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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. None of this would have been possible if my wife. editing. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. Operitel’s CEO. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Jennifer McDowell. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. The first report. technology. A third report. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. Karen Anderson. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. the second in the series. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. Amy Davey. Pierre Cahorn. have supported this research from the beginning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. Grant Hamilton. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. and services. Pamela Fragomeli. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. Thanks. Karen. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. lists of online resources. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. along with an index. This report. I have provided links to online learning examples. Carlos Oliveira. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. will be available in early 2007. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. and support at all points of my career. Lise Bye.

Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. They are. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. Schools were started to teach accounting. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. or “reader. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. class periods. The modern classroom. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. material.just the ability to follow an example.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. and recess. for example. as books were scarce. that lecturing. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. the raising of hands. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. With these reforms. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. “things that make us smart. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. fire for warmth and cooking.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Learning became standardized and linear. We tend to forget. linear teaching techniques online. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. and language for communication. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. to quote Donald Norman (1993). The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. There are.” Starting in the first century AD. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. in fact. is a 2000 year old “technology. detentions. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. with rows. Do not reproduce 3 . many different ways to learn. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. still used in many institutions of higher education. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. or device that extends human abilities. Medieval universities followed the same practice. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. A third way to learn is by seeing. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. even if the originator of the words is not present. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Technologies are any technique. the classroom became industrialized.

the early days of computer networking. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. changing the practice of teaching. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. 2006). it needs to adhere to architectures. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system.Students in these schools learned by reading. Eventually. Thomas Watson. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. When a new technology first comes into use.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. moving pictures (films). the main telegraph company in the world at the time. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. in 1876 someone at Western Union. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . mashups can only be done using computer technology. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and standards. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira.” In 1970. memorizing. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. frameworks. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. chairman of IBM. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. For example. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. However. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Sadly. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other.” Similarly. At the same time. Like all new technologies. 2006). as this is a non-technical guide. When a new technology is introduced. and reciting. Rather than pages. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning.

January. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable.org) has a number of published documents that.free. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).accessgrid. For example. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. presentation and interactive environments.imsglobal. Do not reproduce 5 . In particular. They provide location independence. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid.fr/publication.org). the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. 2005. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Number 3. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. php).grid. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.

perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. This is especially true for adult education. “[a] pull economy . In business. Bollier says. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.” In late 2005. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). Rather. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. In Europe.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . the new model of teaching involves facilitation. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. enabling the search for content. Instead of just providing courses. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.elframework. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.is based on open. interactive learning components.aicc. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. http://imsproject. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. Major specifications for e-learning. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.ieee. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. and makes extensive use of XML. http://www. and education administration. http://purl. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. http://ltsc. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. http://www. reinforces this theme.adlnet.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises.oclc. research. At the same time.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs).the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . They noted that “…in education.taken together. Instead. http://sourceforge. While packaged courses still have a place.

In the last chapter. 2002. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . October.. (2005). Moreover.educause. Z. Ahmad. N. http://www. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. For example.amazon. Milan. http://www. (2002). G. K. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies..ntnu. Five years ago. Odeh. Wired Magazine. New York: Hyperion. mobile devices. Switzerland.com/wired/archive/12. Thus. June 2005.htm Bollier. 16. Montreal. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Chris (2004). Bertolazzi. Umer. http://arxiv. and Votis.. and wearable computers. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. User-created content.. those learners are now keeping their own records. The Long Tail.. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. http://ewic.DC/0502051 Alexander. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Likothanassis. Bryan (2006).no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Sept. M. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. http://www. 2004. http://www. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. F. Cardiff. UK.. M. Chrysostalis. R. 12(10). Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Italy. From this. Nov.. March/April 2006. is becoming commonplace. ambient networks. 41(2).cscsi.. Bibliography Abbas.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. M. along with selected examples. A.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. http://www.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. Wales. and McGinnis (2004).pdf Bogonikolos. Weiss.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. Giotopoulos. online resources. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning.pdf Anderson. Lausanne. M.. M...idi. Ali.1 0/tail. and a bibliography. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles.html Anderson. F.. Zanichelli. T. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. M. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. As Anderson (2004.. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. McClatchey.bcs. and Conte. David (2005). 2004). 2005). 2006) has argued. (2005). Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. 19. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.wired. Web 2. K.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. Chris (2006). Because this research report is meant as a reference work. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. I hope you will find it useful. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform.org/abs/cs.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. R. S. the reader can approach any topic in any order. Reggiani.

