chesapeake.apple. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).masternewmedia. June 2005.html Kaplan-Leiserson. 417-419). Eva (2005). (2005). VA: AACE. http://www.sonicfoundry.com/products/audition/ main. In G.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. and Lomas. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. 2005. First Monday. and Williams. Richards (Ed.educause. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. and Swenson. July 2005.

content development. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. please see http://www.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 .brandonhall. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. For details on each Microsoft product. No authoring tool does everything. 2005). There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Development. either directly or with third party tools.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. in the end. see: http://www.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. Implementation. rapid elearning.s html). all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. As well. In this vein. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.microsoft. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. and Evaluation) processes. simulations. and. Further. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Design. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. (For details.

Designer’s Edge. http://www. http://www.bridge-pt. . http://www. pop-up messages.Media – Import 3-D Models.com/presenter. http://www.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .brainshark.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. Integrates various media. and marketing applications.com/ Counterpoint . video. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. video. rich text.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com/ Business Performance Technology .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. Builds quizzes. hotspots.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.info/ Allen Communications .co.htm Brainshark Inc.com/products/ Articulate .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. and images and turn them into 3-D training.htm ActiveSlide. http://www. http://www.elearningpowertools. http://www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .com/eng/index.com/ Acroservices . http://www.ilessons.com Agile .uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.com Anark .uk/contentpoint. http://www.accordent.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. http://www. http://www.thinkingcap.com/powerp oint-presentations-index. http://www.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.acroservices.asp Bridge People and Technology .articulateglobal.allencomm. video. www.lersus. and PowerPoint slides.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. http://www.co.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming. music.turbodemo.atlanticlink.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . go to: http://www.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. pointers. htm Composica . Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.composica. http://www.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. http://presentation.Capture Station 2.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. Flash.activeslide.Thinkcap Studio .com/index.Composica Enterprise . XML.htm Bernard D&G .copycatsoftware. visualization. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. buttons.adobe. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.Content Point .anark.

http://www. video.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .shtml Dynamic Media .com/index.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.lecturnity.php e2train . http://www.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 . CD Rom.com/ka.de/ Impatica .com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.uk/ INTEC . audio.com Imaira Digital Media .com/Solutions/Elearni ng.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. stand alone .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.gen21.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. http://www.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/ Eclipsys Corporation . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. such as the following: Web. and installation files.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. http://www. http://www. without programming knowledge. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. Import rich media and customize graphics.com imc AG .sculptoris. http://www.exe files. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.e-learningconsulting. http://www.com/ Hunter Stone . http://www. http://www. http://www.impatica. http://www.e2train. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www. http://www.seminar.com/products/forceten. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.elicitus.epistema.com Element K . Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.digitalworkshop.com/ Information Transfer .eclipsys.eedo.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.co.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. http://www.horizonwimba.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . DVD-video. http://www.com/products/ Pro.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. Post the characters on any Web site. and animation.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . http://www. HTML courses. http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.experiencebuilders.hunterstone. http://www.com/inde x_eng.WTDS-Web Training Development System .Digital Workshop .intecllc. graphics.dynamicpowertrainer.ht ml E-Learning Consulting . and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.elementk.

com/index.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.LEARNERLand – Text. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.elearninginabox.maxit.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.knowledgeplanet.mohive. audio.mindiq. http://www. shtml Itaca . .Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. http://www.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. http://www. http://www.com/tbt/dac/index.jsp Knowledge Planet .Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. combining multimedia content like video.mckinnonmulherin. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.knowledgequest. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.customcourse.com .EasyProf .com/ KnowledgeXtensions . Built-in testing engine. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.maxit.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.htm Kookaburra Studios .ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. http://www.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.authoring tool based on Flash templates.com/ OPTX International .mindonsite.intuition.Used to create presentations without programming skills. Works with SAP Learning Solution. with a built-in learning management system.ipsinc.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex.knowledgextensions.com/ NetPlay Software . centralized knowledge base. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.php MindOnSite .pdf Intuition . and animations with tests and interactivity.ie/software/publisher.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .learn. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.com/learncenter.easyprof. graphics. PowerPoint slides.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. Word.knowledgepresenter.com/home/home.com/ Learn. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. Ready-made button and navigation aids. http://www.learnerland. http://www.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.com MyKnowledgeMap .com/flashhom e.com/prods erv. http://www.instant-demo. http://www. http://www. http://www.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure.uk/ MindIQ . http://www. with no programming and no plugins.htm MediaMaker .com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.co. http://www.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www. http://www.

shtml Reusable Objects . http://nuvvo. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. crosswords.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.htm podia . either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.com/ Percepsys .toolbook. http://www.ht m Techsmith .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.com/learn_assistant.Nuvvo . http://www.rapidintake. http://www.E-Learning Objects .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. without knowing code.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.com/products/study mate. http://www.scribestudio.qarbon.net ReadyGo .com/coursegen.net/ PointeCast .suddenlysmart. customizable flashcards.podiaOnDemand .In minutes.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. and assessments.com/ Scribe Studio .Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.screenwatch. http://www. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. Audio. http://www. and highly interactive elearning content.com/ Savvica . http://www. and Flash.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.respondus. French.com/ SumTotal .htm Suddenly Smart . popups.cfm Serco (technical) . http://www. http://www.com Rapid Intake .com/camtasia.techsmith.podia. interactive Flash presentations and online training. kiosks.asp TEDS .p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .com/ Qarbon .htm Do not reproduce 49 .com/common/affili ateRefer.readygo.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.com Respondus . http://www. or Spanish. JPEGs. image hotspot activities.com/learn_assistant.sensalearning.com/Products/elearnin g_objects. image labeling. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.syberworks.percepsys.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www. Courses can be posted. http://www. http://www. matching games.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. GIFs.pointecast. When content is developed. http://www.softchalk.or SCORMcompliant.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.teknical. a customizable. and course player all in one software package.teds. http://www. http://www.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .com/products/lc. Microsoft PowerPoint.students.Publisher Professional . course publisher.com/product_sa. http://www.reusableobjects. http://www.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.toolbook.com/sensasoluti on.

or Network. http://www. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.co. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.time4you. http://www.oswego. Montreal.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.trainvision.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. and Pahl. right in their browser with no additional software required. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. L. publish blogs. and rapid simulation. interactive and intelligent educational software. McMullen.asp TrainVision . Doctoral Dissertation..dol.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. and Ainsworth. video.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. Blessing. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. Melia. S.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full.oswego. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .tue. (2005).html Westcliff – SCObuilder. and Riesbeck.cs. P. http://www. C.Presentation Studio .cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . S. http://www. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.com/download _rb40eval.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.uk/index.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). Illinois. E.brandonhall.pdf Murray.pdf Ramp. E.funeducation. http://www. P.xplana. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. (2003). Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. http://www.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. June 2005. http://www. C. templates. D. and Brusilovsky. http://www. Evanston. http://www. http://www.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.2-conformant objects and assessments. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. De Bra.com/Technology. www.lectora. and text. Government. Berlin: Springer. http://www.com/products/products _xwb. T. content conversion. images.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. http://workforceconnections..Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . and host online discussions.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. and wizards.cs.com/services/webpresentation-svc. Healthcare.htm Zapatec . Northwestern University... (2005). www.gov/ Webex .webex.westcliffdata.com/ US Government .amazon. http://www. M.time4you GmbH . CD.win. Lin (2005).xstreamsoftware.bloki. audio. (2005).

The myth about tools. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Learning Circuits.brandonhall. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. June 2005.edu/~paws/publication s.com/publications/emerging/emerging.htm Tozman.learningcircuits. http://www. Learning Circuits.org/index. Reuben (2004).s html Do not reproduce 51 . W. NL. E. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. http://www.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Nov. Gary (2005).org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.htm Woodill. Canada. http://www2. A. Masters Thesis.2005). BC.htm Tozman. CA: Brandon Hall Research.pitt. 2004. (2005). http://www. Vancouver. Technical Univ. Reuben (2005). Eindhoven.. http://www.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.learningcircuits. Sunnyvale. Another new paradigm for instructional design. October 2428. AACE.sis.

http://www.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. the avatar may represent an actual human being. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. in the broadest sense. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. In the context of elearning. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.” Maldonado et al. especially in gamebased learning activities.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. http://blogoehlert. for example.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Similarly. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. In some situations.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.Avatars Related terms Agents.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. http://www.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.telsim. games.sculptoris.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. but in e-learning. and generally simulates human activity. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.codebaby.typepad.

pdf Online Resources In Europe. Nass.. http://ww.” which are avatars that teach. http://www. Brave. Raj (2003). modular application. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.W. 2005. http://www.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. In T. http://isnm. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.daden. http://www. (2004). The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. Nakajima. K.. Suthers. and Morishima. H.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. http://www. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.stanford. In the toolkit.vcom3d.elearningguild.. (2005). C. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.pdf Jung.oddcast. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Y. 2003. M. 25.co. http://www. Iwamura. J.naccq.ac. http://www. Lee. Ahad.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. Koschmann.co.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI.Training Education & Education International Conference. D... Yamada. Chan (Eds.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. H.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. and T.html 2005 .uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.exodus.tmmy.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.pdf Maldonado. S... offering a large number of supportive functions. S. C. A. http://www. and Nodder.pdf Seth. users are represent-ed as avatars.. Try them at: http://www. Inc. (2005). In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . and Weber.knowledgeenvironments. Aug. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. B. R.redwoodelearning.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. www..uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Nexus Media. New Zealand. eLearning Developers’ Journal.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. the costs and headaches multiply. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. integrated with other types of learning technologies. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. The devices keep students alert and involved. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. costs can be an issue. corporate.einstruction. display. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. giving almost instant feedback. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. 2006. or clickers. clickers. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation.” In spite of the costs. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. classroom communication systems. higher education. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. Beatty. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. However. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. The use of clickers has several advantages. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. and military settings. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. increasing their motivation to learn. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. management. http://www. training the faculty member to use the software.

http://www.pearsonncs.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. Volume 2004.com/index. 3.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.com/news_issue.optiontechnologies.com/products_int erwrite.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.qwizdom.pearsoned. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Feb. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://inside.educause. NJ: Prentice Hall.active-learning-site.Publishing textbook. R.physics.net/display. http://www. including material on the use of classroom response systems. http://www. 3.learnstar. and Lederman.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. (2003).cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. 2004. http://www. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.umass.edu/articleprinter1.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.gtcocalcomp.jmu.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.elearning.cua.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). http://www.smartroom. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. http://www. http://www. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. http://www. http://umperg. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Research Bulletin.com. Tom (2004).au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. pdf Cassidy.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.” http://www.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.com/Default.com/cps/index.com/index. http://www.pdf Mazur.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. Anne (2006). http://www.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. http://www. https://sharepoint.utexas.pdf Burnstein. Upper Saddle River.aclearn. 41(5). Q. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.ubc. Inside CUA. 272-275.h-itt.amazon. 2006. No. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. The Physics Teacher. Educause Learning Initiative. http://www.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.campustechnology. July 7. Ian (2004). Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. March 3. Eric (1997).cisat.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.utexas.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002. http://www. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. E-Learning Dialogue.

Australia.Conference. http://www. Melbourne.uq.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.itee.edu.

The Institute for the Future.advancedreality. collaborate. and There are many different ways to collaborate. organization. reduction..g. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . social networking building.g.zoho. e. http://www. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task.g. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. http://www.teamspace.com/products/i ndex.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. many respond.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.com/virtualoffice/index. evaluation.html?ad-main Annotea . organize.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). http://www. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. social bookmarking. doing. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. and collaborating. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. through brainstorming).. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. it requires skill and experience.. clarification. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research .

voice and data collaboration. http://www. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .avecomm. Features include IM.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. document versioning. http://www. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. and upload photos. version control.centraldesktop. and instant access to the group workspace. http://www. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.bluetie. non-profit. and communicate with others. http://software.com/services/faq_basics .com/ Cisco . flexible workflow. http://www. http://www. project planning and reporting.digite. with templates and workflows for product development.jsp Engineering. and instant messaging. and communication.w3.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. Includes document organization and sharing.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. and collaboration. collaborative file management. and information technology adoption. http://www. markup of data.com/ EMC² .com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.backpackit.cisco.opencroquet. share information. http://www. education.comotivsystems. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.inteam. and individual users.brightidea.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. http://www. expert location. office. http://www. recordable conferencing. Presence (see who’s online). share files.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise .com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . calendar. alerts. and searchable discussion threads.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system.gotomeeting. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). http://www.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.emc.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. instant messaging.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.bookmarks.Unified MeetingPlace . robust document management. http://www.globalchat. search.com/ourProduc t/index. discussion forum. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). contacts. jot down notes.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.Documentum eRoom .citrix.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop .courseforum. http://www. intellectual property management.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.com/ Blenks – In-team .Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. http://www.com/microsites/eRoo m/index. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.bantu. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. and meeting manager. Web conferencing.com/English/ps2/product s/product.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .

http://www. http://www.hp.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. project management.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. scheduling and using calendars. http://www.com/products/Collabor ation. software construction.groove.gliffy.google.ezmeeting. It provides working groups with simple.forumone.groupsupport.shtml Hewlett Packard .com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . The system streamlines project planning. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. http://www. http://groups.Halo Collaboration Studio . http://www. search. http://www.com/halo/index.flypaper. and document management. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. http://www.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser.com/EN/products /GSII. assign file editing rights and completion dates. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. require-ment and risk management. Features include the following: Accessing documents. Web-based extranet tool.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. snapshots. attach threaded discussions to files.net/home/index.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. and corporate instant messaging. powerful. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.features a project navigator. http://www. meeting. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. data and process tracking. and sending workflow tasks.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files.exactamerica.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. conducting surveys. and organizational process performance.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . It has tools for managing multiple teams.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. and creating action plans. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. categorizing. presentation tools.epam-pmc. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. Features include interactive data collaboration.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . including whiteboards. and team management. product quality assurance. http://collaboration. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. desktop sharing.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. http://www. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. quantitative project management. tracking the status of assignments.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting .engineering. interactive whiteboard. voting.facilitate. universal file viewer for MS office documents. http://www.Live meetings and Web conferencing. recording and playback. resource information sharing. and images.gordano. 2001. drawing tools.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. invite workspace members. cameras.grapevinesoftware. easy to use online collaboration system. allow members to update and edit files. http://www. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. secure. http://www. share files and documents.

http://www. and customers on the Web.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .ibm. Customizable Web directory.webofficepoint.iceweb.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.mayeticvillage. online calendar. efficient. Integrated suite of multiuser. and shared documents.hyperoffice. http://www.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.com/ Interwoven . private interactive access or exchange of text. folders.com/html/produ cts. and Lotus Notes. http://www. http://www.ac. online editor.com/hotComm. integrates with MS Office.inquesttechnologies. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. Features include the following: Document management. http://www.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. calendars. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.uwc.com/products/docu ment_management/index. a Wiki. voice.Lotus QuickPlace .jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.ilinc.kGroups provides a number of tools. http://www. instant messaging and presence indication. http://www. and secure peer networking architecture.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business.hotComm . data. Web resources.microsoft.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. search archiving. an interface to a mailing list server. image libraries. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. and file commenting. online contact management. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. online document management. video.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . link sharing). Outlook. a powerful. http://www.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.jdhtech. podcasting. including file sharing. http://www03. and photos. http://www. security levels. Features include the following: Shared calendars.jotlive. peer-to-peer. contacts.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. including versioning. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.hotcomm. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. and Microsoft Outlook integration.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.interwoven. and more. http://kgroups. partners.com/ iLinc Communications .com/ IBM . scalable. blogs (Weblogs). Functions include the following: Share documents.com/ JotSpot . structured.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. http://www. discussion forums.za/index.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. Features include the following: Business email.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . versioning control.com/Smart Apps. realtime chat. task manager. customers.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . http://www.Jotspot Live. and provides search. and extensibility.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.

MyWorldChat Communicator . organize and discover content through categories and tags. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. teams. share knowledge.com/ Ramius . Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. Document Management.Rallypoint .communityzero.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.Microsoft – SharePoint . and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. real-time application sharing. http://www. providing the best of both worlds.santacruznetworks.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .same-page. schedule and track events and activities. tasks. http://www.mspx Near-Time – Flow . Allows people to talk to each other. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. and share data or applications while they are online. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. calendaring.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions.rallypointhq.parlano. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. Workflow Automation. file transfer.com/collabsuite/index. http://www. text chat. see each other in real time using cameras. and files. and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.A suite of persistent group messaging. Enables individuals. instant messaging.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. instant messaging. http://www.opentext. http://www.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates.com – eStudio . http://www.near-time.oracle. audio and Webcam. and contact and document management functions. information. Within each area.com/terms. team events.Community Zero . resources.com/ Novell – Groupwise .html Rallypoint .com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE .Corporate quality communications center. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. author and review pages individually and across the group. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. called an online community. processes.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. and communicate. milestones.performancesolutionstech.com/ Santa Cruz Networks .novell. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www. http://www.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. http://www. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. http://www. http://www.microsoft.com/ Same-Page.com/ Oracle . moderator functions. and presence management solutions.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign . task management.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.

project teams. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. desktop document folders. chat server.Collaboration software that includes document management. and breakout groups.com/contentmanagem ent/0.yahoo.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.com/content/default. or use it to build a Web application. and business partners.sumtotalsystems.sitescape. search.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. view and edit documents or images together. http://www. http://www. and prospects – without leaving their desks. threaded discussions.tacit.sharemethods.25.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.solutions. http://www. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. collaboration. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.seldensystems.04. newsgroup server.Forum ZX . http://www. http://www.com/company/news/press /2005.stalker. workflow and task management. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.com/index. application sharing.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. instant messaging. and instant messaging.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.vignette.html Trichys – WorkZone .webasyst. and share. Includes VoIP.viack. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. calendar sharing. http://www. and information sharing. voice and Web conferencing. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software.00.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . and more. http://www.2097.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. live video. partners.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. video. Web conferencing server (in-house). shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.com/products /stcollab.com/ SiteScape .com SpiderWeb Communications . Webbased whiteboarding.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www. store files. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation.trichys. productivity applications.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . http://www. and business relationships. FTP server.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. interact. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . documents. http://www. e-mail server.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. and other business communications.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased.webcrossing. project. expertise. and use live audio.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.cyber-grad. Use it out of the box.com/product/ Vignette . http://groups. http://www. http://www.writely.Processes email. XML-RPC server.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. and calendaring tools. collaboration.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees.

htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and collaboration to timesheet management. exit and help. scaleable. http://www.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . http://www.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.Features include Hands up. connects peers.projectdox.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. http://www. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. and communicate with their project teams.com/project. http://www. applaud and meter. Access to the tool is also given to clients. content.Web event calendaring. http://www. project planning. Share multiple projects with multiple users. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. simple. files. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. identify and resolve potential problems.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. attendee list. set user permissions. and data into a single storage area.hp.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.Intuitive project management software for work teams.nagarro.peoplecube. http://www. http://www. and Web pages. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. form to submit questions.Projistics . and share documents.com/index.com/ HP . http://www. http://www. video. print icon. online management for projects of any size and scope. annotation tools. feedback. discussions. http://www." virtual collabor-ation.generation. whiteboard pages. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .nexprise.axista. private/group chat.HP Virtual Classroom .com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .com Nagarro .project-open. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. and payments.tomoye. invoicing. data. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.com/ onProject – myonProject .com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/ applications.onproject.brevient.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. and e-mails. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. project tracking.saba. http://education.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt. affordable.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . Works with Microsoft Project.caucus. navigation. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. content button. scheduling solutions. and save to disk icon. review button.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.0 .Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. http://www. custom stamps.opmcreator.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. assign tasks.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. calendars.Instant set-up. http://www.elluminate.teamdynamix.

breakout rooms. http://www. http://www.Photon Infotech – SPARK .asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. and Webconferencing specialists. http://www. and text chat.adobe.batipi. Features include shared documents.communiqueconferencing. application sharing. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.A secure.com/website2/events _imc. polling and quizzes.ivocalize. URL sharing.genesys. and more. how often. http://www. and Web conferencing with WebEx. virtual office hours.Delivers unlimited voice. http://www. remote control.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . visual. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies.com/ Linktivity Division.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. instant messaging. http://www.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. office hours.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. http://www. http://www. instant Do not reproduce 69 . http://www.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . private whiteboards for each participant.interwise. annotations.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. hand raising. video. keyboard and voice chat. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. http://www.com/ internet_conferencing. and real-time videoconferencing. shared desktop.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . e-learning classrooms.elluminate. online classes. broadcasts files. attendee lists. guest lectures. shared whiteboard and present-ation. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. record and playback. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.liveoffice.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. desktop sharing. and collaborative content-building sessions.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . http://www.convenos. http://www. e-mail invites. Allows holding live. and videoconferencing. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .net/site/getglance/exa mples.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.photoninfotech.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging. Multilingual.mixmeeting. teleconferencing. integrated content management system. and by whom.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.Synchronous Webconferencing software. video.intralinks. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. including Web conferencing. http://www. live demos. transparency tools.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. and content display. Webcasts. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities.linktivity.com/ iVocalize . session reports. and phone use.horizonwimba. Web.0 . For example. and collaboration features. and a change presenter ability.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. toll-free conference calling. learning.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. and meetings. http://www. pre-recorded broadcasts. notes. sales presentations.com/ Intralinks . synchronous online lectures. Record classes or Webcasts.LiveOffice provides Web-based. meeting management. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. online seminars.glance. http://www.

http://www. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. present PowerPoint slideshows.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .webtrain.telnetz.meetingone.wave3software. Web conferencing.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . share other applications.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. and moderation of Webcasts. set up labs and conduct quizzes. The suite manages the creation.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. teleconferencing. http://www.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. show rich multimedia content and documents. text messaging.com/rndc/services/s ervices. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. Webinars. http://www.webex. http://carbon. editing. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. http://www. the Internet.Meeting One – Click&Share.com/action. Requires only a browser and a phone.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . http://www. publishing. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. and into the enterprise. e-learning. Solutions include Web meetings. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. and instant messaging capabilities.edufolio. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.radvision.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. and system management. and desktop videoconferencing services.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.voxwire. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. discussion forums. http://www. send text messages. course.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke .netspoke. http://www. any application.vodium. and document collaboration. or an entire desktop.cudenver. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. conference calling. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. http://www. or meeting. audio. surveys.To support large deployments.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.Powers online meetings.com/bridgepoint.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.edu/~bwilson/build ing. http://www. remote support.com/home/s_vmps. http://www.Web and audio conferencing services. tour Web sites.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .raindance.

collaborationloop.. Page.educause. http://www. S. ChenBurger. also has a great list of collaboration tools.ac. D.org/collab/inde x.org/index. 41(2). M.collaborate.com/groupware/in dex. Chief Learning Officer. 2002.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.writely.1:100250. Shadbolt.bruck.htm Butler. M.1 Bibliography Alexander. A. Creating an eCommunity.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Sign up for free at: http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_feature..ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. and Tate. http://www. Nov. Buckingham Shum.diglib. Collaborative Strategies. J.” http://www.mitre.springerlink. T. http://eprints. http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 .kolabora.htm Mitre Corporation. scientific.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning.. Michaelides.usabilityfirst. http://www. http://www. N.org/tools. Japan on July 13-14. communities. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Bryan (2006). Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://collaboration. http://www. Bill (2004).com/View.. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. Web 2. K. http://www. Curtis (2002).com/webconf/workspa ces. Models of collaboration. Fred (2002). 2002. and Coleman. http://www. De Roure..edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 4.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. September.. http://www.ecs. http://www. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. Brazil. 2006. http://www. http://cde. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.globalschoolnet.com/writings. (2004). Eisenstadt.clomedia.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. D. 2003.soton.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck..asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. also known as “groupware.uk/12081/ Beshears.ctcevents.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). March/April 2006. J.athabascau. http://www. J.thinkofit. D..aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. (2003). Q2Learning White Paper.criticalmethods. S. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Potter.collabtech.pdf Bonk.. Maceió. Komzak. Nov.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. Dalton. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).

and Forster. Proceedings. http://cde. http://www. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. (2002). C. http://www. (2002). I. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. A.htm Canali De Rossi. J. R. J.editlib. Educational Technology & Society...athabascau. http://www. June 30. D. A.pdf Strijbos. 2565-2569. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . Collaboration First.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.masternewmedia. W. and Martens. (2004).com/Feature/109 Elliot.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005.. http://www.. R.) (2003).) (2004). http://www. J. VA: AACE.cmswatch. R.. Then Knowledge Management. (Eds. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.cfm/files/pape r_12386.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.. Robin Good Blog. Learning Circuits.rheingold. Educational Technology & Society.masternewmedia. Bjorn (Ed. A.masternewmedia. P. Luigi (2005). 3. Soren (2002). Kirschner.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. August 2002. Gibson. K. Robin Good Blog. Kirschner.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. Robin Good Blog. (Eds.htm Canali De Rossi. P. University of Athabasca. J. K. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Fitzgerald.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Sept..learningcircuits. (2005).Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. 2003.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation.html Kreijns. http://www. D. M. and Miller... http://ifets. and Sharifi. 827-829).org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. Aavani. e-Book. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. http://www.amazon. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Robin Good Blog.html Institute for the Future (2005).pdf Kaplan. McFerrin. Institute for the Future White Paper.ieee. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Robin Good Blog. A.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing.org/index.html Munkvold. http://www. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. Price.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. May 2..masternewmedia. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Luigi (2003b).masternewmedia. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. January 2005.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. 5(1). Matthew (2004).ca/online_book/ch8 .html Hurst. and Thomas. Carlsen. CA. http://www. June 5. In Crawford. January 21. R. Luigi (2004a). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. & Weber. CMS Watch. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Palo Alto. Luigi (2003a). Chesapeake. J. D. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. http://ifets.htm # Clapp. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. 2004.zcu.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. 5(1). Live ELearning.N. Technologies of Cooperation. Findlay. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.). and Jochems.. http://wscg. http://www. (2004). Willis.org/index. J.htm Canali De Rossi. London: Springer-Verlag. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.editlib. June 22.. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Luigi (2004b).org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. (2002)..Canali De Rossi.

