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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. Grant Hamilton. Amy Davey. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. A third report. None of this would have been possible if my wife. Pamela Fragomeli. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. and support at all points of my career. Pierre Cahorn. Jennifer McDowell. the second in the series. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Thanks. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. technology. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. Carlos Oliveira. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. This report. have supported this research from the beginning. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. and services. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. will be available in early 2007. lists of online resources. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . along with an index. Lise Bye. Karen. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Karen Anderson. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. and I thank them for their support and encouragement.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. Operitel’s CEO. I have provided links to online learning examples. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. editing. The first report.

various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. We tend to forget. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. still used in many institutions of higher education.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. and recess. with rows. in fact. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. A third way to learn is by seeing. Schools were started to teach accounting. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Medieval universities followed the same practice. detentions. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized.just the ability to follow an example. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Technologies are any technique. “things that make us smart. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. linear teaching techniques online. With these reforms. and language for communication. the raising of hands. that lecturing. even if the originator of the words is not present. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. There are. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Do not reproduce 3 . for example. fire for warmth and cooking. material. the classroom became industrialized. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. as books were scarce. Learning became standardized and linear. to quote Donald Norman (1993). many different ways to learn. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing.” Starting in the first century AD. They are. or “reader. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. class periods. The modern classroom. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. or device that extends human abilities. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. is a 2000 year old “technology.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words.

followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. mashups can only be done using computer technology. When a new technology first comes into use. and standards. Like all new technologies. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). as this is a non-technical guide. 2006). it needs to adhere to architectures. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Rather than pages. memorizing. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. and reciting. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. However. Sadly. At the same time. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.Students in these schools learned by reading. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. frameworks. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. changing the practice of teaching. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. moving pictures (films). Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. chairman of IBM. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Thomas Watson. the early days of computer networking.” In 1970. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. When a new technology is introduced. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools.” Similarly. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). Eventually. 2006). But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. For example.

a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. They provide location independence. presentation and interactive environments.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). php). the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.org) has a number of published documents that. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. For example. Do not reproduce 5 . The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. January. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.fr/publication. Number 3. 2005.grid. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. There is authentication and authorization support at every level.accessgrid.free. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.imsglobal.org). In particular. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.

taken together. Instead of just providing courses. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. They noted that “…in education.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.oclc. Major specifications for e-learning. and makes extensive use of XML. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. Bollier says.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. http://ltsc. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. http://purl.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). reinforces this theme. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . “[a] pull economy .is based on open. In business. http://imsproject. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). At the same time. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. research.adlnet. and education administration. interactive learning components. enabling the search for content. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.aicc.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. http://www. http://sourceforge. While packaged courses still have a place. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.ieee. This is especially true for adult education.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content.” In late 2005. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.elframework. In Europe.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. http://www. Instead. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. Rather.

M. Five years ago... is becoming commonplace.org/abs/cs. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. Umer.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. New York: Hyperion. http://www.amazon. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. 2004. http://www.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Lausanne. mobile devices. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. http://arxiv.. The Long Tail. Montreal. the reader can approach any topic in any order. Chris (2006).wired. McClatchey. June 2005. M. Zanichelli. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. those learners are now keeping their own records. A. I hope you will find it useful. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies..org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Odeh. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. and McGinnis (2004). Giotopoulos. (2005).html Anderson. N. K.pdf Bogonikolos. Cardiff. User-created content.htm Bollier.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.. http://www. 12(10). When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . As Anderson (2004. Chrysostalis.. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. Nov. along with selected examples. F.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. R. Italy. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Web 2. Likothanassis. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. Milan. M. G. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Switzerland. 2005).educause. K. Ali. F.. 2006) has argued. Z. For example. and a bibliography.pdf Anderson..bcs. Moreover. Thus. Bertolazzi. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. and Votis. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.cscsi. Sept.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. 41(2).0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.idi. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. October. S. http://www. M. From this. 2004). M. Chris (2004). often placed in repositories as open source content or software. online resources. Bibliography Abbas. and wearable computers.1 0/tail. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. David (2005). http://www. In the last chapter.. R.DC/0502051 Alexander.ntnu.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. 19. March/April 2006. http://ewic. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. Reggiani. UK. Ahmad. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. 2002. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning... T. 16.com/wired/archive/12. and Conte. (2002). A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. ambient networks. (2005).. Wired Magazine. Bryan (2006). Weiss. M. Wales.

computer. Online. (2002). Proceedings. Upper Saddle River.xml&DOI=10. C. ThoughtWorks White paper. N.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . and Putland. Jagadish (2004). Oct. Sept.. G.S.cancore. 2003. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.pdf Friesen. and Brown. Infoworld. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Centre for Distance Ed. http://www. V.html Hagel. http://www.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . Luo. C. J. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. http://www. Athabasca University. E.html Kong. International E-Learning Specifications.xml.pdf Knorr.aspeninstitute. T.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies.. 4-36. and Borck.. Gregor (2005).com/paper_pushpull. W. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). I. http://www. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.ascilite. http://www. T. 2005. Switzerland. Norm (2006).networking technology.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. http://www. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.gov.cti. Hao (2003).gmu. Thomas (2004). (2001). http://www. http://www. (2005). J. of Distance Education 10.devshed. G. http://www.co m/docs/SOA_World. Web Services . 2002 http://ewic.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1.org/celda2005/index.. Aug.ICALT 2001.det. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. Sept. 2001. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. for the Australian Dept. 13. March 2002. Education.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. D. (1996). Portugal.athabascau.act.asp Chatarji. Stephen (2004). 14-16. April 18.iadis. L. pdf He.bcs. http://cde.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. American Jrnl. http://www. Erlanger.au Limited. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . 6-8. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. J. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.pdf Cerri.edu/pdf/ajde. (2002). J.com. USA.pdf Millea. (2005). (2005). and Zhang.xml. R. Porto. Perth... Australia. 1026-1032.johnhagel. Madison.1109/CIT. http://www. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 13-16. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. 2. J. 2004. January 2005. and Albert. A field guide to software as a service. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Lausanne. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . Hornig. Dec.pdf Erl. Green. 30.virtual. (2005). International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). WI. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.Dev Shed.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. Tsiatsos.org. Working paper.html Hockemeyer.ca/protocols_en. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa. and McGreal. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.2005.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.5 6 Marshall.. http://ru6. of Education and Training. http://csdl2. Triantafillou.infoworld.htm Hohpe.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.. NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. C. Stefano (2005).amazon.

http://www.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. pp. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. Lee. http://www. (Eds.pdf Spaniol. V. Hambrecht and Co. R.alt.. Learning Solutions.pdf Werkhoven. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. and Oliveira. Feijen.bcs. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.pdf Pierre. M. http://www.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. April 26-27. 2005. Trinity College.aifb. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. 27 . Mashups. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://www. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. Samuel (2006).pdf Woodill.amazon. Berlin: Springer. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. SCORM and the Learning Grid. G. C.alt. Birmingham. ICWL 2003. Reflective learning. e-portfolios.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.pdf Roberts. 2006. http://www. (2006).. Research report. J. (2005).. and Vossen. W. (2005). In W. http://www. R. M. C.edu. http://www. (2000).unikarlsruhe. (2004). and Geys. W. J. future thinking: digital repositories.pdf Do not reproduce 9 .astd. http://www-i5. ACTeN E-Content Report No.acten. Library+information Show. April 1. F. T.com/publications. 193–205.aspx Yang. and Jarke. Zhou et al. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Germany. MA: Perseus. and Ho.operitel.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. and Wade. May 15.. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. Aalderink. 2006.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. G. 21. Cambridge. http://www. 9. 911-928.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.sinica. http://www. Rhonda (2006). G.ac.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2.28 April 2004. Peter (2004). and Weggen. C.R.pdf Norman.Neumann. M. (2003). Cook. Harvey. V. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Klamma.rwthaachen. H. (2003).informatik.pdf Urdan. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. S.amazon. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Stuttgart.): Proceedings.iis.. http://ewic. UK. Dublin. Donald (1993).ac.

a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. selected elearning related examples. online resources to learn more about each technology. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . Included are related terms. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies.

affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. and legality. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.” (Anolli.html Do not reproduce 11 .uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. privacy. too.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. For example. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.convo. 2005).cs.bham. facial recognition. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. Affective Computing. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. in Italy. including the ability to recognize and express emotions.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. or sad. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. emotional design. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. posture.sricbi.myself-proj.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. understand. et al. accuracy. and react to human emotions. In online therapy. 2005).ac. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Without the ability to understand emotions.mit. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. security.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.com/Explorer/NGT-AC..Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. http://www. and to respond to them effectively. confused. UK.” http://www.media.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. speech patterns mainstream.co. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.. keystroke patterns. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. http://www. SRI Consulting (http://www. gestures. emotions.

. O. http://www.dis...pdf Cahour. Pachoud. J. N. http://www. K. Agliati. April 12-15. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.pdf Maldonado.unige. CHI 2005 conference. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. http://www..se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook.de/link/affective_port al.nsma.. P.. Salembier. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Joseph (2005). (2005).de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. F. Yamada.sics. and Laaksolahti. 2005. Balestra. D. (2005). B.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.wired. Bouraoui..arizona. http://www. and Zouinar. Dr. Brassac. M. and Zancanaro.. Pianesi. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.1 2/love. C. Stock. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Realdon. R.sics. Iwamura. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.unitrier.pdf Diamond.aisb. C. Portland. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.sics. Z.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman. I. CHI 2005. Mantovani. Oregon. Rocchi.. A. 2005. 2005. C. L.edu/emotion. http://emotion.. http://www..sics. J. http://www. 2005.. with many resources. Vermersch. H. Graziola.uniroma1. M.sics. Portland.. I Like It . K. Brave. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . October 22-24.pdf Goren-Bar. D.. O. http://www. (2005).doc Hook. Portland. M.. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. April 2-7. Nass.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Portland. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.. Oregon. April 2-7.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Zurloni. April 2-7. UK. M.informatik. April 2-7. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.. J.org.. K. 2005 http://www. listing many links to interesting resources. bibliographies. V. (2005).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. S. H. April 2-7. (2005). (2005).Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. Oregon. http://emotion-research. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. CHI 2005 conference. and Waterworth. April 2-7.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. Isbister. September 13. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. China. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.html Fallman.. A.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Kaye. Portland. F. CHI 2005. University of Hertfordshire. The Love Machine: building computers that care. Nortillaro. Lee. B... Wired Magazine.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. December. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.html In Germany. 2005. J.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. are available online: http://www. P. Oregon. and Morishima. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. Hatfield.pdf Interfaces. Portland.. Y.doc Chateau. David (2003). We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.. and Merisol.bartneck.com/wired/archive/11. http://www. Nakajima.it/~lhci/009. Oregon.sics. Issue 11/12.. and Confalonieri (2005). including studies of emotions in computers. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Vescovo. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.

se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.pdf Norman. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Beijing. Tan..pdf Ruebenstrunk.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado.thesis.elearningreviews. OR.sics. http://www. Miami.sics. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.t. 2005. http://www.utokyo. 2002. Portland. http://www. MA: MIT. Dec. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics. and Picard.pdf Mandryk. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. and Daily.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Donald A. Ian (1997). NJ.ac.cs. http://www.amazon. E-book http://www.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. and Steele. Oregon. Doctoral Dissertation. (2004). CHI 2005 conference. Affective Computing. M.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.miv. Oregon. (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. J. April 2-7. Portland. http://www. Charlotte (2005). J. http://www.bham. Oregon. University of Birmingham. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.sics. China. S. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. R.doc Wright. CHI 2005. 22.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. http://www. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. (2002). Regan (2005).ac. http://www. L. Erlbaum. S. Portland. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis.pdf Masum. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. October 22-24.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.amazon.HTM Steele. http://www. Helena (2005).stanford. New York: Basic. 2005. April 2-7. Affective Computing vs.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.htm Tao. (2005). (2005). Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. 2005. 35(2). Rosalind (1997). Berlin: Springer. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. Cambridge. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. CHI 2005. and Ishizuka. T. Gerd (1998).de/emeocomp/co ntent. 2005. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.pdf Mentis. http://www. May 26. ACII 2005. R.Next 10 Years! Mahwah.ruebenstrunk. M.iste. Emotional Agents. April 2-7.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. benevolence. She made mistakes. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. useful in educational simulations. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. First. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. avatars. A second agent in the simulation.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Dick Stenmark. and the students had to continue to teach her. In such situations. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. 2004) and are. However.informatik. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). 2005). These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). 2004). Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. et al. intelligent agents program (for example. 1999). A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Mentor. rationality. and both may be found in the same http://w3. autonomous agents. see the paper by Far et al. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. proactive (goal directed). personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Katzlberger. Fourth. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. but Do not reproduce 15 . Viswanath. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. Second. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. and many of them can actually learn. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. veracity. Third. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. For example. 1999). In this context. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems.. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. not only about environments. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. therefore. and. Agents have beliefs. 2005.gu. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. learning/adaptation. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior.

cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. expert role-players.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable.netobjectdays.redwoodelearning. For details see: www.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). See the article by Williams et al. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin.also about other agents. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. Student Assistant Agent 4.csc.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.uka.fsu.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623.com/ CodeBaby Corp. http://www. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.ira. (2004): http://www. Content Agent 6. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . (1998) developed a conversational agent.extempo. http://liinwww. http://www. http://www. Skills Manager Agent 3. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. User Profile Agent. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity.org/index.liv.old. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. 2000). and expert guides. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. 2. Therefore.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. Even though each agent acts independently.codebaby.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. Baldi.stanford. acting against other teams of agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. uses seven different types of agents: 1. Learning Paths Agent 5. They are available as adaptive coaches. go to: http://ritl. Massaro et al. go to: http://ldt.ac.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.editlib. http://www.

Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.org/index. Clarebout. Tennessee.editlib. & El-Khouly. Z. S. M. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Nashville. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). (2002). Jrnl. A. 1503-1506. http://www. E-Learning 2003. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. 267-286 http://www. & Lin.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. Sun. E. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. Educause Quarterly. Krittaya (2005). A.org/index.editlib. G. (2003). Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. B. Hypermedia. J.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. (2002). 275-285.netobjectdays. 306-311). http://www.isi. W. In Proceedings..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 21-38..ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. Nashville. Thomas (2005). IEEE Distributed Systems Online. 75-80. TN.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. http://www.. Vanderbilt University. L. C. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. Large Complex Systems. G. 2005. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Zahia (2004). 5(7).edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. 10 (3). & Kim.aace. Do not reproduce 17 ... http://www. P.editlib.).org/index. Koono. 1659-1666. 4(1).org/16948 Leelawong.. Inter-active Learning Res. (2003). Norfolk. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. (2005). Fuhua Oscar (2005).editlib. (2002). G. & Ebbers. Erfurt. http://www.. International Journal on E-Learning. www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. Learning by Teaching Agents. (2000). In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.org/index. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia..org/index.pdf Kim.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. and Ho. Germany.pdf Guessoum. & Johnson. L. S. Educause Quarterly.pdf Kao. Proceedings. www. e-Learning 2005.educause.teachableagents.pdf Clarebout.. In Proceedings.org/index.pdf Lin.org/index. Doctoral Dissertation. 11(3). Y. http://dl. No. S.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. and Palopoli. Ng.pdf Jafari.. http://csdl. Elan.University of Southern California.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. A. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. S. 28(2). Ali (2002). Paper presented. and Tsang. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.teachableagents.educause. E-Learning 2003. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. & Bengu. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). C. (1999). G.computer.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 459-462. (2003). (2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.aace.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Richards.editlib.editlib..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.old. Hypermedia. http://www. Y.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. and Telecommunications 2003.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. (Ed. VA: AACE. Vanderbilt University.editlib. Hershey. W. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management.. 1353-1356. (2005). http://www.org/newdl/index. Y. July. J. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. and Shaw. Johnson. http://www. 3. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. G.

1415-1420.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. and Solomon.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov.http://www.. (Ed. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.org/index. June 1-4. IFIP WG12. http://www. France.aifb. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). http://www. http://www. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. (2004).vt.. L. 47-59. (1999). B. of California.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).ist. St. http://www. V. http://www... E. U. and Winikoff. In Proceedings. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Beskow. 14(1).pdf Perez. 321333... 1632.aace.uni-karlsruhe. M.psu.html Shim. http://www. 194-201. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.de/BIK/vpa/109.cfm?fuse action=Reader. (2005). D.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. G. Cohen..ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. (2006)... Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. New York: John Wiley & Sons.edu/565321. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. Kommers & G. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. and Cole. (1999).editlib.aace. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. 3169-3176.. 1999. and Higher Education 2004. Finland. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. G. W. Ferat (2000). S. Doctoral Dissertation. PA. D. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. & Lim. R. In P. ED-MEDIA 2005.informatics.org/16968 Sahin.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. Russia. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. (2004).utexas.org/index. and Ferneley. J. 10 (3). M.editlib. http://dl. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Richards (Eds. A. 143-162. Wesley. ED-MEDIA.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Daniel. (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. R. J. K. Healthcare. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. ED.editlib. (2005).). http://cslu. & Booth. http://scholar. 18 © Brandon Hall Research .org/index.edu/fil/ Padgham.editlib.amazon.cse.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 61-65. Toulouse. Doctoral Dissertation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno.). K. 17(2). R.editlib. L. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. Carnegie Mellon University. G.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.lib. O. S. and Stucky.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005).cs.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.org/newdl/index. 1999. Petersburg. H..org/index. Doctoral dissertation. M. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.amazon. S. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. http://www. In Richards. August. Sandel.ogi.org/index. Atreya. Peter (1998). (1999).indiana. L. http://citeseer. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. M. & Leelawong. Biswas. Proceedings. Government. www..pdf Menczer. and Núñeza. Adebiyi. Proceedings.Media 2005. http://www. Pittsburgh. V.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.

Michael (2002). In Proceedings. Chicago.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. April 18-21. & Madsen. New York: John Wiley & Sons.upc.teachableagents.ac. (2004). M. J.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. N. 3000-3002. Gilbert. http://ca.pdf Williams.http://www. Chun. http://www. 2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.editlib. (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge.org/index. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. http://research. ED-MEDIA 2004.. Paper at CLAG2004..org/papers/15 8bis.html Yan.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.

Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Also.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. al. animations may even prejudice learning. produced the best learning results. Given that. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. (2003). improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.0 http://www. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.05 http://www..topshareware.” Lowe adds that “in some cases. 2003) Finally.com/alchemy/gi fcon. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.Animation Software Related terms Flash.animationfactory. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. However. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. a static diagram. motion graphics depiction. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. Rather. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.mindworkshop.topshareware.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. et.htm For a selection of over 400. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. coupled with imagining how something worked. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation.000 pre-built animated GIFs.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. However. The results of many experiments have been mixed.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. producing animations can be very costly. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s.” (Huk. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. like pictures in a flip book. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.

massivesoftware.animationonline. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe.newtek. http://www. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques.adobe.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. To use ActionScript. go to: http://www. For a free demo.macromedia.com/pub/products/e nliven. http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D.utoronto.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto.com/dynamics/demov ersion.html Falling Bodies . their 3-D character creation environment.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.. Inc. effects. 2004). Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI . have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. For more information on Shockwave. http://www.viewpoint.” http://www.apple.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling. and rendering tool. go to: http://macromedia. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.html CAT ..com/products/aftereffec ts/main. animating. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies.animats. http://www.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. http://www.catoolkit. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. a subsidiary of Avid Technology. For information on Flash.autodesk. It is part of Final Cut Studio. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq. the built-in programming language.eitechnologygroup.swishzone. http://www.com Enliven . connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. http://faraday.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. http://www. go to: http://www.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. It animates fall stunts. http://www. animation.Softimage Co.com Maya is a high-end modeling. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.physics.softimage.com/gallery/default.

(2004). S.pdf Toth. Cognition and Instruction.rapidintake.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. G. and Floto. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. T.htm Bibliography Castillo.pdf Lowe. July.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves.. Educational Psychology Review. Learning Circuits.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.psych. http://www2. http://www. C. and Hancock.learningcircuits. March 2002. http://www.html Malheiro. Steinke. R.learninglab. http://www. (2003). S.learningcircuits.K.. S.org/12937 Mayer. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. S. go to AllWorldSoft.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. http://www. D. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. 325–360. Jonas-Dwyer & R. http://esub. M. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. http://projekte. (2004).de/pub/bscw. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. C. Thomas (2003). G.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.freedownloadscenter. and Moreno.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. G. T..) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. http://www. 1046-1048. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. and Hancock. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . ASCILITE Conference. July 2004. (2004).com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.com/books_catalog . 2003.com. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. C. Phillips (Eds.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. McBeath. M.. (2003). R. Animation and learning: value for money? In R.htm Huk. http://www. http://www. and Cate.learningcircuits.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. July 18.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. 21(4). (2004). You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. (1).sjsu. Animation – just enough.aace.ascilite. Flash Interactive Session.org.unihannover.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. Learning Circuits.htm Hess.htm Hegarty.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. (2002). never too much.pdf Hess. Kriz. Learning Circuits. FreeDownloads Center. Hancock.. Atkinson. S. 87-99.ucsb.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. R. and Hess. 14(1). (2003).siggraph.org/2003/aug2 003/toth.ascension-tech. Lehi.allworldsoft. http://dl.

Nevertheless. AI. agents. machine learning. So far. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. expert systems. intelligent tutoring. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . multiagent systems. cognitive informatics. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. data mining. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems.

recommender systems. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. possibly undeliberate manner..” On the other hand. including collaborative filtering. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. While many systems purport to be personalized. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. (2003). To seem humanlike. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand).seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. Moreover.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. the subject matter expert. To achieve their goals. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. and data mining. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. and the teacher. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. The reality is that. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. and Aist et al. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al.learning. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms.g.

rather than using a single type of knowledge. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.” http://www.e. Talking Head Tutor vs. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. concepts.” http://www. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions..edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays..edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. etc) and how they are interrelated. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. objects.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.di.colorado.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.iit. gestures.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .cs.cs. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.uic. http://lsa. 2002). Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.unito. http://www. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. (2005a.

As a result.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. Stottler Henke Associates. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. http://www.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .library.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.edu.leaonline. http://www. so that these systems become more realistic.” http://www. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.uc3m. see: http://lsa.ucalgary. Aurora . describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. http://www. Infrature. http://ariic.enel. including student monitoring. http://bach. Task Tutor Toolkit .ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. challenging.kicinger. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.colorado.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. and engaging.com/index.com/doi/pdf/10. http://quantumsimulations.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories.pact.html Founded in 1988.uregina.cmu.infrature.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.iis.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .edu.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. and multiagents. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. without programming.” http://ctat.cs. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. e-commerce.it.pdf Oguejiofor et al.cs. question answering (QA) techniques.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.unsw. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. intelligent conflict resolution.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . Inc.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.gast. and INFOMAP.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.” http://www. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.sinica.

htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.ed.edu.” http://www.it.htm Do not reproduce 27 .usyd.ed. For more info: http://www2.cs.autotutor.wpi. http://www. an adaptive testing algorithm. China.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.inf.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.ke-corp. The AIED conferences are held every two years.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.uk/aiedsoc.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates. http://www.cmu.” http://www.uquebec.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.learningcircuits. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.stottlerhenke. http://www.cs.org/2000/feb2 000/ong.ac. with the next one in 2007. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.ucalgary. skill gaps.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. http://pact.ca/eng/inde x. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. preferred cadence. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.gemini. Taiwan. http://www.its2006.org/cfp.cs. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.pact.org/AITopics/html/tutor. http://aied.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.enel.teluq.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. and an interactive intelligent tutor.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.com/s10.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.inf.aaai.licef.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. and learning style.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.masternewmedia.virtuelage. http://aied.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. see: http://www.cmu. http://www.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. http://ctat. http://www.ac.

Artificial Intelligence Review. (2004). M. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read..edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. http://www2.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. R. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. Vicari. E.J.. Lester.sbg. and Evens.pdf Alkhalifa. McLaren.cs. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit.). & F. M. T. Eshaa (Ed. Hermann (2002).pdf Baldoni. R. P. Hershey.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. http://www.ppt Butz. V. Kort.technologyreview. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. R. (2005). B..edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.ht ml Aleven. Lester.cs. and Patti. and Penstein Rosé. M. B. Chicago. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04).cmu. C.html Brusilovsky. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. In J. V. (2004).iit.amazon. 6(1).). ITS 2004.nccu.wpi. http://www. Paraguaçu (Eds. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens..sis. and Frasson. and Douglas. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.82 Bhatt. Roll.edu.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. Hua. Vicari. S. C.org/10. Argamon. C.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Aleven.. Reilly. I.. http://dx. E.. http://imlab. http://www. K.ac. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. http://lingcog. (2004). Paraguaçu (Eds. (1997). 159-165.edu/pubs/pub_4073.html Barker. (2004). and F. (2004). and Maguire.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. http://www. http://nth. C.pitt. R. (2004). Peter (2000).pitt. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. R. Kobe. Bibliography Aist. http://www. (2004). Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). K. and Schwarz. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.pdf Chaffar. S. http://www. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. and Koedinger. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . 22: 3–39. P. C.Marvin Minsky.ri.pdf Barcena.di. Maceió.1109/ITCC. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.com/printer_f riendly_article. (2002).unito. G. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft..eurodl. and Read. 482-487. S. M. V. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.2005. Mostow. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. http://www. In J.doi. PA: Idea. J. In Proceedings.pdf Brusilovsky. and Picard. Ritter.) (2006).uregina..B. http://www. Baroglio.Volume I.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. Brazil. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). S. S. C..

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and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. computer-based assessment tools.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. In a business situation. Assessment software can generate templates. We can expect that. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. However. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . quizzes.learningandteaching. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. and output. evaluation. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. quizzes. and psychomotor. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. aptitudes. in the near future. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). computer based assessment (CBA). This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. When combined into a “360° evaluation. making it hard to escape assess-ment. More sophisticated forms of automated. and documents for assessors to use. online assessment. samples. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. or performance samples. the automated scoring of essays. affective. and (4) computer marking. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. for example. computer mediated assessment (CMA). While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. are already available. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools.info/learni ng/solo. 1956). self-evaluation. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. For example. once only done by a human assessor. eassessment. rubrics.

http://www. and adminis-tration features.uc.rmsuk.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. abilities.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. preview pages for all question types.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. see: http://www. see: http://lsa. check out the Dialang web site.xstreamsoftware. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.testcraft.brainbench. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. and adaptive question branching.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. For details. reporting. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. http://nt.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.vantagelearning.pedagogue. http://www. Review it at: http://www.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. a customizable look and feel. and past work behaviors. from Resources Management Services in the U. and services useful for outcomes assessment.respondus.dialang. and self-study.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.com/evaluator Testcraft.” http://www. multilingual support.flaguide. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. http://www.” organized by academic discipline. For information on latent semantic analysis. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . skills. http://www. http://www.operitel.redinq. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).com/wwwtools/magazines..questionmark. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. http://www. learning tools.horizonwimba.ets.com/news_per formance_analyzer2.com/redinq/html/index. has recently won awards for its performance.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. institutional evaluation. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. personality.0. Find them at: http://www. http://www.org/ ETS. on its Web site. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.K.org/english/index. See more at: http://www. http://www.epistema. a completely customizable report engine.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. Diploma. surveys.colorado.com The Evaluator.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry. http://www. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.fasfind. http://www.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.

1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.edu.learnflex.” http://www.unimelb. 5365. (2005).com/useguide/asse ssme/online.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. D.ac.000 different tests from its database.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.ac.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80..learningandteaching.ifets. http://www. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment. P. Educational Technology & Society.tasainstitute. London: Paladin.uk/cticomp/CAA.heacademy. Freire. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. James (2005). http://www. T. Gregory (1973).economicsnetwork. R.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.tcet. M. http://www.uiuc.oir.uka. G..ac.htm Atkinson. http://www. http://www.htm#2.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. Ortigosa.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. http://www. A. http://cba.com/tools/rubrics. http://www.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.discovery.ac. http://www.umuc.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources..org/en/en_mod41. Online paper.3 Bateson. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy..html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. & Rodríguez.com/schrockguide/ assess. http://school.ira. E.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.info/journals/8_3/6.rmcdenver.unt. Explore the links at: http://www.thinkinggear. Carro.wlv. http://www.pdf Atherton. and Davies. Pérez.nestafuturelab. http://www.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.200 references. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.uk/home.html Bibliography Alfonseca. 8 (3).ulster. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.ict4lt. with a list of 34 strategies..org/research/re views/10_01.au/assessing learning/03/online. Do not reproduce 37 . including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.quintcareers. is available from: http://liinwww.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.com/029.scit.com/career_asses sment.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. Obtain a copy at: http://www. M.cshe.info/learni ng/solo.health. with over 1. (2004).html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.