and Albert..edu/pdf/ajde.Dev Shed. Luo.bcs. http://www.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Portugal. Proceedings. J. Thomas (2004).ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . Centre for Distance Ed. 2005.cancore. 2004. (2005).org. http://www. Porto.johnhagel. American Jrnl. 2003. 2. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment..ca/protocols_en.xml. Perth. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. (2005).. T.computer. (2002). http://csdl2.ICALT 2001. N.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.amazon. Madison. J. Online.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. D. Aug. C.pdf Erl. Sept. Stefano (2005). International E-Learning Specifications.2005. http://cde. Dec.html Hockemeyer.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Triantafillou. (2001).gov.virtual. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. and Zhang. 2002 http://ewic. http://ru6. R. 13-16. http://www.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. (2005). What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . A field guide to software as a service. Education.act. http://www. for the Australian Dept. V. and Borck. http://www. Australia.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. and Brown. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches..iadis. Tsiatsos.athabascau. 1026-1032. (1996). http://www. Hornig. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05).pdf Knorr. http://www. pdf He. 14-16. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.cti.aspeninstitute. http://www.html Kong. Oct. 6-8. Jagadish (2004). E. 2001. 30.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.1109/CIT. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Green. http://www. http://www. Upper Saddle River. T.devshed. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Norm (2006). G. Hao (2003). and McGreal. http://www. (2002)..pdf Friesen. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.htm Hohpe. Infoworld. Lausanne.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . Erlanger. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. W. of Distance Education 10. C.xml.. I.au Limited. Athabasca University. Switzerland. ThoughtWorks White paper.infoworld.html Hagel.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.com/paper_pushpull. and Putland.xml&DOI=10.asp Chatarji. J.5 6 Marshall. (2005). E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. Working paper. L. Gregor (2005).pdf Cerri. Web Services .com.co m/docs/SOA_World.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. Stephen (2004).det. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. Sept.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa.networking technology. 4-36. C. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). J.gmu. http://www.. WI. J. of Education and Training.org/celda2005/index.ascilite.S. 13. January 2005. USA. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. G. March 2002. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.pdf Millea. April 18.

. In W. 2005.Neumann. (2003). and Geys. 27 . http://www.unikarlsruhe. V. http://www. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. G. and Weggen. V. Germany.pdf Urdan. Zhou et al. Research report. and Vossen.pdf Pierre. 9. Harvey. Feijen. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. W. http://www. Rhonda (2006). M. G. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. http://ewic.acten. M. http://www-i5.aifb. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.pdf Werkhoven. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. J.ac.ac.bcs. Donald (1993). C. http://www. April 26-27.): Proceedings.rwthaachen. http://www.. Samuel (2006). Berlin: Springer. C. ICWL 2003. and Jarke.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. C. S.pdf Spaniol. R. 193–205.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . R.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. T.sinica.aspx Yang. and Wade. Cambridge.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2.amazon. Mashups. (2004). Journal of Information Science and Engineering. Trinity College.iis. 911-928. 21.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.informatik. (2005). H.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. G.operitel. F. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. and Ho.. Library+information Show.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06. Klamma. http://www. and Oliveira.pdf Roberts. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.alt.astd. http://www. M.amazon. W. (2000). (2003). pp. e-portfolios. 2006. (2006). Lee.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.com/publications. future thinking: digital repositories..pdf Norman. J. April 1. Birmingham.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids.R. MA: Perseus. (Eds. Stuttgart. http://www. ACTeN E-Content Report No. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. Peter (2004).edu. Aalderink. May 15. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.alt. UK. Reflective learning. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. (2005). Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.. Learning Solutions. http://www. Dublin.28 April 2004. SCORM and the Learning Grid. 2006. Cook. Hambrecht and Co.pdf Woodill.

allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. and a bibliography for each section. Included are related terms. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . selected elearning related examples.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. online resources to learn more about each technology.

bham.cs. SRI Consulting (http://www.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. in Italy.myself-proj. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. accuracy. privacy.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. speech patterns mainstream. or sad.html Do not reproduce 11 . it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. emotions. facial recognition. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. In online therapy.convo. Without the ability to understand emotions. 2005). gestures.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. too. and react to human emotions. UK. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.ac.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. and to respond to them effectively. posture. emotional design. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret.. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. confused. http://www. 2005). keystroke patterns.. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. security. and legality.media. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.mit. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. http://www.” (Anolli. understand. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. For example.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.” http://www. Affective Computing.co.sricbi. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. et al.

Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Vermersch.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye.bartneck. P.aisb.. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://emotion-research. http://www. April 12-15. O.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. http://emotion. September 13.nsma. Oregon. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.pdf Cahour. Lee. http://www. October 22-24. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. (2005).unitrier. http://www... and Merisol.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau.edu/emotion.pdf Interfaces. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. Portland. December. (2005). Portland. J. B. CHI 2005 conference. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. University of Hertfordshire. and Confalonieri (2005).html In Germany. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. including studies of emotions in computers. Vescovo.sics. J. Oregon.unige. Oregon. Oregon. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal... V. N.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. F. CHI 2005 conference. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. K. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.sics. (2005).The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. M. Brassac..se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour. L...sics. Pianesi.. I Like It . P. bibliographies. David (2003). R. Nakajima. Nass.. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Hatfield. China.. http://www. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Joseph (2005). April 2-7. Agliati. Y.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Isbister.wired. listing many links to interesting resources. http://www. CHI 2005 conference.. http://www.html Fallman. M. 2005. Realdon. B.. Nortillaro. The Love Machine: building computers that care.pdf Diamond.pdf Goren-Bar. Graziola. 2005. with many resources.. Stock.doc Chateau. Issue 11/12. Pachoud. Bouraoui. S.arizona. April 2-7. and Zouinar.de/link/affective_port al. Balestra. Iwamura. M.sics. http://www. 2005. 2005. Wired Magazine. Portland. D. A.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. K.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. C. CHI 2005 conference. Z.org. April 2-7. H.. Portland. UK. C. Portland.dis.. CHI 2005. H..com/wired/archive/11.uniroma1. 2005 http://www. are available online: http://www. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . and Morishima. M.sics. F...pdf Kaye. http://www. O.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic.informatik.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Brave.sics.. Zurloni. Dr. and Waterworth.it/~lhci/009. and Laaksolahti. J. Oregon. and Zancanaro. K. (2005).. D.. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. April 2-7. April 2-7. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman.pdf Maldonado. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation..1 2/love. Mantovani. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. A. J. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. Salembier. 2005. April 2-7.doc Hook. C. I. (2005). CHI 2005. Yamada. Rocchi. Oregon.