Nov.cqu. Callan. http://sleid. Evaluation.Norwell. Innovation and Development.amazon. Studies in Learning. 24.. K. 1(2). G. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.. (2004).au/include/getdoc.edu. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. J. & Purnell. http://www.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.

including communications tools.google.au/eq/default. developed in Brazil. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.71. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve.org/index. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. chat.conversate. discussion groups.ac. For example.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Hegarty et al. It is being developed into a transportable.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.com.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. a process referred to as “text mentoring. For Laurillard.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.uk/deletacademictalk. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. telepresence. http://www.48. and yet tailored and flexible. re-usable. labs.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.janison.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.jisc. messaging. whiteboards. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. http://www. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. telephony. UK.” http://goldenswamp. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. VoIP. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.editlib. instant messaging. discussion forums. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. blogs.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. Find her work at: http://64.

chat. Technologies of Online Learning. http://www. Hegarty. 2004. and Elliott.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. D. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.pdf LaCroix.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. S. E-Learning 1. http://safety.org/micte2005/4. 199-212. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. http://m. (2005).html Morgan. S. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. CharityVillage. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. James (2005). Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. (Mlearn 2002). 2005 http://www. Diana (1993).charityvillage.amazon. Computer Mediated Communication.jisc.ac.co. http://www. http://cde.com/webconf/hostsite s. (2002). British Journal of Educational Technology.gov. University of Birmingham. 13-20. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. http://hbswk. Sven (2002). Learning Circuits. http://www2. and Collins.htm http://www.uk/schools/document .jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. University of Warwick.fasfind.thinkofit.ca/online_book/ch5 .pdf Eleuterio. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.hbs.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal.htm Garner. UK.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. Komzak. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. JulySept.edu/item.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. F. and telephony tools.. London: Routledge.warwick. M. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. 31 (3). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. (2004). CAP e-Guide.learningcircuits.co.. J.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. University of Athabasca.elearningcentre. J. J. Pattie (2005).html Laurillard.formatex.pdf Kadirire. 2002.html Laurik.editlib. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.elearningcentre. June.. http://www. M. and Cerri.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training.ac. Bostock. distance-learning course at Keele University.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im.com/wwwtools/m/2645.co. International Journal on E-Learning.athabascau. M.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ngfl.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.elearningcentre. I. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Aug. Francis. (2004). R. e-Book. Mark (2004). 31. http://ewic. Nick (2002).ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.bcs. Jan. (2000). http://www. J.com Library. 20-21. Working Knowledge Newsletter. 19. 2002.org/index. and Bortolozzi. and Wales. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. http://www. > http://www. September 23.com/cv/research/ rmed35.

2002.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . June. http://dircweb. (2002).Stone. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. J.king. 20-21. A. and Briggs.uk/papers/Stone_A. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.ac. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).

who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 .org. Description According to Sanders (2001). Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. competency-based training.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. and carry out proper procedures. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.imsproject. organizational and personal goals are tied together.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. David McClelland. skills inventory.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. skills verification. 2005). and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. For a large list of competencies for physicians. go to: www.org/competencies/in dex. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. a Harvard psychologist. W. diagnose symptoms. performance appraisal. 2000). Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). Edwards Deming. In 1973. skills. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. https://launchpad. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.itsc.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. entering defined competencies into a matrix. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open.

2005.clomedia.syberworks. http://www. measurement. New York: AMACOM. Express Computer. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. Ken (2000).html 78 © Brandon Hall Research .cpgvision. http://www. http://www. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. Competency and competency frameworks.desire2learn. regardless of industry or sector.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. htm Many companies have their own competency models.com/skillsman.com/content/templat es/clo_article.wmich..com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.shtml Hogg. April 25. New York: David McKay.htm Online Resources HRSG.cipd. objectives.com/article16.ca/index.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. R. (1982). activities.amazon. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. April. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.learningcircuits. a Canadian company.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. Clare (2005). For example. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.learnflex. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Sudipta (2005).asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.oracle.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.ncrel. and development interventions. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. http://www. Building a skills inventory.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. London: Wiley.amazon. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. http://www. http://www.edu/paprog/clin_events.amazon. See the list of competencies at: http://www.ibm. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.html The U.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.” http://www. Read their white paper at: http://www.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. Josh (2006).E.S.co.expresscomputeronline. Benjamin (1956).com/20 050425/technologylife01.hrsg.

(2001). http://www. Competency Frameworks. E-Learning Competencies. S. Rankin. David. (2001). University of Toronto. Ethan (2001). (Eds. New York: John Wiley.operitel. v. N. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. (1973). G. Ellen (2000).t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (2001).operitel.learningcircuits.amazon. Master's thesis. http://www.) (2003). White paper from Operitel Corporation. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. http://www. 2005. and Hollyforde. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.cipd.html Radsma. Learning Circuits.com Woodill. and Cahorn. http://www. London: IRS. 1-14.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. and Neathy. Study 706. P.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. http://www. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.28.com/2. 2nd ed. http://www. (2004). Competencies. Johanna. http://parkinslot.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. http://www. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.htm Whiddett.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. (2003). London: IDS. The Psychology of Abilities. http://www. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. S. Creating a Culture of Competence. and Grigorenko. Competency based learning management. (2005). N. White paper.blogspot. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. N. Rankin. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 .aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. pp. http://www.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Operitel Corporation. Godfrey (2005). F. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. March 2001. http://www. P.1/features/ewet te.html Sternberg.amazon. and Epstein. L. Miller. Gary (2004).co. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. Cambridge. (2000). Parkin’s Lot.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Sanders. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.pdf Rankin. April 30. London: IRS. E.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.collectionscanada. Fall 2000. R..htm Parkin.amazon. Michael.amazon.linezine. (1999). UK: Cambridge University Press. and Expertise. American Psychologist.

This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. Today. and reporting. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Repositories. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it.” As well.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. First. With the advent of learning objects. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. I feel that closed.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. in fact.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. Unfortunately. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. http://www. LCMS. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. such as registering users. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. They have designed competitive. you could hire a company to build a private.” http://drupal. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” such self-contained systems have been described as being. If you could afford it. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. rather than complementary. 2006). and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. to date.atutor. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. manage. functionality to an ECM.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. displaying a course catalogue. the standardized railway system still works while private. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. and “topic maps. According to its official Web site. Learning objects. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. launching courses.

Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. elearnspace blog. A.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. Why content management software hasn’t worked. EdTechPost blog.co. and Brantner.asp Woodill. 2003.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533.uk Bibliography Bonk. > > http://www. Learning Solutions.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.com/publications. P. McGovern.. Mashups. http://www.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er.html McGee. Jafari.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. C.topicmaps. http://www. http://www. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. http://plone. (2004).softlab.ca/mt/archive/000 689. 2005..org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. http://travelinedman. Budapest. C. (2006). Van (2005). (2005). From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.blogspot. S.) (2005). May 15.gerrymcgovern. 2003. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.edtechpost. 2003.author-it. http://www. May/June.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 .pdf Cohen.e-learningcentre. March 2005. http://www. Scott (2005).ntua.cmsmatrix. Dec. http://www.cisco.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.elearnspace.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.org Leslie. 2006. Ed. New Thinking Blog. 2005. 18. Educause Review. (Eds. http://www. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. Hershey. January 23. and Carmean.html Cisco Corp. TravelinEdMan blog. (2003).com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper.htm Siemens. “Monoliths. G. and publish to multiple outputs.topicmap. Retalis. June 9.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms.com http://www. San Jose. reuse in many places. B.educause. PA: Idea Group. 2005. March 3.operitel. http://www. http://www. S. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. Strategies for managing scalable content. http://sakaiproject. George (2003). and Oliveira. http://www. Curtis (2005). Gerry (2003). Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.pdf Weigel.htm Simon. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Cisco Corporation White Paper. 40(3). Content Management: our organized future.clomedia.

Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Luan and Willett. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. personalization methods. 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. 2001). knowledge discovery. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. delivery models and infrastructure investment. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Consequently.

uwaterloo.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. Lange. and Tschiedel. Piatetsky-Shapiro. 68(8). R.reeltwo. Smyth.kent.usyd. 1996. P.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. K. 2001) http://www.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. and Web mining.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart. (cited in Luan and Willett. G. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases.soul. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. M Fayyad.com/index. Uthurusamy. New York: Springer.ac. and Smyth. and Kamel. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. (2006)..pdf Iskander.amstatonline. http://www. edited U. (1996).. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.kdnuggets. knowledge discovery. Both products are from Convera. Robert (2002). RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. Grieser. In Pierre.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. text mining.icosystem.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.html Bibliography De Veaux. Piatetsky. http://www. Grigoriev. P. G. by applying fuzzy logic. S. 13-16 http://asbointl. M. http://www.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. G. AAAI Press/MIT Press.edu.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. Alex (2002). (2004). Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. B. Long Beach. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. 1--34.cs. School Business Affairs. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.html Hammouda. Do not reproduce 83 . and R. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. Australia.kdnuggets. Data Mining in e-Learning.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning.pdf Fayyad. What’s Not. Data Mining: What’s New. New York: Springer.hkuspace.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. http://pami. Thalheim.au/%7Ekalina/inde x. K.uwaterloo. California. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. http://www. http://www.cs.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. B.pdf Freitas. (2000).wfu..com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. Samuel (Ed. U. http://www. P. Feb.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information..convera..com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.. http://imej. http://pami. http://www.pdf Jantke. pp.

MA: WIT Press.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 41-54. Scholl.2004. 39-40.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. analyze for more adaptive teaching. 52-59. C.ccsd. http://csdl2. J.-Dec. http://www2004. and Minguillon. C. http://www. Yacef (2004). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.cnrs. 319-346. Gord (2004). 2006.. 2004 (7).pdf Pahl. Claus (2004).uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.ac.aace. May 17-22. Innsbruck. and Ullrich.html Ueno. 15(4).pdf Monk. (2004). Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web.pdf Mor.pdf Merceron.informatik. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan.unisb.pdf Loo.computer.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef.is.cabrillo. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. C.org/16915 Romero.unikiel. Train. 3(4).asp Merceron. Porto.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . In Proceedings.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. http://www. http://wwwjime. Advances in Management Information. A.pdf Merceron. 13-16.actapress. Portugal.pdf McCalla. and K. (2004). E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. E. B. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264.editlib.. NYC. Japan.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Maomi (2004). http://www. and Ventura. T. Yacef (2005). (2006). K. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. http://www. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. Billerica. 3(1). store. (2006). http://archiveedutice. http://www. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Data Mining in e-Learning. 238-241.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. and K. International Journal on ELearning.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. A. (2004). Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. and Yacef. (2001). Hiroshima.ags. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).wfu. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. http://www. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).open.com/PaperInfo. 47-55. and Willett.. http://imej.org/index. K. M.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. Oct. David (2005).ejel. Oliveira. and Cheung. J. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems.compmech. 7(1). Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. Feb. Vol 4. RP Conference Presentation. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. http://dl. A. Austria. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.com/acatalog/1845 641523. S.

bnhexpertsoft.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. in their case study of medical education. http://www. 4) develop an action plan.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.utoronto. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. http://www. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. 2) categorize.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.net/index. 5) carry out a survey. For example. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.une. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004). http://www.hut.edu. http://www. and 6) document results. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index.au/dss/grassgro/index . The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.tkk. 3) vote/prior-itize. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www.facilitate.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.whichbook. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).decisionarium.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.sal.com/ Facilitate.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. http://www. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.

and information on this area. Raimo (2003). V. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. M.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.html Rhyne. P.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.. B. Dan (2003).org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. 6-9. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.sal. June 20-24.pdf Jantke.sal. books. Germany.siggraph. 23(4).meetingworks. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Grigoriev. (2004). White paper from BNH Expert Software.hawaii. C. Hawaii. USA. Thalheim.is.pdf Knolmayer. Information Systems for a Connected Society. http://www. August 16-18. Grieser. S. http://www.pdf Ounapuu.pdf Frize. Kankana (2005).uottawa.manchester. http://www. Porto. Jan. Hawaii. Enn (2004).com/history/dsshistory ..site.pdf Chakrabarty.2004. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. http://www. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. 101-110. Jim (2002).pdf Ehtamo. Hamalainen. Thalheim.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.actapress.hicss.uniserve. and Tschiedel. M. Memmel. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis.bnhexpertsoft.html Scott.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings..de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.” http://dmoz. K. and Koskinen. http://www.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. and Frasson.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.hut. Kauai.ac. http://science.unikiel. Manchester. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. In Proceedings.. Gerhard (2003). SIGGRAPH publication.com/index. Rostanin. http://damit.hut. B. http://www. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).edu. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. http://www. O. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.com/PaperInfo.dfki.pdf Jantke. (2004). http://dssresources. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . August. 238-241. see: http://www.html Hamalainen. http://www. Aachen. Online manuscript.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. (2000). B.dssresources. G. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. and Tschiedel. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. H.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. (2003). Jay (2004). http://www. B. 2004. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. 12(2-3).. 317-328.. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed..pdf Power. Theresa (1998). For newsletters. K. 2005.mc. R. http://www.informatik.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Portugal. Enn (2005). Lange.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT..

CAL-laborate. Oct. http://www.html Shimizu. (2006). 2002. PA: Idea Publishing. and Laurindo. M. Hershey.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.uniserve. T..ideagroup. http://science. Vol.the curriculum. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .com/books/details.edu. F. de Carvaho. 9.

http://www.io2technology.com/technology/ overview NTERA. http://killer. Electronic paper could change that some day.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. http://www.Displays Related terms Digital ink.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. in cooperation with Sony. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. For air displays. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. In the near future.theregister. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.ices. > > http://www. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. Inc. big enough to be projected on large walls.theregister. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.” Selected Examples Samsung.P rojector. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. By stacking a second projector. lighting up theater size screens.co. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. head mounted displays. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). It can display and send data out through its wireless components. monitors.co. digital paper.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. viewers see a floating midair image or video.com/about.html Promera is a hand-held computer.siliconlight.cmu. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. still/video camera. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. projectors. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. This can be a holographic image.edu/design/Camera. electronic paper. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. In regards to digital paper. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. intelligent interfaces. Finally.ntera.

M. Largest LCD and video projection. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Hirota. (1996)..de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . pages 3053-3068. 2005. Government.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. 3. In G. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen..com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.com/timwang/index. Germany.. Whitton.org/citation..technorati. Oct.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. London: Springer. Richards (Ed. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). it published a special issue on “Urban Screens..com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. W.H.).pdf Wang.ac. 2005. See a demo at: http://www.loaz.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. K. State. In 2005.firstmonday. and Ottmann.unifreiburg. and Pizer.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. Hamburg. Canada. S.uk/index. Garrett. H. To access the articles.E. see: http://www. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.informatik.unifreiburg. A. http://www.acm. http://blog. see: http://ad. For a list of his publications.informatik. T. JISC Technology Watch White Paper.jisc. Vancouver.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.provisionentertainment.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.. http://www.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. Livingston.fogscreen.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Pisano. http://ad.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. M. Dec. (2005). http://thejournal. Healthcare. G. http://portal.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. E. Tim (2005). Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.

html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. helping to transform education and training.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. http://www. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.com/college/portfolio s.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.htm Educause. http://www. thus.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.elearningcentre. http://www.pebblelearning.foliotek. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.imsglobal.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://www. open source electronic portfolio. http://www. http://www. http://www. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. 2005).html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. http://www. http://isle.org/Articles/eportf olios.elearnspace.chalkandwire.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.angellearning. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. My first report in this series.com/eportfolio/in dex.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. http://www2.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .ac. http://www.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. maximum flexibility.livetext. evaluation. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www. http://www.htm IMS.iwebfolio.co.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.ch/dyn/9.uk/default. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. and simple usability.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.educause.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.osportfolio.educa.pupilpages. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.ac.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.paisley.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.co.nottingham. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.

. J.pdf Conway.. J. and Hibbitts. http://www. An Overview of e-Portfolios.com/magazine/vault /A5260.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. http://www.pdf Greenberg. http://www.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.org.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape. Feijen. future thinking: digital repositories. (2005). http://connect. and Werdmuller. http://www. with many links.elearnspace. George (2004). (2005). Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar..edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. D. College of Education http://www. http://elgg. Online.pdf Lorenzo.. FD Learning White Paper. Online Paper. 28–37.cfm Dubinsky.asp?id=6984 Cohn. (2003). http://www.. G. July/ August 2004.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell.educause. (Focus on Teaching). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. April 1. D. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. Business Communication Quarterly. Online paper. http://www.. V.alt..becta.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224. Bibliography Achrazoglou.htm Tosh. J. elearnspace. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . Dec.doc Banks. G.amazon. B.. J.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. and McKean. K. S.. Fleming. Bryde. T. ePortfolios. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. Gary (2004).. Trinity College. Educause Quarterly. Harvey. Bob (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. Dec. Reflective learning.. THE Journal Online. and Wade. Cook. Educause Quarterly. 16. and Haywood. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.. Light. J.ac. (2002). Educause Review.pdf Batson.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. W. 2005. (2004). J. 31(3). Frederick (2005). http://www. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine.educause. an online resource on collaboration.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. B. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. Graham (2005).educause. M.thejournal. 4. Love. has a section on e-portfolios. 2004 http://www. e-portfolios.educause. D. (2005). Trent (2002). E. 37(2). http://www. http://ferl.. and Ittelson.org/Articles/eportf olios. P. March. University of Iowa. Lee. (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. Aalderink. B. Dublin. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios.campustechnology. Fall. Vol 27 No 4.eradc. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. http://www.criticalmethods.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.org/collab/v.amazon. http://www.com/article. no. vol. 39.educause. G. (2002).

2(2).citejournal. http://www.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .A. research. (2002).cjlt.ht ml Young. C. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. and portfolios. M.3/tosh. 144-169.A.http://www.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. & Figgins.ca/content/vol31..

Cyworld.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. Facebook. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. from the University of Wisconsin.secondlife. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Dr. complex problem solving. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. create. http://www.hive7.myspace.thinkingworlds. and Second Life.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. and learning (Amory.cyworld. play. as such.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. This game allows users to play.clickteam.” says that “in the mod world. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.com.com/ In 2005. helping speed up the game creation process. 2005). Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.com/ http://www.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage.microsoft. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take.facebook.freescale. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. 2003). Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. serious games. edit.com/ http://www.com/ http://www. http://www. simulations. identity work. For a brief review of these tools.com/xna/ Softimage. Constance Steinkuehler. The toolset. allows members of a game development team to work together. http://www. MySpace.com http://us.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Marc Prensky (2003). Making such changes is part of what modding is about. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. see: http://news. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . games. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). dubbed XNA Studio. There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www. Examples include Hive7. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. writing about “first person shooter games. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.

Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.com/solutions/g ames/default. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. Sign up at: http://www. You can read about them at Pluginz.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.ucalgary.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.it-c.uga. http://www.com/zone 8/index.org. http://www.siggraph.magnetargames.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.gdconf.muzzylane.digiplay.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.softimage. http://www. Started in North America.mpjgaBKQ dAe.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.education. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.nasaga. > > http://www. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.htm Dr. Many of their learning games resources are free.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. http://www. along with their Web sites.org/index2.futureplay. Canada.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools. http://www.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.programmersheaven.” Read her research at: http://website. See the selection of games at: http://www. produces educational games for training. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.seriousgames.seriousgamessummit.” http://www. Review them at: http://esub.uk/index2.for the Xbox. researchers.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games. http://it.org/?14@33.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research .aspx urces. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.com/ Thiagi.pluginz.wisc.dk/people/sen/public.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.com/news/548 http://www. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. Inc. http://www.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.htm Dr. For example.coe.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. implementation.

Bibliography Amory. and Maurer.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. 19. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. and Michael. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.teachableagents. Doctoral dissertation. (2005).com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. R. http://www. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.ukzn.education. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. C. June. see: http://www. http://www. (2006). Williams. Train. http://www. J. S. Games and Education = Oil and Water. 2005. Learning on Demand Bulletin. D. http://www. Mayer (Ed. Oct.xplanazine.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . New York: Cambridge University Press. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Clifton Park.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. C. simulations and microworlds. H. Jan. Lloyd (2005). http://www. University of Wisconsin Madison.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.wisc.amazon. January 2.pdf Michael. In Richard E.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . http://llt. Serious Games: Games That Educate. http://www. pdf Reynolds.php Reynolds. 2003. (2005).pdf Swamy. S. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. IT-University Copenhagen. 549-567. Beers. Hawaii. Clifton Park. Gaming. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. R. http://www. http://jason.. March 10.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. and Inform.amazon.marcprensky. Rob (2006b).itc.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. http://www.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. and Swamy. and Chen.pdf Bergeron. 2003. G.iicm. 2005.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa. Rob (2006a). Gamasutra. N. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.uwf. 9(1). Bob (2005). Chapter 33.com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. http://www. 17-22.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. and Biswas. (2005). http://website.xplanazine.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.php Rieber..amazon.pdf Guetl. http://www. 2005. Simon (2005). Marc (2003). Fourth Quarter. Dreher. Bryan (2006). H. 2006. 2006. Multimedia learning in games.cambridge. Developing Serious Games. Montreal.ac. (2005).uwf. SRI-BI.. Xplanazine. Constance (2005). Technology Trends for the Year. D. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. N. Alan (2003). Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Honolulu.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Gupta. http://www.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.msu.. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.pdf Godwin-Jones.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. Xplanazine.pdf Prensky. Language Learning and Technology. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. June 25-28. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.

Masters Thesis. Jason (2004).Tye. Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.commtechlab. http://woz.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .msu.

Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . 18. For a list of papers: http://www. http://www. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. and robotics in elearning. http://www. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. such as Markov models. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.fg2008. Ludwig-Maximilians University.fg2006. London. Munich. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. Artificial intelligence techniques. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research.pdf Borghi.ecs.” http://mplab.tudelft. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.html Research by Dr.smartkom.soton.com/pdf/2/081 803DES. http://www.org/reports/ReportNR-03. including identifying commercial products. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.ac. UK. Michael (2003). affective computing. April 10-12 2006. 3. eLearning Developers’ Journal. artificial intelligence. Aug. FG2006.. Nicole (2001).pdf Beringer.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. at the University of California. L. Lombardi. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. looking for particular sequences. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. 2003. FG2008.com/~ccohen/gesture .ucsd. (2005).elearningguild.cybernet.. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. 2008. was held in Southampton. F. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. M. Porta. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. March. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. Report No. http://www.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. haptics.

J.ercim. Lai. 19(7). 47(1).ieeecomputersociety. Sept.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. http://www.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.media. Geiger. Sato. C. http://doi. C. Gao.. Y.ogi.stat.. 21(9). (2005). and Cohen. 57-64. A.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. July 1997. (2005). Proceedings.pdf Loi. (2003). IEEE Transactions. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. http://www. http://interact.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Lee. 2000. Y. (2000). M. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. (2002). and Wong.html Chang. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. Lee. P. Canada http://cims. Park.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. Y.1109/ICALT. and Carreira. Nevada. September 2002. 675 . C. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. July 22-27. L. 2004. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.2005. (2004). J. R. Visualization. Fussell. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. 242-245. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.pdf Ebert.iscslp2006. http://csdl2.com/PaperInfo. http://www. J.676 http://lcv.actapress.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS... A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. L.computer. 884 – 900. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. In Proceedings.acm. Korea. G. A. S. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks.rutgers. http://cbcl.actapress. http://www.2000. http://www. M.D. J. Las Vegas. (2002). In Proceedings. and Bender. J.. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). http://www. and Kim..org/10.ucsb. Pittsburg. and Chang.pdf Ou. PA. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).. Michael (2004). W. J.1 50 Nakanishi. P.mit.research. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.clayton.884693 Chen. T. C. 1999. S.cse. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Deller. H. October 14-16.. Wesson.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. Chen..recveb. Computer vision in the interface.pdf Daugman. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). (1997). Wong.pdf Peixoto.F (1999). (2005). Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. January. (2004).cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang..Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. http://portal. and Yang.Computer Communication. http://www.. Vancouver. Setlock. A. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. 191-196. (1997)..com/PaperInfo. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Shi-Kuo (2000). X. A. Y. T. and Koike. British Columbia. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.org/citation.fsu. 442-446.pdf Corradini.mit. Communications of the ACM. and Ma.pdf Wilson. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.xml&DOI=10. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. IEEE Transactions. D. M. 27-30.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. and Bobick. and Poggio.110 9/CMPSAC.

aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . Journal on Applied Signal Processing. http://www.hindawi. 2004:16.illumination variations. 2533–2543.com/GetPDF.

Designing Web-Based Training.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.acdamerica. In acquiring Macromedia. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. post-production. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. the same principles apply to user interface design. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.broderbund. and playback.blender3d. Nevertheless. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.0. e-Learning By Design.techillustrator.avs.org/cms/Home.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. rendering.adobe.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.com/TechIllustrator. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. and in his recent 2006 book.corel.2.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. interactive creation. animation.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.autodesk.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. Download a copy: http://www. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.html Blender .com/ Canvas Professional http://www. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.

http://www. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. (2005).ucs.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. Pheonix. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. http://www. Pallickara.siggraph.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.pdf Qiu. Fu-Kwan (2004).elearningcentre. http://www.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. Germany. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. http://www. William (2006). A.google. Richards (Eds.indiana. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. William (2000).3dlinks. http://www.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. Proceedings.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. NY: John Wiley. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .itedo. Tokyo.editlib. http://esub. The most listings are for 3-D software.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.co. http://www. e-Learning by Design.org/index.IBM CATIA http://www306.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. ED-Media Conference.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. http://www. (2004).).com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).xaraxtreme. Kommers & G. A.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www. Japan · Sept 7-10.stcphoenix.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton..smartdraw. William (1991).ibm. and Uyar. S. http://www.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005.co.com.uk/index.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.com SmartDraw http://www.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.amazon. New York: John Wiley. In P.co. Tools Usage Survey Results. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.amazon. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.amazon. Potsdam. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). X. June 1-3.carto.microsoft.com/index. Gloria (2004). Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.pdf McConnell. Do not reproduce 101 . Designing WebBased Training.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.uk/index.com/E/1335. http://grids.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. http://www.