Kay (1999). Iwashita. Shermis and J. Online paper. L. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement.. St. McNamara.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. (1982). Linn (Ed. Langu-age Learning and Technology. S. New York.amazon. and Collis. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Mexico.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.amazon. J. Louis. In S. (2003). NY: Macmillan.amazon.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. (2001). Ciravegna (Eds. J. Jill. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. How to Assess Authentic Learning. & Leacock.ets.amazon. http://www. Harabagiu and F. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment.com/Books/b39739. http://www.amazon.assess. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.eschoolnews. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Knight. C. N. & Olsen.http://www.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics.com/news/showS toryts.. http://llt. eSchool News. http://www.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. Robert (2005). (1997). and Marcu.. L. IL: Skylight. (2001). A. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".amazon. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www. Burstein. In the R.pdf Brown J.computer. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. (2003). The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. J. Shermis and J.pdf Biggs. (1989).htm. Missouri. New York: Oxford. http://www. June 22. IEEE Intelligent Systems. 3rd Edition. J.msu. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. S.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. V.iltaonline. August 2003. (2002).assess. Daniel. (2003).) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. New York: McKay. and Chodorow. Acapulco.). www. Marcu. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Hillsdale.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. T. Martin. Burstein (Eds. Jill C. http://www. K. and O'Hagan. and Hirschman. Hillsdale. http://www.. K.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. New York: Academic Press.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. http://www. C. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. In M. Educational Measurement. (1956). Kaplan (Ed. Burstein.com/Books/b39739. Daniel. 2005. Jill. http://www. http://www.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. D.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. Kevin (2003). Inouye. Jill. B. Chodorow. In M. M. In R. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. Arlington Heights. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies..org/intelligent/archives. Burstein (Eds.htm Burstein..iltaonline. B.pdf. 1. Rethink testing for future success.

Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.htm. Online paper.edu.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. http://wwwpsych. n.hlc. http://www.ac. http://www.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.Hershey. Howard. & Landauer. M. D.nmsu. L.html Chalhoub-Deville.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. D. 5. Robert. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. W. and Grellett. Micheline. H. Lawrence. Foltz. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. http://llt. Online newsletter.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault. 5.msu. (2004). Language Learning & Technology 2. N.iltaonline. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Seven technologies for assessment. and Howell. http://eprints. n. Laham. E.html. Millard. Language testing and technology: past and future. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".. 4. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. P. Gardner. Language Learning and Technology. 2: 77-93. (Ed. Writing assessment: a position statement. B.msu. (2002). Board on Testing and Assessment. Howard (1993)..Proceedings from a Workshop. Morgan. S. EdMedia '99. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. K.htm Cebrian. and Sclater. College Composition and Communication Online.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). (2001).. Online newsletter. New York: Basic Books..utas. March 9.softwaresecure. v. http://www.unimelb.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones.gmu. May. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.html Davies. http://www.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. In Proceedings. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. http://www. S. Language Learning and Technology. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.msu.edu. 2. (2001). (2001). Chalhoub-Deville.amazon. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. P.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.soton. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. No.ncte. http://llt.html Frase. O’Reilly. May. v.. PA: Information Science.au/worldcall/str5.pdf Dunkel P.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9.) (2005). 2.pdf Hricko. (Eds.com/pdf/Paper Tests.Carr. http://www. and Parry.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. St. National Research Council. (1999). T.amazon.nap.doc. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. C. W.amazon. http://mason. Louis.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.ecs. (1999).) (1999). http://www. http://llt. (2004).pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).. M. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Howell. Y.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . M. Nathan. Davis. www. (1998). In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. (2005). Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. C.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. University of Tasmania.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. London: Falmer. http://www. Loughborough. Micheline.

M. International Journal on E-Learning. Hardas. DC: U. Measurement and Evaluations. Fitzgerald. http://www. & J. Howell. P.kent..edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. Language Learning and Technology. and Watt. and Gifford. Handbook of writing research. M. http://llt. S. (2000). Problem Solving.. D. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. M.amazon. K. Burstein. M. Fremer.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.S. Hillsdale.amazon. pp. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.pd f Weiner. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Journal of Technol.msu. Hershey. Howard.proexam.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. G. C. (2006). and Assessment.. http://www.ed. PA: Information Science.. M. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise.amazon. and Hricko. A.) (2000). http://eric. Washington.LSAintr o.html Khan. (1999). T.. http://www. (Eds. Foltz. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. http://escholarship. D. and Writing.bc. (Ed.amazon.) (2005).Jones. National Center for Education Statistics. Learning. K. S.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. May.medianet. J. R. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. D. (1979). Weller.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. http://www. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. Mahwah. (Eds. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking.edu/papers/dp1. Y. Patrick (2000). & Mason.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. Self. Reports from the Institute of Education. C.pdf Landauer. & Laham. In C. Potenza.ed. (2005)..pdf MacDonlad. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.amazon. R (2002). H. W. J.pdf Kenyon. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Discourse Processes. and Ward. http://lsa. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Graham. 259284.amazon. B. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.) (2002). Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. D. and Skinner. (2001). 25. M. W.. http://www. New York. NY: Guilford Press. France. University of Gothenburg.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Compiegne.colorado. & Leacock.edu/cgi/viewcontent . http://nces. N. V. 403-416. J. (2005). Online Assessment. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. McArthur.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Government. Information Science Publishing. http://www...com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. 4(6).. http://www. and Ma. (1998). http://www. (2006). J. Tim (2006). 5(2). and Malabonga.

operitel.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. Operitel white paper. http://www.com Do not reproduce 41 .

including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. Assists non-native speakers. According to Crofts et al.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. to personalized media). Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. Provides feedback to learners. podcasting.5 megabytes. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research ... (2005). including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. which is gaining in popularity. You can’t add your own notes. while it is playing. the rest of the file has time to arrive.e. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. One audio application of interest to educators. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. For example.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. in part. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. (i. such as those for iPods. compared with even a few years ago. depending on the file size). (i. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . or by “streaming. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. is podcasting. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners.e. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Provides another channel for material review.

thepodcastnetwork. http://www. http://www.envision. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.avsmedia. and other operating systems. and utilities for conversion.com/blogs/doug/index. or sentences from audio Web sites. http://sourceforge. DJ mixing. Audio and video software.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. http://www. CD audio extraction.scientificcomputing.ltd. http://www.71.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.co.edupodder.podcasting-tools.audiotoolsdirect.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. http://www.com/lipsync/ind ex.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. recording.com/AudioTools/inde x. tools. http://recap. http://www. including podcasting. playback.com/scwmarapr05sonification.elearningcentre.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.purdue. http://www. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.htm For a list of podcasting tools.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.ibritt. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. http://epnweb.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.com/resources/dc_media.automaticsync. http://www. Microsoft Windows.48. http://www. shareware.com. http://www.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.uk/podcasting/index. It is available to download for Mac OS X. http://64. including software to record and play podcasts. phrases. htm RECAP Ltd. http://www. go to: http://www.masternewmedia.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. and broadcasting are all found on this site.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. GNU/Linux.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.rds.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. open source software for recording and editing sounds.apple.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. sound editing. enhancing. http://www.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . freeware.

com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. M. Brenda (2001).) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. In G. http://www.com/products/audition/ main.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. L. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. Robin Good’s Blog. September. Fox.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.scientificcomputing. http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. and Williams. Luigi (2005). Dion Cory (1999).educause.ltd. http://recap.bias-inc. 45-50.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. B. May 20.h tml Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia.html Girvan. http://www. N.sonicfoundry. Sound Sense. July 2005.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. J. http://dl.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Richards (Ed.apple. Eva (2005). Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). and Higher Education 2003 (pp.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. C. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.org/index. pdf Noakes. http://www. and Swenson. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). VA: AACE.multitrackstudio. Scientific Computing World. http://firstmonday.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research ..ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth.unl. 10(9).aace.html Curtis. S. Dilley. Healthcare.cakewalk. Ray (2005). and Lomas. 2005.learningcircuits. http://www. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio..editlib. Podcasts. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. http://www. June 2005.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. P. University of Nebraska.audiolink.htm Jobbings. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.adobe. Government. (2005). http://edmarketing.uk/articles/podguide.com/scwmarapr05sonification. Dave (2005).com/home. April 2005. A. Peter (2005). Chesapeake..html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.html Kaplan-Leiserson. (2003). First Monday. Doctoral Dissertation. Retsema. Learning Circuits. 417-419). Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). http://digitalcommons.

2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. in the end. (For details. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. simulations. Implementation.s html).Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Further. For details on each Microsoft product. Development.microsoft. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. and. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen.com/publications/emerging/emerging.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. see: http://www. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects.brandonhall. rapid elearning. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. 2005). entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. content development. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. In this vein. Design. either directly or with third party tools. As well. No authoring tool does everything. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. please see http://www. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. and Evaluation) processes. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications.

com Agile .elearningpowertools. http://www. go to: http://www.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.copycatsoftware.com/powerp oint-presentations-index. http://www. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://www.Composica Enterprise .brainshark. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. www.thinkingcap. .uk/contentpoint. http://www.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. video. http://www.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. hotspots.com/ Business Performance Technology . Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. pop-up messages.adobe.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.Content Point . http://www.co.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. buttons.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint.articulateglobal.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. http://www. Builds quizzes.htm Brainshark Inc.Media – Import 3-D Models.ilessons.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .activeslide.bridge-pt.com/presenter.com/ Counterpoint .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.com/ Acroservices . rich text. and PowerPoint slides. htm Composica . http://www.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.allencomm. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly.com/products/ Articulate . music.Thinkcap Studio .co.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. XML. visualization. http://www. http://www.Capture Station 2. and marketing applications. http://www.info/ Allen Communications . including the following: Drag-and-drop images.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. http://www.htm ActiveSlide.com/index.accordent. pointers.anark.acroservices.htm Bernard D&G .atlanticlink. and images and turn them into 3-D training. Integrates various media. http://www.com/eng/index.turbodemo.com Anark . video.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . http://presentation.lersus.asp Bridge People and Technology . http://www.Designer’s Edge. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. video. Flash.composica.

http://www. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.com/products/ Pro. without programming knowledge. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.com/ka. http://www. http://www. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.uk/ INTEC . http://www.elementk. http://www. HTML courses.com Element K .com/ Eclipsys Corporation . CD Rom. http://www.digitalworkshop. http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .elicitus. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. http://www.eclipsys.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. Post the characters on any Web site.gen21.com imc AG . stand alone .seminar. http://www.com/ Information Transfer . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. http://www.shtml Dynamic Media .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.horizonwimba. http://www.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www. video.e-learningconsulting.co.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. DVD-video.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. and animation.com Imaira Digital Media . Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. graphics.de/ Impatica .com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.exe files. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.sculptoris.Digital Workshop .Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. http://www.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.lecturnity.experiencebuilders. such as the following: Web.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. and installation files.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .hunterstone.com/Solutions/Elearni ng.dynamicpowertrainer.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.epistema.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. audio.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.eedo.com/inde x_eng.intecllc.com/ Hunter Stone .KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.e2train.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.com/products/forceten.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.impatica.com/index.php e2train . http://www.ht ml E-Learning Consulting . Import rich media and customize graphics.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . http://www. http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .

Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. graphics.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .knowledgepresenter. Word.co.EasyProf .com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure.jsp Knowledge Planet .authoring tool based on Flash templates.intuition. with no programming and no plugins. http://www. Works with SAP Learning Solution.ipsinc.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.com/flashhom e.knowledgeplanet. and animations with tests and interactivity.com/ Learn.learn.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www. http://www. http://www. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.com/ NetPlay Software .customcourse.com/index. http://www.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www.php MindOnSite .mckinnonmulherin. http://www.com/prods erv. http://www. http://www.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. combining multimedia content like video.com/learncenter.Used to create presentations without programming skills.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. Ready-made button and navigation aids. http://www.mindiq. http://www.com/ OPTX International . http://www.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. Built-in testing engine.com .KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.ie/software/publisher. http://www.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.com MyKnowledgeMap . audio.asp Knowledge Quest .pdf Intuition .maxit.htm Kookaburra Studios . create courses specifically on how to use computer software.instant-demo. http://www.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. with a built-in learning management system.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www. PowerPoint slides. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.LEARNERLand – Text.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. centralized knowledge base.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.maxit.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.knowledgequest. shtml Itaca .elearninginabox. http://www. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .mohive.mindonsite.easyprof. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.uk/ MindIQ .Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.com/tbt/dac/index.com/home/home.learnerland.htm MediaMaker . .knowledgextensions.

SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. http://www. GIFs.com/ Qarbon . http://www.teknical.com/ SumTotal . http://www.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.ht m Techsmith .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://www.cfm Serco (technical) .SNAP! Studio – A course builder. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.Nuvvo .com/Products/elearnin g_objects.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. and Flash. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.com/camtasia.com/products/lc. and assessments.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.students. http://www. without knowing code.com/learn_assistant.podia.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. popups. JPEGs.Publisher Professional .com/ Percepsys .com/common/affili ateRefer.com/ Scribe Studio . and highly interactive elearning content. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.respondus. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint.qarbon.or SCORMcompliant. interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.net ReadyGo .htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.rapidintake.screenwatch. a customizable.pointecast. image hotspot activities. http://www.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .techsmith. http://www.com/sensasoluti on.E-Learning Objects .com/coursegen.com/ Savvica . Audio.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.htm Do not reproduce 49 . course publisher.com/learn_assistant. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. or Spanish. http://www. http://nuvvo.scribestudio.toolbook. http://www.com/product_sa.asp TEDS . matching games.htm podia .com Respondus .CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.shtml Reusable Objects .teds. Courses can be posted.net/ PointeCast . and course player all in one software package.readygo.podiaOnDemand . http://www.syberworks.percepsys.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. kiosks.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. French. http://www. image labeling.htm Suddenly Smart .Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.com Rapid Intake . http://www.sensalearning. http://www. crosswords.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .reusableobjects. http://www.suddenlysmart.com/products/study mate.softchalk. When content is developed. http://www.toolbook.In minutes. customizable flashcards.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author.

com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. images. M.funeducation.co.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. http://workforceconnections.2-conformant objects and assessments. McMullen. and wizards.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.time4you GmbH . Montreal.xstreamsoftware.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . CD. interactive and intelligent educational software. http://www.dol. http://www. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research .cs. http://www. Lin (2005). SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. audio. Government. (2003).com/services/webpresentation-svc.bloki.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . S. and text. S. De Bra.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.. June 2005. P. http://www.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. P. and Riesbeck.com/Technology. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. Evanston.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.webex.lectora.time4you. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. and Pahl. Illinois. and Ainsworth. content conversion. D.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. http://www. right in their browser with no additional software required. C. http://www. (2005).uk/index.trainvision.com/ US Government . The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.com/products/products _xwb.xplana. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. and host online discussions. or Network. http://www. publish blogs. www. http://www. and rapid simulation. C. video. Melia. E.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.oswego.amazon.pdf Murray.brandonhall.htm Zapatec .edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.Presentation Studio .gov/ Webex .php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool.. http://www. E. L.cs.win.. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference..com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. (2005).sht ml Bibliography Holohan. Blessing. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. Northwestern University.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. (2005). Berlin: Springer. http://www. www.com/download _rb40eval. http://www. and Brusilovsky.pdf Ramp. Healthcare.tue.oswego.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.asp TrainVision . T.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.westcliffdata. Doctoral Dissertation. templates.

http://www. Gary (2005).. 2005. NL.brandonhall.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.htm Tozman. AACE. The myth about tools. Eindhoven. Learning Circuits.edu/~paws/publication s.editlib. http://www.htm Woodill. June 2005. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Another new paradigm for instructional design.learningcircuits. October 2428.org/index.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Canada.pitt.learningcircuits. Technical Univ.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.sis. 2004. Reuben (2004). W. BC. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.htm Tozman. (2005). Nov.2005). http://www2. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Reuben (2005). A. Sunnyvale. http://www. Learning Circuits. Masters Thesis.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.s html Do not reproduce 51 . E. Vancouver.

” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.codebaby. the avatar may represent an actual human being.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. http://www. Similarly. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. especially in gamebased learning activities. In some situations. In the context of elearning. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. http://www. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.Avatars Related terms Agents.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. http://blogoehlert. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.” Maldonado et al. and generally simulates human activity.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . for example. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.telsim. in the broadest sense.sculptoris.typepad. games. but in e-learning.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.

co. In T. http://www. Chan (Eds. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. offering a large number of supportive functions. users are represent-ed as avatars. Brave.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. and Weber. Iwamura.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar. In the toolkit.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. B. Nakajima.redwoodelearning. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. http://www.pdf Maldonado.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.W. http://www. Nexus Media..html 2005 . C. www. New Zealand. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.oddcast. http://www. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.. and Morishima. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado..pdf Online Resources In Europe.. Nass. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Koschmann.tmmy. A.naccq. Yamada. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. and T. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. C.knowledgeenvironments. modular application.. (2005). Ahad. http://www.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI.. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. Try them at: http://www.Training Education & Education International Conference. (2004). Suthers.co..pdf Seth.” which are avatars that teach.daden. (2005). 2003. http://www. Raj (2003). R.ac. D.stanford.vcom3d. K. S. Lee.elearningguild.. S.pdf Jung. http://isnm. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. http://ww. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Inc. J.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. H.exodus. Aug. 2005. Y. and Nodder.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. H. 25..

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. and military settings. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. Beatty. classroom communication systems. 2006. The use of clickers has several advantages. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. training the faculty member to use the software. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. the costs and headaches multiply. However. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector.” In spite of the costs. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. integrated with other types of learning technologies. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. management. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. http://www. display.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. or clickers. increasing their motivation to learn. clickers. giving almost instant feedback.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. costs can be an issue. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. corporate. higher education.einstruction. The devices keep students alert and involved. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it.

com/index.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.ubc.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. Feb.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. http://www. 3. http://www. E-Learning Dialogue. http://www. Q.active-learning-site.pearsoned. Inside CUA.com/Default.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.educause. 3.qwizdom.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. http://www. http://www. 2006. http://umperg.cua.amazon.Publishing textbook. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. http://inside. Volume 2004.aclearn.umass. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.jmu. https://sharepoint.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.pearsonncs.utexas.pdf Burnstein. 272-275.com/cps/index. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.net/display. No.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. Upper Saddle River.cisat.campustechnology.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. NJ: Prentice Hall. and Lederman. The Physics Teacher. Ian (2004).smartroom. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. Tom (2004). (2003).utexas. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. including material on the use of classroom response systems.com/news_issue.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. Research Bulletin.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).com/products_int erwrite.” http://www. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://www.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.com. http://www. http://www.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. Eric (1997).ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research . R. March 3. Educause Learning Initiative.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.pdf Mazur. pdf Cassidy. http://www. 2004.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.h-itt.optiontechnologies. http://www.gtcocalcomp. http://www.elearning. http://www. http://www.edu/articleprinter1.learnstar. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.com/index.physics. 41(5). Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. July 7. http://www. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. Anne (2006).htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.

uq. Melbourne.edu. http://www. Australia.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.Conference.itee.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .

Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. clarification. reduction. collaborate. and collaborating.g. evaluation. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research .zoho.com/products/i ndex. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. social networking building.. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. through brainstorming). many respond.. http://www.advancedreality.g.com/virtualoffice/index.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. organization. http://www. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. e. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . doing. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software..com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . social bookmarking.g.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.teamspace. The Institute for the Future.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. organize. it requires skill and experience. http://www. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. and There are many different ways to collaborate.html?ad-main Annotea . and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.

http://www.Unified MeetingPlace . document versioning.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .w3. http://www.opencroquet. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . version control. calendar. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). http://www.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .courseforum. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.inteam.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. http://www. Presence (see who’s online).cisco. jot down notes.com/English/ps2/product s/product. Web conferencing.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. expert location. project planning and reporting. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. office. http://www.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .avecomm. voice and data collaboration.bookmarks. and instant messaging.backpackit. http://www. and individual users. and meeting manager. and communication.com/services/faq_basics .com/ Cisco .bluetie. http://www. search. robust document management. markup of data.digite. share information.com/ourProduc t/index. Features include IM.Documentum eRoom . alerts.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.citrix.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.brightidea.globalchat. Includes document organization and sharing.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. with templates and workflows for product development.emc. and searchable discussion threads.centraldesktop.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments.com/ EMC² . instant messaging.jsp Engineering. non-profit. collaborative file management. education. http://www.gotomeeting.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access.com/ Blenks – In-team . http://www. and collaboration. contacts.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. share files. and instant access to the group workspace. http://software.bantu.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://www. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. intellectual property management. and upload photos.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. recordable conferencing.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.comotivsystems. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. and information technology adoption. flexible workflow.com/microsites/eRoo m/index. http://www. http://www. http://www. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). and communicate with others.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise .htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . http://www. discussion forum.

project management. and corporate instant messaging. conducting surveys. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . http://www. and creating action plans. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing.groove.google.engineering. http://www. search. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. secure. and team management. http://www.gliffy.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. easy to use online collaboration system. attach threaded discussions to files. It provides working groups with simple.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . quantitative project management.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . http://www. and images.grapevinesoftware.flypaper.exactamerica. http://www.com/products/Collabor ation. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.com/EN/products /GSII. data and process tracking. presentation tools.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected.shtml Hewlett Packard . share files and documents. Features include interactive data collaboration.hp. http://www.epam-pmc. http://collaboration. scheduling and using calendars.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. and sending workflow tasks. universal file viewer for MS office documents.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. powerful.forumone. http://www. http://www.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.ezmeeting. http://www.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . desktop sharing and remote desktop control. 2001. http://groups.Live meetings and Web conferencing. resource information sharing.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. http://www. It has tools for managing multiple teams.groupsupport. including whiteboards. product quality assurance. and organizational process performance.gordano. Features include the following: Accessing documents. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. software construction.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. meeting.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. recording and playback. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development.facilitate. http://www. voting.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. Web-based extranet tool. drawing tools. assign file editing rights and completion dates. snapshots. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.features a project navigator. require-ment and risk management.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions.Halo Collaboration Studio . http://www. cameras. desktop sharing. tracking the status of assignments.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . and document management. interactive whiteboard. invite workspace members. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. The system streamlines project planning. allow members to update and edit files.com/halo/index. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.net/home/index. categorizing.

com/html/produ cts. and Microsoft Outlook integration.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. podcasting.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. including file sharing.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. http://www. online editor. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.com/Smart Apps. and extensibility. structured. security levels.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www. image libraries. realtime chat.iceweb.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. blogs (Weblogs). customers. http://www. instant messaging and presence indication. http://www03. an interface to a mailing list server.com/ JotSpot . http://www. and more. scalable.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. http://www. online calendar.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . Outlook.com/ Interwoven .webofficepoint. http://kgroups.Lotus QuickPlace . any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks.com/ iLinc Communications .hyperoffice. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.uwc. link sharing). http://www. data.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.com/ IBM .ac.Jotspot Live.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . video.hotComm . efficient.ilinc.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . and shared documents. integrates with MS Office. and photos. http://www. Customizable Web directory.interwoven. and customers on the Web. Integrated suite of multiuser. online contact management. task manager. peer-to-peer.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. private interactive access or exchange of text. and file commenting.kGroups provides a number of tools.com/products/docu ment_management/index. discussion forums. a Wiki. http://www.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . search archiving. http://www. and Lotus Notes.jotlive.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. and secured fashion – up to 399 users.inquesttechnologies. http://www. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.mayeticvillage.za/index.ibm. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. calendars. and secure peer networking architecture. Functions include the following: Share documents. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. Web resources. folders.jdhtech. including versioning. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. a powerful. voice.com/hotComm. partners.hotcomm. versioning control. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. Features include the following: Document management. and provides search. online document management. contacts.microsoft. Features include the following: Shared calendars. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. http://www. Features include the following: Business email.

Allows people to talk to each other. share knowledge.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.same-page. organize and discover content through categories and tags.communityzero.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. teams. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. resources.com/ Same-Page. and communicate.com/ Oracle . calendaring.mspx Near-Time – Flow . and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .Microsoft – SharePoint . http://www. Workflow Automation. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. http://www.com/ Novell – Groupwise .performancesolutionstech. moderator functions. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. text chat. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. providing the best of both worlds. see each other in real time using cameras. real-time application sharing.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. http://www.oracle. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. and files.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . audio and Webcam. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. http://www. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard.A suite of persistent group messaging.com/terms. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. schedule and track events and activities. task management.novell. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access.com/ Ramius . author and review pages individually and across the group. http://www.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Corporate quality communications center. Enables individuals. Within each area. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. and presence management solutions. http://www. http://myworldchat.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. instant messaging.parlano.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. team events.near-time.Rallypoint . MyWorldChat Communicator . and share data or applications while they are online.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. http://www.com – eStudio . instant messaging.html Rallypoint .iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions.opentext. http://www.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. information. milestones.microsoft. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. http://www. http://www.rallypointhq. tasks.santacruznetworks. file transfer.com/collabsuite/index.Community Zero . processes. called an online community. Document Management. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. and contact and document management functions. and MP3 audio recording.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE .

webasyst. and calendaring tools.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. project. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . search.com/index. http://www.com/product/ Vignette .sharemethods. desktop document folders. http://www. live video. calendar sharing. documents. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://groups. Webbased whiteboarding. and prospects – without leaving their desks. productivity applications.com/products /stcollab.com/contentmanagem ent/0. interact. Web conferencing server (in-house).04.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. and share.com/ SiteScape . store files.seldensystems. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. and instant messaging.Forum ZX . expertise.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. http://www. Use it out of the box. http://www. http://www. project teams.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. http://www. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . Includes VoIP.Processes email.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. collaboration. collaboration.00. e-mail server. partners.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. workflow and task management. http://www.25. http://www.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. http://www.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. and use live audio.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. video. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods .tacit.stalker. http://www. threaded discussions. and information sharing. newsgroup server. Designed specifically for the non-technical user.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.sitescape.com SpiderWeb Communications .viack.sumtotalsystems.com/company/news/press /2005.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . http://www.webcrossing. and business partners.cyber-grad. voice and Web conferencing.html Trichys – WorkZone .Collaboration software that includes document management.com/content/default. FTP server.trichys. instant messaging. and breakout groups. http://www. application sharing. and business relationships. chat server. and more. or use it to build a Web application.yahoo. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. XML-RPC server.writely. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.solutions.2097.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. view and edit documents or images together. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. and other business communications.vignette.

com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. data.HP Virtual Classroom . http://www. http://www. http://education.axista. http://www.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. http://www. exit and help. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. form to submit questions. discussions.nagarro.onproject. set user permissions.elluminate. http://www.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. assign tasks.com/ HP .com/ onProject – myonProject .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.com Nagarro . content.brevient.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . and communicate with their project teams. http://www. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. print icon.0 .nexprise. online management for projects of any size and scope.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting . http://www. affordable." virtual collabor-ation. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. and Web pages.Web event calendaring.tomoye. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. Works with Microsoft Project. simple.opmcreator. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. http://www. http://www.com/project.Features include Hands up. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. whiteboard pages. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. annotation tools.caucus.peoplecube. custom stamps.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.Projistics . and payments. attendee list.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . private/group chat. http://www.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. and data into a single storage area.com/ applications.teamdynamix. applaud and meter. video. calendars. identify and resolve potential problems.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.saba. connects peers. and share documents.generation.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .project-open.hp.com/index. content button. Access to the tool is also given to clients.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. navigation. invoicing. and save to disk icon. feedback.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. files. http://www. scheduling solutions. Share multiple projects with multiple users. and e-mails.Intuitive project management software for work teams. http://www.Instant set-up. project planning.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. and collaboration to timesheet management. scaleable. project tracking.projectdox.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. review button.

transparency tools. http://www. http://www.mixmeeting. virtual office hours. http://www. http://www. instant Do not reproduce 69 . polling and quizzes.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. learning. keyboard and voice chat.com/ Intralinks . and more. toll-free conference calling. meeting management.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. and Webconferencing specialists. Record classes or Webcasts. including Web conferencing. and by whom.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. remote control. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. attendee lists. and text chat. live demos. shared whiteboard and present-ation. and meetings.Delivers unlimited voice.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. guest lectures. application sharing. and phone use. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. video. desktop sharing.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. Web. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. and videoconferencing.linktivity.Photon Infotech – SPARK . breakout rooms.adobe. and content display.elluminate. how often.Synchronous Webconferencing software. pre-recorded broadcasts. session reports.0 . e-learning classrooms.liveoffice.horizonwimba.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging. http://www.net/site/getglance/exa mples.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www. sales presentations.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. Webcasts. integrated content management system. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. private whiteboards for each participant.A secure. Allows holding live. hand raising.com/ Linktivity Division. For example. and a change presenter ability. http://www. notes.communiqueconferencing. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.com/website2/events _imc. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. Features include shared documents. http://www. office hours.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . record and playback. http://www. visual.com/ iVocalize . shared desktop. broadcasts files.ivocalize. http://www. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . and real-time videoconferencing.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. http://www.glance.interwise. http://www.photoninfotech. teleconferencing.com/ internet_conferencing. annotations. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.LiveOffice provides Web-based. video.convenos.genesys. instant messaging. Multilingual. online classes. and collaborative content-building sessions. and collaboration features.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. http://www. http://www. URL sharing.intralinks. e-mail invites. and Web conferencing with WebEx. online seminars.batipi. synchronous online lectures.

It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. or an entire desktop. conference calling. and document collaboration. remote support. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. Solutions include Web meetings. send text messages. Requires only a browser and a phone. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. text messaging. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.meetingone. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .webex. http://www. The suite manages the creation.cudenver.wave3software.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. http://www.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . http://www. http://www.com/action.Meeting One – Click&Share.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.telnetz.edufolio.radvision.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . http://www. present PowerPoint slideshows. Webinars. course. surveys. http://www.netspoke.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. or meeting. and system management. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . and instant messaging capabilities. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. e-learning. set up labs and conduct quizzes. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . share other applications. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. http://www. editing.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.webtrain. tour Web sites.To support large deployments. and moderation of Webcasts. and into the enterprise. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.raindance. teleconferencing. show rich multimedia content and documents.com/bridgepoint. discussion forums. http://www. http://carbon.com/home/s_vmps.edu/~bwilson/build ing. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .Powers online meetings. publishing.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). the Internet. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.voxwire. audio. http://www. Web conferencing. any application.Web and audio conferencing services.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.com/rndc/services/s ervices. and desktop videoconferencing services.vodium.