Paper for WEBIST 2005.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. New York: Basic. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.stanford. T. M.ac.sics. (2005).org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. Donald A. and Ishizuka. Erlbaum.miv.pdf Norman. and Picard. CHI 2005. Gerd (1998). ACII 2005. http://www. 35(2). Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.bham.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. University of Birmingham.amazon. NJ. R. Portland.utokyo.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. (2005). http://www. E-book http://www. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. 2005. Oregon. OR.elearningreviews.doc Wright. Miami. and Daily. (2004). Dec. J. May 26. CHI 2005 conference. Rosalind (1997). Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Masum. http://www. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.thesis. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures.amazon. Portland.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Tan. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.sics. http://www. R.de/emeocomp/co ntent.pdf Mandryk. Affective Computing vs. 2005. 2005. L.ruebenstrunk. Regan (2005). S. April 2-7.sics. 22. Beijing.pdf Mentis.ac. http://www. http://www. Ian (1997). Affective Computing. Portland. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.cs. Oregon.HTM Steele. CHI 2005 conference. April 2-7.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. Emotional Agents.pdf Ruebenstrunk. CHI 2005. http://www. Helena (2005).iste. Berlin: Springer.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. http://www. Portland. http://www. J. October 22-24.sics. M. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. MA: MIT. 2002. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. Charlotte (2005). China. and Steele. (2002). (2005). http://www. 2005. April 2-7.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. http://www. Cambridge.t. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces..jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. S. Oregon.htm Tao.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

and the students had to continue to teach her. Dick Stenmark. 1999). intelligent agents program (for example. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application.se/~dixi/agent/clas s.informatik. 2005. Third. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. and. see the paper by Far et al. useful in educational simulations. avatars. and both may be found in the same http://w3. A second agent in the simulation. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site.. However. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. autonomous agents. 2004). Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Mentor. Katzlberger. 2004) and are. therefore. Agents have beliefs. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. not only about environments. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Viswanath. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. She made mistakes. Fourth. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. In such situations. et al. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Second. For example.gu. rationality. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. and many of them can actually learn. benevolence. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. First. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. In this context. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. learning/adaptation. but Do not reproduce 15 . veracity. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. 1999). Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. 2005). software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. proactive (goal directed).

uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. User Profile Agent. (2004): http://www. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. Learning Paths Agent 5. They are available as adaptive coaches.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. (1998) developed a conversational agent. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. go to: http://ldt. 2. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. acting against other teams of agents. http://www.also about other agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. Content Agent 6. go to: http://ritl.uka. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams.old. Baldi. Student Assistant Agent 4. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). For details see: www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Massaro et al. 2000).codebaby. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. uses seven different types of agents: 1. See the article by Williams et al.extempo.netobjectdays. Therefore.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://liinwww.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623.org/index.ac.editlib. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. http://www. http://www.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.stanford.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.csc.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.redwoodelearning. expert role-players. Skills Manager Agent 3.ira.liv.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.fsu. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. http://www. and expert guides.com/ CodeBaby Corp. Even though each agent acts independently. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen.

International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. http://www. http://www. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. 75-80. Y.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 1659-1666. 267-286 http://www. S. 28(2). (2005). In Proceedings. e-Learning 2005. P. July..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. & Bengu. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Paper presented. Learning by Teaching Agents.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. http://www. Y. www. & Kim. Z.pdf Jafari. G.pdf Lin. Tennessee. Vanderbilt University. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. VA: AACE. S.netobjectdays. http://www. http://www. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference.editlib. 459-462.org/index.editlib..pdf Clarebout.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. G.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Johnson. http://www. http://www. (2003).University of Southern California. S. Fuhua Oscar (2005).org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor.editlib.. Hypermedia.. Do not reproduce 17 . In Proceedings. 11(3). Educause Quarterly. (2002).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.computer. http://csdl. Vanderbilt University.educause.editlib. In Richards. http://www. and Palopoli. G. Hershey. Sun.). Thomas (2005). 5(7). Krittaya (2005). A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. Y.pdf Kim.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. A. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.. C.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.pdf Guessoum.org/index. J. Clarebout.org/newdl/index. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Germany. No. International Journal on E-Learning. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. 21-38.. TN.org/16948 Leelawong. & El-Khouly.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004.org/index. 3. & Johnson. & Ebbers. B. E..org/index. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Large Complex Systems.isi. Ng. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. W.old. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.editlib. L.. W. Nashville. G. (2002). 275-285.org/index. Elan. (2002). Doctoral Dissertation. http://dl. C. Proceedings. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. 1353-1356. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. (Ed. Koono. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. 306-311).. 1503-1506.. (2005).. http://www.pdf Kao. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.teachableagents.aace.editlib. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. Zahia (2004). and Telecommunications 2003. (2000). E-Learning 2003.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. Inter-active Learning Res.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. http://www. and Tsang. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. A.teachableagents. & Lin. E-Learning 2003. M. Educause Quarterly. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.org/index. and Shaw. Jrnl. Hypermedia.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. and Ho. G.. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL).aace. 4(1). A. www. Ali (2002). (2003). J. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. Norfolk. Doctoral Dissertation. Erfurt. (1999). Nashville. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.editlib.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. (2005). 2005. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S.org/index. 10 (3).