CT: Graphics. CT: Graphics Press. Frances (2004). Cheshire.stc. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.amazon.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Edward (1997).amazon. STC. Edward (1990).pdf Tufte. http://www. Cheshire. Carolina Chapter. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. CT: Graphics Press.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Cheshire. Evidence and Narrative .asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Envisioning Information. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www. Edward (2001).org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. http://www. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. 2nd Ed.

including pens. and force-feedback mice. http://haptex. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. gloves.asp Body-based devices include gloves. When used approp-riately.Haptics Related terms Force feedback.mpbtechnologies.se/index. http://www. Read the press release at: http://www.pureform.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. http://www. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.” http://www. suits.miralab. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.it/projects/pureform.immersion. > > http://wwwpercro.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). Finally. joysticks/ joypads. Haptic devices come in many forms. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .sensegraphics.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.sensable. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. Do not reproduce 103 .ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.sssup. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.handshakeinteractive.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.unige.forcedimension.html http://www.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.

isfh. http://www. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Research report.computer. G.2005.mit. M. New York Times (Online).pdf McLaughlin. Blindness. Chapter on Haptics.phptr.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.S. Sukhatme. N. R.1109/ICALT. http://www. McLaughlin. http://csdl2. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Reaching through the net to touch. Iwane.media. D. (2005). G. M.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. M.informatik. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. Japan.haptics-e. and Sukhatume. A.unipi.html O’Malley. and Ichitsubo.pdf Hespanha. http://www.. 3-5 June 2004.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. Centre for Intelligent Machines. C. NJ: Prentice-Hall.S. http://www.unige. CA.xml&DOI=10.ra. Santa Clara. Oct. Wired News. (2004).B.1. 2005.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.piaggio.roblesdelatorre. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://haptex.miralab.mcgill. Report delivered January 15. (2002). (2005). M. Technology and Haptics.pdf Ó hAnluain.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Shahabi.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. July 3. Nakamura.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. Medioni.. Vincent (2005).org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.. 2004.ethz..pdf O’Modhrain. Donnelly.com. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). 2003.. Reality bytes.smh. (2000). M. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). 2003. J.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. 22. (1997). and Rusbridge. S. J..net/article-7304.matr. and Hughes.cim.unitrier. Deliverable D4.ht ml Kushner. (2003). Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. http://www. A. Y.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.pdf Rowell. Upper Saddle River.computer. M. Abbott. Proceedings.. M. and Jaskowiak. 2005.digicult.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.usc. July 31.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.ccii.. L.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://web. The Haptic Museum. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. M. April.html Levesque.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239. Haptics Laboratory.1_release-public.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. S.” http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Dobreva. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Daithí (2003). David (2003). Italy in March. Prentice Hall online article. Proceedings. G. Matsubara. M.. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Laurie (2004).org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. and Essl. http://www.. professional. http://www. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. and Gillespie.pdf O’Modhrain.. http://www. McHugh. McGill University.html Ross. http://csdl. G. 917-921.” http://www.. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. M.

H. (2001). Y. 250a.asp?p=345621 Sakano.informit. & Uchikawa.. http://www. Kaneko. Journal of Vision. K.http://www.com/articles/printerfrie ndly. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception..org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 .journalofvision. 1(3).

cmu.edu/design/Digita link.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. Writing will require special digital pens. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. human-computer interaction. digital paper.dottocomu. However. tangible computing. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). handwriting recognition. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.cmu. > > http://killer.mit.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. Philips. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.html Sony.fujitsu. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. http://www. like digital ink and paper. and some. gesture recognition.com/b/archives/00 2571. input devices.eink.html http://killer. textures.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.com/technology/howitwork s. experience computing. Called Librié. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. For a review. haptics.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. Now in the research and development phase.” http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.ices. head mounted displays. In 2005. monitors." http://web. display technologies. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. see: http://www. wearable computing.ices.media. electronic paper.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. see: http://www. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. projectors. they must interact with it through an interface device.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.html Description For humans to use a computer.buffalo.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.

cs.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. http://www. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. http://www.org.elearningcentre. and graphic.au/edna/page4588.05/ff_digitalink_pr.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.devx.com/index.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .thewirelessdirectory.org.edfacilities. http://www.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. http://www. http://www. human computer interaction. http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years. http://www. http://www.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.cs.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. 4) bend.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.lifehacker.logitech.swan.sony. 3) throw. http://www. http://www.co.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.wired. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. http://www. it is constantly being improved and updated. and 5) build.aclearn. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://whiteboards.thegrid.com whiteboards. Although this technology has been around for a few years. 2) roll. These methods are 1) touch. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.usask.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.channelnewsasia.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.net/display. http://www. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. http://www.edna.com/wired/archive/5 . Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. http://www. consisting of a pen and a charger.becta.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. See their advice and resources at: http://www. Following are three such articles: > http://www.ac.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.smarttech.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.wacom.edu.

K.00. http://education. 2006. 2003.devx.virtuallearning.10577. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing.wired. F. Adelaide. December 22. J. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.. 2004.1585516. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Edinburgh. Springer.> > http://www. N. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Y. http://www.. http://www.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. 26. Fri. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Jan. http://www. T. Indurkhya. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Dal-RI. 15(3). Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. with its use of digital ink. Haag. June 1.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. http://education.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.08/epapers. Guardian Unlimited. Will (2004).de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.html In G.pdf Cross. January 6.1116483. (2006).com/news/showst ory. Peltason.guardian. NewScientist Magazine (Online). (2005).aace.00. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). Nicole (2006). J.org. B. 2004. S. and Ottmann. 6. http://www. http://ad.. Julie (2002). and Nakagawa.pdf Otsuki. eSchool News Online.html Wong. http://www.wired. Australia.04/anoto. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. http://www. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. C. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. The most flexible paper yet revealed.mercurynews.anoto. T.10577. Phil (2004).mspx Bibliography Cogill.uclan.guardian. http://dl. Alan (2004). April 7.pdf Revell.uk/elearning/ story/0.newscientist. Scotland. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Guardian Unlimited.co.com/article. 2004.. (2005). King’s College.ac. Michael (2005).ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Oct.).com/wired/archive/8 . Vancouver. Tablet PC Developer. 257-269.htm Zeichick.co.informatik. University of London. HCI2005.microsoft. http://www.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.unifreiburg. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. and Ottmann. The Mercury News.com/wired/archive/9 .html eSchool News..eschoolnews.org/16321 Read.informatik. Kato. Richards (Ed. http://ad. Bandoh.html http://www. Jan. 2006. K. M. is described in a 2002 press release.pdf Mohamed.uk/elearning/ story/0.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. 2005. (2003).. H.

Content management. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Whenever possible.e. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. 2005). Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems.. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. conversation.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. elearning portals. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. Course Management Systems (CMS).

WebMentor LMS http://www. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). one of the LMS vendors listed below.g. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. groups.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. The LMS companies.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. content-driven forums run by experts.. more control over the learning environment For institutions.” http://elgg. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.TrainingMine http://www.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc.geolearning.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. .allencomm. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. is available as a free download. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications.fldata. . Inc.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www. more control over their own data For faculty.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). instructors and resources creating communities of learning. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network. To quote the developers. .php EVE. a contact management system.cornerstoneondemand.com/ Compendium Corporation . a leading open source learning management system.com/ IBM . . http://opensourceschools. in alphabetical order.gyrus.Training Partner http://www. http://www.com Gyrus . has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . and other academic services.avilar.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. a communic-ation platform. The roles. a search engine.trainingpartner.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.elementk.com/ Element K .GeoMaestro http://www.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.com/ GeoLearning Inc.gen21.KnowledgeHub http://www.academici. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.compendiumcorp.ieee. roles.com/ Frontline Data Solutions.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. .net/index.

KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.com/redbooks.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.Ed Training Platform http://www.com/isnm2005/in dex.com/flashhom e.asp Learn.TopClass LMS http://www.knowledgeplanet.oracle. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.Intellinex LMS http://www.netdimensions. .com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.com/ WBT Systems .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.saba.html OutStart Inc.aspx RISC .technomedia.intellinex. . .Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.com/ TeraLearn. .com LearnSomething Inc. .webraven.html?Open InfoSource Inc. .com/ Intellinex LLC.ibm.intralearn.com/ Syntrio .TM SIGAL http://www.DOTS .ssaglobal.com .com Websoft Systems Inc.vuepoint.plateau.howtomaster.com/2004/index.mGen Enterprise http://www. .PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.operitel.CourseMill LMS http://www.oracle.htm SAP .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. .OnTracker LMS http://www.http://www. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.com/ Strategia .net/trackerinfo.meridianksi.LearnerWeb http://www.Oracle Learning http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.cfm TEDS Inc.html Plateau Systems .syntrio.LearnCenter http://www.websoft.vbtrain.learn.com Inc.com/ Vuepoint .ca/en/default.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.isnewmedia.novasys-corp.com/overview.com/ mGen Inc.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.com/ NetDimensions .jsp Operitel Corporation .TotalLMS http://www.com/index.teds.redbooks.SAP Learning Solution http://www.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.outstart. .Isoph Blue http://www.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.ips-inc.sumtotalsystems. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.SSElearn Portal http://www.Net http://www. .risc-inc.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html Trivantis Corporation .html IntraLearn Software Corp.aspx Oracle USA Inc.trivantis.teralearn.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.mgen.maxit. – TEDS http://www.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.IntraLearn XE http://www.wizdom. .com/portal/index.learnsomething.com/ Saba .sselearn. .com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.wbtsystems.InfoSource http://www.com/ SSE .iPerform http://www.ttg-inc. .sap.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .LearnFlex LMS http://www.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .com/ MaxIT .strategia.SSA Learning Management http://www.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.Dynamic Online Training System http://www. Tracker.LMSLive http://www.

October.pdf Dillenbourg. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).com/ Xtention Inc.unitn.jisc.mq.” and open source course and learning content management systems. Ed. 2006.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.brandonhall. (2006). http://www.ieee. University of Birmingham.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.building new education strategies for schools. http://www. http://www. 2005.48. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.edutools. by Sam Adkins.71.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. James (2005).melcoe.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. August. ICALT2002 Conference.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. M.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. Chief Learning Officer. L.eun.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . .PDF Farmer.A possible future for online learning. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://www.com/ from the JISC in the UK.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. Pierre (2000). Molinari.science. UK.Xtention Learning Management System http://www.pdf Dalziel.ac.co. Proceedings.nxtbook.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). June 20-21.org/eun.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.com XStream Software Inc. 21. A. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . (Online edition). (2002).ac. and Tsiatsos. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. http://www.xstreamsoftware. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo." http://www.edu.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.cetis. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Jan. C. http://www. . and Trifonova. http://www. (2002). A.pdf Cohen.The Learning Manager http://www. James (2003). .learningcircuits.thelearningmanager. http://www.uk Teresa A.uk/index. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.xtention. Virtual Learning Environments. Workshop on virtual learning environments. T. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. http://incsub. http://lttf. Ronchetti.e-learningcentre. Incorporated Subversion. http://www.info/static. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . Sam (2005)..htm Bouras.. Building educational virtual environments.

Vancouver. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. http://www. http://www.org/newdl/index. 2005. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Czech Republic. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Report for the Melbourne.pdf Sadeghi.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. and Sharifi. 40(3). Jan.ucisa.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Maomi (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 113 .cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Proceedings of ALT-C. April. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . http://wscg.ac. (2006).ac. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. M (2005). http://tojde. Avgoustos (2004).educause.unimelb.bath. http://www. Healthcare. 4.zcu.pdf Wise.. T. and Higher Education 2005.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533. Proceedings. M.pdf Tsinakos. (2005). November 2004. J. May 2006 http://www. Government.anadolu..uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. Report published by UCISA.cfm?fuse action=Reader. May-June. and Quealy..au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Van (2005). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. A.pdf Ueno.pdf Morrison.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. Plzen. Browne. R. http://www. Derek (2004).uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005. 2005. LMS Governance Project Report. Exeter.edu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. 31-Feb.aace. October 2005.infodiv. Aavani. L. J. and Walker. 5(2). Educause Review.edu. WSCG Conference 2005.

While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . curriculum. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. culture. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. sharable content objects (SCOs). Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. of learning objects. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. a well-known standard for learning objects. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. As online educational materials are produced.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. learning object model (LOM). learning object repository (LOR). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. computer-use practices. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. The acronym SCORM. 2004. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.” This use has been more successful. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. Rather. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). usually referred to as “learning object repositories.” such as a graph. 2006). Wiley. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. rapid learning. intelligent tutoring. reusable learning objects (RLOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. At the simplest level. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. Learning objects have several uses. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. SCORM. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. Beyond that. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. They are emulations of “software objects. However. This idea is based on older.

rice. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.thegateway.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).mcli.educanext.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://dspace.org/Home.llearn. http://www.arizona.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.wisconsin.dist. http://learnware.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://mlor. http://www. http://www.uwaterloo. http://www.maricopa.lolaexchange.edu/DesktopDefault.oise. and they can be general or subject specific.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.lrc3. http://www. indexes. http://web.profetic.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. preserves.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. and distributes digital research material.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.sir. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. stores.unsw.merlot.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://www.cdlib. http://www. http://www.koha.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange. http://www. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. http://nsdl.net/project.fedora. http://ideas. with almost 15. http://dlist. http://www.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.000 items.goenc.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.edu. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.utoronto.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. resources for grades K-12.org/index.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. with a focus on information literacy. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://lester.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://www. http://www. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.downes.uvic.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.

org/guidelines/index. A.uis. http://www. J..org/14190 Downes.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. 2(1).html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. Stephen.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.irrodl..shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.nmc.org/ci/en/ev. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. T. (2004). March.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.uniroma1. CANCORE. http://portal. B.1/downes . 2(4). F.htm Collis.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects.cisco. and Anderson.org/content/v2. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. http://www.dicole.dis.itdl. http://www. (2004). Version . M.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.publiclibraryofscience.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. Online paper. EdTechPost. M. Online document. 5-16.jcdl. http://www. http://www. International Journal on E-Learning.html http://www. http://www.9.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.org/blog/archives/ 002089. C. and Alderman. (2004).ca/implementing_proje cts. http://www. authored by Rachel Smith. (2003). is available at: http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.edtechpost. (2000). Celentano.html Edusource (2003).it/~lhci/002.doc Christiansen.cancore. http://www.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.aace. http://www. http://www. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. Bibliography Barritt. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. http://dl.uwm. A. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 1(3).org/eng/scientifiques. & Strijker.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.amazon. Software Architecture Document.lornet.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.L.ca/mt/archive/000 681.uwm.unesco. And Longo.elearnspace.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www.

Mattson.Rafts or Battleships? .ac. March. D.learningcircuits.bath. June. N. K.. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Elizabeth (2004).. (2004). Friesen. McGreal.. S. 2004. (2002). J.cancore. http://www. http://www..org/mar2000/p rimer. Norm (2006). Norm (2005). 2004.itdl. Rossano. M.usq. Babin. Derek (2004a)..html Heery. 2004. http://www.bath. M. http://ideas. Learning Circuits. Anderson. http://www. http://www.pdf Richards.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Wolfgang (2004). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://www.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. http://proceedings.edu. http://www.html Murphy. April 2002. Paper presented. Warren (2000). G. 7(1). Richards. 14. July 14. Learning Material Repositories .html Leeder. http://www. V. Learning Circuits.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03.doc Fiaidhi.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.ca/protocols_en.9%2015-11-03.org. http://www..org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. R. (2004). Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. http://www. InSITE conference.itdl.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.learningcircuits.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.. S. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.ca/implementing_proje cts. and Schafer.kth.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. London: Falmer.cancore. Research Report..org/index. and Freisen.htm Morrison.) (2004).uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. INTERACT 2005. Downes. http://www.learninglab. Online Education Using Learning Objects. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.htm Nejdl. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal.htm Friesen. 12..Part 2.html Friesen. Paquette. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. March.. R.editlib. (2004). G.ac.http://www.eduserv. Roberts. Hatala. and Mohammed. Aug. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. G. (2005). http://www.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. Online. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.amazon.Rafts or Battleships? . Derek (2004b). MacLeod. R. Rachel (2006).. T. G. Fredinand (2004). Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. March. D. Online paper. 1(3). Lori (2002). T. Jan.informingscience. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Final Project Report.. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Learning Material Repositories . M.html McGreal. http://www.pdf Krauss.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.Part 1.blogs. 1 (3). and Pragnell. T. A Primer on Learning Objects. March. Harrigan. S. and Morales. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. Rory (Ed. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.edusource.p df Roselli..cfm/files/pape r_11841. N. Do not reproduce 117 .ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200.

(2006).fastrakconsulting.itdl. http://opencontent.p df Wiley.dis.htm Shepherd. (2000). RIP-ing on Learning Objects. David A. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research .org/docs/dissertation.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. Objects of Interest. (Ed.uniroma1. M. Clive. 9. Iterating Toward Openness. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.htm Wiley.org/read/ Wiley. (2002).pdf http://www.).. David A.uniroma1.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Brigham Young University. Jan. (2000)..co.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres.pdf Santally. Govinda. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. and Senteni. http://www. (2004). David A. Online. : http://reusability.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Doctoral dissertation. http://www. A. 1(7). http://opencontent. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.> > http://www.dis.

Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. PDAs.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. and security issues.esri. as with any new technology. including cell phones. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Department of Defense.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth.frappr.http://www. personal media players. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. galleries.cadcorp. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.org/ ESRI. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). including privacy concerns.intergraph.http://www.http://www. gaming consoles. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector.mapinfo. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .S. more demands for a person’s attention. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. findability. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. geocaching. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. proximity tools. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information.com/ MapInfo . users will be able to use a variety of devices. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. Do not reproduce 119 .http://www. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. galleries.com/ Clark Labs . However. and wearable computers. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.com/ Intergraph .clarklabs. navigation. location-based systems are found in museums. http://www.http://www. laptops.

google.fi/english/page. http://www.com/index. See their complete range of products.greatestplaces.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.esri.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.il.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.museum.chimer.google. http://earth. http://www.google. as well as papers on trends in GIS. http://www. at: http://www. it is a great tool for teaching science.org/index.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.berkeley. http://mvz. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. http://www. http://www.google.smm.asp?path= 500.pangonetworks.bham. similar to what a GIS system uses. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.geog. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. http://platial. create.biogeomancer.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. http://local.ac. http://www.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. http://portal. While not very useful for most people.” http://www. http://www.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. http://www.edu.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.5372.searchable from a database.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.ac.state. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.confluence.live. http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state. http://www. http://earth.cetadl.leeds. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.

D. Dec.jisc.wisc. (2005). and Chamzas.htm McLean. Steve (2005). Part II. http://www.opensourcegis.co.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Issue 6. Donnelly. J. A. http://www. and Borriello.1642288. M.ac. http://www. and visualize spatial information.http://www. G. Information in places.. http://education.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. Learning Circuits. and students.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. M. (2001).html Ross. Chapter on Location Based Devices. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.. http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.geography.co.. A. http://www.. Arnaoutoglou. Mapping.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. and Location-Based industry professionals.intergraph.geocomm. G. Future LocationBased Experiences. CAD.C. Eva (2004).pdf Do not reproduce 121 . and Rusbridge.guardian. Dobreva.directionsmag. S.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. http://pngis. http://www. (2003). Koutsoudis. A. enthusiasts. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.learningcircuits.. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.ibm. see: http://www. 1999.ca/ Geotags. 15. manipulate. http://www. Pavlidis.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.intelresearch. Earth. IEEE Report. http://elearningeuropa. We learning: social software and e-learning. > > http://geotags.eoscenter.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2..uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. McHugh.info/index.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.. Heather (2005). January.uk/oswebsit e/education/index.digicult. http://www.com/gis4mt/index.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.digicult.pdf Spohrer. N.ordnancesurvey. Jan 2004.research.pdf Tsirliganis. 38(4).net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. F.gees.uk/elearning/ story/0..com/geo/ Cardinali. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.bc. J.com http://geotags. 2003.ac. Nov. http://www.00. (1999). GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Fabrizio (2005).info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer. http://www..htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. DigiCULT Newsletter. 2005. IBM Systems Journal. Abbott. Guardian Unlimited. C. 2005. Online article.edu/sco/gis/his tory.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.com/ Bibliography Benford.

Mashups are constructed in several ways. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. or protocol. run all by themselves. of how to communicate with each other. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. Many of these objects are software programs. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while.Mashups. to a lesser extent. providing an informal collaborative environment. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. composite applications. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. or through “Web services. communications. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. integration. A “mashup. Programs can be “stand alone. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet.” that is. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. etc. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. For example.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server.. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. document management. such as those for collaboration. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . at the same time. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. hybrid applications.” Using SOAP. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. in schools and universities. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. all expressed in binary code. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. Similarly. tag clouds. also called “object interoperability. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. the rules for sending files across the Internet.” then.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. API clouds. personalized. 2004). When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs.

and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications.wikipedia.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. G. Issue 1. Web Services. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. 2006. J.mashupfeed. May 15.ieee.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.com/ http://www.pdf Seimens. Bibliography Gruman.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.html Woodill. Dodero. Douglas (2004).us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. Mix.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. Elearnspace. Mashups. 2006. and Padron. George (undated).businessweek. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. David (2006). Issue 1.pdf Stacey.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. 2006. Learning Technology newsletter. (2006).html Warlick.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. http://blogs. July 28. July 25. http://en.htm Torres. Galen (2006).org/resources/web services.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. Paul (2002).com/publications. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.ieee. Vol. 2002.programmableweb.operitel.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.elearnspace.” It has many examples of mashups. March 6. Curriculum as Mashup. 2005. Infoworld. C.businessweek. a writer for Business Week. http://www. January 2004 http://lttf. http://www.htm Siviter. As Warlick (2006) has noted. Business Week Online. January 2004 http://lttf.programmableweb. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.icio. and Oliveira.us. match. http://www.bctechnology. Many have educational value. http://www. 6.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004..icio. http://www. SOAP. (2004). techLEARNING. Learning Technology newsletter.infoworld.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.emilychang.0 APIs. 6. http://del. > > http://www.com/products/print_fr iendly. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. http://www.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.html Rob Hof. and mutate. C. http://ww6. 6. Vol. Dec. J. Robert (2005).techlearning. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. Enterprise mashups. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.html Hof.deitel. Learning Solutions.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. http://www.

Boston. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. http://www.edu/o4e/viewhome.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. and institutional stores. 7(4).ifets. M. A. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. F. http://www.. C. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.umbc.cetis. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. A. http://www. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. http://metadata. T.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. in the context of information technology. Finin.. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. Moulin.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. to develop metadata standards... MA.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Perich.mit.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). and services. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . Bibliography Abel. and Chaput.mit. H. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.imsglobal. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. (2004). Delphi Group report. (2004). Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. 98-111. Barry.pdf Delphi Group (2004).. An ontology.php?id=25 Chen.educause. Ohio.wssu. Lenne. and artificial intelligence are being developed. Benayache. http://ebiquity. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.. June 2004. community.cancore.html Description At the same time that learning objects. repositories. pervasive computing. search engines.Metadata. C.ac. D.do?tm =O4E. http://libraries. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. metadata.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. B. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. http://iiscs. and Joshi.edu/content. http://simile.edu/get/a/publication /105. http://dublincore. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. http://www. In Proceedings.info/issues.

http://www. http://www. A. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Reuben (2004).com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. TagOntology . 7(4). The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. http://www.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. M. P. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. http://www. (2003). (2004).adammathes. A. Thomas (2005b).a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. October 29. 2006.greenchameleon.boxesandarrows. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. http://www. http://www.htm Weibel. Thomas (2005a).aace. http://www. 7. Norm (2005). I. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).org/. and Poulymenakou.ca/editors. A. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP.. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. 7(4). Can Core: learning object metadata editors. (2004).com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Chen. http://dl.cancore. N. 82-97. Building a Metadata-Based Website. http://www. Infotangle.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. and Shao. Patrick (2006). Online article. M. May 22. April 21.php?id=25 Tozman.. and Diaz. Dec. (2004).blogsome. http://www.info/issues. G. Norway. Lytras. International Journal on E-Learning. and Nejdl. (2002). P.niso.php?id=25 Kroski.pdf Oin. and Godby. Dolog. April 9. 11(7/8).boxesandarrows. NISO Press. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Stuart (2005). Journal of Educational Technology and Society.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. B. D. October-December. Ellyssa (2005). Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema.ecdl2003. 2004. (2003).ifets.html Gruber. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. http://www. Christina (2002)..htm Gruber.pdf Friesen. and Mosoiu.learningcircuits. J. 26-28. BoxesAndArrows. http://www. 2002. 2005. N.info/issues. J. Wagner. November.tagcamp. S. Christian (2004). D-Lib Magazine. 2003. http://www. Do not reproduce 125 . Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Green Chameleon. W. Nov. Defining “taxonomy”. Adam (2004)..com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. 2005. http://www. Pouloudi. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. Understanding Metadata. 2002.html Wodtke.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel.pdf Henze. Trondheim.http://www. July/August. http://infotangle.ppt Ricci. April 18. BoxesAndArrows.boxesandarrows. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. 2004. http://tomgruber..org/10614 Mathes.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.dlib. http://tomgruber.ifets..com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. Presentation to Tag Camp. Learning Circuits. University of Illinois graduate paper.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. BoxesAndArrows.delphigroup.