D. Nov. also known as “groupware. and Coleman.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning.educause.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.” http://www. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.com/groupware/in dex. http://www.ecs. Fred (2002). Page.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. also has a great list of collaboration tools.org/collab/inde x.com/webconf/workspa ces. September. Brazil. March/April 2006. http://www. http://collaboration.. Shadbolt. S.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 2003.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03..springerlink.collaborate. http://www. Curtis (2002). ChenBurger.org/tools. K. http://eprints. T. J.com/writings. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. scientific. M. 2002. 41(2). http://cde.kolabora.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Dalton.1:100250. J. M. 2006. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Chief Learning Officer. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.1 Bibliography Alexander. N.athabascau. D.clomedia. Nov.. De Roure.thinkofit. http://www.globalschoolnet.ac.htm Butler.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. Models of collaboration.org/index. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. A. (2003). Buckingham Shum. http://www. Sign up for free at: http://www. (2004). http://www. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. Maceió.mitre. Collaborative Strategies.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.writely.ctcevents...pdf Bonk.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. Creating an eCommunity.htm Mitre Corporation. Bill (2004).ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. Eisenstadt. http://www.collaborationloop.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://www. 2002.com/View. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. 4. Web 2. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. http://www. http://www. Bryan (2006)..html Do not reproduce 71 .. http://www.bruck. http://www.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. J.soton. D.. http://www. Michaelides. Q2Learning White Paper. Japan on July 13-14. and Tate..uk/12081/ Beshears..diglib.criticalmethods.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. communities.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.usabilityfirst. Komzak. Potter. S.collabtech.

cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. VA: AACE.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. (2002).org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. http://ifets. Bjorn (Ed. http://www. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. R. http://www. & Weber. http://wscg.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. e-Book. January 21. January 2005.org/index. http://www.. J. D.masternewmedia. Luigi (2004b).. http://cde.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. K. 3. D. http://www.cfm/files/pape r_12386. Luigi (2003a). (2002). Educational Technology & Society. A. A. 2004. K..cmswatch.htm Canali De Rossi. Fitzgerald.. Price.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.html Kreijns. Robin Good Blog.) (2004).). CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. June 5. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. and Miller. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. McFerrin. Matthew (2004). J. (Eds. (2004).htm Canali De Rossi.. Aavani. May 2. http://www. Kirschner.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. June 30. J. J. University of Athabasca. http://www. and Thomas. Learning Circuits.Canali De Rossi. and Martens. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. A.ieee..masternewmedia. Live ELearning. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Gibson..amazon. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.. P. (Eds.. Luigi (2003b).PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. CA.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. Sept.pdf Kaplan. Robin Good Blog.ieee. and Forster. J. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.rheingold. Findlay. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.html Munkvold. Kirschner. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. R. CMS Watch. Chesapeake. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. London: Springer-Verlag. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. D. 5(1). http://www.athabascau.ca/online_book/ch8 .) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.) (2003). Educational Technology & Society.html Hurst. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.. Willis. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. (2002).html Institute for the Future (2005).editlib.masternewmedia. P. and Jochems. and Sharifi. M. Soren (2002). Proceedings.. June 22. Institute for the Future White Paper. 827-829). C.masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. I. http://ifets. Then Knowledge Management.pdf Strijbos. Collaboration First. http://www.org/index.N. J. Luigi (2005)..htm # Clapp. R.learningcircuits. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.masternewmedia. http://www. http://www. (2005). In Crawford. Palo Alto. August 2002. (2004). Luigi (2004a). Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. http://www.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing. 2003. Robin Good Blog. Technologies of Cooperation.editlib. 2565-2569.htm Canali De Rossi. R. A.com/Feature/109 Elliot. Robin Good Blog. 5(1).. Carlsen. W. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. 72 © Brandon Hall Research .zcu. Robin Good Blog.

com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Callan. K.edu.cqu. & Purnell. Nov. Evaluation. G.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .au/include/getdoc. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2004). Studies in Learning. 1(2)..Norwell. J.amazon. http://www.. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. http://sleid. 24. Innovation and Development.

The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. whiteboards.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. chat. Find her work at: http://64. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings.com. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.48.jisc.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.uk/deletacademictalk. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.google. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.janison.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. re-usable. discussion groups. developed in Brazil. UK. discussion forums.ac. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. It is being developed into a transportable. a process referred to as “text mentoring.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. http://www. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.au/eq/default. instant messaging. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.71.org/index. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . telephony.editlib. and yet tailored and flexible.conversate. messaging. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. http://www. For Laurillard. blogs.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. Hegarty et al. VoIP. labs. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www. including communications tools. telepresence. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. For example.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.” http://goldenswamp.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.

and Bortolozzi.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. Bostock. distance-learning course at Keele University.pdf LaCroix.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. University of Warwick. Computer Mediated Communication.ac.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.co.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.htm Garner. University of Athabasca. http://www2. http://ewic. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. http://www. E-Learning 1. London: Routledge. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool. http://www. http://m. Sven (2002). and Collins. (2002).fasfind.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. M.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. J.formatex.uk/schools/document .html Laurik. 2002.bcs. (2004).html Laurillard.ca/online_book/ch5 . M. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. J.com/wwwtools/m/2645. J.gov. 31 (3). International Journal on E-Learning.ngfl. e-Book.. (2005). http://www. (2000). 19.pdf Kadirire.. UK. 2004. British Journal of Educational Technology.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. Diana (1993). Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. 199-212. 13-20. http://cde.jisc.com/cv/research/ rmed35.hbs. Mark (2004). Komzak.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. June.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. S. F. Technologies of Online Learning.thinkofit. chat.elearningcentre. 2002. and Cerri. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.htm http://www. http://safety. S.amazon. http://www. I.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Aug.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.co. R. and Wales. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.org/micte2005/4. University of Birmingham.charityvillage. Hegarty. and telephony tools.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (Mlearn 2002). James (2005).elearningcentre. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.. JulySept. http://www. Pattie (2005). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.com Library. Jan. CAP e-Guide. Working Knowledge Newsletter. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. CharityVillage. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.edu/item. Francis.org/index.learningcircuits.warwick. > http://www. Learning Circuits.pdf Eleuterio. and Elliott.editlib. D. September 23. M. 20-21. (2004).athabascau. J. http://hbswk.html Morgan.com/webconf/hostsite s.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . Developing a successful e-mail campaign.co.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 31. 2005 http://www. Nick (2002).uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.elearningcentre. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.ac.

(2002).uk/papers/Stone_A. A. and Briggs. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view.Stone.ac. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). June.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .king. 2002. J. 20-21. http://dircweb.

Known in the early days as the “quality movement.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. competency-based training. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. a Harvard psychologist. performance appraisal. 2005). skills. see below) and performance or talent management systems. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.org/competencies/in dex. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper.imsproject.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. diagnose symptoms. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. go to: www. skills inventory. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. 2000).” it started in 1950 with Dr. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. entering defined competencies into a matrix. and carry out proper procedures. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Description According to Sanders (2001). In 1973. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. David McClelland. https://launchpad. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. skills verification.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open.itsc.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. For a large list of competencies for physicians. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.org. Edwards Deming. W. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. organizational and personal goals are tied together. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO).

(1982). April. http://www. Read their white paper at: http://www.desire2learn.com/article16.clomedia.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ca/index.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. For example.amazon. Sudipta (2005). http://www. New York: AMACOM.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. New York: David McKay.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www. 2005.cpgvision.. Building a skills inventory.cipd.amazon.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. activities. Ken (2000).amazon. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. measurement. http://www. and development interventions.com/skillsman.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. http://www.htm Online Resources HRSG.shtml Hogg. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Benjamin (1956).com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. London: Wiley.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans. Express Computer. Josh (2006).ncrel.learnflex.expresscomputeronline.hrsg.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.” http://www. htm Many companies have their own competency models. R.learningcircuits. April 25.wmich.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.co. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. http://www. http://www.ibm.E.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. Clare (2005). regardless of industry or sector.oracle.com/20 050425/technologylife01.S.syberworks. http://www. objectives. a Canadian company. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Chief Learning Officer. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. Competency and competency frameworks. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. See the list of competencies at: http://www.edu/paprog/clin_events.html The U. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.

http://www. G. N. and Neathy.operitel. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. April 30. http://www. Learning Circuits. R.cipd. (2001). L. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.pdf Rankin.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.) (2003).com Woodill. E. Gary (2004). and Grigorenko.htm Parkin. Master's thesis.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. David. Ellen (2000). http://www.28. March 2001.amazon. UK: Cambridge University Press. (2003). Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. and Hollyforde. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. 1-14. (2001).com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. University of Toronto. (2001). (Eds. Michael. Fall 2000. http://www. Johanna. http://www. Miller.html Sternberg.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. White paper from Operitel Corporation.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 .amazon. P.1/features/ewet te.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. 2005. E-Learning Competencies. Godfrey (2005). (1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. F. London: IRS. Sanders.amazon.co.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. New York: John Wiley.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. and Epstein.learningcircuits. Parkin’s Lot. N.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. The Psychology of Abilities.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867.operitel. London: IRS.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. http://www. (2000).blogspot. (2005). pp. http://www. Rankin.html Radsma. S. Rankin. Operitel Corporation. and Cahorn. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. S. and Expertise. Creating a Culture of Competence. Ethan (2001). The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Study 706.htm Whiddett. v. http://parkinslot.. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.amazon. N. http://www. Competency based learning management. http://www.com/2. (1999). American Psychologist. Cambridge. (2004). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.collectionscanada.linezine. P. London: IDS. Competency Frameworks. 2nd ed. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. White paper. Competencies.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.

suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. If you could afford it. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. They have designed competitive. the standardized railway system still works while private. you could hire a company to build a private. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. launching courses. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. in fact. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. and “topic maps. functionality to an ECM. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. I feel that closed. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.atutor. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. With the advent of learning objects. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. Unfortunately. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. 2006). Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. manage. LCMS. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. Learning objects. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. According to its official Web site.” As well. rather than complementary. Today. Repositories. http://www.” http://drupal. and reporting. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. First. displaying a course catalogue. such as registering users. to date.

The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. June 9. “Monoliths. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. San Jose.html Cisco Corp.blogspot. reuse in many places. and publish to multiple outputs. http://www.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. Jafari.. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. (2005). Gerry (2003).co. 2005. C. http://www.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. http://plone. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.clomedia. Budapest. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. http://www. 2003. Van (2005).org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.e-learningcentre. P.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 2005. McGovern. Dec. http://www. 2003.htm Siemens. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.com http://www. G.ca/mt/archive/000 689.elearnspace. PA: Idea Group. TravelinEdMan blog..cisco. S.uk Bibliography Bonk.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . 40(3). A. and Carmean. (2003). Retalis. Strategies for managing scalable content.pdf Cohen. http://www. http://sakaiproject. http://www. Learning Solutions. 2003.cmsmatrix.htm Simon. Ed.asp Woodill. and Brantner.com/publications. (2006). Why content management software hasn’t worked. March 2005. Content Management: our organized future.topicmaps. C. http://www.operitel.topicmap. Educause Review. http://www. Curtis (2005).com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. elearnspace blog. New Thinking Blog. http://www.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Hershey.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. B. http://www. 2006. May 15. January 23.educause. George (2003). S. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. and Oliveira. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.pdf Weigel. > > http://www. May/June. (Eds. (2004). EdTechPost blog. Scott (2005). March 3. Mashups. http://travelinedman. Cisco Corporation White Paper.org Leslie.author-it.html McGee. 2005.ntua.edtechpost.) (2005). 18.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. http://www. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.softlab.gerrymcgovern.

knowledge discovery.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Luan and Willett. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. 2001). De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. 2000. delivery models and infrastructure investment. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Consequently. personalization methods. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However.

kdnuggets.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.. Both products are from Convera. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. R.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. 1996. 1--34. Australia. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. Smyth. G. knowledge discovery. and Smyth.usyd. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.au/%7Ekalina/inde x.soul. B. and Tschiedel.pdf Fayyad. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://imej.icosystem. Lange. California. K.kdnuggets.kent.html Hammouda. http://www.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.. 13-16 http://asbointl.pdf Iskander. http://pami. http://www. G. G. What’s Not. and Kamel. S.amstatonline. and Web mining.. B. P.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.cs.. In Pierre.uwaterloo. text mining. K. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.ac.edu.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. 2001) http://www. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. by applying fuzzy logic.pdf Jantke. (2000).cs.wfu. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.html Bibliography De Veaux.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. U. Piatetsky-Shapiro.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. (cited in Luan and Willett. http://www. http://www. edited U. Data Mining in e-Learning. Robert (2002). Feb. pp. M. Do not reproduce 83 .reeltwo.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. Piatetsky. Thalheim.uwaterloo.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.convera. Grieser. (2004). P. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. Alex (2002). M Fayyad. (2006). 68(8). Uthurusamy. http://www. Long Beach.com/index. New York: Springer.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. AAAI Press/MIT Press..com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.hkuspace. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. School Business Affairs. Grigoriev. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. http://www. (1996). Data Mining: What’s New. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. P. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. http://pami. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. Samuel (Ed.pdf Freitas. and R.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. http://www.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. New York: Springer.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms.

Portugal. http://www.ags. 15(4).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. J.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. http://archiveedutice. C.pdf Loo.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. A.unikiel. David (2005).edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. A. 238-241.open.org/16915 Romero. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.computer. A. Vol 4. K. http://www.. Billerica. S.unisb. Japan. 2006. Yacef (2005). (2004).uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Gord (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cabrillo. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. http://wwwjime. 3(1).html Ueno.pdf McCalla. 39-40. K. and Ullrich. C. Train. E. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. Feb.cnrs. 7(1).compmech. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. (2004). 319-346. 47-55. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. 41-54.editlib. Oct.aace. Oliveira.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk.pdf Merceron.pdf Pahl. B. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. Claus (2004). 52-59. 3(4).-Dec.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. http://csdl2. http://www. Austria.actapress. 13-16.pdf Monk. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. http://www. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://dl. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. and Cheung. May 17-22.wfu.pdf Mor. A. T. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. analyze for more adaptive teaching. J.ac. 2004 (7). Hiroshima.ccsd. and Willett. and K. Porto.com/PaperInfo. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems.asp Merceron. and K. (2006). (2001).is. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.2004.org/index.pdf Merceron. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Yacef (2004). http://www2004.com/acatalog/1845 641523.ejel. http://www. and Minguillon. store. http://www. Innsbruck. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. C. RP Conference Presentation.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. NYC. and Ventura.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. http://imej. and Yacef.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. MA: WIT Press. (2004). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). http://www.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research .. International Journal on ELearning.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. In Proceedings. Scholl. Advances in Management Information. (2006). M. Maomi (2004).informatik.

une.com/ Facilitate.facilitate.whichbook.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. 3) vote/prior-itize.tkk. http://www.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). http://www. For example. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support.bnhexpertsoft.au/dss/grassgro/index . http://www. in their case study of medical education. 4) develop an action plan. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. http://www.edu. http://www. 5) carry out a survey. 2) categorize.utoronto.decisionarium. http://www. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.net/index. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.hut. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. and 6) document results.sal. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.

ac.pdf Jantke.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. http://www. Jan. (2004). P. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. and Koskinen. Rostanin. and information on this area.. 2005. Online manuscript..uniserve. http://www. 317-328. Grieser. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand.. 2004. 12(2-3). Dan (2003). http://www. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Aachen. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril.mc.unikiel. http://www.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. (2000). Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Manchester.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. August 16-18. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Hawaii. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Raimo (2003). Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Gerhard (2003).au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Memmel.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site.pdf Ounapuu. B. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. books. and Tschiedel.edu. and Frasson. Lange.bnhexpertsoft. Thalheim.uottawa. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. C. Thalheim. Grigoriev. 238-241..meetingworks.” http://dmoz. K. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed..pdf Chakrabarty.html Rhyne. Hamalainen. http://science.com/PaperInfo. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. M. 101-110.siggraph.manchester. Theresa (1998). An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.actapress. SIGGRAPH publication. Jim (2002).hawaii. USA.informatik. S.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. http://www. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.sal. Jay (2004).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Enn (2004).2004. For newsletters. see: http://www. Kankana (2005). Kauai.is. http://www. M. and Tschiedel. O.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. White paper from BNH Expert Software.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Porto. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. http://damit.html Scott. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://www.. June 20-24. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).html Hamalainen.pdf Ehtamo. 6-9..pdf Knolmayer. G.hut. H. B. http://www. R. http://www.pdf Power. In Proceedings.hicss. B.pdf Frize.sal. Hawaii.com/index. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. http://dssresources. August. Portugal.pdf Jantke. Germany.hut. (2003). Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. (2004).are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Enn (2005).dssresources. K.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. B.dfki. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. V. 23(4).com/history/dsshistory .. http://www.site. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.

Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. M. F.the curriculum. Vol.com/books/details. T.ideagroup. 2002.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . PA: Idea Publishing.. Hershey. de Carvaho. and Laurindo. http://science. 9.uniserve. http://www.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.html Shimizu. (2006).edu. Oct. CAL-laborate.

cmu. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. In the near future. in cooperation with Sony. Electronic paper could change that some day. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.com/about.” Selected Examples Samsung.ntera. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book.html Promera is a hand-held computer. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .Displays Related terms Digital ink. http://www.co.co.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. lighting up theater size screens. projectors. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.P rojector. digital paper.ices. This can be a holographic image. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. intelligent interfaces.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. monitors.io2technology. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. Finally. For air displays. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels.theregister. http://killer. By stacking a second projector. still/video camera.siliconlight.edu/design/Camera. In regards to digital paper. Inc.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. electronic paper. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www.theregister. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.com/technology/ overview NTERA. http://www. big enough to be projected on large walls. > > http://www. head mounted displays. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. viewers see a floating midair image or video.

de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.. 2005. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.ac.informatik. See a demo at: http://www.unifreiburg. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. http://www.informatik. Hirota. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. see: http://www.H.. Hamburg. Pisano. E.com/timwang/index.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. 3.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. http://portal.uk/index.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. http://thejournal. G. Government. Livingston. T. Healthcare.acm. and Pizer. H. Whitton.). S.fogscreen.. London: Springer. Vancouver. M. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.firstmonday.unifreiburg. 2005.provisionentertainment. W. (1996). Germany. M. In 2005. To access the articles. and Ottmann.loaz.jisc. http://blog. A. Tim (2005). Richards (Ed.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. In G.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. For a list of his publications. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Dec.. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 .E. State. http://ad. Garrett.org/citation.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. K. (2005).com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. Canada. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.technorati.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. Oct.. Largest LCD and video projection. pages 3053-3068. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.pdf Wang. see: http://ad. http://www.

html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. thus.pebblelearning. http://www. open source electronic portfolio.osportfolio.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www2.htm Educause. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. helping to transform education and training.elearningcentre.ac. http://www. http://www.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.htm IMS.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. 2005).ch/dyn/9. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.educause.uk/default. http://www. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. http://www.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.iwebfolio.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www.org/Articles/eportf olios. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. http://www.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0. http://www.co.livetext. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. My first report in this series. maximum flexibility. http://isle. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.ac.chalkandwire. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www.com/college/portfolio s.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.angellearning. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.educa.pupilpages.co. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. and simple usability.paisley.foliotek. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.nottingham.com/eportfolio/in dex.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research . Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.elearnspace.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. evaluation. http://www.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.imsglobal.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.

(Focus on Teaching). (2005). Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. (2005). G. B.eradc.. 16. http://www. J. 37(2). Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. (2004).pdf Conway. and Wade. Educause Review. V.htm Tosh. (2002). Online Paper.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Fleming. 31(3).org. FD Learning White Paper.. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. no. ePortfolios.doc Banks. T. M..Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.. Trinity College. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.educause. 4.campustechnology. Trent (2002). P. and Ittelson.amazon. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. an online resource on collaboration. Bibliography Achrazoglou..com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. April 1.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape. College of Education http://www. G.educause. Lee. Cook. G.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. March. vol.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. Light. 2005.amazon.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. Bryde. http://www. http://www.. J. http://www.alt. J. University of Iowa.. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. E. future thinking: digital repositories. D. Bob (2004). The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. J. http://www.com/article. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. (2004). Dec. J.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. Business Communication Quarterly.educause. George (2004). http://www. e-portfolios.pdf Lorenzo.. and McKean. Educause Quarterly. and Werdmuller. (2002). http://ferl. 2004 http://www. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar..thejournal. (2003). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Fall. Reflective learning. http://www.. http://www. W. B..elearnspace. Aalderink. Frederick (2005). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. D. 39. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. July/ August 2004. has a section on e-portfolios. Gary (2004). Harvey. D.org/collab/v.cfm Dubinsky. http://www. K.ac.pdf Batson. B.becta. Online.. J. S.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001. http://connect.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 ..com/magazine/vault /A5260.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441.org/Articles/eportf olios.criticalmethods. Vol 27 No 4. and Haywood.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.educause. 28–37.educause. elearnspace. and Hibbitts.pdf Greenberg. http://www.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. with many links. http://elgg. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Dublin. Feijen. (2005). Graham (2005). Educause Quarterly. Online paper. Dec. Love. An Overview of e-Portfolios. THE Journal Online.

ht ml Young. 144-169. M.http://www.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and portfolios. research.A.citejournal. 2(2). & Figgins. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry..3/tosh.ca/content/vol31. (2002).org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. C.A.cjlt.

myspace.clickteam.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. 2005).com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082.freescale. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM).” says that “in the mod world. For a brief review of these tools.com/ http://www. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.com http://us. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Constance Steinkuehler. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. simulations. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.com/ In 2005. allows members of a game development team to work together.thinkingworlds. and Second Life. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. create.com/ http://www. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www.cyworld. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.com. MySpace. from the University of Wisconsin. edit.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.hive7. dubbed XNA Studio. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. Cyworld. helping speed up the game creation process. Marc Prensky (2003). identity work. and learning (Amory. http://www.facebook.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. games. http://www. This game allows users to play. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . Making such changes is part of what modding is about. Facebook. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. play. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.microsoft.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. as such.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. The toolset. serious games. 2003).com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine.com/ http://www. http://www. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. see: http://news. Dr. writing about “first person shooter games.com/xna/ Softimage. Examples include Hive7.secondlife. complex problem solving. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www.

http://www.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research .com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.ucalgary.org/?14@33. Many of their learning games resources are free. For example. produces educational games for training.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.nasaga.com/news/548 http://www.htm Dr.com/zone 8/index.futureplay.magnetargames.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.muzzylane. You can read about them at Pluginz.wisc. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.uga.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.org/index2. researchers. Canada. See the selection of games at: http://www.com/ Thiagi.” Read her research at: http://website. http://www. http://www.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.seriousgamessummit.programmersheaven. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. Review them at: http://esub.aspx urces. implementation.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.coe. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.com/solutions/g ames/default.siggraph. Started in North America. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. > > http://www. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. Inc.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. http://www.htm Dr.education.org. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www.uk/index2.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. http://www.gdconf. http://www.for the Xbox.mpjgaBKQ dAe.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. along with their Web sites.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. Sign up at: http://www.pluginz.it-c.dk/people/sen/public. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.softimage. http://it. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.” http://www.digiplay.seriousgames.

Developing Serious Games. pdf Reynolds. G. Dreher. see: http://www. Technology Trends for the Year.pdf Prensky. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning..uwf. 19. 2005. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.Bibliography Amory.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa.pdf Swamy. Bob (2005). http://www.uwf. 2005.pdf Godwin-Jones. Clifton Park.. and Swamy. University of Wisconsin Madison. 17-22. and Chen. New York: Cambridge University Press. SRI-BI. 2005.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . http://www. (2005). S.amazon. Simon (2005). http://www. Emerging Technologies: Messaging.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.cambridge. http://www. http://jason. Xplanazine. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. R. January 2.. http://www. H.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.xplanazine. In Richard E. June 25-28. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Hawaii. (2006).iicm. Constance (2005). and Biswas. Williams. Doctoral dissertation. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.msu. Mayer (Ed. Montreal. C. Learning on Demand Bulletin.amazon. 2006. Beers. D.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. March 10. Language Learning and Technology. http://llt. N.amazon. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Rob (2006b). Chapter 33.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Train. simulations and microworlds. R. 2003. J. Multimedia learning in games. http://www.com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool.php Reynolds. and Michael.pdf Guetl. 9(1)..edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. http://website. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. 2003. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.ukzn. (2005). Fourth Quarter.pdf Bergeron. Serious Games: Games That Educate. IT-University Copenhagen. 549-567. Clifton Park. Gupta. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure.itc. Honolulu. and Maurer. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. Rob (2006a). Marc (2003). Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging .za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003. N. Bryan (2006).pdf Michael. (2005). http://www.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. D. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. http://www.ac. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Gamasutra. S. Lloyd (2005). (2005). C.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. and Inform. H.marcprensky.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. http://www. June. Gaming.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Games and Education = Oil and Water. http://www. 2006.xplanazine. Xplanazine. http://www.teachableagents. Jan. Oct.wisc.php Rieber.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Alan (2003).education.

http://woz. Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Masters Thesis.msu.commtechlab.Tye. Jason (2004).

html Research by Dr. For a list of papers: http://www. March. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . 2008. M. at the University of California. Artificial intelligence techniques. UK. haptics. 18. Munich. looking for particular sequences. including identifying commercial products. http://www.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. artificial intelligence. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. http://www. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.cybernet.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research.pdf Beringer. Lombardi. Michael (2003).org/reports/ReportNR-03.fg2006.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen.fg2008.ac. Report No. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. Nicole (2001). is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. London.soton. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. http://www. was held in Southampton. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.smartkom. F.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.elearningguild.ecs. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.tudelft. (2005). Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.. FG2008. 3. Ludwig-Maximilians University.pdf Borghi.ucsd. such as Markov models. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. L. Aug. affective computing. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. Porta. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.” http://mplab.com/~ccohen/gesture . April 10-12 2006. FG2006. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. http://www. and robotics in elearning.com/pdf/2/081 803DES.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. 2003.

(1997).ogi.fsu.actapress. Sato. http://cbcl.F (1999).. PA. J. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). 57-64. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.iscslp2006. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). and Bobick. 21(9). IEEE Transactions.org/10. 191-196. 19(7).computer. (1997). C.cse.2005. October 14-16. 1999. http://www. Shi-Kuo (2000). and Bender. Y. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. Lai.stat.research. Chen. and Poggio.pdf Loi. Park. Communications of the ACM. M. (2005).Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. September 2002.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. Computer vision in the interface.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). http://interact. and Yang. http://portal. (2002). IEEE Transactions. (2005). Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. and Ma. and Wong. http://www. A.pdf Wilson.rutgers. T. In Proceedings..media.com/PaperInfo. 2004.884693 Chen.. S. Y. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. (2005).actapress. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. A. and Kim.org/citation.1 50 Nakanishi. Geiger. X. Face and gesture recognition: overview. 884 – 900. P. http://doi. http://www. (2004)... L. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. and Cohen. http://www. Pittsburg..pdf Corradini. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. July 22-27. A. T. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Visualization. Setlock.ucsb. 442-446. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Canada http://cims.clayton. C.pdf Lee. http://www.pdf Ebert. (2002). H..110 9/CMPSAC.mit. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. July 1997. http://csdl2. 27-30.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. Y. Vancouver.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Wong. http://www.recveb. C. D.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci.676 http://lcv. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. J. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. L. (2004). Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.com/PaperInfo..edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.pdf Ou. S.. W. Y. G. Proceedings.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.pdf Peixoto.mit. R. J.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.D.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027.ieeecomputersociety.. Michael (2004). In Proceedings. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 47(1)..1109/ICALT.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.pdf Daugman.. Sept. P.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Deller. (2003). Las Vegas. Fussell. 675 .aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. Lee.2000. and Chang. C.Computer Communication. Gao. January.acm. http://www. British Columbia. and Carreira. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. and Koike. M. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. A. 242-245. J. J. 2000. M. J.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004.html Chang. Nevada.ercim. Korea. (2000).xml&DOI=10. Wesson..

http://www.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .illumination variations. 2004:16. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.hindawi. 2533–2543.com/GetPDF.

and playback.broderbund.0. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. rendering. animation. Download a copy: http://www.com/TechIllustrator.avs.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. and in his recent 2006 book.org/cms/Home. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.blender3d.html Blender . Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.adobe.Graphics Tools Related terms Design.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.acdamerica.corel. Nevertheless.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. the same principles apply to user interface design.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. post-production. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.2.autodesk.techillustrator. Designing Web-Based Training.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. interactive creation. e-Learning By Design.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. In acquiring Macromedia.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.

com. (2005). Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.co. http://grids. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.siggraph. http://www.microsoft.ucs.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. The most listings are for 3-D software.indiana.stcphoenix. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. Proceedings. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. http://www. http://www. http://www.ibm. ED-Media Conference. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). S. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. http://www. http://esub. Richards (Eds.uk/index.IBM CATIA http://www306. Potsdam.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www. William (2000). NY: John Wiley.com/E/1335. http://www. Tools Usage Survey Results.org/index. Japan · Sept 7-10. Germany.itedo. (2004).elearningcentre. In P. and Uyar.com/index. X.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. Designing WebBased Training.pdf Qiu.carto. Pallickara.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton.uk/index. Fu-Kwan (2004). William (1991).smartdraw. William (2006). http://www.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.co.amazon. June 1-3.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Tokyo. A.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.editlib. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.google. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). Do not reproduce 101 .pdf McConnell.3dlinks. A.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. e-Learning by Design.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.co.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Kommers & G. Gloria (2004). http://www. http://www.xaraxtreme. Pheonix..amazon.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.amazon.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. New York: John Wiley. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.com SmartDraw http://www.

http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.pdf Tufte. Evidence and Narrative .stc. Cheshire. Cheshire. 2nd Ed.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Frances (2004). CT: Graphics. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. http://www.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. CT: Graphics Press. CT: Graphics Press. Envisioning Information. STC.amazon.amazon. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire. Carolina Chapter. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Edward (2001). Edward (1990).asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Edward (1997).