Richards (Eds. Carnegie Mellon University. and Solomon. Pittsburgh.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/fil/ Padgham.utexas. S.amazon. G. (2004). (2006). 18 © Brandon Hall Research . L. http://citeseer.. http://dl. 1415-1420. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Cohen. J.editlib.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov.informatics.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. St. Proceedings.lib. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). Sandel.amazon. (2005). Wesley. ED-MEDIA.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. G. & Lim. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Biswas. D. M. (2005). Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. 1999. 61-65. E. (1999). K. 47-59. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. of California. Kommers & G. L. and Núñeza. Beskow.. A. (2004). http://scholar. (1999). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.org/index.. Adebiyi. L.vt. Daniel. and Stucky. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.Media 2005. Peter (1998). Healthcare.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. K. R. ED-MEDIA 2005. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. http://www.aace.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.org/16968 Sahin. W. In P.. Ferat (2000). Finland.editlib.editlib.cse. S.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.html Shim. www.org/index.edu/565321. V.aifb.aace. PA.indiana.K. http://www. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. S. V.pdf Perez. ED. (Ed. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.org/newdl/index. http://www. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. In Richards. O. & Booth. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. and Ferneley. June 1-4.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). http://www. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 321333.editlib. and Winikoff. Proceedings.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.pdf Menczer. and Higher Education 2004. http://www.ist. IFIP WG12. 1999.. 1632. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.org/index. B. http://www. 143-162. Government.org/index. August.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. R. D. http://cslu. 3169-3176. Russia.ogi.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. Atreya.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. 14(1).. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. R.cs.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. 194-201. 10 (3). France. and Cole. 17(2)..... Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. M. In Proceedings. H.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. Doctoral Dissertation. G. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.http://www. U.editlib. (1999). http://www. http://www. M. M. Doctoral dissertation.psu. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). (2005).uni-karlsruhe. (2004). Petersburg.de/BIK/vpa/109. Toulouse.. & Leelawong.). J..

N.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. http://www. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.org/papers/15 8bis. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.http://www. http://ca. Paper at CLAG2004. J.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . 3000-3002.ac.wiley.org/index. In Proceedings.teachableagents. (2004).pdf Williams. M.html Yan..upc. Michael (2002).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. April 18-21. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (2004). ED-MEDIA 2004. http://research. Chicago. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Gilbert.. Chun. & Madsen. 2004.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X.

including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.animationfactory. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation.Animation Software Related terms Flash.05 http://www.com/alchemy/gi fcon. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.mindworkshop. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.000 pre-built animated GIFs.” Lowe adds that “in some cases. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. et. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. animations may even prejudice learning. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Rather. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs.topshareware.htm For a selection of over 400. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. However. produced the best learning results.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. (2003). Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. coupled with imagining how something worked. The results of many experiments have been mixed. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding..topshareware. producing animations can be very costly. a static diagram. 2003) Finally.” (Huk. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Given that.0 http://www. motion graphics depiction. like pictures in a flip book. However. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. Also. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. al.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.

physics. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. http://www.animats.” http://www.utoronto.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI . a high-end editing and visual effects suite.softimage.Softimage Co. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment.html Falling Bodies . A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. Inc.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.massivesoftware. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. http://www.autodesk.. http://www.com/pub/products/e nliven.. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.catoolkit.viewpoint.adobe.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. http://www. For a free demo. http://www. go to: http://www.swishzone. 2004). It animates fall stunts.html CAT .macromedia.animationonline. For information on Flash.newtek.com Enliven .Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). For more information on Shockwave. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. http://www.apple.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.com/dynamics/demov ersion.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . go to: http://macromedia. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. animation. effects. go to: http://www. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. Version 9 is available: http://www. To use ActionScript. and rendering tool. It is part of Final Cut Studio.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. http://www. http://faraday.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia.com/gallery/default.com/products/aftereffec ts/main.com Maya is a high-end modeling.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. the built-in programming language.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.eitechnologygroup. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). a subsidiary of Avid Technology.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. animating.

edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. R.htm Hess.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. March 2002.htm Huk. http://www. FreeDownloads Center. 87-99. Phillips (Eds. Cognition and Instruction.org/2004/jul20 04/hess.freedownloadscenter.org. M. G. Learning Circuits. Flash Interactive Session. 1046-1048. and Hancock.sjsu.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. R. Steinke. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research .html Malheiro.. R. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. 21(4). and Hess.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings.aace.com/books_catalog . Kriz. 325–360. (2002). ASCILITE Conference. Atkinson. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. never too much.pdf Hess. Lehi.com.K. S. 14(1). The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems.org/2003/aug2 003/toth.de/pub/bscw. Animation – just enough.pdf Lowe. C.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. http://www.. http://projekte.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. T.org/2004/jul20 04/hess.. Thomas (2003). July. Learning Circuits.rapidintake. (2004). http://www2.ascension-tech. http://www. D. Educational Psychology Review. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.siggraph. Jonas-Dwyer & R. and Cate. http://esub.. (2003).cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. go to AllWorldSoft.ascilite. http://www. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. T. S. and Hancock. Hancock. C. July 18. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r. M. and Floto.allworldsoft. http://www.org/12937 Mayer. S.unihannover. Animation and learning: value for money? In R.htm Hegarty.learningcircuits.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. and Moreno. McBeath.learningcircuits. G. S..Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. S. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. http://dl. (2004).ucsb. C. July 2004.htm Bibliography Castillo. (2003). (1). http://www. (2004). Utah: Rapid Intake Press. G.learninglab. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. (2004).psych. 2003. http://www. (2003).pdf Toth.

personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. agents. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. cognitive informatics. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. intelligent tutoring. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. expert systems. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. machine learning. Nevertheless. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. data mining.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. multiagent systems. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. AI. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. So far.

learning.. possibly undeliberate manner. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. including collaborative filtering. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. (2003). The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.g. The reality is that. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. and data mining. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. To achieve their goals. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. Moreover. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. the subject matter expert. and Aist et al.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner.” On the other hand. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. To seem humanlike. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. recommender systems. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. and the teacher. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. While many systems purport to be personalized. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research .

using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. objects.iit.unito. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. rather than using a single type of knowledge. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.” http://www.” http://www. etc) and how they are interrelated. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://lsa.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.cs. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.colorado. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays..edu/papers/daveDissert ation. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.di.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. (2005a.uic. 2002).pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. gestures. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. concepts.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. http://www. Talking Head Tutor vs..cs.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .e. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.

(2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.pdf Oguejiofor et al.infrature. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research . (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.com/doi/pdf/10.pact. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. http://www.unsw. and engaging.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. and INFOMAP. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. Inc. Stottler Henke Associates. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. http://ariic. http://www.html Founded in 1988.kicinger.com/index.” http://ctat. http://www.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.library.” http://www. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. see: http://lsa.it.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.cs. intelligent conflict resolution.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. Task Tutor Toolkit .htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.leaonline.cmu.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. challenging. http://www. so that these systems become more realistic.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.colorado.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. question answering (QA) techniques.edu. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. without programming.iis.ucalgary.sinica.cs.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . Infrature. http://bach.uc3m.uregina. including student monitoring.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.” http://www.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.enel. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . As a result. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.gast. e-commerce.edu. Aurora . and multiagents. http://quantumsimulations.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.

uquebec.org/cfp.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.uk/aiedsoc.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. http://www.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. http://ctat.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.cmu.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.autotutor. http://www. see: http://www. Taiwan.cmu.htm Do not reproduce 27 . http://www.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.ed. an adaptive testing algorithm.org/2000/feb2 000/ong. http://www.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.ke-corp. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. The AIED conferences are held every two years.com/s10.pact.inf. For more info: http://www2.ac. preferred cadence.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.masternewmedia.its2006.cs.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.teluq. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.learningcircuits.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.enel.usyd. http://www.wpi.org/AITopics/html/tutor.” http://www. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.licef.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems. skill gaps. http://aied.cs.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.ac. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.ca/eng/inde x. and an interactive intelligent tutor.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. China.gemini.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. http://www.virtuelage. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.it. http://aied.inf.ed.” http://www.stottlerhenke. http://pact.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. with the next one in 2007.edu.ucalgary.aaai.cs.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. and learning style.

and Frasson.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read. Artificial Intelligence Review.unito. Hermann (2002). Chicago.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Baroglio. P.. PA: Idea. (2004). R. S. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. R.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. R. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming.) (2006). E.nccu. http://www. G.pdf Brusilovsky. 159-165. (1997).pitt. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. and Koedinger. K. ITS 2004..pdf Aleven.amazon. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). Kort. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. B.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. http://nth. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society.ppt Butz. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . M.). (2004). Eshaa (Ed. V. Vicari. 482-487. http://imlab.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. and Evens. Bibliography Aist.technologyreview.. Paraguaçu (Eds. In J. C. V.pdf Alkhalifa.1109/ITCC.iit. S. Kobe. Hua. (2004).. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. http://dx. http://www.edu. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.sis. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. In Proceedings.html Brusilovsky. Vicari. C.. and Picard.ht ml Aleven.edu/pubs/pub_4073. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. http://www.. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . and Patti. In J. (2004). T.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS.cs. 6(1).html Barker.pdf Barcena. and Schwarz. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.ri. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). http://www2. I. S. S. (2004). Argamon. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.. Lester. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). C.uregina.Volume I. R.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.cs. and Read.. C.doi. Paraguaçu (Eds.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. and F. and Penstein Rosé. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. http://www. R..org/10. McLaren. M. M. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.pdf Baldoni.).J. Ritter.82 Bhatt. (2004). Reilly. and Douglas. C.. Peter (2000). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Hershey.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.di.Marvin Minsky. (2002).ac. http://www. P. Lester. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.com/printer_f riendly_article. & F. http://lingcog.wpi.eurodl. M.2005. Roll. 22: 3–39.cmu.pdf Chaffar. Brazil. J.pitt. http://www. (2004). E. http://www. S. Mostow. Maceió.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. B.B. V. (2005). C.sbg. and Maguire. K.