7(4).info/issues.ifets.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 70-81.

delivery and tracking of learning and information content. it is predicted that there will be 2. wearable computing. strong search capabilities. multimedia.6 billion units in operation by that year. personalization. MP3 players. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). mLearning. laptops. cellular telephones.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. tablets. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. podcasting.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. (2004). and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. there were estimated to be 1. location-dependence. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). Essentially. However. rich interaction. instant messaging (text. Do not reproduce 127 . and wearable computers in teaching and learning. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. powerful support for effective learning. using ambient intelligence. such as increased computer literacy. personalization. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. Cited in Prensky. collaborative learning.” Two years ago. 2004). The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. brokerage. pervasive computing. and mentoring. 2003). time and space. in Japan. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. conversational learning. personal digital assistants (PDA). improved identity creation. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. cell phones. video) and distributed databases. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. location based technologies. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. communicative skills and community building. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. tablet PCs.

audio.bbc.telus.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.ccu.beta80group. and pre-service teachers. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.ccu.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.” > > > http://www.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.pdf http://www.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. http://www. http://urbantapestries.harvard.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. or a combination of media.” They have a “firefly watching system.” and a “bird watching learning system. Learn more at: http://www. and a glossary.fasfind. http://www3. technologies. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. activities. http://gseacademic.mobilearn.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.fasfind.mobilelearning. US. movies.edu.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. http://spotlight-mobile. pictures. Israel. of the University of Oulu in Finland.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. applications. links.edu.edu.se/projectd ata.com/wwwtools/m/271 7.co.pdf http://www.htm Jari Laru.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.” > > > http://m. including issues. http://news.computer.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.com/wwwtools/m/890 7. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.” a “butterflywatching learning system.fasfind. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. http://urbantapestries.cs.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.elearningcentre. http://csdl2.cs.ccu. Australia. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.cs.co.pdf location-specific text. resources.knowledgepulse.stockholmchallenge.com/home_en.

Gaming.html Grew. A. 17-22 http://llt.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.232.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . Gaming..kaywa.pdf Anderson. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice..org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.ac. T.flexiblelearning. January 2005.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. http://www.pdf Godwin-Jones. (2005).org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04.msu. (2003). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.unitn. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. (2002).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.net. 39. Univ. Ireland. No. Language Learning and Technology. Bob (2005). Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://llt. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.uk/eli_practice. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. For example. J. http://www.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). 2006 in Dublin.html Chen.html Kadirire. http://www. 5. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.msu. Learning and Skills Development Agency.eee.formatex. Paul (2005).pdf Geddes.pdf Jasola. 19. A.. and Trifonova. http://www. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.edu. 2(9). Y. and Pagani. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Jill (2005).m-learning. http://www. of Birmingham http://www.pdf Colazzo.ac.ntnu.J. http://www. Emerging technologies: Messaging.pdf Bibliography Alexander. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://mobile.iadis.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Report.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. James (2005). Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. 347-359.pdf Attewell. 9(1). Bryan (2004). http://knowledgetree. JISC Guide. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. (2005).science. S. E. (2004).itdl. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.bham.cs.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. and Sheu. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. R.ac.au /edition06/download/geddes. September 2005. and Sharma.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.jisc. Vol.htm JISC (2005).94.ccu.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.135/ipodined/news. No. L. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. http://www. B. EDUCAUSE Review.uk/handler/public ations. Sept. http://www.idi. Ronchetti.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.educause. http://www. M.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.org/micte2005/4. http://213. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. P. Kao.6.jisc. Molinari. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.

.2002. Cinotti. Enabling Mobile Learning. http://www. Liang. S. 2004. A.ascilite.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Proceedings. Archeology. EDUCAUSE Review.00. (2001).com/content/templat es/clo_article.Light. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Draft paper submitted for publication.pdf Mellow. Feb. M. http://www. H. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. http://21st.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . M.doc Meisenberger. (2004).at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.ieeecomputersociety. Vecchietti. http://kn... Wang. Amherst.2.eee. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.fil. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. M. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. multimediabased learning application. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Växjö.bham.. 40-53. Feb.educause.110 9/WMTE.. Marc (2004). A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. Romagnoli. Chan. http://education. April 2005.century.org.amazon. E. http://www. Australia. A theory of learning for the mobile age. ASCILITE2005 Conference. MA: HRD Press. Kristóf (2002)..pdf Metcalf.html von Koschembahr. Neil (2003). Ellen (2005).htm#Implications Prensky.co. and.asp Liu. Teleborg Campus. http://www. August 29-30. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Brisbane. S.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. J.ac. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. http://www.pdf Thomas. http://portal.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. (2002). Pigozzi. L. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. Christopher (2005). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. May 23. (2005). E. 1(5). http://www. Växjö University.com/news/article 2490. Learning in the Mobile Age. 40(3). What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.clomedia.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. Sweden.1039222 McLean.1490476. J.ac. and Vavoula. http://doi. Taylor. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.pdf Scagliarini. Hungary.. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Greece.info/index. and Yang..uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.ox. Proceedings.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Peter (2005). Understanding. and Cultural Heritage. June 27. UsabilityNews. F. David (2006)..uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.phil-inst.fhjoanneum. Ann (2005). 2005. and Nischelwitzer. and Dobreva. E-Learning on the move. computer-aided.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. Budapest. Roffia.. M. Mike (2005). J. 2005. G.pdf Sharples. Glyfada. M.uk/elearning/ comment/0.org/citation. (2005).innovateonline. 2005. Malavasi.guardian.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. May/June 2005. Michael (2005).uk/public/getfile. T.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.. Guardian Unlimited.org/10.oucs. and Sforza.digicult.. A. D. Donnelly. T. T. http://www. Presented at WMTE 2002.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Coralini.ac.open. Conference on Virtual reality. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). http://drei.usabilitynews. Galasso. http://www. June/July 2005. M.acm.. 2002..

http://www.. rather than just returning Web pages. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. tools. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.aaai.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. natural language generation.cs.york. machine translation. http://dmoz. http://wwwusers. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). Lee et al. http://www.translating one natural language into another.itc. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.ac. http://www.org/softwaremap/trove_list .” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .it/index.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.” See also Jordan et al. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). a component of intelligent tutoring systems.org/aitopics/html/natlang. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. Do not reproduce 131 . et al. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. Di Eugenio. http://tcc. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. natural language understanding. research. i.ldc.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.e.uk/~silvia/litReview. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. (2005a. speech synthesis.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. and standards. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. http://eduforge. (2004). and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents.upenn. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Kim (2000). (2004). speech recognition. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data..lexxe. http://www.elsnet.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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and review his or her learning activity. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. etc. for the learner. learning management systems. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. This requires support over time.cetadl. and through a variety of technologies. without an offline client to the LMS.). LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. A PLE is structured by the learner. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. A PLE must support lifelong learning. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet.. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. Secondly. (Cortlett et al. Running on the learner's PC.bham.uk/ilogbook/d efault. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. learners need to be in real-world situations. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. amongst institutions. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. discussion forums. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. manage. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. http://portal. Technology needs to be situated. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. there can be no electronic interaction. it helps the user plan.ac. as learners move between institutions.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . wikis. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. chat. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. blogs. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. Individualization in an LMS is weak. but these are only available to members of the course. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. social environments. To practice real-world situations. such as search engines. e-portfolios. In many cases. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. often only for the purposes of the course. and. whiteboard). track. libraries. and social bookmarking sites. work places.

pdf Farmer. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan. Chan. http://incsub.org. http://www. Nevada.ac.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. Jan. 11. 2006.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. Las Vegas.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. 2006. D. http://www. James (2006). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. January 9. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. PLE Reference Model. and Westmancott.cetis.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook.bath. http://www.jisc. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. http://terrya.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. J. M.edublogs.ac. http://www. Colin (2005).uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.. http://elgg. Ting..uk/index. Terry (2006). Edinburgh..elearning.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham. Incorporated Subversion.ac. Sharples. UK. 22-27 July 2005. T.za/CD/papers/Corle tt.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).ac.ac. http://www.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. O. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .mlearn.ac.jisc.cetis. http://www. (2005). Online case study paper.

intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .g. These techniques include content-based filtering.org/en/index. and/or presentation of materials.g.). Often. etc. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.ed. 2005). the personalization can be applied to content. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. http://www. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs.. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. rule-based filtering. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. navigation.. (Filippini-Fantoni. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. collaborative filtering.uk/ilex/final. http://www. PDAs). Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.elenaproject. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. etc. Keenoy et al.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. through a questionnaire).ac. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. artificial intelligence. learning environments. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. picture. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).g. However.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. or it can be an implicit model.hcrc.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. Furthermore.

Online paper. S. Online paper..(2001). S. (2005). G. J.arces..net/home. http://www. T.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. C. Ler.pdf m/index.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. A demo is available at: http://www.unimagdeburg. De Carolis.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.org/pdf/cs..uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.org.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.arts. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.org/ Bibliography Abbott. William Niu. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). Pizzutilo.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. Kay. A.metmuseum.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation...beta80group.ca/English/Pers onal/index.CY/0409055 Boyle T. PowerPoint presentation. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. A.umuai.pdf Beler.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. (2004). http://www.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.firstmonday. http://www.ecdc. http://www.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .gla. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art.unibo. J. University of Glasgow. B. http://www. D.pdf Cavalluzzi.. Ngo. with a particular focus on the museum sector. K.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. http://arxiv. A. http://www.calimera. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.pdf Callaway. A. http://adiret.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. https://www. Borda. W. http://www.org/default. The Future of Access (or.. and Nuguid. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.directa.html http://www. > > http://www. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.cs. and Cook J. http://www. http://www. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. and Kuflik. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. dynamic user profiling techniques..pdf Bright. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. and FilippiniFantoni. A..ascilite.calimera.hatii.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.pdf Calimera Project (2005).noekaleidoscope.cognitive traits. HATII.virtualmuseum.ac. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. wireless networks. Daisy (2002). Cozzolongo. (2004). http://smart.emarcon. Bowen. Melbourne. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. (2005).

2005 www. http://iswc2002.1145/643477. Henze.com/pub/evsc05b. Rocchi. science centres and galleries. D.dimi. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. (Eds. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. G. P.pdf Fuschi. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. (2002). http://www. FutureLab report. S.usyd. Italy. Wade.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education.edfac. May 2004. P.pdf Copa. Dominik (2003). M. (2003). Sanna. September 2002. May 25. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. (AVI 2004). DigiCULT . V.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. 1–27. Rudd. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.jpbowen.pdf Eirinaki. and Humphreys. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization.edu. Ecole du Louvre.. S.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. Nejdl.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. Kuflik.futurelab.tcd. May 2002. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . J. http://www. Issue 7. (2005). and Numerico. C.. X.pdf Conlan. F. http://www. L. https://www. P.Info.pdf Ceccaroni. O. (AVI 2004).org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. S. (2004).6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work.. May 25. M.nestafuturelab.uni- Do not reproduce 141 .pdf Goren-Bar.org/posters/ moulin. Subramaniam (Ed. Comparison of museum/city tour guides... http://w5. T.it/papers/gorenbar2005. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.org/10. URL: http://doi. Barcelona. University of Sydney (2004). Roy (2004). Facer. and Cardinalli. I. (2004). February. and Vazirgiannis. Magical Mirror: multimedia.p df Filippini-Fantoni. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.it/intint/people/papers /aims04.. and Tasso. N. In Mizzaro.. http://www. Italy. and Zancanaro.cs.. Bowen. and Sintek. Paris. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces... M. Dillon. N. http://www.Information Access. In R.di. Web mining for web personalization. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. 2004. Pianesi. http://lrnlab.) (2002).pdf Dolog. F.p df Green. April 2004. http://tmtfactory. Soro. http://www. PA: Idea Group Publishing. A. Online paper. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. Gallipoli. Montreal..www2004. Stock. C. Silvia (2003). Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. George (2005). 3(1).. Moulin. Personalization and Digital Technologies.ichim. M. Málaga. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. Spain.2004-1213. D.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. T. Dagger. (2005).com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406.semanticweb. Graziola. PEACH http://peach.org.pdf Giroux. Gallipoli. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. R. Personalization through IT in museums. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access..uniud.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. and Boavida. (2002). C. New York.learnexact. M.ie/Owen..au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. http://www. W. O.. Online paper.. 2004.24_Conlan. H. T. (2004). and Paddeu. (2003).itc.designshare.uniba. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. (2005).pdf Heckmann. Hershey.. and Verdaguer. FutureLab. K. interactive services in home automation. Paper presented at ELearn 2002.cs. http://www.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.ppt Correia.htm Hawkey.acm. D. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website.

e5. Final Version.. Busetta. Brusilovsky. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. W. M. Bratislava. A. and Conejo. P. http://eprints. Jaroslav. and Blažič. May 25.pdf Klobučar.usyd.p df Iwazaki. (2001). P. P.ac.cs. http://csdl2. R. (2004).bbk. S.si/eng/ijceel. Levene..SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. J..computer. October 2004. Dolog.. SeLeNe .. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).ijs. WP4 Deliverable 4. Jones.. Stock.sb.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. Nicola (2005). M. In: De Bra. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. J. Edinburgh. 23-30 July 2005..l3s. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.kbs. Educational Technology & Society. and Montandon.Self E-Learning Networks. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System.. B.ac. and Niu. Goren-Bar. T.. O..stuba.. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14. PIA Conference. http://www.unihannover. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. (2004). Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web.pdf Kuruc. B. Martin (2004).org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941.pdf Johnson.. Callaway. Seničar.. D. .de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. V. de Freitas. W. P.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. 7(4):70-81. In Mária Bieliková. (2002). Niu . Gallipoli.uni-sb. J. P. Personis: A Server for User Models.. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.pdf Kuflik... http://www. P. http://www. Online paper. http://www.. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1. A. P.pdf Kay.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005. http://w5.2. L. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. UK http://homepages. Penserini.inf. Waycott. P. M. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.cs. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22.it/papers/avi2004.cs. and Lauder. (2005).pdf Kay. C. and Nejdl.dcs.. and Zancanaro.. (2005). UM 2005..edu. Online paper. C.cs. S. Proceedings of IIT. (2005). Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. editor.. D.fiit..usyd. http://www.1.edu. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. Yokoi.. and Okamoto. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents.pdf Kuflik.pdf Keenoy. (2004). (2004).uk/selene/reports/ Del22.. Levene. Brasher.ed. W.4.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. T. Yasuda.itc. 2004 http://www.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. K. http://www.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. (2005).pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). UK. Turcsanyi-Szabo. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. (2004). Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). (eds.. M.ippr. T.au/~piers/papers/ pums.PDF Kay. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. 2005. J.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. and Zancanaro.. Online paper.pdf Kay. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . J.. pages 249-256. Rocchi. T. and Lauder.pdf Keenoy. B. 2004. T. http://peach. Kummerfeld. K. http://adiret.pdf Henze.pdf Henze. A. K. (2002)..unimagdeburg. and Peterson. IEEE Computer Society. Kummerfeld. N. Italy. LSC. Kaszas.bbk. Lum. M.ac. Online paper.

A. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. (2005).uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. and Tasso. August. (2000).de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.elearningguild.. David. Kaszás. Muller. B.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.H. http://www. A. Lejeune. http://www. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. J-P. J-P.2.soton. Margaret (2002). Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.pdf Ng M.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor. Italy. Z.dcs.. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century. Hungary.fraunhofer. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS)..gov. Malaga... F. Maier P. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.. Preis. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection.ac. A. L..dcs.pdf Sakamura. http://www. M.. C.2.2.bbk.. B. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Spain. A.. Online paper.tuharburg. Ken (2000). C. 2004 http://www2. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. New York.. C. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version)...www2004.ac.ac. Diagne. 2002. Gutl.uk/trails Schoonenboom.pdf Martinez. Julia (2004)..pdf Mizzaro.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. J. R. Mehta. available from www.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final. http://www.ipsi. http://www. (2005).uk/6832/01/ah 02. Trummer. Cooley. Blake. Goita.. M.lsc. and Levene. Jones.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub.sts. Turcsányi-Szabó. Budapest.. Kaszás..bbk. (Eds. available from www.iicm.. Montandon. (2004).. L. Barrios.http://senet.ecs. Schmidt. 43(8):142–151. V. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal.um. K..html Schmidt. May 2004. A. C.. Pluhar. A. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. http://eprints. May 25. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. ACM Press. C.uk/trails Sehring. Stewart. M. K. M... H. Turcsányi-Szabó.learninginprocess. and Levene.pdf Mobascher.. P.uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning.428-431.. M.org. http://www. Y. Keenoy. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives..de/~mehta/uuc m. M. J.pdf Schoonenboom. Bossung. Spain. David. F. Málaga. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. http://www.utokyo.dimi. and Modritscher.) (2002). A. Online paper.. May 2002. Faure.ncsl.com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. Hall W.ac. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). P. January 2004. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. J. Jones. (2004b).ac.pdf Niederee. URL: http://maya. D. Flypad Report. S. S.pdf Reeves. A Multi-Dimensional. and Hemmje..mrl. Enric and Minguillon. H.nott.. (2004). Winterhalter. Stuart.. J.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). http://www.uniud.pdf Do not reproduce 143 .com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h.1. Lejeune. pp. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. Gallipoli.org/proceedings/doc s/2p264. C. Keenoy.. 2004. Montandon. Communications of the ACM. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. and Srivastava. (2002).cs.. http://www. May 7. (2004).pdf Pivec.depaul.. (2004a). Armstrong R. Paper presented at EDEN 2004..

Boston. and Hirose.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . and Ioannidis.. 2002. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization.Sparacino. M. http://alumni.. IL. T. Yoshida.. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002).miralab. M. A. Wang. J. IEEE Computer Society. V. Flavia (2002). Yamashita. N. H. April 17-20.. Kuzuoka. 27-31 March 2004. (2004). Y. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004). Proceedings.ch/subpages/life plus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised. T. http://www.. Pliakas.mit. Demiris. Online paper. (2003). USA.. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences..computer...pdf Vlahakis.edu/~flavia/Paper s/flavia_mw2002. http://csdl2. Ando.org/comp/proceedin gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. Chicago.unige.media. K.pdf Tanikawa. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums.

the portal offered information on more than 20. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. content management. 2001). including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. instructorled. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. which form a dynamic user profile.Portals Related terms Collaboration.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. collaborative environment. vendors.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. learning management systems. In the business world. Knowledge Management.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . and other roles outside an organization (Collins.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. http://www.elearningeuropa. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. As of early 2006. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization.

saba. Learning Circuits. 2004. Ron (2004). and Aucoin.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.www2. museums.proquest.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. K.ittoolbox. and Sheehan.microsoft.worldwidelearn.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. e-mail distribution lists.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. http://h20219.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.000 lesson plans http://www.fathom. PA: Information Science Publishing. March 1.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. interactive discussion groups.com/home. baby! E-learning portals.trainingregistry. Heidi (2001).elementk.cyberu.amazon. Campbell. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. audio and/or video. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.tamtam.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.learningcircuits. news and announcements.students. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron.000 online courses http://www.000 publishers worldwide http://www.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.com/article.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.microsoft. http://blogs.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. Hershey. R. Tom (2000).com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. http://www. and universities. calendars. May 2000.700 online courses http://www.hp.nl/mart/CategoryView. school administrators.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. and schedules. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.teach-nology. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. http://www.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. (Eds.htm Brockbank. category. document management information. You’ve come a long way. Campus Technology Magazine.Education. New York: AMACOM. go to: http://www.executrain. instructors. and shared lists for tasks.amazon. A. administrators. http://knowledgemanagement. A Portrait of Learning Portals.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. In Jafari.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. instant messaging.300 online courses http://www. Bray (2001). http://www.. online meetings with text. M. http://www. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. (2003).asp Element K – Access to over 2.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. including educational uses. students. http://www.campustechnology.

and Sheehan. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen..com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari.learningcircuits.Collins. C. (Eds. M. New York: AMACOM. http://www.) (2003).amazon. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.asp Terra.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.amazon.asp Katz. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Reviewed at: http://www. and Gordon.htm Do not reproduce 147 . E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.educause. http://www.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. A. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal.educause.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. Richard & Associates (2002). (2003). Cornelia (2000). Heidi (2003). Hershey. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. September 2000. http://www. J.

Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.lsc.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.” In the Middle Ages.mit.macromedia. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. See the TEAL Project at MIT. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. http://www.replayhq. http://www. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. webcasting.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. In fact. Online presentations can be very boring.masternewmedia. http://icampus. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. Skypecasting.elluminate. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. web conferencing. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. http://www. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.com Hewlett-Packard. when experts are not readily available. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.edu/TEAL). if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. although many are trying to change this practice.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. http://www. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . in partnership with Dreamworks. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. Experience them at: http://www.com/site/index. While it is expensive. However.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. virtual classrooms.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. webinars Consequently.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.

org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos. forums and message boards. groupware.htm http://www. http://buyersguide.infoworld. online meetings.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.thinkofit. http://www.kolabora.eweek.” > http://www. videoconferencing.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.htm http://www. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach. videoconferencing. Coursebuilder. Authorware. Captivate.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.htm http://www.e-learningcentre. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.ccimeet.adelaide.acue.> > http://www. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.humanresourceWebinars. http://www.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.com/udell/200 5/02/25. a columnist at InfoWorld. Webcasts. Breeze.com/news_radars /web_presentations. http://www.lsc. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.00. and kidneys. http://www.athabascau.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.co.brandonhall. Web seminars. http://www. intranets. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.com/webconf/index. presentation and streaming presentation tools.com/cxoextra/0.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.com/publications/lel/lel.elearningcentre. and whiteboarding. > > http://weblog.co.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. virtual classrooms.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.co. virtual meetings.hp.elearningcentre. Dreamweaver. http://www. independent listing of Webinars.39155030.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.silicon.elearningcentre. Do not reproduce 149 . http://www.html#a1185 http://weblog. brain. http://cde.infoworld. instant messaging. and Web presentations. http://ajax.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.edu. and e-learning.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.elearningcentre.co.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. and Flash. online communities.com/udell/200 5/01/22. although it does not have to be. virtual teams. Web conferencing.380 0005416.co.com/eweek/web conferencing.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. social software for online collaboration. > > http://www.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.kolabora.

org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.com/product /software/795/index. 2005. http://labnol.. Jennifer (2004).learningcircuits.com/software/present ation. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International.asp McNally. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . July 8. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.htm Duckworth. Live and Online!: tips. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.fasfind. (2004). P.apreso.aace.masterviews.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. Live ELearning. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).com/Breeze Part2.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. Sept. May 15.htm Hofman. Luigi (2003a).downloadjunction.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia. Russ (2004). Digital Inspiration.blogspot.. April 30. (in two parts) > > http://www. Armit (2005). Christine (2001). July.programjunction. http://www. Belinda (2003). http://www.com/Breeze Part1. http://www. http://www.russellmcnally. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia. 7(3). K.aln.pdf Scott. Luigi (2003c).presentations.html Using Apreso software. and Furr. P.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. and Quick. 3. http://www. 2003.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003b).htm Canali De Rossi. K. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.com/presentatio ns/index.amazon. Sept.html Canali De Rossi. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. (2002).org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth.com/wwwtools/m/21593.com/downloads/sear ch. July 26.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. http://www.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. 2003. Learning Circuits. Robin Good Blog.http://www. http://www. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. http://www.filesland. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.01. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. 2003. 2004.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. http://m.russellmcnally.timelyweb.pdf http://www. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.

and Winfield. but… Presentations Magazine.html Zielinski. http://www. Start Saving Time and Money Today.open. AMACOM. L.ac. Choose your presentation tools carefully.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. 2005. http://www. http://www. Dave (2002). S.http://kmi. Feb.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . Software. Choose the Right Vendors. and Equipment. Choices are great. InfoWorld.presentations. 11. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1.pdf Spielman.amazon. Dec. (2003).com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display.infoworld.. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.

tests. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. or where the online information frequently changes. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. microlearning > down pages. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. It is best suited to text-based materials. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. easy to use. Reduce the number of development vendors. 2003). programming. glossary. In the second sense of the term. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . Assign SMEs who are committed. 2003). where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. low. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.versus high-interaction). Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Instructional design built in. just-intime e-learning. FAQ. and communicate deliverable expectations. According to Ready Go!. Standardize approaches.automatically assures that all navigation works. It can refer to learning something quickly. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. learning objects. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. virtual classroom. Navigation built in . Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement.e. Does not require any advanced skills. a demand to produce online content very quickly. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. but not always good for you. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. by necessity.. Tools for rapid e-learning are. and clip art is straight forward and supported . For example. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. including tools and templates. Deploys easily . graphics. Advanced features. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning.does not require any plug-ins. or HTML knowledge. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. are built in. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. manage the content and the users. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. In the first case. extreme e-learning. simple. such as creating links.

asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.co. Extreme Learning: Decision Games.elearningguild. Edit. version control protocols. Paper.com/showArticle. http://www. Reusability. Chief Learning Officer. Making rapid e-learning work.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.clomedia. Dianne (2005).org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. tools.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. Penny (2004). http://www. http://www.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.elearningmag. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. and Publish. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. http://www.scate.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.pdf Aldrich. Transform Magazine.htm Bibliography Abell. LTI Newsline. LTI Newsline. See a demo at: http://www. 2004).com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Lane (2002). and other good stuff. July 2.elearningcentre.pdf Brodsky.microlearning. Clark (2005).masie. Larstan Business Reports.articulate.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. and Bersin. August 2004.clomedia.meetingone.” Find out more: http://www. Do not reproduce 153 .learningcircuits. Mark (2003). Enhance.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. http://www. http://www. June 30.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. http://www. http://www.amazon. which contains information on resources. (2004).raptivity. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Josh (2005).bersin. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.com/studio. http://www. Learning Circuits.transformmag. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. E-Learning for short attention spans. J.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work.htm Bersin. See sample templates at: http://www. Bill (2005).com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. http://www. 2004. Future-Proofing. Tips and Techniques. Templates. 2006. July 2004. Jay (2005). http://www.org Web site. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.asp Bersin. Learning Solutions. June. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. http://www.access to a clear project plan. J.com/content/templat es/clo_article. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. Josh (2004). http://www. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. conferences. Jennifer (2004).readygo. January.pdf Crosman.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. centrally located files.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. schedule and due dates.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. computer games. January 23.ltimagazine. Kendrick (2006). April. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.elearningguild.com/content/templat es/clo_article.