Read the press release at: http://www. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . http://haptex. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.sensegraphics. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.miralab. suits.” http://www.unige. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.pureform.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.handshakeinteractive.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. joysticks/ joypads.forcedimension.html http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves.it/projects/pureform.sssup. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network. When used approp-riately. Do not reproduce 103 .mpbtechnologies. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. http://www.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom.sensable.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. http://www. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. > > http://wwwpercro. http://www. Haptic devices come in many forms. gloves.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . Finally.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. including pens. and force-feedback mice.se/index.immersion.

G. L.pdf Ó hAnluain..au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. M.digicult..1. M.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. http://www.S. 3-5 June 2004.. M. New York Times (Online). Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Medioni.cim. and Sukhatume. http://www..mit. Donnelly. Haptics Laboratory. Report delivered January 15.miralab. 2004. M. (2003).computer.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. R.informatik. M. J. Matsubara. G. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. A. and Gillespie.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4..haptics-e.smh.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. (1997). J. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. S.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. Reaching through the net to touch.mcgill. http://csdl.unipi. http://www. (2000). International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Sukhatme. Proceedings.. http://www.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.ethz. NJ: Prentice-Hall. McHugh.pdf McLaughlin. The Haptic Museum.pdf Rowell. http://www.. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.xml&DOI=10. 2003.phptr.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/title/0130650978 Inoue. 22. Laurie (2004). http://www. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.pdf Hespanha.net/article-7304. 2005.media. G. David (2003).matr.1109/ICALT. Technology and Haptics. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.” http://www. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. July 3. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. CA. Chapter on Haptics. Santa Clara. McLaughlin. Reality bytes. http://haptex.B.ra.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).. Deliverable D4. M. Daithí (2003). M. Research report.S. Oct. N.usc. April. and Essl. 2005. Y.html Ross. Abbott. A. professional.pdf O’Modhrain. Upper Saddle River.piaggio.html O’Malley. G. M..ht ml Kushner. (2004). M.ccii. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. Vincent (2005).isfh.pdf O’Modhrain. Proceedings.roblesdelatorre. Japan. Wired News. C. 917-921. July 31.com. (2005). and Rusbridge. Nakamura.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. http://web.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc..ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Dobreva. Iwane. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.unitrier. McGill University. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.computer. and Hughes. http://csdl2. Prentice Hall online article.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. http://www. S. 2003. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.2005. Blindness.” http://www. Italy in March.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.1_release-public.. and Jaskowiak.unige. (2002).html Levesque. Shahabi. (2005). not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. D. and Ichitsubo. M.

Y. K. (2001).http://www.journalofvision. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.asp?p=345621 Sakano. & Uchikawa. 250a.informit.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 .. Journal of Vision. http://www..com/articles/printerfrie ndly. Kaneko. 1(3). H.

wearable computing.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. gesture recognition. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. human-computer interaction.cmu. see: http://www.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. For a review. textures.edu/design/Digita link." http://web. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. like digital ink and paper.fujitsu. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. monitors. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. input devices.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. electronic paper. Philips. head mounted displays.html Sony. display technologies. see: http://www. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. and some.dottocomu. In 2005.” http://www.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. > > http://killer. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. haptics. However.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.mit.cmu.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.com/technology/howitwork s. handwriting recognition. http://www. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices.html Description For humans to use a computer. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.ices. they must interact with it through an interface device. Now in the research and development phase.html http://killer. digital paper. Writing will require special digital pens. projectors. experience computing.buffalo.ices.media.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.com/b/archives/00 2571. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. tangible computing.eink. Called Librié. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.

cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.logitech. 3) throw. http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years. http://www.com/index.org.edfacilities. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.smarttech.cs.wacom. and graphic.wired.channelnewsasia. http://www.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.lifehacker. http://www.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.thewirelessdirectory. it is constantly being improved and updated. http://www.cs. http://www. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. 4) bend. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.swan. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. http://www.05/ff_digitalink_pr. and 5) build.edna.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. http://whiteboards.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards. http://www.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. http://www. consisting of a pen and a charger. http://www.edu.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.co.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. 2) roll.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. Following are three such articles: > http://www.aclearn.net/display.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards. http://www.com/wired/archive/5 . The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.com whiteboards. http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.becta.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .devx. See their advice and resources at: http://www.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.sony. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. http://www. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.thegrid.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.usask. These methods are 1) touch.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.elearningcentre.au/edna/page4588.ac. human computer interaction. Although this technology has been around for a few years.org.

08/epapers.wired. with its use of digital ink.com/news/showst ory. M. http://dl.html eSchool News.1585516. http://www.guardian.00.htm Zeichick. Scotland. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .guardian. and Nakagawa. Whiteboards are doing the chalking..anoto. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.microsoft.com/wired/archive/9 . Bandoh.co. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. http://www. Haag..uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. The Mercury News. Y. http://education. 257-269.. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. June 1..org. Jan. Alan (2004).mercurynews. is described in a 2002 press release. Indurkhya.00. eSchool News Online.aace.newscientist. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. J. Guardian Unlimited.wired. NewScientist Magazine (Online). December 22. Australia.pdf Revell. 26. http://education. http://ad.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. Richards (Ed.10577. and Ottmann.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.pdf Mohamed. Jan. F.unifreiburg. Oct. University of London. 2004. Dal-RI.pdf Otsuki. Michael (2005). K. 2006. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.eschoolnews. HCI2005.).com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. 15(3). 2006. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. January 6.co.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.uk/elearning/ story/0.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.1116483. Julie (2002). (2006).ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed.com/wired/archive/8 .uclan. http://www. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. 2004.unifreiburg. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. T.ac. Guardian Unlimited.> > http://www. 2004. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Fri.org/16321 Read.04/anoto.html In G. N. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. The most flexible paper yet revealed. (2005). http://www. Vancouver. 2003. Nicole (2006). C. Phil (2004). T. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. (2003).devx. http://www.com/article.html http://www.mspx Bibliography Cogill.informatik. Springer. Tablet PC Developer. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. S..de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.informatik.. 6. K. H. Adelaide. B. Kato.virtuallearning. April 7. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Edinburgh. J. King’s College. Will (2004).html Wong. (2005). Peltason.10577. (2004). 2005. and Ottmann. http://ad. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight.pdf Cross.

e. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). Course Management Systems (CMS).Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. elearning portals. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Whenever possible. Content management. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. 2005). But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. conversation. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.

is available as a free download.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. in alphabetical order..IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).net/index. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.com/ Element K . To quote the developers. The LMS companies.academici.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. a contact management system. http://www.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. http://opensourceschools. more control over their own data For faculty. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications.gyrus.trainingpartner. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.cornerstoneondemand. groups.com/ Frontline Data Solutions.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.avilar.g.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.KnowledgeHub http://www. a search engine. .GeoMaestro http://www. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.TrainingMine http://www.com/ GeoLearning Inc.compendiumcorp. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. a communic-ation platform. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.com/ Compendium Corporation .com/ IBM .ieee. . has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . and other academic services.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc.gen21.php EVE. one of the LMS vendors listed below.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. .com Gyrus . The roles.elementk.allencomm.” http://elgg. a leading open source learning management system.geolearning. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.fldata. roles. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.Training Partner http://www. . Inc. content-driven forums run by experts. . more control over the learning environment For institutions.WebMentor LMS http://www.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.

DOTS .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .asp Learn.syntrio. .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.Intellinex LMS http://www. .TeraLearn LCMS http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.com Inc.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.http://www.html OutStart Inc.LearnCenter http://www.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.com/ mGen Inc.redbooks.vbtrain.meridianksi.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. – TEDS http://www.com/ Intellinex LLC.sap.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.novasys-corp. . .Virtual Training Assistant http://www.oracle.html Plateau Systems .com/index.iPerform http://www.TotalLMS http://www.InfoSource http://www.html IntraLearn Software Corp. .Net http://www.net/trackerinfo.Ed Training Platform http://www.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/ Strategia .wbtsystems. .ips-inc.oracle.intralearn.wizdom.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.vuepoint.learnsomething.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.OnTracker LMS http://www.IntraLearn XE http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.aspx Oracle USA Inc.ttg-inc.netdimensions.com LearnSomething Inc.ssaglobal.saba. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.com/ WBT Systems .cfm TEDS Inc.ibm. . TrainingOffice Audit http://www.plateau.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.webraven.LearnerWeb http://www.isnewmedia.SAP Learning Solution http://www.TM SIGAL http://www.SSA Learning Management http://www.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.html?Open InfoSource Inc.TopClass LMS http://www.learn.intellinex.maxit.com/ Saba .LMSLive http://www. .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.technomedia.html Trivantis Corporation .jsp Operitel Corporation .jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .LearnFlex LMS http://www.risc-inc.com/2004/index.strategia.sselearn.com/ NetDimensions .mGen Enterprise http://www.aspx RISC .trivantis.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.knowledgeplanet.websoft. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www. .com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com/isnm2005/in dex.com .teralearn.htm SAP .com/ MaxIT .com Websoft Systems Inc.com/ Syntrio .com/ TeraLearn.ca/en/default.operitel.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. Tracker. . .Dynamic Online Training System http://www. .SSElearn Portal http://www.sumtotalsystems. .PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.howtomaster.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.CourseMill LMS http://www.com/overview.mgen.Isoph Blue http://www.com/ Vuepoint .Oracle Learning http://www.outstart.teds.com/portal/index.com/redbooks.com/flashhom e.com/ SSE .

and Trifonova.org/eun.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.unitn. T.pdf Dillenbourg. 21.xtention.xstreamsoftware.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.PDF Farmer. http://www. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . (2002). October.pdf Cohen. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.71. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.edu. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.com XStream Software Inc. http://www.. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.htm Bouras.building new education strategies for schools. by Sam Adkins. http://www.mq. June 20-21.ieee. http://lttf. Ronchetti.pdf Dalziel. A. Molinari.nxtbook.info/static. Ed. August. Proceedings. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. Building educational virtual environments. http://www.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. C.uk/index. . .eun.edutools. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . James (2005).cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.e-learningcentre. Pierre (2000)." http://www. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. Workshop on virtual learning environments.A possible future for online learning. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. (2006).learningcircuits. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools.uk Teresa A.48. http://www. Incorporated Subversion.The Learning Manager http://www. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.science. L.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.com/ from the JISC in the UK.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. Learning Circuits.melcoe.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Virtual Learning Environments. http://www. and Tsiatsos.jisc. 2006. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). (2002).com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo. 2005.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .. Sam (2005). James (2003). http://www. M. Jan. http://www. University of Birmingham. .ac.thelearningmanager.com/ Xtention Inc.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. http://www.ac. A. Chief Learning Officer.cetis.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. ICALT2002 Conference.brandonhall. UK.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. http://incsub.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc.” and open source course and learning content management systems. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.co.Xtention Learning Management System http://www.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. (Online edition).learningcircuits.

40(3).ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. (2006).edu. 2005.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.bath. http://www. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.edu. Report published by UCISA. (2005). Proceedings. R.pdf Sadeghi. Vancouver.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. M (2005). 2005.unimelb. http://tojde.. April. J.pdf Morrison. Maomi (2005). E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Proceedings of ALT-C.pdf Ueno. November 2004. Derek (2004). Report for the Melbourne. May-June. May 2006 http://www.. Avgoustos (2004).anadolu. http://wscg. Government.pdf Do not reproduce 113 . Educause Review.cfm?fuse action=Reader. A.ac. M.aace.pdf Wise. and Quealy.infodiv.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. and Higher Education 2005. and Walker. Browne. and Sharifi.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.zcu.au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.org/newdl/index.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. October 2005. Healthcare.ac. 5(2).uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.pdf Tsinakos. Jan.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533. 4. http://www. Plzen. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. http://www. 31-Feb.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. J. L. T. Exeter.ucisa.educause.. Van (2005). http://www. LMS Governance Project Report. WSCG Conference 2005. Aavani. Czech Republic.

Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. As online educational materials are produced. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. a well-known standard for learning objects. However. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. reusable learning objects (RLOs).” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. This idea is based on older. 2004. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. curriculum. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. At the simplest level. culture.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning.” This use has been more successful. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. rapid learning. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. Beyond that. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. intelligent tutoring. Rather. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence.” such as a graph. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). computer-use practices. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. of learning objects. learning object model (LOM). Wiley. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. 2006). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Learning objects have several uses. learning object repository (LOR). SCORM. sharable content objects (SCOs). The acronym SCORM.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. They are emulations of “software objects.

profetic.fedora.oise.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www.maricopa.unsw. with a focus on information literacy.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.llearn.uwaterloo.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.wisconsin. http://www.goenc. http://www.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://www. http://web.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.dist. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. and distributes digital research material. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.merlot. http://www. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://mlor.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.org/index.downes.lolaexchange.000 items.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).educanext. http://www. and they can be general or subject specific. http://ideas.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.uvic.sir. http://learnware. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.thegateway. indexes.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. preserves.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://www. resources for grades K-12.net/project.arizona. stores.org/Home.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://dlist.mcli.rice. http://www. http://www. http://nsdl. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. http://lester. http://www.lrc3. http://www.koha.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. http://www.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 . with almost 15.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.edu.cdlib.utoronto. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.edu/DesktopDefault.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. http://dspace.

shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.html http://www. http://www. J.nmc.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.uwm.cisco. CANCORE.uniroma1. Celentano. Bibliography Barritt. International Journal on E-Learning.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. T. http://www. M.irrodl. 5-16.uis. and Anderson.htm Collis. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. C.org/eng/scientifiques. M.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.itdl.doc Christiansen. http://www.elearnspace. http://www. (2004). (2004).. and Alderman.1/downes .html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. http://www. A.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. http://www.dicole.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Online document. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.cancore.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. Version . 2(4).aace.dis.org/ci/en/ev.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. 116 © Brandon Hall Research .it/~lhci/002.amazon.ca/implementing_proje cts.jcdl. http://portal.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. & Strijker.uwm.edtechpost.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. B.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. 2(1).publiclibraryofscience.ca/mt/archive/000 681. http://dl. Software Architecture Document. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. http://www.org/14190 Downes. Online paper.lornet.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www.9. (2000).org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.org/content/v2.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.L. http://www. (2004). http://www.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. A. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. EdTechPost.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.html Edusource (2003). March.org/blog/archives/ 002089. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.. And Longo. http://www. Stephen.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.org/guidelines/index. authored by Rachel Smith.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.unesco. (2003). F. is available at: http://www. 1(3).

Part 2. A Primer on Learning Objects. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.pdf Richards. Aug. 12. and Pragnell. Norm (2005). Friesen. (2002).kth.learningcircuits..bath.learningcircuits. http://www. Rachel (2006). http://www.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. R.ca/implementing_proje cts. D. S.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. London: Falmer.ca/protocols_en. J. M. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. March.itdl.cancore. Final Project Report.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. (2004).cfm/files/pape r_11841. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.cancore. Jan. http://www. March. M. Online Education Using Learning Objects.. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.amazon. 1(3). Harrigan. July 14. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.Rafts or Battleships? . http://ideas. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Online.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. (2004).Part 1. April 2002.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.informingscience. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.itdl.edu. 7(1).. Paquette.blogs. Do not reproduce 117 .htm Nejdl. G...htm Friesen.html McGreal. 2004. R..edusource. and Freisen. Rory (Ed. June.eduserv. M. Learning Material Repositories . S. Learning Circuits.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. http://www. Roberts. 14.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).learninglab. N. N.. Babin. R. V.html Heery.. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. and Schafer. InSITE conference.. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. Rossano. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. Learning Material Repositories . March.doc Fiaidhi. S. INTERACT 2005.usq. D.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.pdf Krauss.p df Roselli. (2005). http://proceedings. G. 2004. Anderson. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Lori (2002).. Derek (2004a). March. Norm (2006). http://www.org/index..9%2015-11-03..ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. McGreal. and Morales. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Mattson.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Hatala.editlib.ac.bath. Research Report. Elizabeth (2004). K. T.htm Morrison. 2004. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.html Murphy. http://www. T. G.ac. http://www.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Downes. Fredinand (2004).org. (2004). 1 (3). Learning Circuits. MacLeod.html Leeder. and Mohammed. http://www.Rafts or Battleships? . Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.html Friesen. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Richards. Paper presented.. http://www.) (2004). G. T.http://www. Warren (2000). Online paper. Derek (2004b). Wolfgang (2004).org/mar2000/p rimer.

pdf http://www. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.dis. 9. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.htm Shepherd.). (2000).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper.uniroma1. M. A.co. (2006).org/read/ Wiley. Iterating Toward Openness.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. (2000). Objects of Interest. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Online. Brigham Young University.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Doctoral dissertation. David A.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. http://opencontent.itdl.. David A. http://www. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. David A.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . and Senteni. M. http://opencontent.fastrakconsulting. (2002). (2004). Jan. Govinda.dis.> > http://www.pdf Santally. : http://reusability. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.p df Wiley.htm Wiley.org/docs/dissertation.uniroma1. 1(7).. Clive. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. (Ed.

and security issues. users will be able to use a variety of devices. proximity tools. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.com/ Intergraph . or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. PDAs. including cell phones. gaming consoles. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. http://www. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.http://www. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies.http://www.frappr.org/ ESRI. navigation. including privacy concerns.S. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.http://www.http://www.mapinfo. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. galleries. findability.esri.com/ Clark Labs . However. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams.com/ MapInfo . geocaching. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. laptops. and wearable computers. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. Do not reproduce 119 .http://www. personal media players. Department of Defense. galleries. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. location-based systems are found in museums. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.cadcorp.clarklabs. more demands for a person’s attention. as with any new technology.intergraph.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information.

com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. http://www.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.fi/english/page. at: http://www.5372. See their complete range of products.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.geog. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery.google. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. http://platial. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.google. http://portal. http://earth. http://earth. as well as papers on trends in GIS.asp?path= 500. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. it is a great tool for teaching science. http://local. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world.cetadl. create. http://www.com/index. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.google. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.live.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.leeds.state. http://www.ac. http://mvz.museum.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.smm.il.” http://www.bham. similar to what a GIS system uses. http://www. http://www.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.pangonetworks. http://www. http://www. http://www.chimer. http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.ac. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.greatestplaces.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.biogeomancer.confluence. While not very useful for most people.edu.esri.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.google.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.org/index. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.berkeley.searchable from a database.

com http://geotags. Koutsoudis..pdf Spohrer.ca/ Geotags. IBM Systems Journal. Arnaoutoglou. (2001).com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.research. M.geocomm.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. A.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. Pavlidis. 2003..com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.. http://www. G. (1999).intergraph. S.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. and Rusbridge. Heather (2005).com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . DigiCULT Newsletter. Dec. 38(4).com/geo/ Cardinali. http://www.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.learningcircuits. and Chamzas. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space.geography..org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.guardian. 1999. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.C. http://www.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.html Ross.1642288.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. 15. and visualize spatial information.wisc.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). and Borriello. Jan 2004. > > http://geotags. IEEE Report. manipulate. http://www.com/ Bibliography Benford. Information in places. A.jisc. M. January.com/gis4mt/index. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.. (2003).00.co.. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Donnelly.info/index.htm McLean. C. Issue 6.directionsmag.ac. Earth. Fabrizio (2005).pdf Tsirliganis.http://www.uk/elearning/ story/0. Nov. CAD. A. enthusiasts.ibm. http://education.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.co. Mapping. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. see: http://www. and students. http://elearningeuropa.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.digicult.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. 2005. 2005. Part II.uk/oswebsit e/education/index.bc. http://www. Online article. D. http://pngis.. Abbott.digicult.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031. Future LocationBased Experiences. J.ordnancesurvey. http://www. http://www. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.intelresearch. Dobreva. We learning: social software and e-learning. N.ac. G. F. Steve (2005).opensourcegis.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. http://www. Guardian Unlimited.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. J.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. McHugh.edu/sco/gis/his tory.eoscenter.gees. and Location-Based industry professionals. Eva (2004). Learning Circuits..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Chapter on Location Based Devices. (2005). http://www.

they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. personalized. For two or more programs to talk to each other. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). composite applications. A “mashup. providing an informal collaborative environment. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. Mashups are constructed in several ways. of how to communicate with each other. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site.” then. also called “object interoperability. For example. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. etc. in schools and universities.” that is. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. API clouds. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. all expressed in binary code. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. or protocol. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources.” Using SOAP. the rules for sending files across the Internet. 2004). thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. such as those for collaboration.Mashups. to a lesser extent. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. run all by themselves. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment.. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. tag clouds. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. at the same time. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. document management. Programs can be “stand alone. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. communications. integration. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . or through “Web services. Similarly. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. Many of these objects are software programs. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. hybrid applications.

May 15. Elearnspace.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. and Oliveira.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . techLEARNING.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. http://www. match. a writer for Business Week. 2005.org/resources/web services.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. SOAP. Web Services.com/publications.operitel.html Warlick. http://ww6. January 2004 http://lttf. > > http://www. Galen (2006). Mashups. 2006.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Paul (2002).programmableweb. http://blogs. J.htm Siviter. Learning Technology newsletter.0 APIs.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. July 25. Learning Technology newsletter.deitel.ieee. March 6. Vol.com/products/print_fr iendly.businessweek. C. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Enterprise mashups.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. (2006). G. 6. and mutate.icio.techlearning. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. George (undated). 2002.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.html Rob Hof. http://del.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.icio.bctechnology.html Hof. http://www.com/ http://www. 6.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. January 2004 http://lttf.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.infoworld. http://www. Many have educational value. J. David (2006). (2004).programmableweb. C. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.html Woodill. 2006.elearnspace. Infoworld.wikipedia.businessweek.emilychang. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. http://www. Issue 1. Business Week Online. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. 2006. Dec. Bibliography Gruman. As Warlick (2006) has noted.us.pdf Seimens. Vol. http://www. Douglas (2004).com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. 6. http://www.htm Torres. Mix. and Padron. http://en.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. Issue 1.. Learning Solutions.mashupfeed. July 28. Dodero. Curriculum as Mashup. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. http://www.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.” It has many examples of mashups. Robert (2005).ieee. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.pdf Stacey.

http://www. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.educause. http://iiscs. in the context of information technology.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. and services..ifets.. Perich. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. A. Moulin.do?tm =O4E.edu/content.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. repositories.edu/o4e/viewhome.edu/get/a/publication /105. and institutional stores. Ohio.umbc. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Bibliography Abel.. 7(4). 98-111. to develop metadata standards. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.mit.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. (2004). D. http://ebiquity. and Chaput. http://metadata. (2004). and artificial intelligence are being developed. Lenne. C. http://libraries. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. June 2004.Metadata. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. C.info/issues.imsglobal. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. In Proceedings. search engines.. http://www. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. metadata. Benayache.. http://simile. http://www.mit.. Finin.cancore.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). and Joshi. H. http://www. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. http://dublincore. A. T.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Boston.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index..wssu. F. Barry. An ontology.ac.pdf Delphi Group (2004). B.php?id=25 Chen. M.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. community.cetis. MA.html Description At the same time that learning objects. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. Delphi Group report. pervasive computing.

2005. April 18. Presentation to Tag Camp.. G. November. M. May 22. (2003). Infotangle.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). July/August.ppt Ricci. http://www. http://www. Chen. Thomas (2005b).aace. http://www.. 2004. Defining “taxonomy”. http://tomgruber.php?id=25 Tozman.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. October 29.. Dolog..com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. April 21. Learning Circuits. http://infotangle. Christian (2004). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. S. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. and Godby. D-Lib Magazine. BoxesAndArrows. http://dl.boxesandarrows. Dec. http://www. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.boxesandarrows. Do not reproduce 125 . 7(4). Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Patrick (2006). A. International Journal on E-Learning.org/. P. http://www. http://www. October-December..org/10614 Mathes.adammathes.pdf Oin. 2003. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.ifets. A. 82-97. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. M. BoxesAndArrows.ifets.pdf Henze. W.. J. http://tomgruber. Green Chameleon. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. N. http://www.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.ecdl2003.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. J. and Poulymenakou. 7(4). http://www. April 9.html Wodtke. Thomas (2005a). (2004). Building a Metadata-Based Website. Norway. 2002. Understanding Metadata. I.http://www. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). N.boxesandarrows. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). http://www.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.info/issues. and Mosoiu.cancore. Ellyssa (2005).delphigroup. http://www. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. 7. Christina (2002). Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. TagOntology . (2004).php?id=25 Kroski.blogsome.niso.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.ca/editors.htm Gruber. Pouloudi. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. and Shao. (2003).htm Weibel. Norm (2005). 2004. Reuben (2004).pdf Friesen. Wagner. (2002). http://www. http://www. 2005.greenchameleon.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.info/issues. Nov. A. and Diaz. P.dlib. (2004).tagcamp. http://www.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Adam (2004). BoxesAndArrows. 26-28. Lytras.learningcircuits. NISO Press. Stuart (2005). 11(7/8). B.html Gruber. 2002.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. D. and Nejdl. 2006. Trondheim.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Online article. University of Illinois graduate paper.

70-81.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.ifets.info/issues.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 7(4).

any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. communicative skills and community building. powerful support for effective learning. it is predicted that there will be 2.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. strong search capabilities. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. time and space. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. brokerage. pervasive computing. cellular telephones. 2004). laptops. podcasting. in Japan. personalization. MP3 players. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. there were estimated to be 1. using ambient intelligence. instant messaging (text. and mentoring. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. (2004). location-dependence. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. tablets. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. tablet PCs. Do not reproduce 127 . and wearable computers in teaching and learning. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. cell phones. improved identity creation.” Two years ago. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). multimedia. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. 2003). conversational learning. wearable computing. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. However. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. such as increased computer literacy. personal digital assistants (PDA).6 billion units in operation by that year. collaborative learning. rich interaction. Cited in Prensky. mLearning. personalization. location based technologies. video) and distributed databases. Essentially. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean.

tw/~yschen/con papers/bird. http://www.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.com/wwwtools/m/271 7. http://gseacademic.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.ccu.stockholmchallenge.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.co. http://www. http://news. activities.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.se/projectd ata.ccu. and a glossary.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. US.co.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research .” They have a “firefly watching system.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.edu.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.fasfind. of the University of Oulu in Finland.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning.fasfind.htm Jari Laru.cs.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.pdf http://www. resources. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. and pre-service teachers. Israel. http://www3.bbc.edu.mobilelearning. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.telus.pdf http://www. or a combination of media. Learn more at: http://www.fasfind.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. http://urbantapestries. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. links.beta80group.cs. movies.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. http://www.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. http://www. audio.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.cs.edu. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content. http://urbantapestries. pictures.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.pdf location-specific text. technologies.ccu.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.” > > > http://www.harvard. including issues. http://spotlight-mobile.” and a “bird watching learning system. applications.com/home_en.” > > > http://m.mobilearn. http://csdl2.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.computer.” a “butterflywatching learning system. Australia.knowledgepulse.elearningcentre.

org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. January 2005.html Grew.. (2005). For example. (2005). http://213.au /edition06/download/geddes. and Pagani. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.m-learning. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Vol. Ireland. http://www.cs.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Kao. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. T. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2004). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.formatex. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.uk/eli_practice. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. 17-22 http://llt.6.pdf Attewell.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. Molinari.94.html Chen. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.htm JISC (2005).unitn. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. and Sharma.idi.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.msu. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.kaywa. No.msu. A.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.232.ac. http://www.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.135/ipodined/news. P. L. (2002). Bob (2005). Gaming.net.science. EDUCAUSE Review.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.ntnu.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.pdf Bibliography Alexander.uk/handler/public ations.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. Jill (2005). http://www. S.org/micte2005/4. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. JISC Guide.pdf Godwin-Jones. (2003). 9(1).php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.iadis.html Kadirire.pdf Jasola. and Sheu.pdf Geddes.jisc. Y. Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://www. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. http://www.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). A. http://www. J. Sept. 2(9). Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.ac. B. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. No. E. 19. http://llt. and Trifonova. Univ. http://www.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. 347-359.itdl. September 2005.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. 5. http://mobile. Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://www. Gaming.. Bryan (2004).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. 2006 in Dublin.ac. 39.flexiblelearning.edu.ccu.pdf Anderson. http://knowledgetree. R.bham. Language Learning and Technology.eee.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Ronchetti.educause. Paul (2005). James (2005).pdf Colazzo. of Birmingham http://www. Report. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.J. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf..tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.jisc. M.

com/news/article 2490.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.asp Liu.guardian. Ann (2005). What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.ac. (2004). May 23. http://portal. multimediabased learning application.pdf Scagliarini. EDUCAUSE Review. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Vecchietti.educause. Neil (2003). Glyfada. M. M. http://www. D. Hungary. J. Proceedings.pdf Thomas.. T. Peter (2005).edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.. Learning in the Mobile Age. http://www. http://www. (2001). Teleborg Campus. A. 40-53. May/June 2005. S. MA: HRD Press.uk/elearning/ comment/0. Draft paper submitted for publication. http://www.. Roffia.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.fil. and Dobreva. 2005.Light.oucs.110 9/WMTE. Taylor.2. computer-aided. Feb.acm.. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). http://education.ieeecomputersociety. Brisbane..uk/public/getfile. Proceedings. T.2002. http://www. J. Cinotti. 40(3).eee.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Liang. Enabling Mobile Learning. http://www.co. M.org. Wang. E. and Cultural Heritage. and Yang. Marc (2004). T.phil-inst. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. and Vavoula. 2002. Malavasi. A. E.ac.1039222 McLean.amazon. August 29-30.00. Presented at WMTE 2002. Romagnoli. http://www.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. L. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. 2005. http://www. H. Australia.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Budapest.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Guardian Unlimited. Greece. http://www. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Michael (2005).century. 2005. http://doi..bham. Galasso. (2002). J. E-Learning on the move. F. Christopher (2005).htm#Implications Prensky. Chan. Växjö. ASCILITE2005 Conference.usabilitynews. Ellen (2005).doc Meisenberger. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models.. (2005). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.1490476. David (2006). and Sforza. 2004.ac.open. Coralini. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.digicult.ascilite. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. A theory of learning for the mobile age.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Chief Learning Officer. and Nischelwitzer. http://21st. Conference on Virtual reality. 1(5)..uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.org/10. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Sweden. http://kn. S. April 2005. (2005). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. June 27.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. and. Pigozzi.. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Understanding.fhjoanneum. http://www.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Kristóf (2002).cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Mike (2005). M. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.ox. UsabilityNews. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation..cfm?doc umentfileid=7298.clomedia..pdf Metcalf. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. M.. June/July 2005.pdf Mellow.. Donnelly. G. http://drei. Feb.org/citation. Archeology.info/index.pdf Sharples.innovateonline.html von Koschembahr. Amherst. Växjö University. M..

research. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. Di Eugenio.ldc. http://wwwusers.uk/~silvia/litReview. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.york. rather than just returning Web pages.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Do not reproduce 131 . speech recognition. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. (2004). http://dmoz. natural language generation.elsnet.org/softwaremap/trove_list . natural language understanding. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. (2004).html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. Kim (2000). a component of intelligent tutoring systems.ac. (2005a. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. et al. http://www.it/index. machine translation. http://www. http://eduforge. i. tools.org/aitopics/html/natlang. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.cs. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.” See also Jordan et al. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. speech synthesis.upenn. http://www. http://tcc. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Lee et al.itc. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.. and standards.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.lexxe.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.aaai. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.e. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.translating one natural language into another. http://www.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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). A PLE must support lifelong learning.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. chat. libraries. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. track. e-portfolios. and social bookmarking sites. and. etc. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. Technology needs to be situated. and review his or her learning activity. it helps the user plan. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. but these are only available to members of the course. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. Running on the learner's PC. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. This requires support over time. discussion forums. without an offline client to the LMS. http://portal.. Individualization in an LMS is weak. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. learners need to be in real-world situations.bham. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. amongst institutions. whiteboard). as learners move between institutions. social environments. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. A PLE is structured by the learner. (Cortlett et al. Secondly. work places. In many cases. blogs. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit.uk/ilogbook/d efault. wikis. there can be no electronic interaction. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner.cetadl. and through a variety of technologies. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. To practice real-world situations. for the learner. manage. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. such as search engines. often only for the purposes of the course.ac. learning management systems.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 .