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3905. Illinois Institute of Technology. PA: Information Science.actapress. Pain (Eds.amazon.actapress. I. (2004). 3(4). and Michael. M. IL.aspx? PaperID=26738 Lulis.ac. Patel A. Control and Applications conference. & Aleven. D. and Evens. Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring Sessions. D.). In C.cs. 4th Edition. C. and mankind. Weitz. In Proceedings. http://ctat..127 . T. R.com/gp/product/1591 40729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Mainzer. Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. 2000. (2006). (2004). McCalla. A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology. Artificial Intelligence in Education.massey. Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system.linkingpublicationresults.. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. and Testing Cognitive Models. http://nth.com/PaperInfo. Bredeweg.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. J. Alke (2003a). M.cmu.amazon. (2003). C. W. 2004.pact. ICCM'03. http://www.org/proceedings/docs/2p 474. J. Web-based Education Conference.cs.http://infosys.informatik.journal. J..iit. Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED-2005.K.doc Koutsojannis. Proceedings of MAICS 2004. M. mind. and Evens.edu/pubs/03BRIMS-063. Zongmin (2005). http://www. Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. http://www2004. Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. Hershey.H. VersaTutor – Archi-tecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor Generator. http://www.com/gp/product/3540 002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Martens. http://springerlink. E.1 Lulis. V. Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Design-ing. C. A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric Disciplines. M. Evelyn (2005). Educational Technology & Society. http://www.71. Proceedings. Evens. http://ifets. Lulis. Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of matter.. Evens.com/(pdvzlh5 5zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contribution .com/gp/product/1586 035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis. E. Chicago. Amsterdam: IOS Press. K.p df Do not reproduce 31 . Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system.H. Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. M. (2004). http://www. E. (2004). Looi.amazon. G. Berlin: Springer.795.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical students.pdf Looi. Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring system.pdf Kinshuk. R.aspx? PaperID=16278 Lee. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS.nz/~kinshuk/pape rs/kt97_dmu. http://www. M.pdf Lee.metapress.com/PaperInfo.wpi. Building. and Michael. http://www.. C. Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003).html Kodaganallur. G. (2004). Schaumburg. In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive Modelling. http://www.booksonline.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04. V. 1:105633. J. M. and H.. Mccalla. Klaus (2004).iospress. Hatzilygeroudis. and Glass. and Heffernan.ieee.. and Prentzas.. A.nl/Conten ts/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeContents .. B.aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma. N. Proceedings. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió. R. M. and Rosenthal. Brazil. and Russell.unirostock.org/periodical/vol_4_2000 /kinshuk.pdf Koedinger. Amsterdam. (2000).de/~martens/Papers/Ma_iccm03. (2005).. Freedman. Evens. Breuker.

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Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. More sophisticated forms of automated. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium.info/learni ng/solo. Assessment software can generate templates. evaluation. computer-based assessment tools. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. When combined into a “360° evaluation. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. quizzes. online assessment. For example. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. We can expect that. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. and output. rubrics. in the near future. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. affective. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. and documents for assessors to use. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software.learningandteaching. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA).” Bateson’s four levels of learning. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. quizzes. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. and psychomotor. aptitudes.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. once only done by a human assessor. self-evaluation. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. are already available. 1956). the automated scoring of essays. or performance samples. computer based assessment (CBA). is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. making it hard to escape assess-ment. and (4) computer marking. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. In a business situation.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. eassessment. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. samples. for example. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. computer mediated assessment (CMA). The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . However. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.

com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.K. institutional evaluation. Review it at: http://www. and services useful for outcomes assessment.flaguide. preview pages for all question types.org/english/index.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. http://www. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. multilingual support.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. http://www. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. and adaptive question branching.0. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. personality.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. http://www.vantagelearning.” http://www.rmsuk. on its Web site.uc.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . see: http://www.com The Evaluator.org/ ETS. http://www.dialang. For information on latent semantic analysis.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. and self-study.com/evaluator Testcraft.com/wwwtools/magazines. a completely customizable report engine.brainbench.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.fasfind. skills. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.horizonwimba. reporting. http://www. abilities.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. surveys. a customizable look and feel.com/redinq/html/index.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry. http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. Find them at: http://www. For details. see: http://lsa. and past work behaviors.” organized by academic discipline.redinq.xstreamsoftware. and adminis-tration features. http://www.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. has recently won awards for its performance. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. http://www. See more at: http://www.operitel. learning tools. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.testcraft. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.epistema.respondus.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.pedagogue. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.colorado. Diploma. from Resources Management Services in the U. http://nt.questionmark.ets. http://www. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.. http://www.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. check out the Dialang web site. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.

edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. http://www.com/career_asses sment. Freire.htm Atkinson..ac..quintcareers.uk/cticomp/CAA.html Bibliography Alfonseca.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.uka.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Obtain a copy at: http://www. G. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.cshe.tcet. James (2005). D.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.000 different tests from its database. http://www.tasainstitute. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. M.uk/home. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.health. (2004). Do not reproduce 37 .ac. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.unt. R. http://www.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. London: Paladin. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.ifets.” http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. Online paper. 8 (3). Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.thinkinggear. Carro. http://www..com/029. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. http://cba. & Rodríguez.rmcdenver.. with a list of 34 strategies. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. P.learnflex.uiuc.umuc.economicsnetwork. Gregory (1973).info/learni ng/solo. T.com/tools/rubrics.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.ulster.heacademy.scit.wlv.org/research/re views/10_01. Educational Technology & Society. http://www.3 Bateson.info/journals/8_3/6.ac..learningandteaching. and Davies. Pérez.nestafuturelab.au/assessing learning/03/online.oir.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.org/en/en_mod41.htm#2. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. Ortigosa.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.discovery. (2005). Explore the links at: http://www. http://www. http://www. is available from: http://liinwww. M. http://www. http://www.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. A.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.unimelb. 5365. E.ict4lt.ac.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.pdf Atherton.edu.com/schrockguide/ assess. with over 1. http://school.ira. http://www.200 references. http://www.