February 2005. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. http://www. Eric (2003). January 16. http://download. http://www. 10. http://download.e-learning programs in weeks.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.com/articles /default. Chief Learning Officer. 2006. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. LTI Newsline.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. (2004a).htm Masie Center (2005). http://www.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research .clomedia.pdf Jimenez.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. 2006. http://www. 2006. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. http://www. Press release. The Training Foundation online article. Learning Solutions. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.adobe. January 2003.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. http://www. 2005. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Nov. http://www.macromedia. 9.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.trainingpressreleases. http://vftraining. Ray (2005).trainingfoundation. June 2004.elearningguru.elearningguild. Joe (2005). Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.jsp?id=150619 Hess. (2004b). http://www.clomedia. Mar. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.clomedia. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. http://www.ltimagazine. Ed (2004).elearningguild.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Learning Solutions. http://www.macromedia. e-Learning Crop Circles. Garin (2004). Chief Learning Officer. Macromedia White Paper.pdf Gustafson.com/articles/abs tracts/index.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms.com/new sstory. Clive (2006). 2002. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Macromedia White Paper.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f.pdf Mayberry.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning.com/content/templat es/clo_article.learningcircuits.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.pdf Macromedia Inc. Simulation. Learning Circuits.pdf Jimenez. April 20. Ray (2006). Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.pdf Shepherd. Jan.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Nick (2005).com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Kevin (2002). Rapid Intake White Paper. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Stephanie (2006).

simulation > http://www.gov.rec.nasa. http://www.com/r_home.aad. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. http://www.evolution. technology. and mathematics. and math.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.cmu. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. http://www. engineering. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. technology.active-robots.ife.org/aboutbotball/overview. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. Inc. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.euron. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.edurobot. > http://www.lego.botball. http://robotics.whmsi. one child at a time.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.com/ Do not reproduce 155 . http://mindstorms. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.ri. for underwater exploration.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. http://www.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.edu/index. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. engineering. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.

B.wtec.osaka-u.org/article.. Heinsohn.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. http://robotics..l3s. http://robothaven. http://www. H.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. G.net/ Run by NASA.gov/rcc/index.edu/~sklar/er /edu.atr. I. (2005). I.php Bibliography Blank. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. P.pdf Boersch. Artificial Intelligence Conf.microworlds. Yanco. Ferrari. W.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Kumar.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Basic Books.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research .ed. and Mataric. Robots in the classroom . http://www. http://www. M.fhbrandenburg. November.. June. U. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.uml.ams. and Loose.l3s. (1999). Kumar. http://www.sci. Lathan.pdf Cooper.cmu. (2004). http://www. (2004).ac. It features news.brooklyn.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. http://www. (2004). To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.com/solutions/mw exrobotics. http://dangermouse. J. Keating. D. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. Computers.. M. http://zeus. Paper at the American Assoc. S. Hohmann. and Meeden. Find out more about this group at: http://www. and Powerful Ideas.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics. lip movements. R. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Germany. links. AAATE Conference 1999. (2004). L. D.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. C. D. and other information on robotics..jp/ Blank. H. and vocal tics..pdf Nourbakhsh.amazon. http://www.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. and Yanco. D.cuny.pdf Papert. Düsseldorf. Mr. and Dautenhahn. and Wagner. (2001). The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. Mindstorms: Children. Meeden. Proceedings.profetic.eng. particularly robotics. http://www. and Hempel. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.andrew.kipr. L.irc.nasa.. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. New York: Syngress Publishing. D. Germany. Harwin. H.pdf http://www.amazon. Sept.tools for accessible education. M.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. D. Miller. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.technology. (1980).pdf Ferrari.jp/ See also: http://www..cs. K. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).. > > http://www.. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.brynmawr. By donning motion sensors.. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. go to: http://www. New York.

(2005). McHugh.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. M. 28-30. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. A. Abbott. Ottawa. and Rusbridge.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. R. Dobreva.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . Ontario. Donnelly.ccmlab. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. D.digicult.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. M. http://rob.. and West. S. Sept. http://www..pdf Stewart.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. T.. (2001). A.

Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. They bring into the equation user preferences. meta-search engines. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. One new approach is called “federated searching. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. as this section of the report shows. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. which submit queries. such as Yahoo. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. a rich user experience. each with their own defining feature sets.so they take the structure of the Web into account.com and Alta Vista. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. dependable information. Meta–search engines. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Ezzy (2006a. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . But. data mining. information retrieval. Web directories.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. federated search. collective intelligence. resource discovery. Examples are Google and Overture. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . in parallel. for a variety of reasons.examples are early yahoo. One is the problem of finding relevant. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. such as Google and Altavista. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. collaboration. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. search engine optimization. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. 2004).” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list.

http://www.mooter.com Gada.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.ask. http://oaister. http://getoutfoxed.jookster.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. http://www.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.aeiwi.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .convera.icerocket.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://www.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Gravee .hotbot. get answers http://www. http://www.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.gigablast.alltheweb.com/search/defa ult. video. http://www.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.umich. http://dmoz.com/ Answers.google.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.msn.gnod. http://search.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).gada.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.answers. http://www.aol.faganfinder.otavo. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.umdl.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. and the Web. http://www. http://www.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.looksmart. http://www. and text.gravee. http://search.about. rather than just returning Web pages. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.grokker.com’s search service http://a9. http://search.alexa.altavista.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.lexxe. blogs. http://channels.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www.netscape. http://www.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com About. http://www. then fill in the search box.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.

and movies.google.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.com/v2a/flash.eurekster. http://rollyo. http://infomine.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.google. http://www. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.stumbleupon. Yahooligans. http://www.com/v2/index. http://scholar.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. http://www.sri. http://www. & KidsClick!.imdb.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.psu.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.com/ Wink – Using social networking. Wink then diplays the results. cast lists and theatre schedules.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. AwesomeLibrary.ai.healthfinder. http://swicki.Clusters results.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.pubsub.google. http://www.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.wink. users tag their favorite results and block spam. reviews.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://icerocket. http://www.squidoo.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.koders. > > http://firstgov.gnoosic.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://www. http://www.gov/ http://www.gpoaccess. books.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.yahoo.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.imdb.ujiko. http://books.acronymfinder. reviews.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . http://www.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. Much of this information is hidden from view. FactMonster. http://www.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.qelix. http://www. http://kids. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://qube.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www.govmine.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://citeseer.blinkx. http://tagjag. http://froogle.topic appears.ist.ucr.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://www. http://www.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. AolKIDS.ithaki.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://vivisimo. ArtKIDSRule.

edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.seekport. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://wang16.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.convera.rrzn.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.searchedu. http://www.ee.almaden.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.com/ LitLinker . http://www.ist.4 billion links. http://smealsearch1.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://wwwqbic. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ. http://www.f cgi QBIC .com/ MediaFinder .IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.columbia.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.krugle.” Content-based search engines for pictures. http://portal. http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).ee.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.gov/entrez/query. as of this writing.searchking.nlm.soundspotter. http://www.ee.rawsugar.findlaw.truveo.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.uni-hannover. http://www. http://www. http://www.liveplasma.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://www.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www. http://www.psu.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.psu.omgili.ncbi.fm/ LawCrawler .org/citation.nih. http://www.scirus.A legal search engine.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.cmp.pandora.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www. http://www.ibm.last.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.acm. http://techsearch.technorati.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.merl.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.columbia.com/ Last.cfm?doid=10 56808.Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www.org/ Omgili . http://www. http://lawcrawler.columbia.

Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.ithaki.ixquick. audio. http://vivisimo. and links the clusters. companies. city guides. pictures. lottery results. and Web mail for the topic entered. white pages.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. http://www. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.nyu.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. and notes.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. video.net/indexu. and tracks a user's search history. http://www.com/ Info – Searches reference works.bolton. maps/directions. http://www.ac. games.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. http://www. news sources. is a valuable resource for researchers. http://www. tickets. http://www. greeting cards. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www. apartment rentals.cs. flights. health information sources. including a set of international telephone directories.zapmeta.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. dating and personals. focused searches on topics they care about.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. http://www.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.dogpile.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. weather.researchbuzz. Known as “meta-search” engines.info. http://www.searchtools.trovando. movies. Unlike other search engines. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://a9.uk/ SearchTools.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. http://clusty.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.zoominfo. therefore.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. bookmarks. and their relationships. or federated searching. http://www. jobs. http://searchenginewatch.inria.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. the user's community has total control over the results. http://www.kartoo.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.copernic. http://nlp. eBay.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. yellow pages.xcavator.intute.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. http://www. shopping sites. classifieds.ac.search. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. hotels. http://www-rocq. http://www.com/ clusters.

php Ezzy.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. For example. Ebrahim (2006). Part 2. http://www.org/index. http://www.tveyes. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. July 25. 2006. Read/Write Web.gov/ http://www.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.com/ Stephen Downes. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. International Journal on e-Learning. New York: Portfolio.just as a search engine is used for text.ac. 7-12. can be published on the user's site. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.firstmonday. http://swicki. http://www. 2004. Search 2.co.0 vs. (2004). http://www.citysearch.downes. This search engine. > > http://firstgov. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. Read/Write Web. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Y. http://www. 2006. First Monday. http://www. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Users can also browse by subject category.eurekster. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. June 2004. 6. Traditional Search. Ebrahim (2006).uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. Traditional Search.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. No. 10(12).gpoaccess. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. Search 2..searchenginecolossus.php Geser. July 20. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). Guntram (2004).. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.editlib.pdf Ensor.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. and Searching in eLearning Systems.ala.htm Ezzy. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. December.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. http://www.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. Do not reproduce 163 . and Apprato.0 vs. phrase.digicult.ucr. is against the idea of federated searches.readwriteweb. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. (2005).netmasters.amazon. and Shoham. http://infomine.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. Exchanging.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni..ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.readwriteweb.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.html Battelle. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. Resource Discovery .elearning. http://www. No. http://www. or topic . or swicki.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. John (2005). O. 6. S. Part 1.gov/ http://www. F. A. http://www. Pat (2005). Frank. July-Sept.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. June.

1759. 2004. 2005. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. J. Simple advice for complex search solutions.washington. (2004). M. White paper.infoworld. Oct. June 30.com/links/article . Corey (2005).html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . Mittal. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches.http://www. S.htm Part II: http://www. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox.pubsub.18 69408.com/alertbox/20030630. Bob (2005). Refining enterprise search.infoworld. 15. Kashyap. 2004. http://homepages. 2004.. html Porco. April 28. 15. http://www.ischool. SearchEngineWatch.ed. and Hilf. Danny (2004).edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. Search engines don’t suck. 2005. eWeek. Major Search Engines and Directories.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. InfoWorld.html Kumar. B. http://www. S.pdf Schlenker. Oct.com.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.pdf Murray. A. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster.html Heck.com/news/showS toryts. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 .. (2000). and MacColl. Lisa (2005).aace.ht m Pratt.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.useit. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. P. Stanford University.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Richard (2004). 4(1).eweek.prescientdigital.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. they’re just limited.pdf Gincel. http://www.eschoolnews.pdf Sullivan. Oct.asp Wyman. http://www. 3. E. InfoWorld. and Gupta. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. Mimkes.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. 149-166. (2005).00. Part I: http://www.digicult. (2005). http://www.com/article2/0. 10.isnoldenburg. Prescient Digital Media. http://www. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. 2003.uk/boon/delos200 5. Mike (2004). Jakob (2003).com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. Parts I and II. 2004.ac. http://searchenginewatch. It’s Gada.php/2156221 Vaas. 2005.org/16955 Low. http://dl.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. eSchool News. Doctoral dissertation. May 8. International Journal on E-Learning.prescientdigital. Oct. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources..com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. http://bobwyman. W. J. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. Carmine (2006). http://www. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think….

One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. 2003). The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). search. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky.ibm. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies.alphaworks. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. http://www.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. near Boston. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. (2005) note that “historically. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Selected Examples In Europe. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. taxonomies. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth.elenaproject. It has both its advocates and its critics. microformats. founder of the World Wide Web. metadata. Like it or not. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. but it will not be in general use for some time. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. Abbas et al. ontologies.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee.org/en/index. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. http://www. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments.aktors. are now falling short of earlier promises.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. semantic grid. http://www. such Do not reproduce 165 .asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web.

Scientific American.semanticweb. A.as semantic portals for end-users. Obrst. http://www. http://www.de/html/ Aguirre. Ali..pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. L.hp. A Semantic Web Primer. H.sciam. (2004). The first issue is free. (2003). and Zillinger. T. Sobernig. McClatchey.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. http://www.seco. K. Greece.hpl. Huber. J. May 9-12. W. http://www. Lieberman. Z.. 2005. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.open. T.. (1). Cambridge.. Tim (2003).es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.info/index.. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. Z.tkk. The semantic web. and Ahmed. and van Harmelen (2004).ifets. (2001).amazon.. New York: Wiley.net/ Bibliography Abbas.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. Forward. Salvachua.ac.. Simon. and Whitelock.pdf Anderson. Miklos.ac.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. http://kaon. and Hendler.open..uk/2004/1/ Antoniou.. J. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications.. M.personal-reader. Cambridge. http://jungla. R.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. semantic infrastructural services. May 2001. Umer.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype.info/issues.) (2003).dit. S. (2005).uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web.jxta. http://www-jime.. Brantner. Wahlster.. MA: MIT Press. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web.com/article. S. O. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing.. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. Markus. http://www. http://edutella. (Eds. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). http://www. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. D.aimatshape. S. T. M. and Smith. MA: MIT. M. Mozo. May 29 June 1. B. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).. xi. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. In Fensel..upm. S.pdf Daconta.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. http://www-jime. J. implementing. F.php?http://www . http://arxiv. http://www.amazon.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. (2005).... and Lassila. and Knowledge Management. Odeh. A.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. G.ideagroup.amazon. D. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Hendler. Mark (2005). Web Services. http://www. G. http://www. D.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning.ifets. Olmedilla.

. Nicola (2005b). Palmer.jisc. Oct.ac. 1(4). and Gouarderes. and Worldview”.. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Stephen (2005). Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. http://www.kbs..devsource. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. http://www.9/semgrid. The Netherlands. 2005.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective.semanticgrid. 18-22 July 2005. Sweden. 2001. C. MA: MIT Press. Brian (2005).pdf Nilsson. Nack.downes. Nicola (2005a). http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . N.kbs. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. Wilbert (2005). L. http://www. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. Hershey.1961106. Juan-les-Pins. 2006.unihannover. and Naeve.pdf Henze. http://www. May 27. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. H.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. (2002).. F.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. 500-504. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. Oct. Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Journal of Computer Science. Lund.asp Hatem. W.De Roure. A. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.scipub. http://www. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. Thomas (2004). http://homepages. Paul (2003).pdf Henze. (2004). CETIS Online article.ftrain. Lieberman.com/article2/0.amazon.ac. Mauthe.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin. Online article..de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.unihannover. Jennings. Ramadan.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. http://www. J. M. DevSource. M.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. (Eds. (2001). Wahlster. http://www. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . M. Cambridge.00. http://www. pdf Doctorow. Cory (2001). Amsterdam.ca/cgibin/page.cetis. Sikora. http://www. htm Dorai. France. D. A. and Hendler. M.amazon. http://www.com/~doctorow/metacrap. Online article.amazon. (2005). and Zetti. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. and Naeve.Some Architectural Guidelines. http://www2002. and Neagu.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. 10. (Eds.org/v1. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. http://www. N.pdf Downes. Paper presented at the GLS conference.. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. and Shadbolt.189 5..) (2003). Rutledge. D. Phil (2006).pdf Kraan. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). D. PA: Information Science Publishing. H. A. Greenwich. (2001). http://www.html Haack.well. Stephen’s Web. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services..cgi?post=31624 Fensel.. G. Syllogism. http://www. Semantic Web Technologies. T. L.) (2005). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia.com/ContraShirky.cwi. H. CT: Manning. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.

uk/elearning/ story/0. D. K.html Van Dijck. Davis. F. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. 7. C.00. Lytras. H. G. http://ewic. and Diaz. S. http://www. J. January 17.. trust. New York. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.ifets. G.cetis. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. A. http://poorbuthappy. http://eprints. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion.pdf Shirky. http://www. Staab.aifb. Online article. and Davis.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). David (2002). Wagner.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.asp Udell. and Worldview. CETIS Online article. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast.ecs. Scott (2005). Woukeu.ac.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.infoworld.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. 2004.pdf Sampson. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Scott’s Workblog.com/read/swiftkick /column. (2004). Millard. A. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. Networks.pdf Updegrove.html Stojanovic. Clay (2003). 7 (4). Online article. G. and Miller.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. (2005).inria.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism. http://www. Andy (2005). Karenos.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . Nov. 2628. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. 2002. and Christodoulou. (2003). Semantic Web. (2004)..pdf Samaras. http://www. 2005.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. Peter (2003). WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. http://www. December 3. 2003. May 17–22. John (2004). (2001).p df Tao. E.10577. 2004.pdf Tane. InfoWorld. D.uk/selene/reports/ Del3.bcs. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. (2005).ac. L. M.ac. Marketing Profs.shirky.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1.info/journals/7_4/5.bbk.. New York.dcs..de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.sop. Who said that? Metadata.. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. B. and Studer. P.. (2003). Darwin. http://education.darwinmag. 2005. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. F. June 14. R. Schmitz.981948. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. http://www. D. USA. The Semantic Web.w3. H. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. and Stumme. http://www2004. Scott (2002). Syllogism.unikarlsruhe. L. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.guardian.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. and Woukeu.html Wilson.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.com/login/sign up. and the Semantic Web.co.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.cetis. http://www.ac.pdf Tao. Economics and Culture. August 2.soton... Millard. http://www.marketingprofs.. June 21. 2003. http://www. http://www. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.

noaa.insead. games. http://www.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. especially ones set by themselves. According to High (2004). but information about it remains on the Web.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. http://cave.com/omni. participants will be motivated to evaluate.” My first report in this series.insead.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.arcscience.calt.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.ncsa. http://www. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. http://www. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. learn. http://www.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.insead. reviewed simulations as an online content format.e. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . http://sos. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. http://www.insead.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.insead. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.calt.calt. role-playing.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.gov/ Winters et al. i.calt. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. It was decommissioned in 2005. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.uiuc. microworlds. 2005).calt.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.icherubini.

and murmurs.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.stt-global. breathing. http://www. It runs on Windows. to play in a virtual fishtank.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.edcenter.making-history.assima.atghome. Mass.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.adobe.umich.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . http://thinkertools. http://www. For example.noaa. However.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index. > > http://geowall.net/celestia/index.edu/harvey_about.com/broadcastoverview.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma . http://www. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.sdsu.edu/geowall/ind ex.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. http://www.edu/ http://um3d.miami. http://www. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.soe.umich." http://www.ISLE .fsl. http://www.http://www. and Mac OS X.calt. http://www. Linux. http://www.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.com/ Forio .berkeley.net/ Biographix . has issued "The Calm and The Storm.insead. they are only available for Macintosh computers. http://www.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://www.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.edcenter.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.biographix.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. http://www.shatters..geo.ht m Intermezzon .sdsu.med.experiencebuilders. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. heart sounds.intermezzon. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. go to: http://www.virtualfishtank.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. http://crme.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. without programming knowledge.dc.lsa. with many examples to try. http://www.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . pulse rate.forio.html weather forecasting.adobe.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.

http://www.knowledgepresenter.reusableobjects. which can then be used to build simulations. http://www. http://www. Do not reproduce 171 .com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. Integrates with many media types.icherubini. http://www.com/portal/index. http://www.com/ Kookaburra Studios .Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com/ Reusable Objects .htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.com/ MaxIT . http://www.percepsys. http://www. http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.” http://www.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.virtualcontrolroom.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.com/ MaxIT . including simulations. http://www.teds.knowledgequest.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.maxit.com/products/sim.nexlearn. http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. http://www.bc.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.co.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.com/product_r pe. http://www.sdsu. http://www.com/3dTraining.outstart.com/ Knowledge Planet .knowledgeplanet.com/products /firefly. create courses specifically on using computer software.learning2005.maxit.stottlerhenke.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.asp Knowledge Quest .ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.jibc. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.qarbon. http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.elearningcentre.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.knowledge-director. http://www.stagecast.the click of a mouse.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.xstreamsoftware. http://www. http://coe.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.

http://www. Paper presented at Robocup conference. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.simplay.eschoolnews. http://www. Aaron (2005). October 2004. October. and Bostan. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). M. P.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.ac.html Lunce. and Ip. Utrecht.amazon.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. A. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Viswanathan.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. http://www.ft.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Shannon (2004). Feb. 4. Montréal. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Financial Times. (2002). 2004. San Francisco: Pfieffer.PDF Blikstein..ac.uva. http://www. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. http://itdl.learningcircuits.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. (2001). http://www. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.learningcircuits.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. and Sund Martin. September.ht m Sloman. B. In Interaction Design and Children. June. Gash. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. A. 2004. The promise of online simulations. http://www. T. Learning Circuits. http://www. Online report.case studies. L. Rasmussen. eSchool News. Clark (2005).com/content/templat es/clo_feature.learningcircuits. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Making the most of software simulations. A. Jennifer (2004)..blikstein.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich. (2005).html Linser.html Karrer.learningcircuits.htm Aldrich. Simulation levels in software training. Les (2004).com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. http://www. How playing power drives lessons home..org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. Learning Circuits. Implementation and Evaluation. International Workshop. Six criteria of an educational simulation. October 15-19. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . Simjour. September. Aug.pdf DeVries.http://www. A. (2002).. July. Clark (2004). http://www. F. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. 1(10).science.net/papers/ELearning. Sept.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. Department of Computer Science.pdf Cherubini. Mazloumian. 8.. Laser. Bjorn (2004). A.. and Wilensky. U. A. J.bbk. p.html Learning Circuits. (2004). J.com/news/showS tory. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Chief Learning Officer.. 2002. http://www.ncassr. J.. computer games. T.html Sobeih.medialabeurope.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. http://www. AACE conference. Taghiyareh.projects. Kamau (2004). Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.htm High. R. H. A. Holland.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. Learning Circuits.clomedia.bham. Computer simulations in distance education. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.cs. & de Jong. and Hou. (2004).com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. (2001). 2004. and McCloughlin.pdf Swaak. M.htm eSchool News (2004). The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. http://www.for Philosophers and Engineers. 12.

pdf Turkle.-Apr. Cherubini. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. and Strohecker. Mar. The American Prospect. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Fort Lauderdale. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.. 1997. USA. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.knowledge. (2003). Sherry (1997).pdf Tjaden.uc. 284-294. 8(31). 17. Florida.protonmedia. N.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. C. http://www.html Winters. In Association for Computing Machinery.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper..it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .dei. M. Online paper at: http://lsm. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation..prospect.icherubini.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. http://www. April. Gary (2003).

edu/index.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.ac. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. optical tags. especially in museums and for outdoor education.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.org/Template. While controversial. http://www.checkpointsystems. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.com/default .cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. For a full discussion of this issue. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. RFID technology is developing rapidly. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).open. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. http://cnm. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. especially for tagging retail items in stores. easily changed.iu.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. grease. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.” http://vis. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .. http://uitspress.iu. or water.edu/102605_meal. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. infrared (IR) tags.ala. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. 2005). therefore. They are programmable and. which transmits over short distances. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.

ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 ...ac.. and Yano.pdf Murray.pdf Robinton. adoption and innovation. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). (2005).. http://www. R.asp?id=1222 Ross.toydirectory. http://www. 2004.aace. In Kommers. http://www.cfm?fuse action=Reader.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. N.org/ Bibliography Borck..pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. Oct. P.aace. and Case. http://www.66 Ward. 2004. (2005).jisc. R. & Richards. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. K. K. in a 2005 online article. Technology Watch Report 1. Ando. H. Infoworld.. April 13.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x.msu. Aparna (2004). C. Noda.com/monthly/articl e. June 27. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.rfidnews.infoworld. (2004). http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. 5. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. Masters Thesis. (Eds. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.digicult. A. 276-283.html Osawa.html?s=feature Heining. & Kondo. March. http://csdl2. Y.1109/WMTE..com/monthly/articl e.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. RFID: frequency.. James (2006).toydirectory. eSchool News Online. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.computer.xml&DOI=10.pdf Osawa et al.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. M. van Kranenburg. and Dobreva. T. S.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online).. Ogata. January 1.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. http://www.digicult. (2003). and Backhouse.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. Andrew (2005). TD Monthly. Y.2005 . http://www. A. Donnelly.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. http://www. Corey (2004). G. http://www.org/news/showsto ry. M. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal.msu. http://www. Shibuya. http://www. Proceedings. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.eschoolnews. (2006).). 4(3).. http://www.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. 2005. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. Michigan State University. http://www. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.org/newdl/index. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. M. G.pdf Salcedo.. standards.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. S.csmonitor. Noma. Tsukagoshi. 261-263.

much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. connect with others. and to share them. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. and books. search others’ references. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. share references with colleagues.” a location to store links that might be lost to time.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.metafilter. Students. store. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. http://www. Second. As of April 2006. or distributed in e-mails. Fifth.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research .us) post their favorite Web sites. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations.com/ Blinklist . Flickr held over 100 million images. while users of the del. in turn. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.43things.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. http://www. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. faculty. For example. music. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. users can see what others are Blinking. For instance.citeulike. and Web links. as each member can upload resources discovered. http://ask.blinklist. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. http://www. ontologies. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects.icio. researchers at all levels (students.connotea.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. search.us Web site (http://del. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.A free service to help academics share. they act as an “outboard memory. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. describe. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. no matter their location or timing. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.First. metadata.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. Fourth. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research.” However. and organize the academic papers they are reading. get inspired. and search for a specific user's Blinks. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. tagging.icio. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. share their stories. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. printouts. http://blogmarks. Third. They can save references.net/ CiteULike . or check out what everyone wants to do. The result is something called a tag cloud. Also. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. Blink also provides tools to sort. http://www.

blogging.com/ Jots .eventful. http://myweb2.gnolia.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.Consumating .A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.shadows.com/archives/beta_up date/index. search.eu/products/networ k_menus.com/ Kaboodle .kaboodle.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. sort.com Clipmarks . http://www. Also retrieve it easily.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://www. http://ma. http://consumating. http://projectpad.com/ Project Pad . and/or books and find them again.search.com/ Do not reproduce 177 . http://www.us . based on what is happening in the news media.netscape.com/ Furl .northwestern. or enter new items and tag them.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.furl. http://www.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.networkltd. share. http://www. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com/ Del.net/ Jookster .com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.A free. http://www.html Linkroll .memeorandum. http://www.com/ Simpy – Search tags. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.icio.simpy.org/news. but.us/ Digg . http://jots. users submit stories for review.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. the users decide. http://www. and non-hierarchical editorial control.com/ Flickr – Store.linkroll.pageflakes.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. Tags can be shared or kept private.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.rojo.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. similar to Digg.jookster. http://www. updated in near real time. http://www.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. http://blog. With digg.feedmarker.netvouz. http://www. http://www. http://flickr. http://del. and share photos with others. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.com/ Magnolia .com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://www. RSS.yahoo. music.icio.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://www. http://www.digg. and discover relevant links.clipmarks.edu/ppad2/ index.

cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. Flickr. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.spurl.html http://www.suprglu.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://upcoming. Web 2.” > > http://magazines.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.icio.com/wwwtool s/m/6350. http://tabblo.net/ Suprglu .com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. http://unalog. and share it with others.us. 41(2).html http://tagsonomy. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.quickonlinetips. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.com/ SWiK . http://weblog.A.com Wists – A social shopping site.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.peterme. http://www.tagzania.fasfind.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001. http://www. http://www. with contributions from users. > http://www. If a city is not there.veotag.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.yelp.wists.com/udell/gems/d elicious. http://www.com/index.html http://atomiq.com/wwwtool s/m/7172. Bryan (2006).com/writings/ontology_ov errated. http://www.educause. tags.wink. Online Resources Jon Udell. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. http://www.icio.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup. and Digg.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. and social bookmarking.quickonlinetips. http://www.” http://www.zvents.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.fasfind.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. http://swik.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.S. http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/archives/000 558. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.infoworld.com/ about how tagging works with del.quickonlinetips. March/April 2006.smugmug. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. http://www.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.us.