Sharples.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.za/CD/papers/Corle tt. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . Incorporated Subversion. J.ac. UK. http://incsub. Nevada.bath.. Online case study paper.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.cetis.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.uk/index. T.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. http://www. http://elgg. http://www.pdf Farmer.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. James (2006). Colin (2005). 11.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). Chan. (2005). 2006.ac. http://www. Edinburgh.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Terry (2006).ac.cetis. January 9. and Westmancott. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. 22-27 July 2005. M. PLE Reference Model.org.jisc. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.mlearn. http://www. Las Vegas.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. D.ac.ac. O. http://terrya. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. http://www. 2006.. Jan. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.jisc.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.elearning. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. http://www.ac.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook..uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. Ting.edublogs.

. artificial intelligence. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.g. http://www.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. 2005). learning environments. However. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. Often. etc. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. etc.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact...Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. through a questionnaire). navigation. These techniques include content-based filtering. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . PDAs). http://www. collaborative filtering. Keenoy et al.ed. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. (Filippini-Fantoni. or it can be an implicit model. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.uk/ilex/final.ac. and/or presentation of materials. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.g.g. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 .elenaproject. picture.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.hcrc. the personalization can be applied to content. rule-based filtering. Furthermore.).org/en/index. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.

A.(2001).unibo. Melbourne. with a particular focus on the museum sector. William Niu. http://www. and FilippiniFantoni. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. HATII. A. Daisy (2002).three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. C.emarcon.pdf Callaway. http://www.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles ..pdf m/index.pdf Cavalluzzi.calimera. (2005). Pizzutilo. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).net/toscana/events /museomarmo. G..org/pdf/cs. Ler. and Kuflik. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. https://www.cs.html http://www.calimera.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. A demo is available at: http://www. http://www. http://adiret. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.ecdc.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. K. A..metmuseum. Kay. http://www.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. W.directa.arts.umuai.cognitive traits. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.. (2004).org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research . New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.org.org/ Bibliography Abbott.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.firstmonday.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. and Nuguid. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.net/home. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. http://smart. S. http://arxiv. B. wireless networks.unimagdeburg. S. De Carolis.noekaleidoscope. http://www.. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. and Cook J.CY/0409055 Boyle T.. University of Glasgow. dynamic user profiling techniques. > > http://www.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. http://www.pdf Bright.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.gla. Ngo. (2004).it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours..org/default. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.. Cozzolongo. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Bowen. J. PowerPoint presentation. T..hatii.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art.ac. D. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. http://www. The Future of Access (or. http://www. (2005). J.ca/English/Pers onal/index.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.beta80group.virtualmuseum. Online paper. Online paper.arces. http://www. A. A.ascilite. Borda.pdf Beler.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright.

usyd.. Rocchi.org/posters/ moulin.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. P. Bowen. April 2004. S. (2002). (Eds. http://www. http://tmtfactory. R. In R.. FutureLab. M.Information Access.di. interactive services in home automation.pdf Fuschi. FutureLab report. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education.htm Hawkey.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access..org/ichim03/PDF/070C.pdf Heckmann. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.jpbowen.. and Paddeu. http://www. W. 2005 www. In Mizzaro. May 2004. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. O. C. Subramaniam (Ed. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. PEACH http://peach. (2003). University of Sydney (2004). Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. (2005). Dagger.pdf Conlan.pdf Giroux.ppt Correia. http://w5.dimi.ichim.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. PA: Idea Group Publishing. L..ie/Owen.org.. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. M.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. Henze. S.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. http://www.nestafuturelab.. Sanna. Ecole du Louvre. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.edu.uniud. http://www. Kuflik. (2004). I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. F. Dominik (2003). M. http://www...Info.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.cs. Dillon. Roy (2004). and Numerico. and Vazirgiannis. X. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. (AVI 2004). Pianesi. science centres and galleries.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. and Tasso. T. Graziola. URL: http://doi. and Verdaguer. Personalization through IT in museums.pdf Copa. K. May 25. P. http://www. Nejdl. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. M.p df Green. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. N.. D..1145/643477. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Hershey. N.pdf Ceccaroni. (2005)..pdf Eirinaki. Facer. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. https://www.p df Filippini-Fantoni.futurelab. Spain. February.. Online paper. T. (AVI 2004). Málaga. http://www. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. D. 3(1). Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Stock. http://lrnlab.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. and Sintek. V. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . Web mining for web personalization. P. DigiCULT . Moulin. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. Wade. F.2004-1213.semanticweb. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference.com/pub/evsc05b. Italy. J.org/10. Soro. Barcelona. Online paper.pdf Dolog.tcd. Gallipoli. 2004. May 25. C. S. T. H.. http://www. G. Magical Mirror: multimedia. (2004).uni- Do not reproduce 141 . Italy. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization.www2004. Rudd. Montreal. O. and Cardinalli. A.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1.designshare. Personalization and Digital Technologies. I. (2003).24_Conlan. D.. September 2002. (2004). and Humphreys. (2002).acm. http://iswc2002.it/papers/gorenbar2005.itc.learnexact. M.edfac. George (2005).it/intint/people/papers /aims04.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work.. 2004. Paris. New York. C..pdf Goren-Bar. 1–27. May 2002.uniba.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers.cs. Issue 7. Gallipoli. and Boavida. and Zancanaro.) (2002). (2005). Silvia (2003).

sb. http://w5.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies.. http://www. (2005)..1.cs. (2002).dcs. Proceedings of IIT. P. http://www. UK http://homepages.pdf Keenoy. L.pdf Johnson. (2004).. In Mária Bieliková. P.pdf Kuflik. Levene. W.2.si/eng/ijceel. 7(4):70-81.usyd. and Lauder.l3s. Kaszas. Yokoi. Callaway.pdf Kay.usyd. J. Rocchi. Penserini.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1. Online paper. Seničar. pages 249-256. D. K.stuba.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. 2004 http://www.inf. and Conejo... Brusilovsky.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05.kbs. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research..ed. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. P. (2001). http://www. Busetta.4... Goren-Bar.pdf Kuflik.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. T.. PIA Conference. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. M. Levene.pdf Kay. Edinburgh. T. http://csdl2. and Lauder. editor. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Brasher. Kummerfeld. Stock.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. S. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. and Okamoto. October 2004.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums.computer. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents.au/~piers/papers/ pums. Turcsanyi-Szabo. Bratislava.e5. P. K..ijs..PDF Kay.edu.. (2004). C. and Niu. B... Jones.pdf Keenoy. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.it/papers/avi2004. May 25. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . IEEE Computer Society. B. J. http://adiret. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.cs. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web.. A. Final Version. V.bbk. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. Dolog. (2004). M. (2004). and Peterson.edu.p df Iwazaki.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. W. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Kummerfeld.cs. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004).de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. . (2005). K.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication.bbk. Jaroslav.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.. Personis: A Server for User Models. T. Lum..unihannover.ac. http://www. and Nejdl. (2005). and Blažič. Martin (2004). UM 2005. B. P. http://www. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). de Freitas. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).ac. 2005. (2002). J. and Zancanaro. O..de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14.uni-sb. Educational Technology & Society. A.pdf Kuruc. (eds. N. http://peach... Nicola (2005). Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.ac.. UK. 2004. (2004). Italy. Waycott.. T. W. P.. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. T.itc. Online paper. (2005). M..Self E-Learning Networks. In: De Bra. C. P.unimagdeburg. and Zancanaro. SeLeNe . R. A. D. Gallipoli. M. and Montandon.fiit. http://eprints. WP4 Deliverable 4.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. J. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. LSC. 23-30 July 2005.pdf Klobučar. Online paper. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. Yasuda.pdf Kay. P. S..pdf Henze. Niu .cs.ippr.pdf Henze. http://www. Online paper. J... M.

M.. J. Montandon... May 2004. M. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.ac. L. L. May 25. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). http://www. (2005).. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning..uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management.. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Spain. C. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS). Jones. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.. A. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives.uk/trails Sehring.pdf Sakamura.pdf Schoonenboom. (2000).soton. J. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069. (2004a).dcs. Turcsányi-Szabó. F. http://www. 2004 http://www2.depaul. August. URL: http://maya.sts.pdf Ng M. http://www. Gallipoli. A. May 7. (2004). Lejeune. J-P. Italy.. S. B. Montandon.. Online paper. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century. M. (Eds.uniud. A. http://www. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.428-431. 2004. 2002.iicm. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. and Hemmje.utokyo. Margaret (2002). New York. C.ac. J. and Levene... P.. Y.uk/6832/01/ah 02.nott. Hungary. (2004). K. (2002). A. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. Spain. Muller. Paper presented at EDEN 2004.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub.http://senet.dcs.1. Turcsányi-Szabó..de/~mehta/uuc m. 43(8):142–151. F. M. Blake.learninginprocess. January 2004. and Srivastava..gov. Goita. P. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Maier P. Mehta.ac. Faure.pdf Reeves. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization.pdf Mobascher.. Armstrong R. pp.ac.pdf Do not reproduce 143 ..tuharburg.bbk.mrl. A.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Jones. S.com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version).dimi...lsc. May 2002.. Keenoy. Julia (2004). Online paper.pdf Niederee. Winterhalter. David. C. A. C.pdf Martinez.2..uk/trails Schoonenboom.org/proceedings/doc s/2p264.. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. available from www.. http://www. Gutl. Budapest.. K. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. M.ipsi. A. H.2. D.bbk.. Stuart. ACM Press.fraunhofer. Trummer. Z.. Málaga.. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal.cs.pdf Pivec. Kaszás. and Modritscher.. C. Schmidt. (2004). C. Barrios. Keenoy.ecs.pdf Mizzaro. http://www.um. R.ncsl.. http://www. Hall W. V. Communications of the ACM.H.org. H. David. A Multi-Dimensional.www2004.. Preis. (2005). B. Pluhar. http://www. Diagne.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final.elearningguild. J. Ken (2000). J-P. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. Malaga.ac. Lejeune. Kaszás. http://www.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h.. Cooley. Enric and Minguillon. Bossung.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.. and Levene. (2004b). Stewart.html Schmidt... M. and Tasso.) (2002). available from www.2.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor. Flypad Report. http://eprints.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.

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The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. instructorled. the portal offered information on more than 20.elearningeuropa. 2001). Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. collaborative environment.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. which form a dynamic user profile. http://www. Knowledge Management. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . vendors. learning management systems. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. As of early 2006. content management. In the business world.Portals Related terms Collaboration.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . and other roles outside an organization (Collins.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.

Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. http://www. Hershey. and schedules. http://www.ittoolbox. In Jafari.com/home. and universities. (Eds. go to: http://www. Heidi (2001). including educational uses. and shared lists for tasks.cyberu.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.hp.700 online courses http://www.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. administrators.tamtam. K.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. interactive discussion groups. PA: Information Science Publishing.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. Bray (2001)..asp Element K – Access to over 2. New York: AMACOM.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. A.trainingregistry. You’ve come a long way.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. March 1. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. category.asp?id=9028 Barron. Campus Technology Magazine.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. instructors.learningcircuits.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. baby! E-learning portals. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. May 2000. A Portrait of Learning Portals.students. M.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.proquest.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. students.000 lesson plans http://www. Campbell.nl/mart/CategoryView.executrain.000 online courses http://www. http://blogs.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.microsoft. http://www. http://knowledgemanagement.amazon.www2.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. document management information.teach-nology.300 online courses http://www. audio and/or video.microsoft.campustechnology. and Sheehan. Ron (2004). instant messaging. and Aucoin.worldwidelearn. http://www.000 publishers worldwide http://www. online meetings with text. e-mail distribution lists. http://www.Education. (2003). Tom (2000). http://h20219.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. news and announcements.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.saba. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. school administrators. http://www.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121. 2004.amazon. R.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. museums.fathom.elementk. Learning Circuits. calendars.htm Brockbank.com/article.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.

J.htm Do not reproduce 147 . Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Richard & Associates (2002).educause. C.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. New York: AMACOM. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Cornelia (2000).. and Gordon.) (2003). Enterprise Knowledge Portals.amazon. September 2000. San Francisco: JosseyBass. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. Heidi (2003). http://www. Hershey.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.educause. A.asp Katz.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. and Sheehan. M. http://www. (2003). PA: Information Science Publishing.learningcircuits. (Eds.amazon. http://www. Reviewed at: http://www.asp Terra.Collins. http://www.

Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.elluminate. although many are trying to change this practice. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. http://icampus. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. While it is expensive. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. http://www. Experience them at: http://www. when experts are not readily available.com/site/index.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. webinars Consequently. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. http://www. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. See the TEAL Project at MIT. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. virtual classrooms. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. webcasting.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. web conferencing.” In the Middle Ages.mit.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. Skypecasting. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. However. in partnership with Dreamworks.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. In fact. Online presentations can be very boring.lsc. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge.com Hewlett-Packard. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.edu/TEAL). has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.masternewmedia. http://www.replayhq. the word “lecturing” means “to read.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.macromedia.

silicon.infoworld. Coursebuilder. videoconferencing.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.39155030. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. http://buyersguide. Dreamweaver.co.hp. independent listing of Webinars. virtual meetings.co. http://ajax.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution. forums and message boards. Breeze.htm http://www.com/news_radars /web_presentations. Webcasts. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. brain. http://www.elearningcentre.lsc. Do not reproduce 149 . http://www.eweek. intranets. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. > > http://www.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.edu.co. and Flash. virtual classrooms. a columnist at InfoWorld.kolabora.html#a1185 http://weblog.htm http://www.adelaide.com/eweek/web conferencing.com/udell/200 5/01/22. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations. Authorware.com/webconf/index. http://cde.> > http://www.elearningcentre. http://www.humanresourceWebinars. and kidneys.brandonhall.elearningcentre.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.380 0005416. > > http://weblog. groupware.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe. http://www.” > http://www.com/publications/lel/lel.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa. presentation and streaming presentation tools. online meetings. Web seminars.acue.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. online communities. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. instant messaging. virtual teams.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. Captivate. although it does not have to be.ccimeet.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. Web conferencing.htm http://www.com/cxoextra/0. http://www.infoworld.kolabora. and whiteboarding.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.co.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. http://www.co.elearningcentre. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. and Web presentations. videoconferencing.athabascau.thinkofit. http://www.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.00. and e-learning.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/udell/200 5/02/25.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.e-learningcentre. social software for online collaboration.

blogspot.fasfind. and Furr. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.masterviews.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus.programjunction.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. http://www. http://www.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. Sept.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.. P. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. July. http://m. and Quick. 2003. Christine (2001).learningcircuits. 7(3).masternewmedia. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.presentations. Luigi (2003b).http://www. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/21593.apreso.aln.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. Live and Online!: tips. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.com/product /software/795/index. K. April 30.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1.htm Canali De Rossi.com/Breeze Part2. May 15. Russ (2004). P. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.com/software/present ation. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.html Using Apreso software.amazon. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.timelyweb. Jennifer (2004).org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. (in two parts) > > http://www. (2002).html Canali De Rossi. Armit (2005). http://labnol.com/downloads/sear ch. http://www. 2003.downloadjunction.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.com/presentatio ns/index. 3.com/Breeze Part1..org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. July 26.filesland.masternewmedia. Luigi (2003c).pdf http://www. (2004). Live ELearning. http://www. 2005. K.htm Hofman. 150 © Brandon Hall Research .russellmcnally. Belinda (2003).pdf Scott. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. http://www. Digital Inspiration. http://www. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2003a). 2004. Sept. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). July 8. http://www.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.01. 2003. http://www. http://www.russellmcnally.aace.asp McNally. Robin Good Blog.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.htm Duckworth. Learning Circuits.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.

Feb.html Zielinski.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . Start Saving Time and Money Today. but… Presentations Magazine.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. L. http://www. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. Software. AMACOM.http://kmi. http://www. 11. and Equipment.open. InfoWorld. and Winfield.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1.infoworld. Dec.presentations.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. Choose your presentation tools carefully. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.. 2005. Dave (2002).amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Choices are great.ac. Choose the Right Vendors.pdf Spielman. (2003). http://www. S.

Does not require any advanced skills. Advanced features. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. Reduce the number of development vendors. Navigation built in . very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. manage the content and the users. extreme e-learning.. In the second sense of the term. simple. microlearning > down pages. including tools and templates. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Tools for rapid e-learning are. programming. It is best suited to text-based materials. Instructional design built in. For example. by necessity. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. 2003). so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. FAQ. but not always good for you. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. just-intime e-learning. graphics. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. easy to use. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. tests.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. such as creating links. are built in.does not require any plug-ins. 2003). According to Ready Go!. It can refer to learning something quickly. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. low. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. Deploys easily . That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . Assign SMEs who are committed. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. virtual classroom. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. learning objects. or HTML knowledge. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources.automatically assures that all navigation works. or where the online information frequently changes.e. and clip art is straight forward and supported . glossary. Standardize approaches. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. In the first case. and communicate deliverable expectations. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content.versus high-interaction).

com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.pdf Crosman. See sample templates at: http://www.articulate. http://www. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.pdf Aldrich. Chief Learning Officer. Templates.learningcircuits. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.meetingone. January 23.elearningmag.amazon.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.clomedia.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. http://www. http://www.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Reusability.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. January. http://www.elearningguild. Clark (2005).com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. See a demo at: http://www. Do not reproduce 153 . Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. Mark (2003).readygo.co.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. http://www.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. computer games. Jennifer (2004). tools. Learning Circuits. Josh (2005). Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. Edit. Jay (2005). version control protocols. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Future-Proofing. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www.htm Bersin.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. http://www.scate. http://www. LTI Newsline. July 2004. Tips and Techniques. Josh (2004).org Web site.transformmag. Penny (2004). http://www.asp Bersin. Enhance. http://www.microlearning. August 2004.bersin.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. and Bersin. April.elearningguild.pdf Brodsky.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Dianne (2005). J. Making rapid e-learning work. Transform Magazine. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Lane (2002). Learning Solutions. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer. and other good stuff.” Find out more: http://www. schedule and due dates.htm Bibliography Abell. http://www. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. June. 2006. http://www.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.masie.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Larstan Business Reports.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.ltimagazine. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. centrally located files. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. and Publish. Kendrick (2006). which contains information on resources. Bill (2005). Chief Learning Officer. J.clomedia.raptivity. conferences.access to a clear project plan. http://www. 2004. 2004).com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.elearningcentre.com/showArticle. LTI Newsline. Paper. June 30. (2004).com/studio. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.com/content/templat es/clo_article.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www. July 2.

(2004a).learningcircuits.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning.e-learning programs in weeks.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Nov.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Joe (2005). http://www. Bersin and Associates White Paper.clomedia. 10.elearningguild.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Stephanie (2006). http://www. Ray (2006). http://www.elearningguru. June 2004.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. The Training Foundation online article. 2006.com/new sstory. Macromedia White Paper.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://download. http://www. Learning Solutions. Learning Solutions. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.pdf Gustafson. January 2003. http://www. April 20. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.clomedia. Press release. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. LTI Newsline.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Simulation. http://www.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning.com/articles /default. http://vftraining. 2005.macromedia.adobe.pdf Macromedia Inc.trainingpressreleases.clomedia. Learning Circuits. http://www. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. http://www. Kevin (2002). February 2005. http://www. 2006. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. Mar.macromedia. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Garin (2004).com/articles/abs tracts/index. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Chief Learning Officer. 9.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Rapid Intake White Paper. Chief Learning Officer. Nick (2005). Ray (2005).ltimagazine. http://download.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. Macromedia White Paper.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.htm Masie Center (2005). Clive (2006). E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Eric (2003). Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.elearningguild. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. January 16. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. 2002. 2006.pdf Jimenez. e-Learning Crop Circles.pdf Mayberry.pdf Shepherd. Jan. http://www.trainingfoundation.pdf Jimenez. Ed (2004).asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. (2004b).

com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.nasa. technology. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.gov. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.euron. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. http://www.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. http://mindstorms. http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.edurobot. engineering. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.evolution.active-robots. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. engineering.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. simulation > http://www.cmu.botball. one child at a time.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.com/r_home. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.org/aboutbotball/overview. for underwater exploration. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.com/ Do not reproduce 155 . http://www.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.ife.lego.edu/index. technology.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. > http://www. Inc.rec.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.aad. and mathematics.ri.whmsi. and math. http://robotics. http://www.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.

html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.wtec..html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics..tools for accessible education. > > http://www. (1980).pdf Cooper.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. D.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.ams. Basic Books. Mr. go to: http://www.irc.andrew. New York. AAATE Conference 1999. http://www. B. D.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. W.cuny. New York: Syngress Publishing. R. (2005).php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.. I. L. G. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. and vocal tics. Artificial Intelligence Conf.net/ Run by NASA. http://zeus. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).kipr.osaka-u.ac.l3s.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. K. http://robothaven..atr.edu/~sklar/er /edu. http://www. lip movements. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.amazon.cs. http://www. http://www.amazon.uml. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. June.brooklyn.pdf Nourbakhsh.. and Wagner.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics.ed.cmu.. links.fhbrandenburg. (2004).pdf Ferrari. M.pdf Boersch.eng.technology. (2001). and Powerful Ideas. Sept. Harwin. (2004). and Hempel. M.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. http://www. M. Computers. (1999).com/solutions/mw exrobotics.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. It features news. D..org/article.jp/ See also: http://www. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Kumar. Mindstorms: Children.. Miller. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots.jp/ Blank. I.pdf Papert. http://dangermouse. By donning motion sensors. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. and Yanco. H. H. Robots in the classroom . Ferrari. Yanco. Kumar. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. Heinsohn.brynmawr.. Germany. H. November. Lathan. Germany. (2004). particularly robotics. and Mataric. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.profetic.. Find out more about this group at: http://www. L.php Bibliography Blank.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. http://www. Meeden. (2004). Paper at the American Assoc. and other information on robotics. P. http://robotics. D.sci. Proceedings. Düsseldorf. S.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. and Meeden.gov/rcc/index.microworlds. http://www. D.nasa.l3s. C. U. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. http://www. and Loose. Keating.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . and Dautenhahn. Hohmann.pdf http://www. J. D.

.. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. A. D. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.. M. Abbott.digicult. and Rusbridge.pdf Stewart. http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A. 28-30. (2001). Ontario. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. McHugh. Ottawa. and West.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. Sept.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 157 . http://rob. R. Dobreva. M.ccmlab. S. Donnelly.. T.

Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. which submit queries. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted.so they take the structure of the Web into account. as this section of the report shows. But. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. search engine optimization. collaboration. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Examples are Google and Overture. for a variety of reasons. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. Ezzy (2006a.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. meta-search engines. each with their own defining feature sets. collective intelligence. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . such as Yahoo. One new approach is called “federated searching. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. resource discovery. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive.com and Alta Vista. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. Meta–search engines. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Web directories. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines.examples are early yahoo. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. in parallel. One is the problem of finding relevant. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. dependable information. federated search. a rich user experience. They bring into the equation user preferences. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. information retrieval. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. such as Google and Altavista. 2004). 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. data mining. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking .

gravee.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. and the Web. http://www.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics. http://www. http://www. http://oaister.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.com/ Answers.convera. http://www.answers.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.umich.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www.hotbot. http://channels. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.grokker.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. blogs.com/search/defa ult.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. video. http://www.gigablast. http://www.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). and text.msn.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www. http://www.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.faganfinder. http://www.looksmart.aeiwi. http://www. http://www.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://search.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.icerocket.com About.com’s search service http://a9.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.google.com/ Gravee .com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.gnod.umdl. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://search.otavo. http://search.gada. http://www.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.alltheweb.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.com Gada.ask.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. then fill in the search box.mooter. http://www. http://www. http://www.jookster.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.lexxe.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://dmoz.netscape.altavista.about. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://getoutfoxed.alexa. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. get answers http://www.aol. http://www.

ai.ucr.imdb.healthfinder.qelix.ujiko. http://icerocket.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. > > http://firstgov.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.acronymfinder. http://www. http://www. http://www.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. and movies. reviews.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://www. Much of this information is hidden from view.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. Yahooligans.google.squidoo. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.yahoo.ist. & KidsClick!.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. reviews. books.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://www. http://qube.sri.stumbleupon.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.google.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://www.psu. Wink then diplays the results. http://books.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://tagjag.google.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://www.pubsub. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.gov/ http://www.Clusters results. http://www. AolKIDS. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://kids.ithaki.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://www.eurekster.topic appears. http://www.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www. http://swicki.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. http://froogle. AwesomeLibrary.gpoaccess.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://scholar.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://infomine.com/%7Eappelt/fastus.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . ArtKIDSRule.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.koders.wink. http://rollyo.com/v2a/flash.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. users tag their favorite results and block spam. http://www.gnoosic.com/v2/index. http://vivisimo. http://citeseer.blinkx. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.govmine. http://www. FactMonster.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.imdb.

com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.liveplasma.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.A legal search engine.Krugle – A search engine for developers.seekport. http://www.acm.psu.rawsugar. as of this writing. http://techsearch.com/ Last. http://smealsearch1.columbia. http://www.psu.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.4 billion links.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.merl.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.almaden. http://www. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu . http://www.searchking. http://www.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).ee.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.gov/entrez/query.ee.nih.columbia. http://portal.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.columbia.” Content-based search engines for pictures.com/ LitLinker .edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.ee. http://www. http://lawcrawler. http://www. http://wang16.ist.com/ MediaFinder . http://www.org/citation.cfm?doid=10 56808.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.last.htm Do not reproduce 161 .cmp.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.f cgi QBIC .nlm.rrzn.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.searchedu.omgili. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.pandora.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.soundspotter. http://www.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.ibm.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. http://www.uni-hannover.scirus. http://www.org/ Omgili .findlaw. http://www. http://wwwqbic.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.technorati. http://www.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.convera.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.ncbi.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.fm/ LawCrawler . http://www.truveo.krugle.

com/ clusters.copernic.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www-rocq.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://www.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.zapmeta. white pages.researchbuzz. including a set of international telephone directories. http://www.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. yellow pages. lottery results. and links the clusters. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. and Web mail for the topic entered.dogpile.ac. city guides.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. health information sources. focused searches on topics they care about. and their relationships.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.uk/ SearchTools. http://clusty. movies. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.nyu.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. audio.info. apartment rentals. http://searchenginewatch.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://www.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. jobs.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. pictures.com/ Info – Searches reference works.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. or federated searching. greeting cards.ac.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. http://www.ithaki.search. http://www.zoominfo. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. http://www. http://www. news sources. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . bookmarks. dating and personals. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. Known as “meta-search” engines.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://www. video. is a valuable resource for researchers. http://nlp. http://www. http://www.inria. classifieds. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www. companies.searchtools. games.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. Unlike other search engines.net/indexu.cs. and notes. http://a9. http://vivisimo. http://www.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. therefore. weather. and tracks a user's search history. flights. hotels.kartoo. http://www.xcavator. eBay.trovando.intute. tickets.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. http://www.bolton. shopping sites. the user's community has total control over the results.ixquick. maps/directions.

or topic . S. Frank.tveyes. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.co. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. http://infomine. No. Ebrahim (2006). Read/Write Web. Y.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. F.citysearch.elearning..com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. June 2004. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). Part 2. 2006. http://swicki. http://www. and Shoham. New York: Portfolio. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.readwriteweb. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. First Monday. 7-12. phrase.readwriteweb. (2005).firstmonday. 6.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Do not reproduce 163 . 2004. 10(12).com/ Stephen Downes.ac. Users can also browse by subject category. Ebrahim (2006).com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. is against the idea of federated searches. DigiCULT Thematic Report. July-Sept. Search 2. http://www. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.pdf Ensor.gov/ http://www. O. http://www.searchenginecolossus. can be published on the user's site. http://www.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. International Journal on e-Learning. John (2005). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. http://www. June. and Apprato.gpoaccess. http://www. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. Guntram (2004).0 vs.netmasters.0 vs. Exchanging. Search 2. For example. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Traditional Search. http://www.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. A.digicult.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Read/Write Web.gov/ http://www.html Battelle. July 20.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. or swicki. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.amazon.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. This search engine.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.php Ezzy. http://www. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Part 1. 6. and Searching in eLearning Systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).ala. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. December. July 25.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. Pat (2005).org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. http://www.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr. Traditional Search.ucr.org/index.just as a search engine is used for text.editlib.htm Ezzy.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.downes. > > http://firstgov. (2004).eurekster... http://www.php Geser. Resource Discovery . No. 2006.

digicult. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . B. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. S. http://bobwyman. J.eweek. http://www.ht m Pratt. InfoWorld. eSchool News.prescientdigital.asp Wyman.http://www. June 30. 10. Corey (2005). A. It’s Gada. E.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. http://searchenginewatch. 2004. Refining enterprise search.com/links/article .info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores.pdf Murray. J.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi.php/2156221 Vaas.1759. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. (2005). http://www.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research ..eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts. Simple advice for complex search solutions. W. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Danny (2004). Oct. html Porco.pdf Sullivan. Major Search Engines and Directories. Part I: http://www. 149-166.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. and Hilf. Doctoral dissertation. and MacColl.html Kumar. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. M. 2004. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources.infoworld. (2000). InfoWorld. Mittal. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.isnoldenburg. April 28.ed.ac.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. 15. 2004.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. http://homepages.ischool. http://www.org/16955 Low. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. 15. Jakob (2003). 2003. 3. P.prescientdigital. Stanford University. 2005. Oct. Mike (2004).uk/boon/delos200 5.com/article2/0. eWeek..com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Prescient Digital Media. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. 4(1).infoworld. Richard (2004). White paper.00.18 69408. they’re just limited. Search engines don’t suck. (2004).washington. SearchEngineWatch.com.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. Bob (2005).pdf Gincel. Lisa (2005).. http://www. 2004.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.aace. http://www. May 8. Kashyap.pubsub. Oct. Oct. http://dl. and Gupta.com/alertbox/20030630. 2005. http://www. 2005.useit.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.html Heck.pdf Schlenker. Mimkes.htm Part II: http://www. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. Parts I and II. Carmine (2006). S. (2005).

microformats. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. semantic grid. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. metadata.ibm. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. http://www. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. 2003). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. are now falling short of earlier promises. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. ontologies.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. taxonomies. but it will not be in general use for some time.alphaworks. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. such Do not reproduce 165 .elenaproject. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies.aktors. founder of the World Wide Web. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. Selected Examples In Europe. Like it or not.org/en/index. Abbas et al. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. near Boston. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It has both its advocates and its critics. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). http://www. search. http://www. (2005) note that “historically.

http://www-jime.de/html/ Aguirre.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. J..amazon.sciam. http://edutella.net/ Bibliography Abbas. Lieberman. Cambridge. http://www.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. S. W.ideagroup.) (2003). Mark (2005).com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.. Greece.. Scientific American.ac... (Eds. http://kaon..tkk.hp. A Semantic Web Primer.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. xi. (2005).. A. McClatchey. Hendler.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. R. and van Harmelen (2004). (2005).uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. D.info/issues. T. Brantner.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).upm.dit. and Lassila. Z. The semantic web. L. G.pdf Daconta. M. and Ahmed.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. 2005. J.. MA: MIT Press.ifets.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.. Umer.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. M. http://www..pdf Anderson. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. May 9-12. H. A. S.php?http://www .com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype.com/article.jxta. http://arxiv.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. Markus. http://www.amazon. New York: Wiley.aimatshape. and Knowledge Management.. and Zillinger.ac. http://www. and Smith. http://www-jime. May 2001. May 29 June 1. S.. Sobernig. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. In Fensel. http://www. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Forward. K. http://www. implementing. http://www. Web Services. Mozo...hpl. http://www. Odeh. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference.semanticweb. The first issue is free.seco. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.ifets. http://www. F. Olmedilla. D. Cambridge. (2001). Simon. (2004). http://jungla. and Hendler.amazon. S. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. Salvachua.as semantic portals for end-users. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. O. MA: MIT.info/index... D. T. Z. Obrst. Ali. (2003).pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . Miklos. M. Wahlster. T. semantic infrastructural services.personal-reader. J. Huber.. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. B. Tim (2003). and Whitelock.open.open.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou. G. http://www. (1).

Semantic Web Technologies. Hershey.amazon. Jennings. http://www.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.ca/cgibin/page. C. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Mauthe. http://www.ftrain. Paul (2003). 2001. pdf Doctorow. France. (2001)..semanticgrid. and Neagu. M. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www. Amsterdam. N. http://www. http://www. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. F. Syllogism. Journal of Computer Science. N.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. 500-504. (2005).scipub.com/article2/0. 18-22 July 2005. 2005.asp Hatem.kbs. M. Nicola (2005b). http://homepages. 2006. MA: MIT Press.well. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Brian (2005). and Zetti. Online article. W. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 .) (2005). (Eds. http://www. Sikora. M. and Naeve. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Online article. Rutledge. Cory (2001). Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. G. 1(4).unihannover. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. D. Palmer.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford.amazon. http://www. (2004).pdf Henze. and Hendler.html Haack.. http://www. Wahlster.unihannover.pdf Nilsson. http://www..cetis. L. Paper presented at the GLS conference. and Worldview”.. and Naeve.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web.1961106.. A.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf.cwi. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Lieberman. Wilbert (2005). http://www. Nack. H.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. H. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. http://www2002..com/~doctorow/metacrap.com/ContraShirky. htm Dorai. Thomas (2004). A. A.) (2003). D.amazon. Stephen’s Web.De Roure.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.ac. Oct. J.org/v1. Cambridge. http://www.00.ac. 10. Nicola (2005a).de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. The Netherlands. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning .. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. Greenwich. Oct. (2002). CT: Manning. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. Phil (2006). Juan-les-Pins.pdf Henze.kbs. Sweden. T.189 5. M. H. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. Semantic Networks and Social Networks.jisc.downes. and Gouarderes.9/semgrid.. CETIS Online article. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews.pdf Kraan. (2001). DevSource. Lund.pdf Downes.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin. (Eds. Ramadan. Stephen (2005). From RDF to Topic Maps and back again.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. and Shadbolt. http://www.. L. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web.devsource.Some Architectural Guidelines. May 27. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. D.

http://eprints. (2003). (2001).p df Tao. and Stumme.bcs. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. http://poorbuthappy. http://education. F. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. December 3.pdf Updegrove. Woukeu. Darwin. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks.uk/selene/reports/ Del3.pdf Sampson. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. Scott (2005). A. http://www. http://www. L.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. http://www..981948. Semantic Web. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Who said that? Metadata. K. New York.aifb.sop.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.ac. 2005. January 17. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. (2003). Peter (2003).pdf Shirky. New York.ac. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. (2004). http://www2004. http://www. 2003. C. and Davis. Staab.ac. May 17–22.w3. 7. L.unikarlsruhe. Syllogism.cetis.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.pdf Tao. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. J. trust.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.html Wilson.. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. http://www. David (2002). http://www.. and Studer.00. Karenos. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. 2003.uk/elearning/ story/0. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism.com/read/swiftkick /column.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. F. S. and Miller.10577. G. H. 2002.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.ifets. The Semantic Web. 2005. http://www. E. 2004. R. (2005).inria. John (2004). and Worldview. 7 (4). Andy (2005). A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.dcs. Scott’s Workblog.asp Udell. http://www. Networks. (2005)..darwinmag. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.marketingprofs. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. http://www.soton.cetis. Schmitz. 2004. Online article. Millard.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).info/journals/7_4/5. H. InfoWorld. Scott (2002). CETIS Online article. P. and the Semantic Web. B. Millard.ecs. Davis. D. and Diaz.pdf Tane. D.. A.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . eLearning based on the Semantic Web. Nov. and Woukeu. Online article.guardian. June 21. August 2. Lytras.html Van Dijck. (2004). The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. http://ewic.ac...shirky. 2628. G. http://www.infoworld. Wagner.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. M. June 14. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.. Economics and Culture. D.bbk.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Clay (2003).co. G.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Christodoulou. Marketing Profs.html Stojanovic. USA..pdf Samaras.com/login/sign up.

According to High (2004).pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.insead.insead. especially ones set by themselves.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.uiuc. http://www. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. It was decommissioned in 2005. http://cave. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.calt. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. http://www.insead. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.noaa.insead. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. but information about it remains on the Web.ncsa. http://www. i.arcscience.icherubini.calt. http://www. role-playing.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. learn.calt. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. reviewed simulations as an online content format.calt.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. 2005).htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.insead.com/omni. http://www. games. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . http://sos. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.e. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.gov/ Winters et al. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.” My first report in this series. microworlds.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. http://www.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. participants will be motivated to evaluate. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.calt.

pulse rate. with many examples to try. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.virtualfishtank." http://www.ISLE . they are only available for Macintosh computers.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.edcenter. > > http://geowall.sdsu.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. For example. breathing.net/celestia/index.stt-global.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.lsa. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.atghome.edu/harvey_about.com/broadcastoverview. Mass.edu/ http://um3d. http://www.sdsu.making-history.com/ Forio . http://www.insead.dc.geo.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.forio. and Mac OS X.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.html weather forecasting. http://thinkertools.soe. http://www.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. http://www.fsl.berkeley.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.intermezzon.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. http://www.edu/geowall/ind ex.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. to play in a virtual fishtank. http://crme. http://www. http://www.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.umich. heart sounds. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. Linux. without programming knowledge.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . go to: http://www. However. http://www. http://www. and murmurs..experiencebuilders. http://www.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma . Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index.miami.shatters.adobe.noaa.med." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.ht m Intermezzon . It runs on Windows.umich.calt.biographix. http://www.assima. http://www.edcenter.adobe.net/ Biographix .http://www.

com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.knowledge-director. http://www. http://www. which can then be used to build simulations. Integrates with many media types.icherubini.com/products /firefly.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.percepsys. http://www.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.com/ MaxIT .com/ MaxIT .Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www. http://www.nexlearn.com/portal/index.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www.the click of a mouse. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.asp Knowledge Quest .outstart. Do not reproduce 171 .htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www. http://www.bc.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www.xstreamsoftware.com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.maxit.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.knowledgeplanet.knowledgepresenter.qarbon. http://coe.virtualcontrolroom.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.maxit.reusableobjects. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.elearningcentre. http://www.teds.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.knowledgequest.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.co.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.stagecast.stottlerhenke.com/products/sim.com/product_r pe. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. including simulations. http://www.” http://www.jibc.com/3dTraining.com/ Knowledge Planet . http://www.com/ Kookaburra Studios .sdsu. create courses specifically on using computer software.learning2005.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.

A. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. and Bostan. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. p. and Wilensky. (2001).org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). October. September. http://www. 12. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. P. and McCloughlin.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04.html Linser. Clark (2005).ft. Aug.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. http://www. Mazloumian.for Philosophers and Engineers. 4. (2004).htm High.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. Jennifer (2004). Holland. M. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. AACE conference. computer games. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. http://www.PDF Blikstein. Utrecht.html Sobeih.bbk. http://www. Online report. and Hou. October 15-19. Computer simulations in distance education. J.ac.html Lunce. 172 © Brandon Hall Research .learningcircuits. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. 2004.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.learningcircuits. http://itdl.blikstein. Laser. (2002).cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Aaron (2005). T. http://www. http://www. Sept.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. A. Six criteria of an educational simulation. http://www. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.htm eSchool News (2004).ac. eSchool News. 2004.pdf Cherubini.simplay.html Learning Circuits.pdf DeVries. 2002.ht m Sloman. Learning Circuits. Financial Times. A.learningcircuits. http://www... & de Jong. Department of Computer Science.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. 1(10). http://www..eschoolnews.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. In Interaction Design and Children.html Karrer. Kamau (2004). July. October 2004. and Sund Martin. Gash. Simjour. T. Rasmussen. J. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Feb.medialabeurope. (2002). Chief Learning Officer. Paper presented at Robocup conference. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. San Francisco: Pfieffer. http://www. L.. Implementation and Evaluation. and Ip..htm Aldrich.. U. Montréal. http://www. Bjorn (2004).amazon.com/news/showS tory.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. Clark (2004). A. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science.. Simulation levels in software training.case studies. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. B. http://www. 2004.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. September.pdf Swaak. How playing power drives lessons home.. J.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. M. June. H. R.net/papers/ELearning.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www.science. Making the most of software simulations.ncassr. Taghiyareh. Viswanathan. Learning Circuits. http://www. The promise of online simulations. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .http://www. 8. A. A.uva. Les (2004). Shannon (2004).org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.cs.clomedia.learningcircuits.bham.projects. International Workshop. (2005). (2004). (2001). A. F. Learning Circuits.

1997.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. 17. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Mar. C.protonmedia. 8(31). N.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s..uc. http://www.pdf Tjaden. In Association for Computing Machinery. The American Prospect. Gary (2003). Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Florida. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Fort Lauderdale. Online paper at: http://lsm. (2003).it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.-Apr. and Strohecker.prospect.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper. USA.html Winters.icherubini. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .dei. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.. 284-294.knowledge.pdf Turkle. April. http://www.. Cherubini. http://www. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. M. Sherry (1997).

RFID technology is developing rapidly. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.iu. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.com/default .html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. 2005).cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. especially in museums and for outdoor education. For a full discussion of this issue. http://www. especially for tagging retail items in stores.iu. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.org/Template. They are programmable and. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. While controversial. easily changed. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.edu/102605_meal. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).” http://vis.open. infrared (IR) tags. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.checkpointsystems. therefore. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.ac. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. optical tags. which transmits over short distances.ala. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. http://cnm. grease. or water. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. http://uitspress. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.edu/index. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.

http://www. Michigan State University. S. http://www. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. and Dobreva.66 Ward..csmonitor. adoption and innovation. (2005). and Case.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . April 13. S. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. T.cfm?fuse action=Reader.org/newdl/index. http://www. 276-283.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.jisc.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. http://www.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. (Eds.2005 .org/news/showsto ry.eschoolnews. in a 2005 online article. K.aace. Shibuya... RFID: frequency. G.infoworld.html Osawa. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.. G. & Kondo.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.. Proceedings. Noma. N.ac. R.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. http://www. 2004. http://www. 2004.digicult. http://csdl2.1109/WMTE.msu.com/monthly/articl e. Andrew (2005).. Tsukagoshi. 261-263.digicult..org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.pdf Osawa et al. http://www. (2003). 5.html?s=feature Heining. January 1. Technology Watch Report 1.aace. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. A. Infoworld. Donnelly.asp?id=1222 Ross. C. http://www. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. TD Monthly.com/monthly/articl e. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online).pdf Murray.computer. (2005).com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.msu.org/ Bibliography Borck. standards. http://www. (2004). and Backhouse. K.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.toydirectory. Y.pdf Salcedo. http://www.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. eSchool News Online. Aparna (2004).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.. van Kranenburg.xml&DOI=10. P..ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.. R. James (2006).cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. A. http://www. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.toydirectory. http://www. 2005. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. Corey (2004).org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Ando. Ogata. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 4(3). (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. Noda.). (2006).. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). and Yano. M. Y. & Richards. In Kommers.pdf Robinton. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. H.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. Masters Thesis.. June 27.rfidnews. http://www. March. M. Oct. M.

social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. describe. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. they act as an “outboard memory. and to share them. and organize the academic papers they are reading. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Fifth. in turn. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. get inspired. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. For instance.icio. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. Students. share their stories.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. music.A free service to help academics share. metadata.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. Blink also provides tools to sort. http://ask. Third.connotea. researchers at all levels (students. while users of the del. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. store. and books. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. faculty. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. As of April 2006. http://www. no matter their location or timing. connect with others.us Web site (http://del. Fourth. as each member can upload resources discovered. http://www.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations.” a location to store links that might be lost to time.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. Second.43things. http://www. They can save references. ontologies. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. http://www. Also. http://blogmarks. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms.net/ CiteULike .” However. or distributed in e-mails. search others’ references. tagging.icio. or check out what everyone wants to do.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . share references with colleagues.us) post their favorite Web sites. and search for a specific user's Blinks. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. Flickr held over 100 million images.metafilter.blinklist. printouts. and Web links. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.First. The result is something called a tag cloud. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. users can see what others are Blinking. search.com/ Blinklist .citeulike. For example.

icio. http://www. and/or books and find them again. http://www. and discover relevant links.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.yahoo.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. http://www.Consumating .org/news. http://www.jookster. and non-hierarchical editorial control.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.netvouz. http://www.networkltd. based on what is happening in the news media. similar to Digg.com/ Project Pad .shadows. http://www.clipmarks.eventful. http://ma.icio. updated in near real time. the users decide.gnolia.com/ Flickr – Store.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.com Clipmarks .A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.netscape.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.us/ Digg . http://www. search. http://consumating.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.com/ Jots . and share photos with others. http://www.us . http://del.com/archives/beta_up date/index.pageflakes. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. http://www. http://www.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. RSS.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.edu/ppad2/ index.simpy.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. http://www. blogging.rojo. share. http://blog.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. With digg.eu/products/networ k_menus.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. or enter new items and tag them. http://projectpad.feedmarker.furl.com/ Do not reproduce 177 . sort.search.memeorandum. http://www.A free.linkroll. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.digg.com/ Simpy – Search tags. music.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. but. http://www. Also retrieve it easily.com/ Furl .html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. http://www. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://myweb2. http://www.html Linkroll . http://flickr.com/ Magnolia .A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.net/ Jookster .kaboodle.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.com/ Del.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.com/ Kaboodle . users submit stories for review. http://jots.northwestern.

http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.veotag. http://tabblo. 41(2).com/ about how tagging works with del.spurl.peterme.educause.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.com Wists – A social shopping site.infoworld.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.zvents.yelp.html http://atomiq.wink.net/ Suprglu .com/wwwtool s/m/6350. Bryan (2006). and Digg. http://www.” http://www. and social bookmarking. http://unalog.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup.com/archives/000 558. tags.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://www.S. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.quickonlinetips.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.quickonlinetips.icio.” > > http://magazines. and share it with others.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.fasfind.icio.com/index.wists.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. http://www.com/udell/gems/d elicious. Online Resources Jon Udell. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. > http://www.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. with contributions from users. http://weblog. http://www.fasfind. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.html http://www.A.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . If a city is not there.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.us. http://www.com/ SWiK .tagzania. Web 2.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.quickonlinetips.suprglu.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://www.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.html http://tagsonomy. Flickr. http://www. http://swik.smugmug.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.us.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://upcoming. http://www.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. March/April 2006. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.com/wwwtool s/m/7172.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.

and Hannay.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. http://www. 11(4). J. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. B. 2005. T. April 2005. April 2005. D-Lib Magazine. and Huberman. http://www.adammathes.html Do not reproduce 179 .html Mote.hp.. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource.com.weblogged. T. HP Labs Report. 11(4).com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. InfoWorld.html Udell. Hammond. Jon (2004). Tags vs.pdf Gurber.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Tag mania sweeps the Web.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.ejournal. Lund. 2005. 2006.plasticbag. http://ideant.. http://dlib. http://www.sid19_gci1195182. M. D-Lib Magazine.http://www. August 20. http://www. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. July 20. Webblogg-ed. http://www. T.html Mathes.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.html Coates.00.isi. B. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. Shamus (2006).pdf Richardson. B. 2005. Sept. and Scott. http://ideant.techtarget. Ulises (2004).org.php Lund. Liz (2005). (2005). Tom (2005). Jon (2005). Andy (2006).org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. (2005). Many2Many. (2005).shtml Golder. S. 2. Nicholas (2004). Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata..pdf Mejias.corante. Will (2005).com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Ideant.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. http://www.org/teachersource/learning .com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. Jan. T.htm Hammond. http://tomgruber. http://www. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. InfoWorld. http://many.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. June 21.pbs.dlib. Keynote address. 2005.typepad.. May 5.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th.ht ml Mejias. http://searchcio. May 20. Plasticbag. 2. Online Paper. Hannay..infoworld. Flack.infoworld.educause. SearchCIO.html Lawley. The New School of Ontologies. Collaborative knowledge gardening. Trusted Sources. Online paper.html McGillicuddy. 2004. Social consequences of social tagging. http://www.ascc. 20.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. Aug.hpl. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. Ulises (2005).289142.com/originalCo ntent/0. (2005). http://www. Tom. 2005. 2006. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Adam (2004).typepad.

Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. etc. dating sites. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. etc.com. photo albums. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. online personals such as Match. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. social software. e-mail.” that is. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. etc. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. social networking sites such as Friendster.icio. Friendster. and the military. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. work. 2005). (2005) call an “architecture of participation. communities of practice.com. My first report in this series.us. family. photo sharing sites. reviewed social networking as an online content format. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration.al. tagging.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. shared links.classmates.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. etc.) Experience Sharing (blogs.) Relationship Management (Orkut. SMS. http://www. e-mail. shared link libraries such as del. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks.

com/introNetwor ks. Users share their writings and meet each other. and files and then make them available to others. in associations.codeville.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. http://www. http://www. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.xanga.livejournal.my-diary. upload photos. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. https://www.orkut.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.spartasocialnetworks. high schools.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.faceparty. as a blog. http://www. workplaces. http://www. http://www.freeopendiary.com/ucinet. List who a person knows and find out who others know.friendster.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.esnips. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.myspace. https://www. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. and geographic regions.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.analytictech.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.com/ Orkut .LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.html Last. documents.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. http://www. Share it with others if desired. http://www.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.” http://www. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 . NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. http://www.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.yahoo.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. and within “communities of interest. photos.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. http://www. http://platial. http://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.diaryland. which is then open to other readers.com/signin/index. http://www. Facebook has networks for colleges. http://www. http://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. audio.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.stumbleupon.netminer.com/ Live Journal .intronetworks.com/inflow3.com/reg/sample.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. video.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.orgnet. http://www.facebook.com Platial – A site to create social maps.linkedin.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. http://www. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. http://360.last.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. It costs several thousand dollars. or as a social network.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. http://www. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). http://www.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd. J. Naeve.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. > > http://www. as well as news. http://www-142. 2004.org/rfc/rfc2779.ieor. A. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.txt Knudsen. Cambridge.hig. http://www. http://laimuz.org/teleimmersio n. J.yahoo. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.no/at/nmm/enlund. http://www. The driver sits in a box. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://www2. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.pdf Knudsen. Network World.virtual-presence.percro. http://www.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 .) ACS 2000 Proceedings.pd f Fontana. http://get. Sept. On the Internet.net/ Jabber – An open.org Bibliography Dreyfus. Presence applications poised for takeoff.acs. London: Routledge. MA: MIT Press. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. C. and Windows.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. http://www. the CAVE.networkworld. L. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. Online memo.ietf. Nils (2000).org/teleimmersio n2. Ken (Ed.advanced.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.aim.“Simultaneous Presence. http://www. and Handberg. http://messenger.amazon.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. 44-49. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.ebuddy.kth. BSD.ibm. http://kmr. Hubert (2001).es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. John (2004). The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.live. (2002).php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. secure. http://www. http://www.sourceforge. A.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.) (2000). http://gaim. and Naeve. MacOS X.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.jabber. In Soldek. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.advanced.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. history. (2001). 6.unizar." http://www.html http://www.com/index.fakespace. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.html Goldberg. (Eds. Network Working Group (2000).. C. and Pejas.berkeley.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence.nada.

Germany: Hagen.info/downloads/TWR3lowres..amazon. Alberta.se/pdf/CID-206.650 64-0. Amsterdam: IOS Press.html Riva. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. http://www.modes.) (2003). Davide.swedishlearninglab.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1. Wired News.wired. M.pdf Udell. H. et al. September 24. In Hoyer.pdf Sponberg. M.nada. and Rusbridge. Ins and outs of teledildonics. and Handberg.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. and IJsselsteijn. G.. (2005).Learning.pdf Lynn. http://cid. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. S. (Eds. June 1. W. F. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. C. A. Jon (2005). InfoWorld. McHugh... http://www.org/docume nts/Sponberg. 28.. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. Calgary. (2001). (Eds.kth. Knudsen. Being There: Concepts. http://www.Banff.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . A.com/news/culture/0. Donnelly. Jan.infoworld. L. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. http://www. Dobreva.digicult. H. Abbott. D. 2002. January 2005.. Regina (2004).

PDAs. videocasting. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. according to Foroohar (2006). is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. In spite of the limitations. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. amateur and professional video cameras. Further. the largest Internet telephone service. 2002). Once video goes on the Internet. tlearning. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. A new version of television. in all its formats. telepresence. bandwidth becomes an issue. cell phones. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. However. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Do not reproduce 189 . BT.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. reviewed video as an online content format. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. television. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. As the following examples show. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. vodcasting. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Video blogging has become common. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. even a video plug-in for Skype. screencasting. Britain's largest telecom firm. IPTV. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. My first report in this series. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. video blogging. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. streaming video. 2005).

veotag.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. the Internet telephone service. http://www. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. http://www.org/ In 1999.com/pressrelea ses.com.org/ At YouTube. improves the satisfaction of the client.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.ourmedia.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.” Users can upload video clips for free.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.apple. voice. http://video. with IPTV. See the current selection at: http://video. and divide them into chapters or segments.on2.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. cellular.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. http://www.com/index_about. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.axor. low bandwidth video stream. It is still going strong at: http://www. See examples at: http://www. or students through a high quality.dmeurope. video. http://www. tag them. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://participatoryculture. http://www. http://www.google.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.rocketboom.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.concord.addictingclips. PDA.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. and maintains loyalty.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .com For an example of a video blog. http://www. See samples at: http://www.ar/iptv_en. the “triple play” of video.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://www.xstreamengine. partners. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. http://www.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. employees.com/default.medialogic.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.co.html Dialcom Networks. http://www.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. a three-minute videoblog.uk/index. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. http://vpb.bittorrent.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.dfilm. whether dial-up.youtube. desktop. http://www.com/nara.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.com/ BitTorrent.bittorrent. http://www. or set-top box.brightcove.rocketboom. http://www.google. see Rocketboom. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. and multimedia content to customers.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.

Dec.lsda. http://www.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.org/doing/media. P.htm Canali De Rossi. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.mil/index.com/article.elearnspace. The site already contains nearly 6.hpc. 1. http://www.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.pjb. Luigi (2005b). by alphabet.spider. D.veoh.uk/files/pdf/1443.com/webconf/video. video.com/seeds/index. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .masternewmedia.” http://www.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. read “Ten video sharing services compared.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video. Luigi (2005a).uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.masternewmedia.co.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.mefeedia.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.upenn. (2003). http://www. Wi-Max.iptv-industry. https://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.” Bibliography Atwere. and Bates. and by tags.ht m Canali De Rossi.elearningcentre. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.500 vlogs organized by popularity.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. http://www. t-learning Study .com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. Robin Good Blog.co.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.dvguru. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. For example. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://eduscapes.wharton.” http://www.edu/articl e. and visual resources. Pradeep (2004). Wi-Fi.masternewmedia.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.masternewmedia.com/ http://www.” http://knowledge. http://www.streamingmedia. www.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.thinkofit.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. termed “mobile television. 2005.org. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.educause.uk/tlearning/contents.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. Peter (2003). http://www.pdf Bardia. http://www.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. Beyond Wireless Broadband.navy. http://www.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. which users can submit. Online article at: http://www.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. but business models are fuzzy.” http://www.

Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Asensio.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. http://www. Rana (2005). NC: Duke University. June 6. Networking Pipeline.campustechnology.bcr. http://edmarketing. Manchester.ac. and Young.amazon. (Ed. 2. G.) (2002). http://www. (Eds. and Swenson. 2005.com/article.msnbc. http://www1.htm Curtis.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.). Matthew (2005). IBM Institute for Business Value study.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. L. http://www. The IPTV Revolution.masternewmedia. http://www. Brian (2002). Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. M. In Richards.. 2005.ibm. 7. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.pdf Klass. http://www2. 2005. P. pdf Nolle. Feb. Dec. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.pdf Thornhill.apple. C.php Taplin. Online paper. discussions and implications. Newsweek (International Ed.msn. Campus Technology. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. 8-9. Changing Channels.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . IAT Services White Paper. 417-419). 2005. University of Missouri.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). (2003).asp?id=7769 Meng. Robin Good Blog. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Brian (2005).com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. http://www-rcf.cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://www. Peter (2005).org/newdl/index. http://www.). Mon. http://www. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.XMax Goes The Distance. Durham.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. Tom (2005).org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.aace.networkingpipeline. 2005. S. (2005).pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.umist. Nov. April 26.usc. Jonathan.com/showAr ticle.

net/wiki2/index. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Videoconferencing is not required. and storytellers.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. exchange enabling.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.netofpeers. Exploration and discovery are enabled.equator. mixed reality. Near Eastern. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. desktop virtual reality. http://www1. Shape has developed the augurscope.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. simulation. http://www.ca/index.ubc.ac. http://solipsis. To do this. http://www. http://ancient.kahootz. and Religious Studies department.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. designers. inventors. http://www.shapedc. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . http://www.arts. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent. augmented virtuality. By using aspects of game play. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. and the aim of the virtual experience. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.cs. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. skin color. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. Creed. Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).org. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.org/highlights/augur. distributed virtual environments. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. interaction.futurelab.columbia.

C. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.org/index.epfl.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 .healthdatamanagement. Triantafillou.ac. 24. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. and Tsiatsos. For example.campustechnology. http://www. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.cti.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.spider..S. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. Hornig.pdf Bouras. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).coe.pdf Bouras.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.ahds.html Bibliography Bouras. http://vr.opencroquet. Philopoulos.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research .intuition-eunetwork. and Tsiatsos. A. T.activeworlds. 175-199. (2006).com/edu/index. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. http://www.ecu.ahds.secondlife.hpc. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. http://www. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.html The U.mil/index. Campus Technology. including education.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34. August 9.com http://www..gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7.informationinplace.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. T.cti. http://vrlab.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . http://www. C. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. http://ru6. Technology Area . http://www.navy..pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). http://ru6. Research report. > > http://www. (2001). http://www. Luigi (2004). maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. East Carolina University. http://ru6. https://www. G.cti.ac.edu/vrel.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.ergonetz. and Tsiatsos. T. 2006. C.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. > http://vads.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. V.com/article. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.ch/About/about_index. (2001).

M.. Conlan.Good Blog.00. Lister. Eva (2004).pdf McArdle. http://www. and Mangina.. Sept.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.edu.unibo. C.digicult. Guardian Unlimited.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld.10577. 2005.co. Michelle (2003).guardian. O.. A. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. http://education. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.unihannover. Learning Circuits. G. McHugh. Bertolotto. http://www. http://www.actapress. International Archives of Photogrammetry.com/Reference. (2005). 1.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.. C.html Liarokapis.1314022.pdf Ross. A.unt.uk/elearning/ story/0.com/PaperInfo.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. 1(2). and Sester.pdf Katterfeld.actapress. S. http://www. Stephen (2004).eng. (2004). Sept. Monahan. ISPRS.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. G. July 9-16.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.tcd. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen.. 2004. January 2005. (2005). http://www.htm Dickey. http://www. 28.pdf Do not reproduce 195 .actapress. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). 2004. Web Based Education 2005 conference.masternewmedia. Abbott.cs. M.com/PaperInfo. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Trend: augmented reality check. Ekaterina (2005). M. http://www. & Sester. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. and Hicks.. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.p df Prasolova-Førland. http://courseweb. No.oln. La Coruna/Spain. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Dec. http://www. Web-based Education 2005 conference. (2005).icc2005.elearning. 2004. J. Gerard (2002).. T.pdf Hoare. F. Donnelly.ikg. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.org/htmleng/english. M. F. and White. 27. http://www.monash.. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. 35.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. (2004). and Rusbridge. Vol. (Section on Virtual Reality). Istanbul. (2005).ie/Owen.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. Petridis. Proceedings. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Proceedings.. R. Dobreva. E. M. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools.htm Katterfeld. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.learningcircuits. and Seyedarabi.html Jones. D.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. http://www. P. P. M. (2002). 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. 2004. https://www.

visualization can represent alternative points of view.com/solutions. For an example.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site.inxight. data filtering. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. The educational advantages of visualization are many.dpc. allowing for innovation or new understandings. reviewed visualization as an online content format. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. et al. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. data mapping. On the other hand. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously.ontopia. http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. http://www.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. GIS.unifiedfield. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.semagix. http://www.net/omnigator/models/ index. geographical information systems. Finally.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. graphics. pattern recognition. Flash.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.ucar. and data rendering. cognitive collage. cybercartography. mapping. http://www. My first report in this series. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. dynamic displays.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. such as a blog.zoomclouds. 2003). 2005). images. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . which showcases their potential. see ZoomClouds.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. See some amazing demos at: http://www. location based systems.

uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . See: http://www.tmm. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. 2004. http://www. http://www. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.esrin. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. http://www.”’ BBC News. and display (without glasses!).com/VBody.cs.ddd.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.ul.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch. Sample the collection at: http://svs.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. Free demo at: http://www.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.ubc.html For a practical application of visualization.gsfc. http://www.nasa. VR. http://esapub. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. http://www.media.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.esa. April 7th.edu/index. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.gov/index.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.nixlog.typorganism.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.0 authoring system. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 . Be sure to explore the “zoo.medtropolis.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.nlm. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.” http://richie. http://www.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.lecielestbleu. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.com Web site in Tokyo. delivery.utexas.bham.” http://www. http://www.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. http://chatcircles.bbc. http://news.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.nih.idc.in English or Spanish. Museum Edition.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.alice.vrco.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. It has images of space and the earth from space.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.org/timeformations/ intro. a young graphic designer.co.mit.ac.marumushi. and visualization applications.edu/ Paul Nixon. See his list of resources at: http://www. http://www.medibolt.vista. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. http://www.skyscraper.

html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.xcelsius. retrieval.nlm.ontopia. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.com/omni.umd.org/about.com/solutions.com/cat/dashb oard/index. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://makingmaps.html XCelsius http://www.html Top Tier http://www. http://research.com/index. http://www. See this technology in action. http://www. one million items.com WorkPlace http://www.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.semagix. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.com/applicati on. http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.at: http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. for example.unifiedfield.net/omnigator/models/ index. See their tool set and examples of their work.cs.htm How do users visualize very large data sets. anatomically detailed.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com CenterView http://www.vrvis.corda.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.amnh.microsoft.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.vicodi. http://www.nih.cs. http://www.com/index.edu/postcartoaag06.at/home.ibm.owu.spotfire. in the U. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.indiana. http://www. and information presentation.feedtank.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.S.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.idashboards.arcscience.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.ambientdevices. http://clustrmaps. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.gfdl.noaa.mccrackendesign.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.

http://www.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. Strater. http://www.musanim.timemap. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.microsoft. http://www. including the following: Voxler.esri.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. and rendering. networks.visualanalytics.okino.goes far beyond static JPG map images.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. Grapher.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.mit. for 3-D modeling. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. associations. animation.mapinfo. and.” http://www. http://www. http://www. many of which are unique. http://www.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.visualthesaurus.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. and rendering software.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.daz3d.golden. They have worked with the U. Carrara.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.oziexplorer. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. trends. Clicking a related term extends the process.accurender.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.5-D modeling and rendering software.formz.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. MapViewer. for 2-D and 3-D graphing. http://www.com Pixologic is 2. modeling.com/mam/mam.pixologic.com/vc/index.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. and anomalies in data.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. http://www.advizorsolutions. for thematic and analytical mapping.intergraph. http://www. http://www. http://www. Try a demo at: http://www. http://tangible. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. http://www.visualcomplexity.S. for 3-D landscaping and animation.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. for 3-D data visualization. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.softill. Didger. http://www. http://www.media.topozone. http://www. http://research. including the following: Bryce. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.

agocg.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www.pdf Bergmann.sdsu.infovis. http://coe.cs. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.) (1999).htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. J.com/ http://www.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.mit. K. is available online. 14(1). EXYSTENCE network.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.com/ Bibliography Alpert. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.edu/research/r esearch.ubc.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.topicmap.media. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. http://www. > > http://acg. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. both visualization companies. Paier. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. http://www. Sherman (2003).ualbert a.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets..pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www..edu/eet/ Ell. > http://www.edu/index. together with their estimated depth of influence. (Eds.iu.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. http://www.gatech.media.net/printRec. B.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. les cartes. http://acg. and Woodill. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.editlib.org/index.fakespace.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. Jacques (1967).topicmaps. Working Paper. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. 31-49 http://www.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. He finished his PhD.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill. (2003). and Shneiderman. G.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. and Resetarits.edwardtufte.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. Mackinlay.mit. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.. les réseaux.pdf Bertin. http://www.liveplasma. J.complexityscience. http://www. > > http://www.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.masternewmedia. Paris: La Haye. Jacques (1983).gvu.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.gatech.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. J. M. Following are two: > > http://graphics. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. A.ac. Madison: University of Wisconsin.” http://vis.complexityandeducation. P. http://www.vrco. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. The Semiology of Graphics. Proceedings.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. http://www.stanford.gvu.

DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. P. EDUCAUSE Review.asp?id=11222 Metros. (2005). 2005..html Ross.aace.psycho.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Yvonne (1996). http://nivea. Spence. http://www.digicult. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. 17-30. D. http://createdrealities. http://itdl. 3(1). and Woolsey. Luca (2003). M. (2006). January 2005.fr/CanJ/CanJ. (2005). http://www. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Information Visualization. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638. available online at http://www.amazon. 46: 461-488.istituti. Arns. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. A. and Bertoline.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell.educause.. pp.editlib.ht m O'Regan. 42. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.com/article. Luca (2005). 2. (2005).html Madhavan. Reading.. S. Mike and Rogers.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.. Vol.siggraph.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. NC: Duke University. K. http://www. June 1. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. England: AddisonWesley. Brent (2006). http://www. http://www. Canadian Journal of Psychology. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization..pdf Goldfarb. S. (2001). International Journal on E-Learning. G. Theresa (1998). K. 16(4).org/dl/index. http://www. 4(1). MA: Addison Wesley Longman. McHugh.amazon. eLearning Developers’ Journal.slis. 41(3). Ruth (2003). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.amazon. Lugano. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. B. http://www. 329-351.elearningguild. Vol. Abbott.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Switzerland: University of Lugano.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. Harlow.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. J. (1992).html Rhyne. (1998). 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.campustechnology.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.org/index.pdf Scaife.usilu. 3. J. Siggraph. and Pagalthivarthi. No. Robert. M. (2005). (Section on Visualization).ac. K.asp Mittal. A. 69-82. and Knezek. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.indiana. 45. A.com/articles/abs tracts/index.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. L.cfm/files/pape r_5994. http://www.com/publications. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.univparis5. C. Campus Technology. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. Morales. pp. No.agocg. Donnelly. Dobreva. Brian (2002). and Rusbridge. G.. Educational Media International.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . 4th Edition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. August. 185–213 http://www. http://www. Durham. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. May/June.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. (2004). http://www.K.pdf Shneiderman. August 11. http://www. September. 1-34.

M. evidence and narrative. Computers. Matt (2002).596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. 2nd Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.org/threshold Tufte. Digital Information Graphics. Envisioning Information. From multimedia to multisensory education. http://www. Visualization.edwardtufte.amazon. http://www. Cheshire.com/tufte/index Tufte.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Press. Edward (2001). Fall.amazon. CT: Graphics Press. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Threshold.com/tufte/index Tufte. http://www. Edward (1997). Visual Explanations: images and quantities. David (2002). http://www.ciconline. Colin. Edward (1990). (2004).E.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. Information Visualization: perception for design.edwardtufte. http://www. CT: Graphics Press. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.amazon. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www. Sharpe. http://www.com/tufte/index Ware. Cheshire.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Cheshire. 2nd Ed.edwardtufte. David (2005).

Internet telephony.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. http://www. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.html Do not reproduce 203 . In the near future. headphones or speakers.jajah.voipreview.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. http://www.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. http://www.infoworld.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. http://www.ac.susx.weblogsinc. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. http://www. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. requiring an Internet hookup. and a microphone. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.elearningcentre. IEEE Spectrum Online. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. Internet telephony is relatively simple. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. 1996).org Bibliography Cherry. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.ieee.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Steven (2005). in remote communities. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.skype.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. http://www.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. Geraldine (2005). Join the discussion at: http://voip.cogs. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. March 2005. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. but it is rapidly improving.avaya. communications tools. http://www.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.spectrum.co. http://www.envisioninc.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Using VoIP. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.

Robert (2005)..pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.pdf Ottoson. S.ieee. http://www. 9(3).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .msu.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. and O’Droma.org/xpl/freeabs_all. Mobile distributed e-learning center. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. (2005). A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. September. http://llt. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. Stojanov. Meredith (1996).Ganchev. Language Learning and Technology.nald. M. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. http://ieeexplore. I. 9-12.

managing. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. Do not reproduce 205 . Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.cmu. 6. In January 2006. http://killer. training to do their jobs. It is unrestrictive to the user 3.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.co. The entire system. It is observable by the user 4. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. training.com/Home/Home.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.pdf http://www. including batteries.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. ubiquitous computing > http://www.sportbrain.hubuska.edu/design/VuMan.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. and other organizations involved in inspecting. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. or repairing complex machines.learnexact.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.edu/design/Ion. weighs less than three pounds. http://www. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. 1998): 1. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. including wearable computing.checkpointelearning.ices. http://www. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. http://news.cmu. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.bbc.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. http://wearables. It is controllable by the user 5. Selected Examples In Europe. like a wristband or jewelry.cs. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. http://killer. the automotive industry. For example.bris. anytime. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. especially for comercial airlines.ac.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.ices.

wired.toronto. Steve (1998). S.media. See: > > > http://genesis.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.eecg. http://www.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. http://www. H. March 24. Fairfax. http://about. 1. (2002).cs. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .com/read_arti cle. Dec. http://www.org/icwckeynote.htm Mann. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. and Levene.704 81-0.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. http://www. Wired News.edu/research/wear ables/index. Mmoma (2006).eecg. VA. Wearable computers that you can slip into.org is a rich source of references.amazon. Olga (2005).edu/ http://wearcam. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.ethz.ht ml http://www.ac.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. M.bham. 2004.http://www. March 8.uk/index.technologyreview.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.eyetap. What you’ll wear in 10 years.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.nasa. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.businessweek. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.ac. (2003). (2004). S. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.uoregon.org/index. and Niedzviecki.jisc.toronto. http://wearcam.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. Technology Review (Online). Simson (2004). http://www.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.org/index_graphical. Business Week Online. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. http://www. http://isd.wearable.” including computers built into underwear. http://www. and Lupisella. 2005.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.com/news/culture/0. Wearable Computing for the Commons. May 12-13.uk/wear-it http://www.html The design of “smart clothing.gsfc. especially in the area of wearable cameras.wired. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.mit.704 81-0. http://www.html Garfinkel.eee. 2006.com/news/culture/0. Toronto: Anchor Books.pdf Kharif. ICWC98. M. C.

The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Bloglet http://www.net/dl.com/ 5. Here is a list of 48: 1. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.org/Aggie. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future.brightcove. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. TV guides. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. CDs. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.html 6. and Atom is the second. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator.awasu. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.com/ 4.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. BlogLines http://www. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. basic text format for quick review. podcasts. Awasu http://www.html 2.0 format). Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one.attensa. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. listings of the latest books.com 9.com/ampheta desk 3. PDAs. Attensa http://www.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds.com/ 7. Aggie http://bitworking. this method of finding out what is new is spam free.com/ 8. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. and laptops. social bookmarking.disobey. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). Amphetadesk http://www. job searches. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. To read content from a Web feed.bloglines. including cell phones.bloglet. each with its own features. When changes are made to a Web site. and electronics.” as its content is changed by the author.com/productBlog Express. blogs. and course offerings. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). photo collections.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. > For learners and teachers. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Brightcove http://www. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. feeds. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.

com/rss/ 39.org/ 37.com 14.com/myrssto olbar.feedburner.hexamail.com/ 16.co. Feed-Directory http://www.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.feedster. Sage http://sage.http://www.blogplanet. feedbeep http://feedbeep. FeedForAll http://www.protopage.rss-to-javascript.com/ 34. My RSS Toolbar http://www.pluck. OnFolio http://www. Gregarius http://gregarius. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.php.sharpreader.html 27.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877. PubSub http://www.com/ 22.feedzilla.com/ 42.com/ 25.com/ 15. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ 17. NewsIsFree http://www.sh tml 41.10. Feedster http://www. To have a blog aggregated.com/ 46.net/ 24.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35.mozilla.rssbandit.com/today/ 36.feedpublish.com 40. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.uk/rssreader / 23.com/v2 33. FeedBurner http://www. Newsgator http://www. see: http://www.feed-directory.com/feedscout. Syndirella http://yole.com/ 31.ht ml 20.newsisfree.downes. Topix http://www.videora. Rojo http://www. StepNewz http://www. Pluck http://www.bytescout. RSS2Exchange http://www.com/ 29.ca/edurss02.rsscalendar.feedreader. FeedPublish http://www.shtml 11.com/ For a list of more aggregators.somee.com/ 21. Protopage http://www. including listings for various electronic devices.rssreader.feedroll. FeedReader http://www.U.topix.feedforall. Reader http://www.com/ 43. Videora http://www. RSSCalendar http://www. SharpReader http://www.com/thunderbir d/ 48.projectdu.net/index.hebig.2 http://www.newsgator.onfolio.rssreader. FeedScout http://bytescout.com/ 13.puremis.net/ 45. RSSReader http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. Thunderbird http://www.learningfeeds.com 32. RSS Orbit http://www. Project D. RSS Software http://www.pubsub.com/rss2exc hange/ 38. Edu_RSS 0.net/ 26.com/ 30. Feedtier http://feedtier. Feedroll .com 28.rojo. LearningFeeds http://www.fuzzyd.com/ 19.h tm 12. Fuzzy Duck http://www. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.org/ 44. EaZy RSS reader http://www.mozdev.com 18.

http://www. a blog by Alan Levine. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.com/wiki/doku.htm David. Online paper. and Norman. June 2004.Possible Future Evolution. Robin Good Blog.vccs. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. University of North Carolina.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. RSS could transform online communications. Dan (2004).maricopa. 1. http://technologysource. Eva (2004).cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes.ca/edu_rss.ubc.downes. Aug. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. http://www.pdf Canali De Rossi.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. http://www. http://www. RSS: the next killer app for education. Read his article written specifically for educators.1. Learning Circuits. 3.contentious. http://www. Brian Lamb. http://www.mcli. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://www.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.maricopa. 2004.ca/files/RSS_Educ.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. Version 1. 31.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. BC. maintains a long list of RSS resources.dist.dist.elearning. and D’Arcy Norman.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. Vancouver.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. eSchool News. Stephen (2002). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. Brian Lamb. http://www. eLearning Developers’ Journal. July/August 2003.htm Harrsch.masternewmedia. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. Luigi (2004). May 2004.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. B. http://www.eschoolnews. 2003. http://www. http://timyang. http://www.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.com/news/showS tory..pdf Gannett.ca/files/RSS_Educ. http://www.elearningguild.teachinghacks.usatoday.htm Levine.ca/cgibin/wiki.teachinghacks.learningcircuits.downes.php 2003.wcc. May 19. http://www. 5-8.downes. http://careo. Aug. Bill (2003). RSS: a learning technology.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. Aug. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.htm D’Sousa. D. Online paper. http://www.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. 2004.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. 2005. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Stephen (2004). Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. Anh (2005). Do not reproduce 209 . RSS Ideas for Educators. (2003). Mary (2003). Oct. A. Lamb. The Technology Source Archives. Learning Circuits.mcli.htm Downes. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x.lo. Quentin (2006).pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.learningcircuits. USA Today (online). RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.redjupiter.

O’Reilly Network.blogspot.oreilly. MediaThink White Paper.html Samuel. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).Levine. T. Jon (2005). http://www.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.oreillynet. July 7. 2005. (2006). http://www. and Webb. Otherwise Engaged.html MediaThink (2004).alexandrasamuel. Alexandra (2005). June 18. March 23. 2005.xml. The Shifted Librarian.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. http://www. Using RSS for data integration.infoworld. 13.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Mihai (2006).pdf Parparita. 2005. Aug.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . Shelly (2005). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. 2006.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.html?page=1 Udell. Sept. http://www. Namespaced extensions in feeds. InfoWorld.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Google Reader Blog. 3.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.theshiftedlibrarian.mediathink. http://www. M. http://www. http://googlereader.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.html Powers. 2006. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Jenny (2005). RSS: the next big thing online.

” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. Do not reproduce 211 . 3.usemod.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. http://www. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. http://wikipedia. My first report in this series.000 articles in English in Wikipedia.usemod. it is important to have several contributors. Anyone can add to it.com/cgibin/wiki.gilbane.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.tikiwiki. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.org/index.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. See the progress at: http://edu.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. custom permissions. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.schtuff. With some basic instructions. There are now over 1. http://www. 2. can be used by a team for joint writing.com/artpdf/GR12. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. For wikis to work. http://www.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. http://www.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. http://www. time-less. Content is ego-less.net/features. http://www. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.” Essentially.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. the software used to run Wikipedia. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. an image gallery.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.sourceforge. and projects. approaches.org/tiki-index.10. and never finished. is available for other applications.com/cgibin/mb. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. features.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.sourcewatch.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.300.wikipedia. RSS. and email notification. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.seedwiki. 2005). http://www. 4.

Swiki. http://weblog. http://www. http://radio.ubc. First Monday.com/ Jon Udell.48. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.shtml Brian Lamb. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. http://careo. L.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. Perth.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.” http://tlc. R. as well as an analysis of how they work.ascilite. Raitman.elearning. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. 5-8.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. http://flosse. 8(12).jot. http://www.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. http://kairosnews.Weblogs. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.socialtext.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.” http://writingwiki.infotoday.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. His article.co. (2004).com/udell/gems/u mlaut.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16.com/wwwtools/m/25242. is provided by David Mattison. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Teaching and learning online with wikis.html Ciffolilli. http://m. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. including wikis. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.nu’s first nine months in service.elearningcentre. http://www. Operation of a Large Scale.dicole. Australia. http://whiplash. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. Andrea (2003). http://www. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.html Bibliography Aronsson. http://www.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. (2002).org. including a section on wiki tools. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. A free trial is available. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Dec. that she updates regularly..different. http://www. Twiki.org has lots of resources on wikis.com/ WritingWiki.fasfind.infoworld.pbwiki.se/wikipaper.wikibooks.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. and Zhou. http://64.ucalgary. http://en. N. http://www.ikiw. Dec.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis. Phantom authority.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.71.learningwiki. http://aronsson. “Quickiwiki. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . W.html Augar.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.” is a rich source of information on wikis. of the University of British Columbia.

Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. 2006. and Rudolph. Online article. http://www.http://firstmonday. David (2003). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. Swiki. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. 2005.infotoday.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). http://www.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.html Wood..oreillynet.html Stafford. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Lauren (2005). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.com/article2/0. Wiki pedagogy.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452..edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. Nov.html Tomkin.ariadne.4149. 19. http://www. Sept. Emma (2005). Why Wikis Work Not. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. 2. Jon (2004).asp Schmitt. 12(10).Oct. InfoWorld. Making the case for a wiki.amazon. July 7. Online paper.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.educause. S. http://www. and Webb. M. http://www. O’Reilly Network.pdf Fountain.com/artpdf/GR12. UniversityWiki. Online article. Cossarin. (2006). April 2003.. April 2004. Educause Review. 2004. Renée (2005). International Journal of Information Ethics. http://www. David (2004). Oct.uk/issue42/ Udell.pdf Do not reproduce 213 .pdf Leuf. July. M. (2004). http://Weblog. 36-48.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Richard (2003).pdf Kulisz.. http://www. Quickiwiki.pcmag. Neil (2003).10. Online article at PCMag.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.com. Brian (2004).org/content/v5.shtml Rubenking.educause. L.1/technot e_xxvii.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. J. W. T. http://www.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. Anja (2004). Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Profetic: dossiers pratiques.zkm.irrodl.14 02872.00. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. The wiki way.usemod. January. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Twiki. Ariadne. Issue 42. Searcher. http://container.com/cgibin/mb. Wiki Tools. http://c2. Online article at: http://www. (2001). Clark. Bo & Cunnin.profetic.ac.infoworld. http://gilbane.

adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . CD-ROMS. which. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. floppy disks. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. in turn. After a product has been successfully launched. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which can then lead to inventions. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. However. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems.

Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. peak. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. while others will last for decades. Ontologies. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. this approach is now rapidly changing. and decline. or may never become commercially viable. For a variety of reasons. Further. to the complex.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. some will never leave the development stage. However. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. This is due. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . both in classrooms and online. in part. in both formal and informal settings. change itself seems to be inevitable. Some will die quickly. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. mature. 2003). because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. But not all technologies will travel this road. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. The technology of e-learning. ascend the curve. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. video games. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. means that they actually think differently. In any field. The experience of younger learners with television. and computers. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago.

the computer. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. sex. In North America. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. huge data wall displays. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. However. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. For example. In approaching electronic educational media. 1994). we will see the restructuring of education and training. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. mobile phones. mind-altering drugs. 28). True interactivity is based on feedback loops. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. television. touch and taste. With feedback. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. Within the next five years. The children of the baby boomers.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. surprise. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. In contrast. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. movie theaters. Generally. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. video games. wearable computers. To keep our attention. For the older generation. It works for a time. results in an action by the other participant. Their children. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. gaming consoles. The speed of change increases with each passing year. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. until we become habituated. the learner. or violence is needed to keep our attention. Once we master the art of reading. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. ecological disasters. commercials.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. digitization of smell. born in the 1970s. in a back-and-forth exchange. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. global warming. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. libraries. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. p. generally went to work earlier. the space race. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. and personal digital assistants.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. and digital ink and electronic paper. the baby boomers. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. the civil rights movement.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research .schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. terrorism. whereby the action of one participant. 2002. that is all about to change. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. But they are usually disap-pointed. Because of this. designers of Sesame Street. Then even more movement.

The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option).com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. portfolios. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.amazon. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. James (1994). Two hundred years ago. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition.com Bibliography Christensen. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. Marc. http://www. http://www. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. May 2006. Bob (2006). Texas. http://www. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . New York: McGraw-Hill.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.amazon. Gary (2006). the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. Guides are optional. Clayton (1997). New York: Collins. creative products. http://www. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. Dallas.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. http://www. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. Likewise. Digital Game-based Learning. Rushkoff. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. At the individual level. it will be a giant collaborative workspace.amazon. http://www. shortly. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler.amazon.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (2001). you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.operitel.amazon. technologies and services for the next 5 years. and the mapping of everything. Douglas (2005). In the next wave.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.

Den Dolech 2 P.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. Manuel I.de/link/affective_port al. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.51.se/~muse/hom e.umu. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.ac.nngroup. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.mit.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 3400 Hillview Avenue. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .bham.unige. Palo Alto.org/ AiLive Inc.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.agentlink.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.myself-proj. Building 5.informatik.auburn. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal . CA 94304 USA http://www. New York.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. 1515 Broadway.ailive. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. D.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. L69 7ZF.bartneck. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.media. Marc Schröder. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . 17th Floor.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. UK http://www.O.com/ WEBIST Av. Box 513. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.webist.Portugal Tel.cs. 27A 2º esq.

DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.adobe. Bloomington. Burlington.redwoodelearning.O.csc. W Toronto. O. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. #1910.animats.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. Box 527. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.codebaby. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. L69 7ZF.au/index. Huntsville.apple. Edmonton.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.indiana.liv.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.com/ Apple Computer. Inc. Box 5200. 10004-104 Avenue. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.ascension-tech. P. Suite 206 Boulder. Box 2124 Menlo Park.org.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.O.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.extempo.informatics.rit.com Alchemy Mindworks P. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.edu Extempo Systems.computer. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St.ascilite.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Washington.isi. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. N. Inc.animationfactory.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Secretariat.W. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.ac.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.educause.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.mindworkshop. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.

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edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.cis.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.cmu. Suite 360 San Mateo. West Montreal.licef. CA . Calgary.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. 100 Sherbrooke St. u.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.edu Quantum Simulations. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.W. Suite 1500 Montreal.eden-online.stottlerhenke.unisa.wpi.teluq. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.ca/eng/inde x.uquebec.edu. Egry J.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Inc. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.org/eden.umuc. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. Chantilly.brainbench. 1.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.com Do not reproduce 221 . East Adelphi.gemini.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.cs. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. Calgary.virtuelage. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.cs. Suite K. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.. Alberta.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.com/index.iit.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.it.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.usyd.edu.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.ucalgary.W.enel.ke-corp.cs.10th Street S.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. H-1111 Budapest.

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thinkingcap. Ste 202 Encinitas.turbodemo.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.com DA Group The Lighthouse. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. Suite 200 Tampa.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. 10004-104 Avenue. CA 92101 USA http://www.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.hunterstone.. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. Germany Tel.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W. Inc. Gandy Blvd.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd..syberworks. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.com/products/study mate.funeducation. 4. SC.sensalearning.suddenlysmart.percepsys. 323 Newbury Street Boston. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .83 01 616 http://www.xplana.4259 Fax: (760) 635. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.seminar.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. Inc. +49(0)721. Edmonton.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. Suite 1550 San Jose.5709 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.maxit.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.co.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. Redmond.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. #1910. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.time4you. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. 76133 Karlsruhe. 55 South Market St.respondus.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com Trainersoft FunEducation.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.qarbon.com/coursegen.codebaby. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.toolbook.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.

TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.qelix. P.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.co.cramersweeney. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.html Knowledge Environments.active-learning-site. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Inc.uk/chatbots.opera. Dale Mabry Hwy.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. Moseley.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. B13 9SG. 219 Tampa.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. CA 94608 USA http://www.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.mozilla. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.vcom3d..knowledgeenvironments.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.co. 6th Flr. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Suite 260 Orlando. Suite 900 Austin. Birmingham. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls..tmmy.com/v2/index.telsim. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. W Toronto.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.daden. USA http://www. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.oddcast.O.wavemarket. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.blogburst. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. Nesbit Rd.redwoodelearning.com GTCO CalComp. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. Mumbai 10.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Inc. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Mazgaon. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. Inc.. Inc. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 .htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.O.flock.com WaveMarket. INDIA. Ste. Mary Apts.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. 11th Floor New York..omnigroup.com Moorestown.

Ontario. Inc.telnetz.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.bantu. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.0162 http://www. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. 6th Floor New York.qwizdom.pearsoned. Suite# 401.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.944. Amherst. Inc. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.inteam. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Pleasant St.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. Pittsford. NJ . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Orlando. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 12617 Meridian E.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. 1192 East Draper Parkway. Jospeh Street.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Inc. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.gtcocalcomp. Puyallup.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.backpackit. Suite 101E Falls Church.avecomm. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. Suite 103 Toronto. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.brevient.bluetie.adobe. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.com 404 Fifth Avenue.aspx Qwizdom.brightidea.umass.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Suite 522.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor.optiontechnologies.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research .com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Somerset.batipi.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.smartroom.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue.Columbia.com Brightidea. Inc.com.com BlueTie. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.edu Batipi 11 St.saba.caucus. #205 Pasadena. Inc.physics. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. Draper. SW.com Centra c/o Saba.

centraldesktop. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.same-page. 57th Street Gainesville.engineering.html Citrix Systems. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. Sanibel FL. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. San Jose.com Digi-Net Technologies. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www..communityzero.digite. Lauderdale. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Suite 600 Ottawa. Inc.cisco. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.W.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Inc. 170 West Tasman Dr.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.edufolio.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. 6th Floor San Francisco.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. 232 http://www.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St.collaborationloop.com Digité. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. 1034 N. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Ontario.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.convenos. Suite 630 McLean.elluminate. Inc.com Cisco Systems.com Engineering.digi-net. 82 Pioneer Way.communiqueconferencing.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.courseforum. Suite 950 Portland. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.emc. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .comotivsystems. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. 795 Folsom Street. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.com LLP PO Box 325.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.epam-pmc. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Inc.citrix.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.

com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Inc.gotomeeting.novell.forumone.horizonwimba.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com Groupwise c/o Novell. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Inc.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Suite 500 Markham.4517 http://www.net Groove Networks. Inc.com GoToMeeting. #115 Rockville. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.V.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.hyperoffice.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .net Global School Net 132 N.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. 395 Encinitas. El Camino Real.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.grapevinesoftware.com Glance Networks.gordano.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.exactamerica.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. ON.com c/o Citrix Systems. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.hp.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.groupsupport. Ste.facilitate.ezmeeting. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.net GroupSupport. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.hotcomm. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.genesys.glance.com B.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. Suite 2300 New York.flypaper.globalschoolnet.groove. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. Clevedon. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.

htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.iceweb. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.interwoven.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.near-time. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.com Near-Time. 11th floor New York. 1289 N.meetingone.onproject. Suite 300 Torrance.com Do not reproduce 233 . AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.ibm. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.microsoft.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 6500 Woburn. Inc. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.intralinks. Fordham Blvd. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.mayeticvillage.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.ivocalize. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.jdhtech. Sunnyvale.mitre. Inc. 3 Wing Drive. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.liveoffice.netspoke. 25 First Street. 44th St..http://www03.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.interwise.com Interwise.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson. Suite 1401 Denver.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Suite #150 Herndon. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.mspx LiveOffice.org/tools. Phoenix. Suite 412 Cambridge. Inc.com onProject. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.inquesttechnologies.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.linktivity.ilinc.

peoplecube. Suite 210 Maynard.com Raindance Communications. Box 3325 York.cyber-grad.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.Adyar Chennai. Harbor.seldensystems. Inc. New No.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. Inc.q2learning. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.opentext.nagarro. 1175 58th Avenue. Suite B.projectdox. Suite 440 San Jose. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.com RADVISION Inc.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. 17-17 State Highway 208. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.ht ml Parlano 10 S. 51.performancesolutionstech. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.microsoft.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. Riverside Plaza. 3679 Concord Road.com Photon Infotech Inc. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.opmcreator. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com Selden Integrated Systems.raindance.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.com/collabsuite/index.radvision. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.parlano. 35. Suite 1450 Chicago.sitescape.photoninfotech. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. P. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.sharemethods.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Suite 445 Scottsdale. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Inc. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.project-open.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Ste 275 Mill Valley. Suite 200 Greeley.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.oracle. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.O. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Cactus Rd. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.

Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.vignette.backpackit. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. Inc. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.net WebEx Communications.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. Suite 1050 Vancouver.com/groupware/in dex. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.webtrain.webcrossing.com/content/default.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. Kierland Blvd.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.O.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. Suite 100 Austin.vodium.webasyst.. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.stalker. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com Teamware P. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.teamdynamix. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.webofficepoint.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.viack.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.tacit. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www. Canada http://www. Suite 950 Washington. P.webex. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.trichys. Inc.teamspace.tomoye. Ontario M2N 6H8. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.O.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.axista. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.com Web Crossing.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.usabilityfirst.com Do not reproduce 235 .wave3software.sumtotalsystems. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.teamware. Suite 810 Toronto.txl Viack 14811 N.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

Do not reproduce

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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wizdom.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. Suite 2200 Chicago.technomedia.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.ca Do not reproduce 241 .ssaglobal. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. Glebe Road. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.Suite 350 Toronto. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.outstart.sap.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Fifth Floor Montreal. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.oracle.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. Suite 1280 San Francisco. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Suite 700 Arlington. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.maxit.isnewmedia.com TEDS Inc. 500 West Madison.mgen.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. Suite 260 Foxborough. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. LTD 671 N.com. Chantilly.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. Inc.oracle. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. 550 Queen St.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.plateau.meridianksi. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.teralearn. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Inc.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.syntrio.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. East .sselearn. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. Louis.com mGen Enterprise mGen.saba. West. St.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.teds. Inc.

net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. 122 West Way. Box 9752 Boulder.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.risc-inc.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 17041 El Camino Real.com Tracker.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 2280 St.vuepoint. Suite 200 Ottawa. Inc. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 4 Expressway Plaza. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Victoria. Suite 101 Houston. Suite # 105 Columbia.O.cdlib.gyrus. Inc. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.xstreamsoftware.info/index.ttg-inc.arizona. NY. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 240 Bay Street.wbtsystems. Inc.xtention.vbtrain.edutools. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. Laurent Blvd.fldata.uwm.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. Ontario.trainingpartner.avilar. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. 4th Floor Oakland. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. Inc.sumtotalsystems.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.sir.

MS 44. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.eoscenter.merlot.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.ca ENC Learning Inc.edu.com Do not reproduce 243 .4464 Markham Street Victoria.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. Norton Road.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.edu/DesktopDefault. Box 3000 Boulder.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. Hertfordshire. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.esri.cf m ESRI Suite 300.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.maricopa. ETRAC.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. SG1 2JY.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.mcli.dist. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. CT 06459 USA http://www.llearn.O. Box 1892.unsw. 5151 East Broadway.geocomm. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.plos.lrc3.netera.lolaexchange. Houston. Suite 1600 Tucson. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.lornet. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. Stevenage. Fondren Library.rice.goenc. Sterling Court. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.O.clarklabs.cadcorp.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. Suite 3100 San Francisco.thegateway. P.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. AZ.com/gis4mt/index.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.org/eng/scientifiques. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. AZ 85250 USA http://www. Rice University.

O. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Austria http://www.smm.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. Dept.org/ Spotlight Mobile. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.edu PanGo Networks. P. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.mapinfo. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .edu. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. PMB #112 Lake Mary. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.O.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.stockholmchallenge.bham. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.ac. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.pangonetworks.berkeley. 959 Concord Street. Inc. of Geography. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .org/aitopics/html/natlang. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.com Metadata. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.imsglobal.intergraph. Inc.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.fi/english/page.cetis.knowledgepulse.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.aaai.cancore. html ELSNET Trans 10. Suite 100 Framingham. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.5372. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.asp?path= 500. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.ac.eee.uk/handler/defaul t. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.mobilearn.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. Suite 501 Portland.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.

elsnet.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.itc.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.ac. NY. Suite 300.lockss.elena-project. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.seti. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 1st Floor A . 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. Deane Rd. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.groove.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.upenn.internet2. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.com MoveDigital. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.stockholmchallenge. Whisman Road Mountain View. Italy http://tcc.org/site/pp.com Groove Networks. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.ldc.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 10010 USA http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.cetis. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Inc. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.net internet2. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.llearn. PA. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Inc.overnet.sun.lexxe. 19104-2653.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Inc.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.asianart. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.movedigital. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.it Victoria.advancedreality.

cyberu.com Presentations.com ProQuest 789 E. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.saba. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Suite 600 Alpharetta.elluminate.worldwidelearn. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.ca Slate Hill. 3333 http://www.proquest. NE Calgary. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.macromedia.microsoft.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.com Teachnology. Box 172 1039 . Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.elementk.com/presentatio ns/index.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. New York 10973 USA http://www.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.teach-nology. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.presentations.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Ninth St.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. 3016 5th Ave.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.O.17th Avenue SW Calgary. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.virtualmuseum.com Portals CyberU.333. Eisenhower Parkway P. Alberta.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.lsc.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.genesys. 3º 08021 Barcelona. 15-4-A Gatineau.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.mit.elearningeuropa. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.rmv. Minneapolis. Suite 225 Santa Monica. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.apreso.org Macromedia. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. Inc.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Alberta.executrain.saba. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.trainingregistry.6526 http://www.com 50 S.

com Raptivity P.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Inc. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.ri. Union St.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.scate.active-robots.ed.ams. D.botball. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Box 2827. Lindsey Bldg.evolution. Radstock Somerset. Pasadena.euron. Henrik I Christensen.irc.readygo. Michigan. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.articulate. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.ac.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.whmsi.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.aad.raptivity.html Norman.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. CA 94040. SWEDEN.hp. Inc. Suite B Orion. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Chilcompton. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.osaka-u. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.ife.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. SE-100 44 Stockholm.com/halo/index.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.rec..jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.cmu. 130 W.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.atr. Centre for Autonmous Systems. O.org Evolution Robotics.nasa.com ReadyGo Inc. Redmond.generalrobotics.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Ste. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.org Euron c/o Prof.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.eng.gov. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.

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NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. Ltd.shadows. Suite 125 San Diego.friendster. Thorofare.spurl. WA 98055 USA http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Inc.analytictech.com Social Bookmarking del..com Spurl ehf. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.furl.socialtext. Inc.com FURL c/o LookSmart. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.. Box 920089 Needham.edu/index. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www.netscape.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. 655 High Street Palo Alto. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.eu Rojo Networks. Suite 900 Austin.networkltd.gnolia. Morton Street.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. CA. 101 Wolf Drive.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.rojo. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. 2001 Lind Ave. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.tagzania.icio. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. Menlo Park.us Eventful c/o EVDB.checkpointsystems.com Friendster.icio. SW. Inc.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research . 795 Folsom St. Suite 500 Renton. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. CA 94089 USA http://del.O.. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.iu.zvents. Suite 224 Bloomington. Inc.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Classmates Online.com/ mag. Inc.classmates.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.

Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.O.fakespace. VA 23461-1924 https://www. 4th Floor Marshalltown.dfilm. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .net Sparta Social Networks.1011 CM Amsterdam.bittorrent. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. CA 92121 USA http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.spartasocialnetworks.navy.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.activeworlds. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .hpc. Cupertino.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.com Do not reproduce 253 .O.org Veoh Networks. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.jabber.veoh.com Jabber Software Foundation P. 7220 Trade Street.html Jabber Software Foundation P. Church Street.advanced.org.xstreamengine.spider. Inc.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.hp.com Brightcove. Inc.jabber. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.brightcove.org Fakespace 11 E. New York. Box 1641 Denver.percro.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. Box 1641 Denver.sociosite. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .apple.com/halo/index.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www. CA 90028 USA http://www.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.ergonetz.futurelab. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.percro. Suite 115 San Diego. CA 94105 USA http://www.

Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.epfl.xcelsius.intuition-eunetwork.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.com/ MapInfo One Global View.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.O. Suite 110 Troy. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.advizorsolutions.vista.cs.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions.ecu. Suite 280 Downers Grove.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.bham. Suite 100 Lindon. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.idashboards.accurender. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Suite 3 Brooklyn.edu/vrel.com ESRI Suite 300.ac.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.umd.daz3d.ambientdevices.intergraph. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. Inc.V. Box 884.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Williams Building College Park.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.coe.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Inc.O.esri. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. Columbus.. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.formz. Golden. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Danvers. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Suite 206 Bloomington. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. Cambridge. Suite 317 San Diego. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.feedtank.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .com Intuition 9.corda. Box 240000 Huntsville. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.golden.mapinfo. 809 14th Street. Troy.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www.com Golden Software.501 North Morton Street. Inc.informationinplace. Draper. 1333 Butterfield Rd. 350 South 400 West. Tracy. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.

Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. Inc. Donau-City-Strasse 1.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.unifiedfield.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.spotfire. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. 94043 USA http://www. 869 97th Ave N.com JAJAH Inc. A-1220 Vienna. Inc.S.microsoft. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. U. 2513 Charleston Road. 9th floor New York.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. Riga.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.okino. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.mccrackendesign. Unit # 1 Mississauga. NY 10012 USA http://www. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. Suite 3A New York.ontopia.vrvis.sportbrain. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.pixologic. MA 01863 USA http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8.jajah.nih.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. Inc.musanim. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Inc.org Visual Analytics Inc.visualthesaurus.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.skype.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.softill. ETZ H Electronics Lab. 3 East 28th St.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.nlm. Ltd. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. 2nd Floor Poolesville.topozone. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.visualanalytics. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Inc. 212 Elm Street Somerville. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. RIDemo Brivibas 183.inxight. Suite 102 Mountain View. 73 Princeton Street. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .com Unified Field. CA 94712 USA http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. 155 Spring Street.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.net Pixologic. California.vicodi.com Spotfire. Unit A2 Naples. 20010 Fisher Avenue.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. FL 34108 USA http://www.

com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Building K Mountain View. CA 95008 USA http://www.1001 W.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.feedzilla. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. 200 2nd Ave. Inc.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. Broadway. Tallinn.rojo. Inc.com PubSub Concepts.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. 11211.. Nederland Tel: +31.pluck. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. San Francisco. Inc.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.feedreader.. Estonia http://www.ch Web Feeds Attensa. Inc. Coldbrook Business Corp.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Suite 900 Austin. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco.feedburner. 64 Fulton Street. 3rd Floor Cambridge. 116 New Montgomery Street.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 381 Vancouver.feedforall. South #358 St. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Seventh Floor New York. P. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.com Feedster.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Inc. 795 Folsom St. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.mozilla.microsoft. 167 Hamilton Ave.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. First Floor.org JotSpot. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. Pacific Business Centre #101 .attensa.brightcove.com Rojo Networks.bloglines. Suite 100 Campbell. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.715135858 http://www.V.ethz. Suite 2260 Portland. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.jot. Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .wearable. Hanover.rssreader.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.onfolio.feedster. Switzerland http://www.pubsub.com Brightcove. Valdeku 100. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Petersburg.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.

com Do not reproduce 257 .Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

67. 56. 112. 28. 211. 118. 199 Architectures. 21. 50. 223. 169. 197. 48. 184. 179. 46. 18. 109. 27. 35. 30. 116. 80. 196. 70. 27. 218 Agents. 127. 114. 60 Clickers. 51. 88 cybercartography. 46. 69. 122 Ambient computing. 100. 29. 100. 193. 165. 63. 209 Augmented reality. 58. 211. 170. 122. 93. 49 AJAX. 46. 31. 190. 48. 159. 145. 196 collaboration. 170. 201 Adaptive systems. 161. 15. 132. 203. 50. 174. 119. 6. 180. 78. 128. 36. 170. 171. 129. 217 Collaboration. 50. 44. 191. 194. 149. 160. 74. 77. 110. 122. 22. 47. 48. 170. 211 Broadband. 198 Data mining. 197. 216 Affective computing. 45. 65. 146. 127 Cooperation. 40. 4. 71. 172 Audio. 93. 66. 47. 60 Cognition. 165 Air display. 85. 28. 209. 127. 85 Blogs. 97. 89. 174. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 70. 43. 219. 45. 177. 16. 79 Complexity theory. 91. 171. 90 Assessment. 103. 231. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 50. 136.Index 3-D graphics. 24. 81. 74. 80. 135. 18. 57. 39. 54. 95. 46. 196. 74. 15. 176. 52. 127. 29. 46. 207. 93. 7. 35 Content management. 84 Adobe. 193. 117. 67. 184. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 127. 192 Browsers. 65. 5. 47. 123. 23. 64. 16. 33. 24. 28. 176. 189. 34. 189. 170. 85. 50. 150. 211. 145. 174 Bayesian probability. 91. 196. 15. 83. 153. 70. 201 cognitive collage. 160. 24. 193. 226 Authorware. 74. 178. 21. 122. 52. 72. 146. 26. 59. 71. 39. 208. 36. 59. 137. 190. 25. 52. 8. 125. 23. 130. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 127. 84. 125. 177. 24. 75. 42. 93. 110. 116. 22. 67. 211 Communications Tools. 121. 121. 66. 25. 26. 205 Animation. 196. 78. 23. 140. 191. 139 assessment. 68. 209. 26. 189. 140. 146. 35. 23. 112. 169. 193. 66. 20. 74. 48. 13. educational. 21. 35. 69. 128. 29. 21. 37. 84. 194. 80. 83. 62. 69. 45 Avatars. 215 Communities of practice. 141. 43. 45. 94. 64. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 23. 74. 18. 139. 207 Classroom response systems. 2. 66. 72. 159. 81. 128. 4. 93. 91. 11. 89. 137. 46. 177. 82. 196 cognitive maps. 112. 180. 50. 94. 59. 160. 165. 149. 176 Cell phones. 180. 72. 156. 55. 180. 203. 195 Authoring tools. 42. 100. 12. 196. 138. 63. 162. 194. 44. 5. 101. 27. 16. 212 Boolean searches. 109. 63. 18. 20. 35. 203. 200. 15. 47. 70. 69. 36. 144. 148. 65. 181. 67. 57. 27. 53 barcodes. 66. 63. 193. 97. 159. 171. 165. 69. 196 Dashboards. 17. 137. 145 Conversational learning. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 216 Computer based assessment. 39. 65. 180 Competency Tracking. 191. 21. 90. 198. 86. 65. 199. 4. 113. 101. 203. 85. 41. 209. 158. 109. 190. 49. 57. 27. 181. 145.

197. 31. 59. 75. 103. 199. 170 Federated searches. 25. 210. 193. 109. 85. 202. 139. 15. 173. 4. 170. 47. 159. 106 Haptics. 180. 70. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 166. 176. 30. 204 Dreamweaver. 169. 11. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 141. 132. 146. 83. 250 Folksonomies. 35. 57 Flash. 89. 3. 30. 225. 108. 134. 179. 24 e-Portfolios. 37. 201 Grid computing. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 91. 152. 217 Instant messaging. 57. 104. 37. 47. 121. 12. 85. 29. 109. 103. 11. 183. 97. 146. 162. 189. 122. 67. 23. 156. 42. 198. 198. 52. 201. 176. 217. 163 Findability. 80. 120. 86 Deep Web. 88. 170. 169. 84. 20. 64. 63. 174. 174. 48. 86. 35. 63. 95. 172. 66. 101. 7. 7. 187. 125. 154. 217 images.Decision support systems. 124. 20. 151. 22. 122. 122. 69. 165 Handwriting recognition. 5. 119. 3. 16. 196 e-Commerce. 196. 203. 119. 219 Infrared tags. 152. 163. 190. 13. 93. 216 Distributed systems. e-learning. 26. 110. 88. 25. 25. 158 Design. 149. 216. 106. 98 GIF graphic format. 11. 51. 49. 34. 27. 46. 158. 35 Frameworks. 103. 45 Displays. 119. 84. 80. 55. 16. 107. 149. 152. 196 Immersive environments. 93. 191 Games. 60. 91. 205. 196. 127. 28. 80. 8. 152. 9. 94. 196. 27. 193. 201 FrontPage. 215. 137. 49. 6. 25. 107. 196 Graphics. 32. 88. 65. 158. 52. 186. 74. 158. 88. 197. 137. 110. 169 Expert systems. 199 Gesture recogntion. 238 Geocaching. 71. 86. 94. 116. 4. 85 Extreme learning. 5. 19. 26 Emotional design. 5. 9. 88. 119. 15. 57. 88. 175. 239 Individualization. 106. 97. 21. 134. 18. 164. 74. 16. 197. 69. 58. 180. 114. 100. 13. 166. 162. 162 History. 33. 106. 193. 90 Experiential learning. 184. 248 graphics. 59. 8. 26. 11. 70. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 89. 119 FireFox. 63. 215. 47. 20. 49 Google. 114. 161. 60. 160. 107. 74. 11. 196. 90. 17. 34. 97. 123. 101. 200. 23. 13. 216 Director. 123 Hype in e-learning. 153. 100. 25. 134. 134. 100. 162. 125. 134. 120. 155. 106 Head mounted displays. 4. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 89. 68. 169. 178. 194. 16. 53. 109. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 153 Facial recognition. 48. 75. 5. 214 Human-centered computing. 199. 215 Informal learning. 45. 9. 184 e-Science. 45 dynamic displays. 106 Healthcare applications. 127. 196. 205 Hybrid systems. 24. 23. 120. 210 formative assessment. 26. 49. 80. 178. 94. 167 evaluation. 187. 197. 27. 9. 64. 66. 70. 45. 106. 131. 78. 193. 133. 170. 81. 154. 121. 54. 26. 158 Informatics. 33. 72. 26. 193. 79. 189. 200. 124. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 93.

54. 123. 204. 135. 109. 226. 156. 140. 43. 176. 100. 130. 44. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 125 Lab book wiki. 125. 234. 146. 34. 45. 152 Libraries. 119. 161. 122. 122. 49. 216. 78. 63. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 239. 223 Portals. 255. 241. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 4. 60. 122. 47. 112. 80. 143. 21. 108. 241 Learning Management Systems. 36. 127 Podcasting. 74. 127. 89. 69. 80. 2. 143. 42. 65. 7. 124. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 166 Pervasive computing. 150. 127. 156 Legacy materials. 107. 114. 189. 90. 191. 250 mapping. 82. 179 Optical tags. 131. 23. 211 Knowledge management. 114. 4. 101. 191. 180. 16. 137. 34. 95. 152. 161. 47. 100. 114. 119. 192. 174. 127. 123 Medical applications. 42. 58. 238. 65. 170. 143. 23. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 138. 205 Macromedia. 20. 21. 176. 137. 116. 128. 160. 15. 206. 146. 139. 165. 148. 25. 112. 59. 115. 7. 57. 124. 20 Museums. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 145. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 192. 4. 129. 65. 26. 190. 137. 137. 196. 43. 8. 145. 163 Microformats. 62. 129. 211 latent semantic analysis. 93. 125. 162. 31. 196 Pedagogy. 77. 124. 171 M-learning. 194. 244 Meta-search engines. 110. 35. 6. 64. 7. 189. 148. 109. 80. 144. 152 Networks. 189. 113. 26. 213. 69. 215. 48. 17. 115. 79. 159. 109. 196 Mashups. 45. 78. 134. 106. 256 Microworlds. 127. 66. 160. 142. 141. 128. 81. 216. 135. 119. 32. 230. 175. 152 Lecturing. 120. 119. 114 learning object repository. 85. 171 Metacognition. 97. 80. 145. 178. 145. 76. 124. 111. 68. 190. 17. 174. 149. 5. 6. 178. 171. 136. 80. 165. 172. 215 Interoperability. 47. 122. 6. 29. 45. 26. 26. 121. 114. 70. 48. 46. 26. 63. 66. 114. 25. 49. 124 iPod. 178. 182. 158. 153. 129. 174. 165 Microlearning. 134. 128. 80. 18. 120. 91. 113. 107. 172. 125. 130. 128. 45. 24. 139. 176. 180. 103. 233. 135. 111. 146. 180. 68. 165. 149. 62. 134. 42. 86. 134. 138. 139. 23. 47. 53. 187. 42. 199. 54. 15. 124. 191. 110. 199 Neural networks. 27. 119. 97 Ontologies. 107. 135. 30. 193. 116. 141. 7. 130 Mobile computing. 150. 244 Motion Graphics. 140. 127. 6. 166 PowerPoint. 147. 140. 120. 186. 42. 205. 153 Microsoft. 114 Learning Objects. 26. 81. 246 Location based tools. 249. 26 Metadata. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 189. 6. 36. 46. 140. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 146. 77. 139 Personalization. 22. 127. 116. 240. 191. 134. 98. 90. 60. 183. 180. 65. 48. 183. 242 learning object model. 246. 93. 43. 139. 220. 246. 155. 181. 190. 165 pattern recognition.Interface devices. 139. 237. 166. 11. 121. 35. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 45. 145. 109. 174. 65. 40. 169. 154. 144 Navigation. 199. 148. 85. 149. 193. 54.

54. 35. 176. 189. 109. 119. 150. 203 Telepresence. 27. 191 Tangible computing. 166. 177. 178. 8. 50. 215. 20. 174 Project management. 168 résumés. 114. 189 Television. 9. 62. 26. 217 Translation. 148 Smart labels and tags. 112. 35. 54. 191. 125. 83. 180. 162. 247 rapid learning. 93. 120. 172. 49. 106. 46. 39. 84. 209. 188. 161. 132 Streaming video. 35 Symbology tags. 159. 59. 9. 191 Tours (online). 184. 48. 167. 160. 122 Tagging. 141. 124. 185. 122 sharable content objects. 47. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 34. 48. 109. 119. 156. 175 Tag clouds. 124. 163. 52. 26. 163. 42. 141. 74. 122. 131. 165. 177. 189 Search engines. 11. 38. 86. 49. 179. 148. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 125. 114 Robotics. 74. 46. 155. 148. 189. 215. 205 Shockwave. 155. 156. 134. 47. 150. 170. 170. 70 Radio. 175 Rapid e-learning. 47. 167 reusable learning objects. 181 Speech recognition. 117. 37. 21. 91. 196 Serious games. 155. 169. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 181. 54. 199 Taxonomies. 152 Projectors. 89. 174. 75. 80. 114 Screencasting. 176. 35. 165. 114 Repositories. 66. 125. 158. 46. 215. 199 Turing Test. 141. 169. 72. 177. 26. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 211 Skypecasting. 81. 118. 5. 169. 221 SCORM. 106 Proximity tools. 93. 82. 141. 161. 153. 178. 168. 54. 48. 183. 115. 35 Semantic Web. 30. 94. 131. 7. 180. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 133. 174. 174 self-evaluation. 50. 134. 49. 93. 135. 119. 40. 207 Social networking. 189 Security. 115. 119 quizzes. 165. 37. 131. 83. 52. 97. 94. 203. 197. 176. 129. 123 Simulations. 114. 88. 138. 57. 74. 190. 22. 199 Single-user wiki. 65. 9. 4. 110. 174. 26. 171. 36. 57 T-Learning. 35. 16. 225. 175. 154. 191 summative assessment. 47. 246 Privacy. 9. 173. 55. 152. 174. 189. 124. 166.Presentation tools. 64 Telephony. 6. 50. 137. 48. 116. 27. 177. 35. 47. 211 Tags. 160. 11. 134. 179. 38. 216 Tests. 15. 87. 158. 170. 227. 189. 69. 45. 91. 77. 71. 182. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 35 Quizzes. 149. 95. 64. 36. 11. 174. 46. 139. 124. 57. 40. 171 Science. 171 Scenarios. 125. 47. 159. 116. 90 Reusability. 180. 48. 154. 150. 179. 110. 193. 62. 114. 176 Team management. 122. 39. 5. 172. 68. 153. 175. 152 Thin clients. 137. 178. 36. 116. 144. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 88. 4. 247 Role-playing. 36. 186. 174 Social bookmarking. 119.

209. 159. 90. 123. 148. 190. 89. 22. 182. 108. 215. 106.Ubiquitous computing. 210. 164. 113. 64. 191. 9. 106. 88. 212 Wikis. 5. 203. 80. 131. 217 Word. 148. 3. 200. 74. 182. 43. 160. 124. 79. 215. 46. 253 Videocasting. 211. 198. 148. 109. 44. 137 Virtual reality. 7. 112. 210. 74. 127. 214. 11. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 98. 74. 67. 4. 236. 192. 81. 189 virtual classroom. 200. 150. 145. Gary. 211. 62. 189 Vodcasting. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 176. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 208. 149. 108. 9. 49. 121. 45. 66. 205. 187. 177. 123. 256 Webcasting. 65. 137. 68. 107. 255 Wearable computing. 199. 106. 256 Woodill. 187. 239 Wikipedia. 57. 100. 194 Video. 212. 207. 174. 150 Webinars. 51. 205 Usability. 165. 189. 148 Whiteboards. 206. 177. 255 Web conferencing. 154 Virtual learning environments. 197. 193 Visualization. 13. 91. 216. 211. 196. 193. 40. 148 Virtual classrooms. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 213. 60. 216 Vlogs. 119. 209. 69. 57. 56. 130.

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