). http://llt. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. Inouye. S. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. (2001). Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Harabagiu and F. 3rd Edition. www. C. http://www.amazon.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. L. IL: Skylight.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. Hillsdale.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. http://www. T.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. How to Assess Authentic Learning. Chodorow.com/Books/b39739. (1997).com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. In S. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (2002). http://www.msu. St. C. K. and Knight. Acapulco. McNamara. B. and Hirschman. Burstein.pdf Brown J.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. Linn (Ed. http://www. (1956). and Marcu. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. IEEE Intelligent Systems. Burstein. Kay (1999). Shermis and J. K. & Olsen. (2003).. D. http://www.assess. August 2003. Daniel. Marcu. New York.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. J. New York: Oxford. A.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. L. Jill C.iltaonline. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. J. V.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Ciravegna (Eds. New York: Academic Press. http://www. (1982). http://www. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis..amazon. Daniel. Educational Measurement. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment.assess.amazon. Shermis and J. eSchool News.com/Books/b39739. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 2005. & Leacock.org/intelligent/archives.amazon. M. http://www. Kaplan (Ed.ets. (2003). Mexico. Online paper. In M.. (2001). Jill. In the R.. N.. Burstein (Eds. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. In R. Langu-age Learning and Technology. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. J.computer. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". http://www.pdf. Kevin (2003). http://www. (2003).http://www. In M. Jill. Rethink testing for future success. S. J. Louis. Jill. Iwashita. New York: McKay.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . Hillsdale. Arlington Heights. (1989).iltaonline.com/news/showS toryts. and Chodorow. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics.htm Burstein. 1. Robert (2005). and O'Hagan.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Martin. B. and Collis. NY: Macmillan.htm. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.pdf Biggs. Missouri. June 22.amazon.amazon. http://www.eschoolnews.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Burstein (Eds.

Louis. n. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.com/pdf/Paper Tests. H.gmu. 5. http://eprints. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.unimelb. Robert. http://www. S. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. Morgan. The Student Assess-ment Handbook.. W. www.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).Hershey. Online newsletter. M. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology.soton. (2005). Loughborough. N.au/worldcall/str5.. C. May. Millard.Carr.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. http://www.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".msu.. S.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .pdf Hricko.html. http://www.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. (1998).) (2005). Writing assessment: a position statement.utas. Language Learning & Technology 2.html Davies. http://www. and Sclater.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). 5. Howell.hlc. Seven technologies for assessment. v. Howard. Y. P. London: Falmer. D. 2. http://www.html Chalhoub-Deville.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault.edu. http://www..nap. L. (2001).ac. O’Reilly.nmsu. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. v..iltaonline. 2. March 9. http://mason.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. 4. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. (2004). and Parry. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.amazon. (1999). EdMedia '99. B. St. C.amazon. n.Proceedings from a Workshop. (2001). K. Online newsletter. No.softwaresecure. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.htm Cebrian. (2002). E. Laham. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference.edu. P. Howard (1993). Micheline. Language Learning and Technology. and Howell.ecs. Nathan.msu. National Research Council. Online paper.msu. M. In Proceedings. T. Chalhoub-Deville.htm. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. http://llt. http://www. (1999).pdf Dunkel P.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. PA: Information Science.) (1999). W. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Language testing and technology: past and future. Lawrence.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. Language Learning and Technology. (Ed.amazon. Davis.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. University of Tasmania.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. D. & Landauer. http://wwwpsych. Micheline. and Grellett. College Composition and Communication Online. New York: Basic Books. Foltz. (2001). http://www. http://llt. (2004).org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.doc. M.html Frase. Board on Testing and Assessment.ncte.. (Eds. 2: 77-93. Gardner. May. http://llt.

http://escholarship. and Watt. & Laham. and Gifford.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.amazon. 25. 403-416.edu/cgi/viewcontent . and Skinner. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Weller. Howard. Hardas. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. National Center for Education Statistics. & Leacock. (Ed. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. and Hricko.amazon. Potenza. D. Hershey. Patrick (2000).com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms..gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. http://www. H. S. and Writing.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. C. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. S.. May.ed. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. http://llt.amazon. W. and Ma.amazon. University of Gothenburg.. http://www.LSAintr o. New York.. D.bc. (Eds.amazon. M.amazon. http://lsa.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000195.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Problem Solving. (2000).) (2002). (1979). D. P. and Assessment.html Khan. Information Science Publishing. K.. (1998). NY: Guilford Press.pd f Weiner. T. DC: U. Reports from the Institute of Education. & Mason. Online Assessment. (2005). (1999). M.. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. M. M. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . J. Washington. (Eds. Fremer. J. (2006). and Ward. International Journal on E-Learning. 5(2). Foltz. Discourse Processes.proexam. Burstein. McArthur.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Fitzgerald.colorado. In C. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.Jones. (2001). PA: Information Science.S.kent. http://www. A. Language Learning and Technology. V. http://www. (2005). M. J. C.pdf Landauer.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. http://nces. Tim (2006). 259284. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. http://eric. Self.. http://www. http://www. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. & J. Graham. Government. R.. Measurement and Evaluations. B. and Malabonga. R (2002). Y. Journal of Technol. (2006). Mahwah. M.pdf MacDonlad. Handbook of writing research. Hillsdale. J. http://www..com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. G.pdf Kenyon. W. Learning.) (2005). pp.. K. http://www.. 4(6). Compiegne. France. Howell.medianet.) (2000).msu. N. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. D.edu/papers/dp1.

a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.com Do not reproduce 41 . Operitel white paper. http://www.operitel.