11(4). http://tomgruber. http://www. 2004. Plasticbag.com. (2005). Tom (2005).educause. and Hannay. D-Lib Magazine. Adam (2004).http://www. 11(4). Trusted Sources. Jon (2004).net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. 2006. Hammond.ascc.pdf Mejias. and Scott. Ideant. B.html Mathes. 2.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.. Tags vs.ejournal.pbs.pdf Gurber. June 21.dlib. Lund. July 20.techtarget. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.infoworld.corante. 2006. http://www.adammathes.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th.htm Hammond. 2.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. T. Online Paper.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. Jon (2005). D-Lib Magazine. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. 2005. http://ideant. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). InfoWorld.org/teachersource/learning . Collaborative knowledge gardening. S. http://www.. InfoWorld. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. http://www. http://www.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. http://www. 2005.html Do not reproduce 179 .isi.plasticbag. http://many.hpl.html Lawley.html Udell.infoworld. Ulises (2005). Online paper. Sept. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. HP Labs Report. Flack. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Liz (2005). 2005. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. J. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. Aug. August 20.289142. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.hp.org. M. http://www.. Webblogg-ed. 2005. B.00. 20.html McGillicuddy.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. May 20. T..sid19_gci1195182. Many2Many. http://www. T.. SearchCIO. (2005). Nicholas (2004). May 5.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Ulises (2004).php Lund. Andy (2006). and Huberman.typepad. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.typepad. Social consequences of social tagging.com/originalCo ntent/0..asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Will (2005). B. http://searchcio.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. (2005).weblogged.shtml Golder.html Mote. Shamus (2006).html Coates.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Jan. Keynote address. http://ideant. April 2005. http://www. Hannay.ht ml Mejias. Tom. T. April 2005. The New School of Ontologies.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.pdf Richardson.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. 2005.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. (2005). http://dlib.

Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. social networking sites such as Friendster. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.classmates.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. tagging. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. etc. SMS. photo sharing sites. http://www.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software.) Experience Sharing (blogs. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. dating sites.us.icio. shared link libraries such as del. e-mail.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . etc. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et.al.com. and the military. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. My first report in this series. shared links. photo albums. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.com. online personals such as Match. 2005). reviewed social networking as an online content format. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs.” that is. family.) Relationship Management (Orkut. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. work.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Friendster. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. e-mail. social software. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. communities of practice. etc. etc.

last.com/introNetwor ks. http://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .myspace.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. or as a social network. http://www.html Last. http://www.com/ Orkut .friendster.yahoo. List who a person knows and find out who others know. http://www.intronetworks.com Platial – A site to create social maps. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. http://www.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.orkut.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.” http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.com/inflow3.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.netminer. http://platial. and geographic regions.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. http://www. and files and then make them available to others. and within “communities of interest.my-diary.xanga. http://www.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.com/ Live Journal . http://360. Facebook has networks for colleges. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. video.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. http://www. http://www.spartasocialnetworks. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.linkedin.com/ucinet. workplaces.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. http://www.analytictech. which is then open to other readers. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. as a blog. http://www.orgnet. audio.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. http://www.stumbleupon. https://www. https://www.com/reg/sample. Share it with others if desired. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. It costs several thousand dollars.com/signin/index. high schools.esnips.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.facebook. documents.freeopendiary. photos. http://www.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. in associations.faceparty.diaryland.codeville. Users share their writings and meet each other. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. upload photos.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. http://www.livejournal. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://www. http://www.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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http://gaim. Naeve.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. A.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. Cambridge.pdf Knudsen. history. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://www. and Pejas.html Goldberg. http://www.ietf. Presence applications poised for takeoff. as well as news. http://www2.percro." http://www. MacOS X. L. http://www-142. http://www. C. J.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.fakespace. J. C.nada. On the Internet. and Naeve. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.live. MA: MIT Press.kth.aim.html http://www.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.) (2000). London: Routledge. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.virtual-presence.. 6.net/ Jabber – An open.yahoo.no/at/nmm/enlund.hig.org/rfc/rfc2779. and Windows.jabber. secure.ebuddy. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. http://www. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.“Simultaneous Presence. In Soldek.amazon. > > http://www.ibm.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. the CAVE. http://kmr. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.org/teleimmersio n2. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.txt Knudsen. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. A. Online memo. 2004. http://laimuz. http://www. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.pd f Fontana.advanced. http://get.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.sourceforge.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. 44-49. Network World.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.ieor.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society. http://www.unizar. http://www.networkworld. The driver sits in a box. (2001). Ken (Ed. John (2004). and Handberg. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.advanced. Nils (2000).org/teleimmersio n.org Bibliography Dreyfus.com/index. BSD. http://messenger.berkeley. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. http://www.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. (Eds.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. http://www. Hubert (2001). Sept.acs. (2002).com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. Network Working Group (2000).com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.

nada. Regina (2004). Jan.. Germany: Hagen. http://www. D.infoworld. Jon (2005). A.swedishlearninglab. (2001). Davide. W. 28.modes. and IJsselsteijn. (Eds.. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.650 64-0. et al. InfoWorld. Abbott. http://www. Dobreva. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. H.digicult. http://cid. In Hoyer. Wired News.html Riva.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.amazon. and Handberg. 2002.Banff.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. Alberta. June 1. http://www. and Rusbridge. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www. http://www.pdf Lynn. C.wired.. M.) (2003).pdf Sponberg. H. January 2005.com/news/culture/0. G. McHugh.kth. M. S.Learning. A.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Being There: Concepts. Knudsen.se/pdf/CID-206. September 24. F. (2005).org/docume nts/Sponberg.. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Donnelly.pdf Udell. Calgary. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.. (Eds.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1. Ins and outs of teledildonics. L.

Britain's largest telecom firm. telepresence. As the following examples show. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. 2002). educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. bandwidth becomes an issue. 2005). and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. even a video plug-in for Skype. reviewed video as an online content format. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. tlearning. However. vodcasting. streaming video. My first report in this series. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. IPTV. screencasting. television. PDAs. cell phones. the largest Internet telephone service.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. video blogging. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. in all its formats. videocasting. Do not reproduce 189 . Once video goes on the Internet. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Video blogging has become common. Further. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). In spite of the limitations. BT. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. according to Foroohar (2006). amateur and professional video cameras. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. A new version of television. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions.

http://www.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. improves the satisfaction of the client.com/nara.concord.veotag. partners. cellular.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. and divide them into chapters or segments. See examples at: http://www. see Rocketboom.dmeurope. http://participatoryculture. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.axor. or students through a high quality.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. the Internet telephone service. http://www. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. http://vpb.html Dialcom Networks.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. whether dial-up.com For an example of a video blog. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. the “triple play” of video.uk/index. http://video. See samples at: http://www. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.ourmedia.com/index_about. low bandwidth video stream. http://www.addictingclips. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. with IPTV.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.rocketboom.youtube. It is still going strong at: http://www. http://www.co. tag them.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .com/pressrelea ses. http://www. and multimedia content to customers.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.” Users can upload video clips for free.medialogic. video.org/ In 1999. http://www. voice. See the current selection at: http://video.com/ BitTorrent. http://www. and maintains loyalty.apple.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.brightcove. http://www. http://www. desktop.com.dfilm.google.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.bittorrent. or set-top box. http://www. http://www. a three-minute videoblog.ar/iptv_en. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.com/default.google. PDA.xstreamengine.on2. employees.rocketboom. http://www.bittorrent.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.org/ At YouTube.

” http://www.elearningcentre.iptv-industry.” http://knowledge. https://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005.pdf Bardia.” Bibliography Atwere.upenn.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.500 vlogs organized by popularity.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.org/doing/media.mil/index.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. Luigi (2005a). which users can submit.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.navy. (2003). by alphabet. termed “mobile television. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. P.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.elearnspace.” http://www. http://www.streamingmedia. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. Beyond Wireless Broadband.dvguru.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning. http://www. and by tags. http://www. http://www.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. Wi-Max. http://www. video. www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. and Bates.com/ http://www.educause.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. but business models are fuzzy. Dec.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video. The site already contains nearly 6.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.co. For example.thinkofit.masternewmedia. 1.com/webconf/video. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 . 2005.mefeedia.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.ht m Canali De Rossi.uk/files/pdf/1443. Peter (2003).masternewmedia.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.org. D. http://www. Pradeep (2004). http://www.wharton.hpc.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.com/seeds/index. http://www. Robin Good Blog.pjb.co. Online article at: http://www.spider.masternewmedia. Wi-Fi. t-learning Study . read “Ten video sharing services compared.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.edu/articl e. http://www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.” http://www. and visual resources.veoh.com/article. http://eduscapes. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.uk/tlearning/contents.lsda.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2005b). through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.

June 6. Changing Channels.ac. M. 7.usc. IBM Institute for Business Value study. http://www.aace.. P. Manchester. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Rana (2005). UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Matthew (2005). (2005).networkingpipeline.ibm. http://www-rcf.amazon. Asensio. Campus Technology.apple. Nov.). (2003).jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. Networking Pipeline. Durham.org/newdl/index. Online paper. Newsweek (International Ed.msnbc.pdf Klass. http://www. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. http://www. http://www. Robin Good Blog.umist. Feb. pdf Nolle. http://www2. http://www. 2. (Ed. 2005. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.asp?id=7769 Meng.com/article.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. Tom (2005).) (2002). Brian (2002).com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . Peter (2005). and Swenson. Brian (2005). http://www. Dec. L.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 .edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. http://www1. 8-9. NC: Duke University.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. University of Missouri.cfm?fuse action=Reader. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. April 26. 2005. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. http://edmarketing. 417-419).com/showAr ticle. IAT Services White Paper.masternewmedia. 2005. (Eds. discussions and implications.bcr.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). http://www.htm Curtis.msn.campustechnology. In Richards. S.XMax Goes The Distance. G. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.php Taplin. Jonathan. C.pdf Thornhill. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. 2005. The IPTV Revolution.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. 2005.). Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. and Young. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Mon.

http://ancient. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.netofpeers. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. inventors. http://solipsis.arts. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. and Religious Studies department. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. http://www. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.equator. By using aspects of game play.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. augmented virtuality.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. http://www.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. mixed reality. distributed virtual environments. Shape has developed the augurscope. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.cs. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.ubc.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. interaction.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 .columbia. simulation. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. Creed. Depending on the level of realism achieved. To do this.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. http://www1. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.org. Videoconferencing is not required.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. exchange enabling. virtual environments only on end-users' machines.kahootz. designers.net/wiki2/index. Exploration and discovery are enabled. skin color. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. desktop virtual reality.shapedc.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.ac. http://www. and storytellers.futurelab. Near Eastern. http://www.ca/index. and the aim of the virtual experience.org/highlights/augur.

C.org/index. https://www.secondlife. East Carolina University.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. For example. T. 175-199. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). Luigi (2004). Technology Area .htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. http://www.epfl. http://www. and Tsiatsos. (2006). Triantafillou. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. C.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . Journal of Network and Computer Applications.informationinplace. T.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.S.com/article..html The U. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.navy. http://ru6.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 . 24.cti.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. > > http://www. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.com http://www.html Bibliography Bouras.opencroquet.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). http://vrlab. including education.ahds.spider. Hornig.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. http://vr.hpc. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.com/edu/index. > http://vads.healthdatamanagement. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. C. (2001).html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.intuition-eunetwork. V. and Tsiatsos. Campus Technology. http://www..de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. and Tsiatsos. Research report.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. A.ch/About/about_index.cti.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. http://ru6.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. http://www.mil/index.ecu.edu/vrel. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.cti.ac. (2001). http://ru6. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.ac.pdf Bouras.ergonetz.pdf Bouras. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. T. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. G.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7. http://www. August 9.campustechnology.ahds.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. Philopoulos. http://www.coe.. 2006. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.activeworlds.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.

1. Monahan.. http://www. S.Good Blog. P..learningcircuits.pdf Katterfeld. No.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. Virtual teaching aids become a reality..p df Prasolova-Førland. 28.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.elearning. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Proceedings.com/PaperInfo. Web-based Education 2005 conference. (Section on Virtual Reality). F. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. http://www.htm Katterfeld. M..aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. (2005). M. International Archives of Photogrammetry. (2002).au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. M. E. January 2005. http://www.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. 2004. T.htm Dickey. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. M. Vol. D.ie/Owen. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Eva (2004).org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. C.html Liarokapis.digicult. http://courseweb. http://www.. and Mangina.html Jones. P. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 1(2).eng. Gerard (2002).. Trend: augmented reality check. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. Donnelly. & Sester. http://www. Bertolotto. (2005). F. https://www. G. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. http://education.00. Sept. and Seyedarabi.unt. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.com/Reference. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). 27.com/PaperInfo.uk/elearning/ story/0. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Lister.pdf Ross. Conlan. Ekaterina (2005). G. 2004. 2004. La Coruna/Spain.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.icc2005. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. 2004.actapress. (2005). M. Stephen (2004). R. 35.pdf Hoare. O. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Michelle (2003). http://www. Sept.actapress.unibo.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. http://www.monash. and White. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Learning Circuits. ISPRS. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Istanbul.cs. Dobreva.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen.masternewmedia.ikg.1314022. and Sester. M.tcd. A. (2005).pdf McArdle. McHugh. Guardian Unlimited. 2005.pdf Do not reproduce 195 .Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. A.co.unihannover.. (2004). Abbott. and Rusbridge.oln. J.. C. Dec.. Proceedings. July 9-16. http://www.actapress. and Hicks.org/htmleng/english. (2004). Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.edu. http://www.10577. http://www.guardian. Petridis.

entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. dynamic displays. 2005). Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. graphics. see ZoomClouds. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously.semagix.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. pattern recognition.ontopia. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. GIS. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. See some amazing demos at: http://www.zoomclouds. On the other hand. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. data mapping.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Finally.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. For an example. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. http://www. 2003).Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.dpc. My first report in this series.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. images. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. visualization can represent alternative points of view. http://www. Flash. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. which showcases their potential. reviewed visualization as an online content format. http://www. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. cognitive collage. et al. and data rendering. The educational advantages of visualization are many. cybercartography.inxight. mapping. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. such as a blog.ucar. geographical information systems. http://www.com/solutions.net/omnigator/models/ index. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. data filtering. allowing for innovation or new understandings.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. location based systems.unifiedfield.

http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.bham.edu/index. http://news.ac.ul.typorganism.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. http://chatcircles. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. See: http://www.media.nixlog. See his list of resources at: http://www.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival. delivery.co.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. http://www.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. Free demo at: http://www. http://www.mit. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography. http://www.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. http://www.cs. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .tmm.medibolt.bbc.nasa.skyscraper.utexas. 2004.”’ BBC News.esrin.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. http://www.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. http://www. http://www.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.medtropolis. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch.ubc. and visualization applications. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. Be sure to explore the “zoo.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. http://www.nlm.alice.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.edu/ Paul Nixon. Museum Edition.ddd. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. April 7th.html For a practical application of visualization.vrco.lecielestbleu.esa. Sample the collection at: http://svs.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.” http://www. and display (without glasses!).idc. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. http://esapub. a young graphic designer.0 authoring system.vista.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.nih.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .marumushi. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.” http://richie.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. VR. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.gov/index.in English or Spanish.org/timeformations/ intro. It has images of space and the earth from space.gsfc.com/VBody.com Web site in Tokyo.

anatomically detailed. one million items. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. for example.htm How do users visualize very large data sets. http://www.vicodi. in the U.idashboards.nlm. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.vrvis. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.unifiedfield.at/home.indiana.edu/postcartoaag06.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. http://makingmaps.ibm. See this technology in action. http://www. http://www. retrieval. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/index.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.cs.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries.ambientdevices.net/omnigator/models/ index. http://research. http://clustrmaps.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.owu.com CenterView http://www.cs. http://www.html Top Tier http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.S.com/applicati on. http://www.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.corda.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.feedtank.arcscience. http://www.com/omni. http://www.html XCelsius http://www.org/about.com/cat/dashb oard/index.gfdl.ontopia. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com/solutions.at: http://www.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.semagix.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.xcelsius. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. http://www.microsoft.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. See their tool set and examples of their work.mccrackendesign.spotfire. http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.amnh.noaa. and information presentation. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.com/index.umd.com WorkPlace http://www.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.nih. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.

com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. Strater.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.visualthesaurus. http://www.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.microsoft. for 3-D landscaping and animation. including the following: Voxler. Didger. http://www. http://www. http://tangible.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. Try a demo at: http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.S. for 3-D modeling.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. http://www.com/mam/mam.pixologic. http://research. modeling.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.intergraph.media.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. associations.” http://www.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. Carrara. http://www. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.oziexplorer. animation. Clicking a related term extends the process. networks.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.okino. http://www.advizorsolutions.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www. and.topozone.mit.com/vc/index.accurender.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.musanim. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.visualanalytics. http://www.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. and rendering. http://www.softill.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. http://www. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. http://www. trends. MapViewer.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. and rendering software.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www.timemap.mapinfo. and anomalies in data.5-D modeling and rendering software.esri. http://www.formz.daz3d. for 3-D data visualization. many of which are unique.com Pixologic is 2. http://www.visualcomplexity. http://www. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Grapher. for thematic and analytical mapping.goes far beyond static JPG map images. including the following: Bryce.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. They have worked with the U. http://www.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. for well log and borehole plotting.golden.

edu/eet/ Ell.ualbert a.gatech.org/index.liveplasma.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.pdf Bertin. http://www.gatech.ubc.gvu.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.vrco. http://www. > http://www.ac. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. http://www. > > http://www.pdf Bergmann.masternewmedia.stanford. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2003).com/ Bibliography Alpert.mit.complexityscience. J.complexityandeducation.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill. G. http://www.) (1999). It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.media. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. M.” http://vis. les réseaux. Paris: La Haye.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.iu. Jacques (1967).htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research .editlib.edu/index. 31-49 http://www. P. Proceedings. is available online. http://www.gvu. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. Paier.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. Jacques (1983). Madison: University of Wisconsin.edwardtufte. K.. and Shneiderman. (Eds.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. 14(1).edu/research/r esearch. http://www.topicmaps. both visualization companies. and Resetarits.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. B. EXYSTENCE network. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. Sherman (2003). http://www.media. http://coe.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.agocg.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. > > http://acg.topicmap. http://www. J. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. A. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.sdsu.mit.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. Following are two: > > http://graphics.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. Working Paper.fakespace.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. together with their estimated depth of influence.infovis. and Woodill. http://acg.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.. J.net/printRec.cs.. les cartes.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. He finished his PhD.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. The Semiology of Graphics.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.com/ http://www.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. Mackinlay. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.

amazon.istituti. August.elearningguild. May/June.. Mike and Rogers.K. June 1. A. and Woolsey.com/article. 69-82.psycho. Abbott. (1998).DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. and Knezek. August 11. Harlow. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf Goldfarb. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones.html Rhyne. and Rusbridge. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. 329-351. Spence.agocg. http://www.. pp. 2. K. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Educational Media International. England: AddisonWesley. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 1-34. D. Information Visualization. Durham.educause.. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. January 2005. Canadian Journal of Psychology. A.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.ht m O'Regan.cfm/files/pape r_5994.amazon.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. Yvonne (1996). International Journal on E-Learning. and Pagalthivarthi. 185–213 http://www. (1992). http://www.ac.usilu. 4(1). Luca (2003).pdf Shneiderman. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. No. M. Vol. K.slis.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.html Madhavan.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. http://nivea. S. http://createdrealities. available online at http://www. September. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. http://www..html Ross. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. (2004).univparis5.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. (2005). Campus Technology.pdf Scaife. A. 2005. Robert. Lugano.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. (2006).editlib. Brent (2006).info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (2001).com/articles/abs tracts/index. 46: 461-488. http://www. Dobreva. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.digicult.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638. B. http://www.asp?id=11222 Metros. 17-30. Theresa (1998). (2005). Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. http://www. Arns. G. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. 4th Edition.amazon.org/index. http://itdl. EDUCAUSE Review. P. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www.com/publications. http://www. 3. Siggraph. Reading. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. M. Morales. C.campustechnology. Brian (2002). McHugh.org/dl/index. http://www. Luca (2005). (Section on Visualization). (2005).fr/CanJ/CanJ. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. No. (2005). 42.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2..siggraph. Switzerland: University of Lugano. J. Donnelly. and Bertoline.indiana.. K.asp Mittal. 41(3). G.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. J. L. S. 3(1). 16(4).aace. http://www. http://www. NC: Duke University. Ruth (2003). pp. 45. Vol. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory.

2nd Edition. http://www. Visualization. http://www. 2nd Ed. David (2002). Sharpe. David (2005). Visual Explanations: images and quantities.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman.edwardtufte.E. Computers. Matt (2002).edwardtufte. Cheshire. Colin. CT: Graphics Press. Edward (2001). http://www.ciconline. Information Visualization: perception for design. Edward (1997). http://www.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. Digital Information Graphics. evidence and narrative. M. Amsterdam: Elsevier.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research .com/tufte/index Tufte. Envisioning Information. CT: Graphics Press.org/threshold Tufte. Edward (1990). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.com/tufte/index Ware. Fall. (2004). Cheshire. http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past.edwardtufte. http://www.amazon. Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press.amazon. Threshold.com/tufte/index Tufte.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley.amazon. http://www.

Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.jajah. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. communications tools. http://www. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. http://www. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Using VoIP. and a microphone.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. http://www. http://www. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.ieee. in remote communities. http://www.spectrum.ac. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. http://www.html Do not reproduce 203 . Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Join the discussion at: http://voip.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.infoworld.cogs.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. March 2005. 1996). http://www. Steven (2005). IEEE Spectrum Online. Geraldine (2005). An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity.weblogsinc. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.skype. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. requiring an Internet hookup.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.susx.avaya. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. In the near future. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.co.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.voipreview.envisioninc. but it is rapidly improving. http://www.org Bibliography Cherry. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.elearningcentre. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. Internet telephony. http://www. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. headphones or speakers. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Internet telephony is relatively simple.

9-12. Robert (2005). and O’Droma. I.msu.org/xpl/freeabs_all. http://ieeexplore. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. M.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. Mobile distributed e-learning center. http://www. 9(3).Ganchev.ieee. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing.. S. Stojanov. http://llt. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. (2005). Meredith (1996).nald.pdf Ottoson. September. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . Language Learning and Technology.

cmu. or repairing complex machines. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. training to do their jobs. http://wearables. The entire system. http://killer.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. the automotive industry. http://killer. including batteries. managing.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.ac.cs. http://www.bris. anytime. For example.pdf http://www. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://www. It is controllable by the user 5.ices. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. It is observable by the user 4.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Selected Examples In Europe. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. training. and other organizations involved in inspecting. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. especially for comercial airlines. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.bbc. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. Do not reproduce 205 .com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. weighs less than three pounds.edu/design/Ion. http://news.sportbrain.edu/design/VuMan. 1998): 1. ubiquitous computing > http://www. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.com/Home/Home. It is unrestrictive to the user 3.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. like a wristband or jewelry. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.hubuska. 6.learnexact.checkpointelearning. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690. In January 2006. including wearable computing.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.co.cmu. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.ices. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.

and Lupisella. Fairfax. S.eee. See: > > > http://genesis. Steve (1998).org/index. http://wearcam.org/icwckeynote. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.wired. March 8.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.704 81-0.com/read_arti cle. M.” including computers built into underwear. Wired News.htm Mann. Business Week Online.com/news/culture/0. http://www.eecg.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.ac. http://www.org is a rich source of references. (2003).nasa. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.html Garfinkel. and Niedzviecki.cs.org/index_graphical.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. Wearable computers that you can slip into.wearable.edu/research/wear ables/index. http://www. H. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. http://www. VA.amazon.jisc.ethz.technologyreview. 2006. S.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.html The design of “smart clothing.pdf Kharif.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.businessweek.edu/ http://wearcam.uk/wear-it http://www.uoregon.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.toronto.com/news/culture/0. Dec. Technology Review (Online). 2005.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. http://www.eecg. http://about. M. May 12-13.ac.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. ICWC98. Toronto: Anchor Books. Simson (2004).cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. especially in the area of wearable cameras. March 24. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . 2004. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. http://www. (2004). (2002). Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Wearable Computing for the Commons.toronto. Olga (2005).aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. C. 1.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).media. What you’ll wear in 10 years.http://www.704 81-0.mit. and Levene.bham.gsfc.eyetap. http://isd. http://www. http://www. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.ht ml http://www.wired. Mmoma (2006).uk/index. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.

” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds.disobey. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. listings of the latest books. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. photo collections. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.” as its content is changed by the author.attensa. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Amphetadesk http://www. podcasts. and course offerings. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator.com/ 7. basic text format for quick review. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited.bloglet. Attensa http://www. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed.html 6. and laptops. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). Here is a list of 48: 1.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . Both RSS and Atom are written in XML.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. Aggie http://bitworking.com/ 5. each with its own features. feeds. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. TV guides. Awasu http://www.com/ 8. and electronics. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Bloglet http://www.com/productBlog Express. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. job searches.net/dl.com 9. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. CDs. PDAs. When changes are made to a Web site.0 format). with all the potential for viruses and spam.brightcove. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. To read content from a Web feed.awasu. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future.com/ampheta desk 3. > For learners and teachers. Brightcove http://www. including cell phones. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.org/Aggie. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).html 2.com/ 4. and Atom is the second. social bookmarking. blogs. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. BlogLines http://www. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.bloglines.

somee. Topix http://www.com 40.feedster. FeedPublish http://www.blogplanet. RSSReader http://www. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.puremis. NewsIsFree http://www.com/ 30.net/ 45. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.mozdev.feed-directory.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.pluck.com/ 46.com 14.newsgator.ca/edurss02. OnFolio http://www.rss-to-javascript.com/thunderbir d/ 48.com/v2 33.net/ 24.fuzzyd. Feedster http://www.org/ 44.protopage. including listings for various electronic devices. FeedBurner http://www.ht ml 20. Feedtier http://feedtier.downes. Reader http://www.feedburner.net/ 26.com 18.org/ 37.com/ 25.com/ 31.hexamail.com/rss/ 39.feedreader.uk/rssreader / 23.com 28.sharpreader.rsscalendar.pubsub. Syndirella http://yole.topix.10. Videora http://www. Sage http://sage. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .com/today/ 36.com/ 13.rojo. RSS Software http://www.http://www.learningfeeds.rssreader.com/ 19.com/ 43.feedroll. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.feedzilla.html 27.newsisfree.U. Thunderbird http://www.php.com 32.com/ 21. Edu_RSS 0.com/ 34. Rojo http://www.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.com/feedscout.sh tml 41.hebig. Gregarius http://gregarius.feedpublish. RSS Orbit http://www.mozilla. StepNewz http://www. Feedroll .com/ 17.feedforall. Project D. Feed-Directory http://www.com/myrssto olbar.com/ For a list of more aggregators.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.onfolio. To have a blog aggregated.rssreader. PubSub http://www. My RSS Toolbar http://www. EaZy RSS reader http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. feedbeep http://feedbeep. Fuzzy Duck http://www. Newsgator http://www.videora.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. FeedReader http://www. SharpReader http://www.com/rss2exc hange/ 38. RSSCalendar http://www. LearningFeeds http://www.projectdu.com/ 16. FeedScout http://bytescout.co.2 http://www.shtml 11.com/ 29.com/ 15.net/index. RSS2Exchange http://www.bytescout.h tm 12. FeedForAll http://www. Pluck http://www. see: http://www.com/ 42.rssbandit. Protopage http://www.com/ 22.

RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.. University of North Carolina.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. Luigi (2004). Do not reproduce 209 . 1. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. http://www.contentious. Vancouver. The Technology Source Archives. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. RSS could transform online communications.masternewmedia.htm David. D. RSS Ideas for Educators.maricopa. Robin Good Blog. http://technologysource.wcc.pdf Canali De Rossi.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. http://www. 3.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. Anh (2005).usatoday.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. May 19.com/wiki/doku.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. Online paper. http://www. http://www.htm Levine. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . maintains a long list of RSS resources. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. (2003).ca/files/RSS_Educ. http://www. July/August 2003. Brian Lamb.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.vccs. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. Lamb.mcli. http://www. USA Today (online). Aug.downes. and D’Arcy Norman.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. Learning Circuits.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.com/news/showS tory.redjupiter.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). May 2004.htm Downes.learningcircuits. eSchool News. Learning Circuits.Possible Future Evolution. http://www.dist. eLearning Developers’ Journal.ca/files/RSS_Educ. 2005.php 2003.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. A.downes. 31.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. Quentin (2006). senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. a blog by Alan Levine. Eva (2004).elearningguild.downes.htm Harrsch. B. 2003. 5-8.teachinghacks. http://www. Aug.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. http://www. and Norman.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. http://www. RSS: the next killer app for education.eschoolnews. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. http://www.ubc. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www.pdf Gannett. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. Read his article written specifically for educators. RSS: a learning technology. Version 1. Brian Lamb. Online paper. Aug.teachinghacks. 2004. Mary (2003).dist.lo. http://careo.ca/edu_rss.learningcircuits. 2004.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.maricopa.ca/cgibin/wiki. June 2004. http://www. Stephen (2004).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Oct.elearning.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. BC. Stephen (2002). Dan (2004).1.htm D’Sousa. Bill (2003). http://timyang. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. http://www.mcli.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.

O’Reilly Network. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. June 18. Otherwise Engaged.pdf Parparita. Google Reader Blog. RSS: the next big thing online. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. T.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. http://www.oreillynet. July 7.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.Levine. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Namespaced extensions in feeds.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. http://www. 2005. (2006).html?page=1 Udell. Sept. Aug. Shelly (2005). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. 2005.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . 2006. http://www.infoworld. The Shifted Librarian. Using RSS for data integration. Alexandra (2005). http://www.oreilly. Jon (2005).com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. March 23.mediathink.blogspot. http://www. http://googlereader. M. 3. and Webb.theshiftedlibrarian. Jenny (2005). 2005.xml. InfoWorld.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. 13.alexandrasamuel.html Samuel. http://www.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. 2006.html MediaThink (2004).com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index. MediaThink White Paper.html Powers. Mihai (2006).

h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. an image gallery. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. http://www. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.300. http://www. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.com/cgibin/mb.schtuff.” Essentially. RSS.usemod. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. For wikis to work.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. 2005). http://www. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. With some basic instructions.com/artpdf/GR12.org/tiki-index.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Anyone can add to it. custom permissions. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.net/features. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.tikiwiki. and projects.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. http://wikipedia. 4.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. http://www.usemod. See the progress at: http://edu. and email notification. the software used to run Wikipedia. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. My first report in this series.sourceforge. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.sourcewatch. features. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. http://www. and never finished. it is important to have several contributors. 3. Do not reproduce 211 . it is a platform for open collaborative software development. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. http://www. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic.seedwiki. http://www.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. approaches.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.wikipedia.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. There are now over 1. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. is available for other applications. time-less. Content is ego-less.com/cgibin/wiki. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. 2.10. can be used by a team for joint writing.org/index.gilbane.

Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.elearning. of the University of British Columbia. (2002). http://careo. http://en.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. Swiki. Twiki.” is a rich source of information on wikis. L. http://www. Andrea (2003). is provided by David Mattison. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. http://kairosnews. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. http://www. Raitman.nu’s first nine months in service. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .socialtext. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives.ascilite. http://www.html Bibliography Aronsson. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.learningwiki. http://whiplash. W.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16. http://64.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. First Monday. http://weblog.com/ WritingWiki.ubc.co.48. Phantom authority. Dec.com/ Jon Udell.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.” http://tlc. http://m. (2004). http://aronsson. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. Operation of a Large Scale. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.org has lots of resources on wikis. and Zhou.pbwiki.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.infotoday. 8(12).71.html Ciffolilli. Dec. R. http://www.different. http://www. that she updates regularly.wikibooks.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.shtml Brian Lamb. http://www. “Quickiwiki. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. 5-8. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://www.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. including a section on wiki tools.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.html Augar.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.com/wwwtools/m/25242. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.org.dicole..jot. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.elearningcentre.fasfind.se/wikipaper. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.infoworld.ikiw. Australia. His article. including wikis. as well as an analysis of how they work. Perth. http://flosse. N.ucalgary. A free trial is available.Weblogs. http://radio.” http://writingwiki.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.

S. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. http://gilbane.com. International Journal of Information Ethics.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.irrodl..infoworld. Online paper.. Neil (2003).1/technot e_xxvii. O’Reilly Network. http://www. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. April 2003.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. Making the case for a wiki.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.usemod.shtml Rubenking.educause. UniversityWiki. Twiki.html Wood. Richard (2003). Brian (2004). http://www. Ariadne.http://firstmonday.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. J. http://Weblog. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. and Webb. http://container. April 2004. Educause Review.10. http://www. Online article at PCMag. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. January.uk/issue42/ Udell. July. (2004). Searcher.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Emma (2005). Anja (2004). Lauren (2005). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.ariadne. Quickiwiki. M. Nov. 2006.zkm. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://www. Wiki pedagogy. Oct. Why Wikis Work Not.14 02872. Swiki.educause.oreillynet. (2006).pcmag.00. L.com/artpdf/GR12. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.pdf Fountain. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.asp Schmitt.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. Clark. Jon (2004).org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Issue 42.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. http://www. 12(10).. 36-48.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. M.. 2005.4149.pdf Leuf. W. Renée (2005). Online article at: http://www. Bo & Cunnin.html Stafford. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Online article.ac. David (2003).profetic. Wiki Tools.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer.amazon.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.com/article2/0.pdf Kulisz.Oct. Online article. July 7. http://www. The wiki way. Sept.html Tomkin. InfoWorld. Cossarin. http://www. 19.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.org/content/v5. David (2004). (2001).com/cgibin/mb.pdf Do not reproduce 213 .com/udell/2004/1 0/19. 2004. and Rudolph. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. http://www. 2. http://c2. T.infotoday.

there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. floppy disks. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. in turn. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . which can then lead to inventions. However. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. CD-ROMS.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. which. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. After a product has been successfully launched.

and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. or may never become commercially viable. and decline. some will never leave the development stage. ascend the curve. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. 2003). This is due. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. mature. in part. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Further.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. But not all technologies will travel this road. means that they actually think differently. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. In any field. Some will die quickly. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. The experience of younger learners with television. However. in both formal and informal settings. both in classrooms and online. video games. Ontologies. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. this approach is now rapidly changing. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . peak. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. For a variety of reasons. while others will last for decades. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. change itself seems to be inevitable. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. to the complex. and computers. The technology of e-learning. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products.

With feedback.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. huge data wall displays. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Generally. ecological disasters. In approaching electronic educational media. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . digitization of smell. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. Once we master the art of reading. In North America. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. libraries. Then even more movement. we will see the restructuring of education and training. However. To keep our attention. Their children. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. touch and taste. 2002. the computer. wearable computers. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. commercials. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. The speed of change increases with each passing year. mind-altering drugs. born in the 1970s. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. and personal digital assistants. movie theaters. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. mobile phones. and digital ink and electronic paper. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. But they are usually disap-pointed. the baby boomers.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. gaming consoles. that is all about to change. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. terrorism. It works for a time. results in an action by the other participant. generally went to work earlier. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. The children of the baby boomers. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. in a back-and-forth exchange. Within the next five years. television. For example. p. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. or violence is needed to keep our attention. 1994). sex. until we become habituated. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. global warming.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. the learner. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. In contrast. surprise. Because of this. video games. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. designers of Sesame Street. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. whereby the action of one participant. the space race. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. the civil rights movement. For the older generation. 28).

operitel. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Douglas (2005). May 2006. and the mapping of everything.amazon. (2001). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. James (1994).com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Marc. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Gary (2006). networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. Dallas. In the next wave. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. New York: Collins. http://www. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. Guides are optional. http://www. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. shortly.amazon. Likewise. Two hundred years ago. http://www.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.amazon. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). creative products. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Clayton (1997). Digital Game-based Learning.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena.amazon. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. Texas. portfolios. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths.amazon. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. http://www.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . http://www. At the individual level. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.com Bibliography Christensen. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bob (2006).com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. Rushkoff. technologies and services for the next 5 years. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

bham. D. UK http://www.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.51.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.umu. Manuel I. Palo Alto. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. New York. CA 94304 USA http://www.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 3400 Hillview Avenue. 1515 Broadway.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.de/link/affective_port al.myself-proj.nngroup.bartneck. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. 27A 2º esq.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.cs. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.ac. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.O. 17th Floor.informatik.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. L69 7ZF. Building 5.org/ AiLive Inc. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .webist.Portugal Tel.ailive. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Marc Schröder.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.auburn.se/~muse/hom e.mit.media. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.unige. 2910-595 Setúbal .com/ WEBIST Av. Den Dolech 2 P.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .agentlink. Box 513.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.

redwoodelearning. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.csc. Inc.codebaby. Suite 206 Boulder.O. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.apple.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. W Toronto. P.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Huntsville. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Burlington.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. Box 2124 Menlo Park. Secretariat.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Edmonton.mindworkshop. Washington.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.org.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.adobe.liv.ascilite.rit. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 .educause.com/ Apple Computer. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Bloomington. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.indiana.O.edu Extempo Systems.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.au/index.ascension-tech. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. Box 527.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.animationfactory. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. N.com Alchemy Mindworks P. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St. Inc.isi.ac. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. #1910. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.informatics.animats. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Box 5200.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.extempo.W. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. O. L69 7ZF.computer.

Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.psych. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. TN 38152 USA http://www.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab.catoolkit.html Ulead Systems 970 W. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .com/home.A.avid.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. Inc. One Park West Tewksbury. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.S. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.org/ SWiSHzone. PO Box 24478.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.massivesoftware.htm Macromedia. Suite 100 Menlo Park.siggraph.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . San Antonio.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.com/pub/index.ucsb.com/ NewTek.cs. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. Santa Barbara. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. Inc.com/ Avid Technology. Avid Technology Park.swishzone.com/index.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.San Rafael.pact.6450 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.460.viewpoint. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. 190th Street.cognitivesciencesociety. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.com Pty Ltd The Basement.autodesk. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.eitechnologygroup.org/home. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.cmu. Inc. Suite #480 Torrance. Tel: +1. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.asp EI Technology Group.autotutor. Wellington.818.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.macromedia. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.aaai.aclweb.newtek.

edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Calgary.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.com/index. West Montreal.10th Street S.ca/eng/inde x.it. H-1111 Budapest. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.iit. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.wpi.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.cis.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. East Adelphi. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. Calgary.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.stottlerhenke. Suite K.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Suite 360 San Mateo.ucalgary. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.org/eden.unisa.W.eden-online.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.usyd. 100 Sherbrooke St.brainbench.edu.cs.cs.uquebec. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. CA .com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. u.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.com Do not reproduce 221 . of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.edu. Egry J.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.cmu.edu Quantum Simulations. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.umuc.enel. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. 1.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. Inc.ke-corp.W. Suite 1500 Montreal.cs. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www..com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.teluq. Chantilly.virtuelage. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. Alberta.gemini.licef.

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com Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai 30095. 136 South Main Street. Inc.com Brainshark. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise.atlanticlink.co.com/ Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.org/Products/CLI_ Virtuoso/Index.asp Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www.copycatsoftware. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 http://www.anark.http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www.com/powerp oint-presentations-index. Suite A300 Salt Lake City. CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www.com DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer Road. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 http://www.com CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo 32.com/Index.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.com Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.customcourse. Waltham. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www. NG8 6PE. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley. 20100 Milan.ciscolearning. UK Tel.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Hall.mckinnonmulherin.trainvision. Italy http://www.lifeboatdistribution. Nottingham.brainshark. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc.com AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P.learn.bloki.allencomm. Inc.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street.com/index.maxit.com.bridge-pt.horizonwimba. Suite 2300 New York.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix.com CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Suite 200 Boulder.acroservices.O.com Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 224 © Brandon Hall Research . 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Ste. 200 South.uk/contentpoint.

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shtml iPerform Course Builder Integrated Performance Systems. OH 45202 USA Tel: (877) 929-0188 http://trivantis. Inc. East Dundee. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Fax: (585) 240-7760 http://www. Suite 200 Cincinnati.com Lecturnity c/o imc AG Altenkesseler Straße 17/ D3 66115 Saarbrücken Germany Tel: +49 681/ 94 76 .php 226 © Brandon Hall Research .ie/software/publisher.com Learning Composer c/o TEDS Inc. #205 Norcross.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ MindOnSite – Integral Coaching SA Soleil Levant 6 1170 Aubonne.lecturnity.microsoft.e2train.learnerland.com/ Intuition Publisher IFSC House International Financial Services Centre Custom House Quay Dublin 1 Ireland Tel: +353 1 605 4300 Fax: +353 1 605 4301 http://www.teds. UK Main Tel: +44 (01285) 883900 Fax: +44 (01285)883901 http://www.knowledgextensions.elearningpowertools.com/prods erv.htm KBridge c/o KnowledgeXtensions.com/eLearning/EN/ index. Inc. Suite 225 Golden. 46 10789 Berlin Deutschland Tel: +49 (30) 81298133 http://www. New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) Fax: (518) 689-3095 http://www.com/products/products _Author. CO 80401 USA Tel: (303) 233-2100 Fax: (303) 462-8849 http://www.com/tbt/dac/index. Beeston Nottingham UK NG9 2RS Tel: +44 (0)115 925 5440 http://www.ips-inc.com/ka. 111 Water St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 www. Colfax Avenue Building 200.mindonsite. Gloucestershire.elementk. IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Fax: (847) 836-1818 http://www. VA 24311 USA Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.mindiq.knowledgepresenter.de Lersus easyContent c/o Delfi Software Lietzenburgerstr.0 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: 1 (800) 616-5409 Fax: (250) 361-9362 http://www.com MindIQ Corporation 7742 Spalding Drive.Fax: (860) 828-3017 http://www.lersus.intuition.gen21.html Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Lectora c/o Travantis 311 Elm Street. Padge Road.com/ LEARNERLand c/o MEDIAmaker Ltd MEDIA HOUSE. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar. Cirencester.htm KnowledgeHub Authoring Services c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com KnowledgePresenter GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. FRANCE Tel: +41 21 807 01 31 http://www. 101/102 Cirencester Bus. 235 Mountain Empire Road Atkins.com Kallidus Authoring System c/o e2train Limited 1st Floor. GL7 1XD. Park Love Lane. GA 30092-4207 USA Tel: (770) 248-0442 Fax: (770) 248-1949 http://www.htm Knowledge Assembler c/o Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W.

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Edmonton..com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.hunterstone. Inc. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp.maxit. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. SC.com/coursegen. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.4259 Fax: (760) 635. Inc. Ste 202 Encinitas. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Suite 1550 San Jose.83 01 616 http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.percepsys.com DA Group The Lighthouse.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. 323 Newbury Street Boston.time4you.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. Germany Tel.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. #1910.turbodemo. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.com Trainersoft FunEducation.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.qarbon.syberworks.com/products/study mate. Gandy Blvd. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.sensalearning.co.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. 76133 Karlsruhe.respondus.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.codebaby. +49(0)721.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. Redmond.. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.thinkingcap. 55 South Market St. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.funeducation.xplana. 4. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.toolbook. Suite 200 Tampa.seminar.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. CA 92101 USA http://www.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.5709 http://www. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.suddenlysmart. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.

co.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St..telsim. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.flock. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.daden..oddcast.O.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View..com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Suite 260 Orlando.com Moorestown. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.knowledgeenvironments. Ste.com WaveMarket.redwoodelearning. Birmingham.html Knowledge Environments.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.active-learning-site.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.com/v2/index.O. Inc.vcom3d. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www. 11th Floor New York. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.blogburst. Dale Mabry Hwy.omnigroup.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Suite 900 Austin. Inc. P.. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. Mumbai 10.cramersweeney. Mazgaon.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. 219 Tampa.mozilla.uk/chatbots. Nesbit Rd. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.wavemarket. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave. INDIA. B13 9SG.co. USA http://www. Moseley.com GTCO CalComp. Inc. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. 6th Flr. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . Inc.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Mary Apts.qelix.tmmy. W Toronto.opera.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.

Suite 522.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Draper. Inc. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.gtcocalcomp. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.physics.944. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. Suite 103 Toronto.avecomm. Inc. #205 Pasadena.0162 http://www.telnetz. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. NJ .inteam.umass.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.saba. Puyallup. Inc.com Brightidea. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. Amherst.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com.com BlueTie.com Breeze c/o Macromedia. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.backpackit. Somerset.bantu.qwizdom. Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.smartroom.edu Batipi 11 St. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.bluetie. 100 North Lake Avenue. Orlando. 6th Floor New York. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.aspx Qwizdom.brevient. Inc. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.adobe. Ontario.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research . 1192 East Draper Parkway. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor.brightidea. SW. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Suite# 401.pearsoned.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.caucus.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.Columbia.optiontechnologies. Jospeh Street. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Suite 101E Falls Church.com 404 Fifth Avenue.batipi.com Centra c/o Saba.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. Pittsford. Pleasant St. 12617 Meridian E.

Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.epam-pmc.collaborationloop.comotivsystems.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Ontario.com Digité. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.citrix.com LLP PO Box 325. Suite 600 Ottawa. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. 232 http://www.courseforum.engineering. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. 795 Folsom Street.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. San Jose. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Inc.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. Suite 630 McLean. Suite 950 Portland. 57th Street Gainesville. Lauderdale.communiqueconferencing. Sanibel FL. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.com Cisco Systems.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.elluminate. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.edufolio.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www..com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.emc.digi-net. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.convenos. 1034 N.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. Inc.digite. Inc.W.cisco.communityzero. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com Engineering. 6th Floor San Francisco.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.html Citrix Systems. 82 Pioneer Way. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .com Digi-Net Technologies.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. Inc. 170 West Tasman Dr.same-page.centraldesktop.

Clevedon. Ste.hotcomm.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.net GroupSupport.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. Inc.4517 http://www. ON.hyperoffice.net Groove Networks.groove.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.globalschoolnet. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.gotomeeting.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.com GoToMeeting.horizonwimba.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.flypaper.gordano.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.ezmeeting.facilitate.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.com Glance Networks. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. #115 Rockville.com B. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.grapevinesoftware. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .genesys. El Camino Real.novell. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.groupsupport. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.com c/o Citrix Systems. Suite 500 Markham. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.net Global School Net 132 N.V. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Suite 2300 New York. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.exactamerica. Inc.forumone.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.hp.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. 395 Encinitas.glance. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com Groupwise c/o Novell.

liveoffice.jdhtech. 1289 N.com Do not reproduce 233 .com iLinc Communications 2999 N. Suite 412 Cambridge.intralinks.com onProject.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.mspx LiveOffice.inquesttechnologies. Suite #150 Herndon.interwoven. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. Phoenix.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.netspoke. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.org/tools.com Interwise.microsoft. Inc. Sunnyvale. Suite 100 Tucson.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.http://www03.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.ivocalize. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. 25 First Street. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn. Inc.iceweb. Inc. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. 11th floor New York.interwise.com Near-Time.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. 44th St.. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.mayeticvillage. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.onproject. 3 Wing Drive. Suite 300 Torrance.mitre.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite 1401 Denver.ibm.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.ilinc. Fordham Blvd.near-time.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.linktivity. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.meetingone. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.

Riverside Plaza. 3679 Concord Road.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway.opmcreator. Inc.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.q2learning.sitescape.com RADVISION Inc.com Photon Infotech Inc. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley.nagarro. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Suite 210 Maynard.seldensystems. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. New No. 1175 58th Avenue.Adyar Chennai. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Cactus Rd. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. Suite 1450 Chicago. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.project-open. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.performancesolutionstech.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. 17-17 State Highway 208.opentext. Box 3325 York. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.photoninfotech. Suite B. Harbor.cyber-grad.microsoft. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.sharemethods.com Raindance Communications. P.com/collabsuite/index. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 200 Greeley. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.parlano. Inc. Suite 440 San Jose.com Selden Integrated Systems.raindance.peoplecube.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. 51.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.oracle. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.radvision.projectdox.O.com SpiderWeb Communications. Suite 445 Scottsdale.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Inc. 35.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.ht ml Parlano 10 S.

teamdynamix.teamspace.Box 2900 Alameda.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.webasyst. Suite 810 Toronto. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. P. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Inc.com Web Crossing.vodium.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.teamware.com Teamware P. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.stalker. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.net WebEx Communications.com/groupware/in dex. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.webofficepoint.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.O.axista. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.O.webtrain.com/content/default. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.tacit. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.webcrossing. Suite 950 Washington. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.com Do not reproduce 235 .sumtotalsystems.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.txl Viack 14811 N. Canada http://www. Suite 100 Austin.usabilityfirst. Kierland Blvd. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.viack.vignette.. Ontario M2N 6H8.wave3software.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.backpackit.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.trichys. Suite 1050 Vancouver. Inc.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.tomoye.webex.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

Do not reproduce

239

Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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LTD 671 N. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Suite 700 Arlington.teralearn.maxit.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.syntrio. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. East .com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.meridianksi.mgen.sap. West. St.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.com. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.wizdom. Inc.oracle. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen. Louis. Suite 260 Foxborough. Suite 1280 San Francisco.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.saba.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. Suite 2200 Chicago.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.sselearn.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Inc.ssaglobal.teds. 550 Queen St. 100 Foxborough Blvd.technomedia.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.outstart. Fifth Floor Montreal.isnewmedia. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.plateau. Inc.ca Do not reproduce 241 . Chantilly.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. 500 West Madison. Glebe Road. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.com TEDS Inc.

com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.gyrus.avilar. Laurent Blvd. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .sumtotalsystems.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Box 9752 Boulder. NY. Victoria. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.O. 4 Expressway Plaza. Inc. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.cdlib.wbtsystems. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.edutools. Suite 101 Houston.arizona. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.risc-inc.xtention. Suite # 105 Columbia.uwm.com Tracker.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. 4th Floor Oakland. Suite 200 Ottawa.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.ttg-inc. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.sir.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .trainingpartner.xstreamsoftware.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.vbtrain. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 240 Bay Street.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc.fldata. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. Ontario. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. Inc.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.vuepoint. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. 122 West Way. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. Inc.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. 2280 St.info/index. 17041 El Camino Real..

Norton Road. Sterling Court. Box 1892. Stevenage.lolaexchange. Hertfordshire. Fondren Library.cf m ESRI Suite 300. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.edu/DesktopDefault. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. ETRAC. Suite 3100 San Francisco. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.thegateway.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.esri.netera.ca ENC Learning Inc.rice.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.com Do not reproduce 243 . Rice University. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.eoscenter. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.dist.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. CT 06459 USA http://www.org/eng/scientifiques. Suite 1600 Tucson.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. P.geocomm.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.4464 Markham Street Victoria.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.merlot. Box 3000 Boulder. AZ 85250 USA http://www. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.mcli. MS 44.lornet.com/gis4mt/index.unsw.plos. AZ.cadcorp.maricopa.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.O.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Houston.edu. 5151 East Broadway.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.llearn.clarklabs.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.goenc.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .lrc3. SG1 2JY.O.

eee.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.stockholmchallenge.imsglobal. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.mapinfo.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . 17 SE 3rd Avenue. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .edu. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.com Metadata.knowledgepulse. Suite 501 Portland.ac.intergraph. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.ac.berkeley. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.org/aitopics/html/natlang.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. html ELSNET Trans 10. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. Dept. Suite 100 Framingham.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.smm. Inc. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. of Geography. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.cancore.O. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Austria http://www. 959 Concord Street.pangonetworks. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. PMB #112 Lake Mary. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.bham.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.aaai.org/ Spotlight Mobile. Electrical and Computer Engineering.O. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.5372.mobilearn. P.edu PanGo Networks. Inc. Box 240000 Huntsville.cetis.uk/handler/defaul t.asp?path= 500.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.fi/english/page.

com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Inc. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.ac.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.advancedreality. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Italy http://tcc.it Victoria. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.internet2.com MoveDigital.lexxe.net internet2. Deane Rd.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.groove.stockholmchallenge.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.overnet. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 . Suite 300.llearn. Inc. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. PA. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. NY. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.elsnet. 1st Floor A .com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.movedigital.itc. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. 19104-2653. Whisman Road Mountain View.lockss.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.sun.ldc. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.Project Coordinator CSI .elena-project.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.org/site/pp.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Inc.seti.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.upenn.asianart. 10010 USA http://www.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.cetis.com Groove Networks. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.

trainingregistry.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.rmv. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.elearningeuropa. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Ninth St.elementk.org Macromedia.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau.virtualmuseum.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. Eisenhower Parkway P.microsoft.elluminate. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Minneapolis.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.macromedia.teach-nology.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.saba. Inc. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.com Teachnology.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.17th Avenue SW Calgary. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.proquest. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Alberta.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. 3333 http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.apreso.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.mit. 3016 5th Ave.com 50 S. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.com ProQuest 789 E. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona. Box 172 1039 . MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.333.genesys.com Presentations.worldwidelearn.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com/presentatio ns/index.lsc.ca Slate Hill.presentations. NE Calgary.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.executrain.com Portals CyberU.cyberu.O. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.6526 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.saba. New York 10973 USA http://www. Inc. Alberta. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Suite 225 Santa Monica.

edu Woods Hole Marine Systems.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. O. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. Redmond. Michigan.com Raptivity P. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.osaka-u. Pasadena. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.nasa.irc. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.org Euron c/o Prof.euron.cmu.atr. SE-100 44 Stockholm.scate. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.botball. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. SWEDEN.ri.ac. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.whmsi. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.readygo.com ReadyGo Inc.hp.evolution.ed.com/halo/index.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.org Evolution Robotics.articulate. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Ste.active-robots.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic..com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.gov. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.aad. Box 2827. Inc.ife. Union St.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. 130 W.eng.rec. Henrik I Christensen.html Norman.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Inc. D. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.raptivity.ams. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. Lindsey Bldg.generalrobotics. Radstock Somerset. Centre for Autonmous Systems.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Chilcompton. Suite B Orion.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. CA 94040.

Inc.com Info.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.excite.ixquick.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.com Ask.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .icerocket. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.ac.findlaw.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.O. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.gnod.kartoo.google.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. Suite 60 Quebec.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com Google (including Froogle. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.net/ Healthfinder P.koders. DC 20013-1133 http://www.intute.ask. Suite 500 Oakland.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.gigablast.info. 42nd Floor New York. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www. Box 1133 Washington.alexa.com excite.com Headquarters 555 12th Street. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.6100 http://www.net Koders Inc.com Gada.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco.com Gnod. Google.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.healthfinder.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.O. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.dogpile.convera. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.copernic.Search Engines About.about. Chicago.

Nesbit Rd. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.com/ Netscape AOL LLC. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. 64 Fulton Street.http://www. Inc.pubsub.edu/ PubSub Concepts.qelix. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. 6th Flr.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. 2400 N.com/v2/index. 17th Floor New York.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.truveo. Mumbai 10.lexxe. Inc. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.cfm?doid=10 56808. INDIA.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.rawsugar.W. Mazgaon. Inc.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Suite 211 Palo Alto . 360 22nd Street.technorati.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . Ltd. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. 7th floor. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. 23rd Floor San Francisco. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.pandora.com LitLinker c/o ACM. Suite 1200 Bellevue. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.almaden.seekport.msn. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.krugle.W..com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. 23rd Oklahoma City.org/citation. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.lalisio. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE. Suite 207 San Francisco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.cs.com SearchKing. Inc.nyu.convera.com Pandora Media. Seventh Floor New York.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.1057022 LookSmart.acm.. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.metacrawler. Inc.searchking.82152 Martinsried http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. New York.biz Truveo. 625 Second Street San Francisco.netscape. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Mary Apts.mooter.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. NY 10003.looksmart.ibm.

GreenPark Reading.O. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.com Assima Ltd. Box 1558 New Canaan. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research .assima.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.forio.experiencebuilders.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.elena-project.Project Coordinator CSI .ibm. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.com Flash c/o Macromedia.biographix. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.alphaworks. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.yahoo. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.personal-reader.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 1st Floor A .macromedia.New York.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .zoominfo. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.atghome.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.tkk. 10 Old Bailey. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. Inc.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. EC4M 7NG London.stt-global. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.ee. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.knowledgequest. Ontario. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.columbia.macromedia.com Zoom Information Inc.com Captivate c/o Macromedia. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. Yahoo http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .intermezzon.htm Yahoo! Inc. Inc.seco.

Suite 1550 San Jose.com Softsim Outstart Studio. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. Schaumburg. Inc. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.maxit. Québec.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.fsl.com NexLearn. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Newburyport.eduperformance..knowledgepresenter. Inc.virtualcontrolroom.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. 1821 Walden Office Square.teds. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.noaa. Light & Acoustics.learning2005.knowledgeplanet. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.stottlerhenke.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. England http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. B15 2TT.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.cs.stt-global.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 55 South Market St. CA .com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.xstreamsoftware.net Do not reproduce 251 . 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.bham.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.outstart.knowledge-director. Ontario. Suite 360 San Mateo. Suite A-207 Brossard.nexlearn. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.com Stagecast Software.ac.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.assima. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.com MASIE Center. LLC 100 South Main Street. Laurent Blvd. Suite 240 Atlanta. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Taschereau Ouest.. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Suite 400. Inc.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. 2280 St.qarbon.stagecast. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.com/English/t 6essai. Suite 300 Wichita.muzzylane.

TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www..socialtext. Inc. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.networkltd.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.edu/index.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Menlo Park.com Spurl ehf.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto. Inc.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Thorofare.analytictech.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.. Suite 224 Bloomington.netscape. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Inc.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. WA 98055 USA http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.icio. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.iu.checkpointsystems. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com/ mag. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.O. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.friendster. Suite 900 Austin.shadows.eu Rojo Networks.icio. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. Suite 500 Renton. Suite 125 San Diego.spurl. Inc.gnolia.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .com Social Bookmarking del. CA 94105 USA http://www. 101 Wolf Drive. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.com Classmates Online. SW. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.rojo. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com FURL c/o LookSmart. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 795 Folsom St. Morton Street. Ltd.furl.us Eventful c/o EVDB. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. 625 Second Street San Francisco.classmates. Box 920089 Needham.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.tagzania. CA.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www..zvents.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. CA 94089 USA http://del.com Friendster. 2001 Lind Ave. Inc.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.

D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.O.xstreamengine.jabber.apple.fakespace.veoh.jabber.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com/halo/index. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .hpc.bittorrent.percro.brightcove.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. Cupertino. Inc. Box 1641 Denver.spider.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. VA 23461-1924 https://www.futurelab.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. Inc. 4th Floor Marshalltown.ergonetz. CA 94105 USA http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P. 7220 Trade Street. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.O.sociosite. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.dfilm. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.com Do not reproduce 253 .org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.advanced. Church Street.spartasocialnetworks. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. Box 1641 Denver.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.org Fakespace 11 E.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. CA 92121 USA http://www.org Veoh Networks. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego.hp.navy.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. New York.percro.com Brightcove. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.org. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .activeworlds.html Jabber Software Foundation P.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.net Sparta Social Networks. CA 90028 USA http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .1011 CM Amsterdam.

accurender.xcelsius.O. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Inc.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Intergraph Corporation P.umd. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.bham. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.golden. Suite 317 San Diego.advizorsolutions.ecu. Box 884.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.com/ MapInfo One Global View. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.feedtank. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Inc.V.ac.intuition-eunetwork. Suite 110 Troy. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.daz3d.edu/vrel.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions. Inc.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.com Golden Software.vista.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.com Intuition 9. 1333 Butterfield Rd.com ESRI Suite 300. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Williams Building College Park. 350 South 400 West. Suite 206 Bloomington. Tracy. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Troy. Cambridge. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Columbus. Draper.coe.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.epfl. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.esri. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.corda.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Box 240000 Huntsville.intergraph. 809 14th Street.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.idashboards.cs. Suite 100 Lindon.mapinfo.O.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Golden.501 North Morton Street. Danvers. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.formz. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn.informationinplace.ambientdevices. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.

212 Elm Street Somerville. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.nlm. NY 10012 USA http://www. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 94043 USA http://www. 2513 Charleston Road.net Pixologic. Inc.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. FL 34108 USA http://www. California.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. Inc. 2nd Floor Poolesville.softill. Suite 102 Mountain View. Ontario L4V 1T8. A-1220 Vienna. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.musanim. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.visualanalytics.com Spotfire.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.nih. CA 94712 USA http://www. Inc. 3 East 28th St. 20010 Fisher Avenue. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. 869 97th Ave N.skype.vrvis. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 9th floor New York. Unit A2 Naples.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.microsoft.jajah.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.sportbrain.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.topozone. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.pixologic.S. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Riga.mccrackendesign.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. Ltd.com Unified Field. Unit # 1 Mississauga. Inc.com JAJAH Inc. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . Donau-City-Strasse 1.visualthesaurus. MA 01863 USA http://www.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.spotfire.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.ontopia.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.okino.inxight. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.vicodi. 73 Princeton Street.org Visual Analytics Inc. Suite 3A New York.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. 155 Spring Street. U.unifiedfield.

Suite 381 Vancouver. Inc.microsoft.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . Nederland Tel: +31. Inc. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. P. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. Inc. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. First Floor. Pacific Business Centre #101 .com Feedster.com Brightcove.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com FeedForAll PO Box 296..com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.715135858 http://www. Suite 100 Campbell. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. Suite 2260 Portland.pluck.V.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.. Inc. Switzerland http://www. South #358 St.org JotSpot. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Suite 900 Austin.brightcove. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.onfolio. 200 2nd Ave.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.rssreader.1001 W. CA 95008 USA http://www.pubsub.mozilla. Petersburg.com Rojo Networks. 795 Folsom St.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. San Francisco. Inc. Building K Mountain View.rojo. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.feedburner.attensa. 64 Fulton Street. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. Broadway.feedster.feedforall. Hanover. Tallinn. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.ch Web Feeds Attensa.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.wearable. Seventh Floor New York. 3rd Floor Cambridge.feedzilla. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. 11211. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.jot. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Valdeku 100. Inc. 116 New Montgomery Street. 167 Hamilton Ave.feedreader.bloglines.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. Coldbrook Business Corp.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Estonia http://www.com PubSub Concepts. Suite 605 San Francisco.ethz. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www..

socialtext.com Do not reproduce 257 .Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

36. 71. 11. 165. 46. 70. 109. 66. 197. 23. 149. 40. 91. 15. 172 Audio. 21. 49. 23. 123. 127. 195 Authoring tools. 159. 174. 201 cognitive collage. 191. 72. 15. 122. 23. 93. 67. 140. 137. 27. 146. 174. 190. 193. 22. 48. 64. 181. 159. 93. 25. educational. 170. 91. 146. 39. 156. 28. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 128. 179. 60 Clickers. 66. 78. 46. 159. 145. 75. 15. 144. 20. 27. 190. 162. 66. 153. 93. 212 Boolean searches. 122 Ambient computing. 43. 145. 71. 50. 110. 191. 114. 36. 218 Agents. 74. 26. 139 assessment. 207 Classroom response systems. 67. 24. 41. 27. 125. 67. 48. 86. 189. 117. 180. 24. 193. 171. 4. 52. 184. 70. 36. 196. 18. 208. 121. 63. 34. 205 Animation. 190. 66. 127. 5. 165. 84. 63. 70. 74. 181. 160. 101. 28. 65. 113. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 31. 196. 17. 194. 129. 20. 160. 50. 135. 81. 161. 196 collaboration. 2. 193. 90. 138. 45. 128. 91. 94. 177. 203. 69. 35. 145 Conversational learning. 165. 180. 80. 170. 209. 29. 148. 196. 27. 77. 43. 219. 47. 97. 128. 48. 63. 140. 44. 118. 16. 203. 209. 54. 83. 180. 12. 45 Avatars. 109. 211. 26. 49 AJAX. 109. 100. 100. 127. 127 Cooperation. 85. 29. 95. 69. 199 Architectures. 63. 176. 160. 127. 127. 50. 199. 201 Adaptive systems. 180 Competency Tracking. 89. 4. 101. 22. 196. 177. 165 Air display. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 74. 46. 18. 136. 39. 223. 197. 78. 146. 216 Affective computing. 68. 42. 5. 52. 72. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 125. 56. 137. 209 Augmented reality. 53 barcodes. 82. 192 Browsers. 184. 90 Assessment. 110. 171. 122. 33. 80. 45. 16. 35. 21. 130. 100. 57. 89. 193. 94. 170. 44. 74. 21. 139. 66. 47. 231. 67. 45. 177. 226 Authorware. 189. 6. 46. 24. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 47. 37.Index 3-D graphics. 145. 149. 24. 170. 4. 211. 69. 65. 203. 74. 176. 18. 85 Blogs. 132. 119. 196 Dashboards. 97. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 39. 189. 60 Cognition. 23. 16. 207. 59. 57. 35. 93. 28. 26. 215 Communities of practice. 50. 137. 211 Communications Tools. 103. 211. 47. 170. 74. 52. 122. 50. 198. 48. 81. 80. 194. 58. 216 Computer based assessment. 35. 116. 174 Bayesian probability. 79 Complexity theory. 169. 116. 112. 21. 65. 85. 171. 112. 209. 55. 15. 25. 23. 194. 176 Cell phones. 69. 121. 217 Collaboration. 198 Data mining. 196 cognitive maps. 178. 141. 64. 211 Broadband. 65. 191. 84. 193. 85. 50. 59. 203. 62. 83. 169. 69. 84 Adobe. 7. 59. 35 Content management. 65. 158. 196. 180. 21. 18. 150. 29. 72. 13. 70. 112. 46. 27. 42. 46. 51. 8. 88 cybercartography. 30. 93. 200. 57.

7. 84. 32. 173. 184 e-Science. 101. 146. 179. 4. 88. 23. 100. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 210 formative assessment. 162. 93. 53. 68. 86. 216. 3. 19. 47. 26. 9. 169. 18. 159. 219 Infrared tags. 119 FireFox. 137. 174. 48. 197. 201 Grid computing. 132. 124. 52. 47. 106. 94. 193. 107. 134. 122. 170. 106. 176. 5. 194. 88. 250 Folksonomies. 8. 193. 89. 119. 27. 123 Hype in e-learning. 174. 160. 35. 248 graphics. 74. 84. 123. 193. 97. 196. 184. 121. 88. 196 Graphics. 158 Design. 120. 197. 156. 163 Findability. 172. 106 Healthcare applications. 141. 20. 100. 121. 16. 225. 49. 80. 91. 183. 26. 3. 15. 70. 193. 119. 20. 166. 178. 57. 170. 42. 30. 13. 197. 5. 37. 45 dynamic displays. 37. 127. 153. 161. 165 Handwriting recognition. 86. 190. 23. 170. 199 Gesture recogntion. 152. 35 Frameworks. 107. 11. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 11. 6. 94. 169. 65. 199. 104. 26. 198. 72. 152. 34. 64. 80. 205. 108. 66. 95. 88. 193. 189. 94. 169 Expert systems. 25. 152. 155. 149. 149. 134. 16. 9. 16. 49. 106 Head mounted displays. 55. 200. 74. 107. 12. 122. 80. 85 Extreme learning. 205 Hybrid systems. 162 History. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 151. 28. 58. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 103. 88. 60. 101. 186. 60. 90. 59. 198. 98 GIF graphic format. 196. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 109. 158. 106. 21. 57. 71. 31. 27. 63. 85. 25. 15. 201. 45. 127. 201 FrontPage. 5. 196 e-Commerce. 239 Individualization. 70. 26.Decision support systems. 216 Distributed systems. 93. 49 Google. 4. 30. 34. 83. 180. 33. 178. 214 Human-centered computing. 125. 197. 166. 100. 70. 9. 119. 110. 75. 90 Experiential learning. 85. 29. 196. 67. 59. 45 Displays. 57 Flash. 191 Games. 204 Dreamweaver. 88. 106. 24. 217 images. 23. 66. 93. 170 Federated searches. 187. 158. 103. 25. 162. 89. 69. 110. 196. 152. 69. 120. 114. 120. 26 Emotional design. 20. 210. 124. 7. 154. 176. 33. 27. 238 Geocaching. 134. 97. 9. 122. 158. 25. 63. 5. 74. 216 Director. 164. 134. 158 Informatics. 116. 199. 109. 13. 217. 75. 17. 22. 8. 86 Deep Web. 47. 4. 106 Haptics. 79. 13. e-learning. 167 evaluation. 45. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 187. 91. 137. 26. 11. 217 Instant messaging. 16. 146. 103. 131. 153 Facial recognition. 125. 215 Informal learning. 215. 202. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 154. 54. 51. 215. 175. 25. 133. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 78. 35. 114. 24 e-Portfolios. 81. 189. 11. 119. 109. 63. 162. 139. 169. 52. 97. 89. 196. 163. 11. 180. 46. 49. 80. 134. 200. 196 Immersive environments. 48. 64. 203.

189. 89. 211 latent semantic analysis. 110. 171 Metacognition. 46. 26. 176. 20 Museums. 124. 6. 129. 249. 143. 165. 128. 134. 124. 40. 205 Macromedia. 58. 120. 191. 54. 183. 171 M-learning. 114. 26. 127. 112. 149. 45. 127. 114. 137. 45. 80. 244 Motion Graphics. 216. 2. 127. 43. 63. 15. 148. 65. 90. 127 Podcasting. 121. 239. 123. 49. 176. 49. 137. 7. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 190 Knowledge base wiki. 42. 244 Meta-search engines. 6. 115. 25. 122. 107. 119. 165 pattern recognition. 78. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 21. 180. 32. 130. 169. 119. 116. 124. 174. 34.Interface devices. 160. 47. 114 Learning Objects. 139. 78. 135. 147. 250 mapping. 70. 23. 6. 138. 74. 43. 193. 44. 111. 122. 140. 103. 26. 119. 15. 139. 76. 7. 230. 85. 107. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 213. 191. 159. 57. 101. 179 Optical tags. 196. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 150. 80. 60. 145. 125. 241 Learning Management Systems. 144. 148. 136. 23. 42. 182. 135. 196 Pedagogy. 20. 27. 127. 216. 234. 114 learning object repository. 246 Location based tools. 79. 109. 42. 153 Microsoft. 146. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 194. 16. 128. 196 Mashups. 180. 95. 163 Microformats. 186. 120. 48. 111. 26. 66. 26. 150. 65. 124. 215 Interoperability. 144 Navigation. 64. 215. 141. 35. 123 Medical applications. 45. 68. 206. 175. 190. 192. 114. 125. 134. 91. 174. 174. 238. 25. 135. 139. 242 learning object model. 113. 62. 171. 233. 152 Libraries. 7. 241. 119. 6. 80. 143. 240. 69. 68. 172. 187. 199. 62. 189. 86. 191. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 134. 146. 246. 146. 170. 26. 48. 108. 36. 129. 160. 100. 98. 143. 154. 145. 142. 80. 46. 176. 158. 6. 153. 22. 65. 125 Lab book wiki. 204. 193. 178. 43. 65. 30. 174. 42. 21. 139. 189. 139 Personalization. 5. 119. 47. 131. 47. 36. 256 Microworlds. 63. 109. 181. 124 iPod. 110. 29. 165. 65. 178. 7. 137. 134. 156 Legacy materials. 145. 155. 45. 4. 246. 93. 130 Mobile computing. 180. 100. 162. 129. 190. 114. 180. 114. 130. 161. 53. 135. 139. 112. 152 Networks. 140. 31. 255. 4. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 205. 97 Ontologies. 127. 35. 26 Metadata. 17. 18. 121. 47. 149. 8. 165 Microlearning. 161. 48. 148. 146. 80. 106. 199 Neural networks. 189. 113. 166 PowerPoint. 93. 97. 128. 127. 220. 17. 66. 211 Knowledge management. 152 Lecturing. 23. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 145. 109. 116. 82. 223 Portals. 192. 85. 80. 60. 90. 115. 54. 138. 107. 172. 11. 116. 122. 152. 45. 134. 128. 237. 77. 190. 199. 156. 140. 77. 141. 54. 145. 81. 124. 165. 191. 125. 140. 34. 178. 183. 166. 166 Pervasive computing. 42. 120. 122. 24. 109. 149. 226. 81. 59. 137. 4. 69.

7. 47. 106 Proximity tools. 11. 91. 177. 125. 74. 83. 74. 191. 117. 173. 49. 180. 125. 139. 152. 54. 38. 172. 177. 47. 160. 134. 159. 9. 39. 5. 171. 37. 62. 64 Telephony. 132 Streaming video. 16. 30. 35. 203. 119. 180. 22. 131. 174 self-evaluation. 176 Team management. 69. 114. 153. 207 Social networking. 148. 124. 62. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 161. 46. 180. 35. 70 Radio. 48. 11. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 95. 152 Thin clients. 116. 247 rapid learning. 93. 66. 114 Screencasting. 176. 217 Translation. 26. 154. 167. 155. 150. 174 Social bookmarking. 47. 171 Science. 155. 205 Shockwave. 35 Semantic Web. 141. 5. 26. 165. 46. 170. 137. 36. 125. 94. 169. 119 quizzes. 35 Quizzes. 57. 215. 89. 135. 138. 129. 72. 122 Tagging. 50. 123 Simulations. 57 T-Learning. 115. 199 Turing Test. 175. 178. 8. 86. 191 summative assessment. 168 résumés. 81. 116. 149. 161. 119. 49. 189. 171 Scenarios. 158. 150. 40. 50. 122. 191 Tours (online). 211 Tags. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 48. 120. 37. 4. 155. 11. 48. 181 Speech recognition. 179. 153. 46. 177. 110. 141. 174 Project management. 163. 87. 144. 189. 39. 168. 178. 141. 6. 225. 170. 156. 27. 84. 50. 54. 186. 179. 131. 150. 166. 174. 166. 74. 172. 179. 88. 189. 88. 160. 109. 46. 59. 152 Projectors. 47. 47. 115. 174. 68. 165. 125. 36. 246 Privacy. 27. 9. 118. 169. 119. 191 Tangible computing. 189 Television. 114 Robotics. 169. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 189 Search engines. 77. 75. 154. 162. 177. 227. 181. 156. 122 sharable content objects. 124. 116. 9. 48. 42. 82. 148 Smart labels and tags. 93. 174. 215. 114. 176. 54. 45. 141. 188. 35. 15. 211 Skypecasting. 71. 40. 209. 36. 134. 57. 189. 174. 122. 182. 36. 80. 48. 34.Presentation tools. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 134. 124. 221 SCORM. 247 Role-playing. 4. 193. 49. 114 Repositories. 52. 90 Reusability. 178. 52. 133. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 163. 196 Serious games. 83. 176. 21. 91. 38. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 148. 175 Tag clouds. 158. 119. 97. 189 Security. 216 Tests. 26. 167 reusable learning objects. 124. 197. 131. 175 Rapid e-learning. 215. 190. 175. 94. 65. 26. 203 Telepresence. 35 Symbology tags. 199 Taxonomies. 112. 20. 64. 55. 35. 183. 114. 137. 110. 199 Single-user wiki. 159. 106. 35. 47. 165. 109. 9. 93. 54. 174. 184. 185. 170.

150. 148. 177. 45. 69. 4. 205 Usability. 43. 164. 130. 203. 123. 209. 108. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 145. 11. 177. 200. 5. 154 Virtual learning environments. 113. 22. 121. 215. 56. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 89. 79. 196. 100. 148. 216. 124. 187. 199. 74. 148 Virtual classrooms. 239 Wikipedia. 193 Visualization. 197. 148 Whiteboards. 137. 198. 150 Webinars. 213. 119.Ubiquitous computing. 212. 108. 211. 98. 187. 193. 9. 255 Wearable computing. 106. 182. 112. 174. 60. 65. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 194 Video. 255 Web conferencing. 49. 165. 208. 190. 106. 148. 91. 216 Vlogs. 107. 212 Wikis. 205. 207. 214. Gary. 189. 191. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 200. 209. 131. 253 Videocasting. 127. 57. 88. 109. 80. 68. 236. 62. 159. 189 Vodcasting. 66. 210. 256 Woodill. 7. 3. 67. 40. 211. 123. 74. 160. 189 virtual classroom. 9. 210. 90. 256 Webcasting. 74. 44. 46. 176. 149. 137 Virtual reality. 51. 192. 106. 215. 206. 217 Word. 182. 13. 211. 57. 81. 64.

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