by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.. One audio application of interest to educators. to personalized media). The quality of online audio depends on many factors. which is gaining in popularity. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. This frag-mentation is being fueled. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. According to Crofts et al. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while it is playing. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. in part. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings.e. depending on the file size). Assists non-native speakers. You can’t add your own notes. compared with even a few years ago. (i. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. is podcasting. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as .5 megabytes. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. (i..e. or by “streaming. Provides another channel for material review.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. such as those for iPods. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. (2005). the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. the rest of the file has time to arrive. For example.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Provides feedback to learners. podcasting. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices.

rds. GNU/Linux. http://www.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. and broadcasting are all found on this site. http://www.48.edupodder. playback.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. phrases.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. including software to record and play podcasts.ltd. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. enhancing.scientificcomputing.masternewmedia.avsmedia.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.elearningcentre.71. http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. shareware.podcasting-tools.com. http://64.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. http://www.com/lipsync/ind ex. http://www. and other operating systems. http://epnweb. It is available to download for Mac OS X.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. sound editing.com/AudioTools/inde x.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. open source software for recording and editing sounds.apple. Microsoft Windows. http://www.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. CD audio extraction.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. freeware. http://www.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.purdue.ibritt. http://recap.com/scwmarapr05sonification.thepodcastnetwork. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. go to: http://www.htm For a list of podcasting tools.com/resources/dc_media. http://www. DJ mixing.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. Audio and video software.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.uk/podcasting/index. recording. including podcasting.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.com/blogs/doug/index. or sentences from audio Web sites. http://www.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.audiotoolsdirect.envision. http://www. http://www. htm RECAP Ltd.co. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. http://sourceforge. tools.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.automaticsync. http://www. and utilities for conversion.

Dave (2005).. http://digitalcommons. Sound Sense. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. University of Nebraska.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Fox. Ray (2005). July 2005.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Healthcare.adobe. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Luigi (2005).aace. http://recap.html Kaplan-Leiserson. Peter (2005). 45-50. L. http://www. J.scientificcomputing. 417-419).ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. http://www.com/scwmarapr05sonification.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.html Curtis.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www.audiolink.org/index. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides).html Girvan. May 20.com/products/audition/ main. Brenda (2001).multitrackstudio. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. http://firstmonday.apple. Robin Good’s Blog. 10(9). P.htm Jobbings.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. VA: AACE. A.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. In G.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research .com/home.unl. http://dl. C.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.bias-inc. (2003).cakewalk. B.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. April 2005. Eva (2005). M. (2005). June 2005.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. Learning Circuits. and Swenson. Dilley. Doctoral Dissertation.learningcircuits.uk/articles/podguide. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. http://www. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). First Monday. and Williams.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.masternewmedia.h tml Canali De Rossi. N. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. S.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. Podcasts. http://www..sonicfoundry. Richards (Ed.. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.editlib. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.ltd. and Lomas. http://www. Dion Cory (1999). 2005. Podcasting and Vodcasting. http://edmarketing.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. pdf Noakes. Government. and Higher Education 2003 (pp.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. Chesapeake.educause. Scientific Computing World. Retsema. September. http://www.

There are other formal approaches to authoring great content.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Development. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. in the end. No authoring tool does everything. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content.s html). please see http://www. For details on each Microsoft product. simulations. (For details. As well. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. 2005). Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. Implementation. content development. Design. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). rapid elearning. either directly or with third party tools. Further. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill.brandonhall. see: http://www. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats.microsoft.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. In this vein. and Evaluation) processes. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. and.

de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product. pointers. http://www. http://www.com/presenter.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. http://www. video.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint.Capture Station 2. http://www. buttons.uk/contentpoint.adobe.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming. go to: http://www. http://www.allencomm. http://www.Content Point .atlanticlink.com Agile . http://www. video.composica.turbodemo. http://www.htm ActiveSlide.copycatsoftware.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .Designer’s Edge.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.Composica Enterprise .com/powerp oint-presentations-index.com Anark .info/ Allen Communications . http://www. hotspots.Media – Import 3-D Models. and marketing applications.com/eng/index.brainshark. .com/index.articulateglobal. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. visualization. and PowerPoint slides.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.thinkingcap.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.accordent. http://www. http://presentation.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. http://www.co. http://www. Builds quizzes.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. http://www. and images and turn them into 3-D training.activeslide. www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www. rich text.com/ Counterpoint .htm Bernard D&G .Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.acroservices.com/ Business Performance Technology . and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. Flash.lersus.elearningpowertools.co. pop-up messages.com/products/ Articulate .ilessons.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.Thinkcap Studio .html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .htm Brainshark Inc. XML. music. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. video.com/ Acroservices . htm Composica . Integrates various media.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.asp Bridge People and Technology . Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.bridge-pt.anark.

impatica. http://www.gen21.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. Import rich media and customize graphics.com Imaira Digital Media . http://www.co.intecllc.digitalworkshop. such as the following: Web.dynamicpowertrainer.com Element K .com/ Information Transfer .com/ Integrated Performance Systems .htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . http://www. graphics.com/index. without programming knowledge.hunterstone. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.ht ml E-Learning Consulting .pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.seminar.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.uk/ INTEC . http://www.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www.com imc AG . DVD-video.com/ka.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. HTML courses.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .com/Solutions/Elearni ng. Post the characters on any Web site.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. http://www. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.com/inde x_eng.experiencebuilders. http://www.e2train.sculptoris. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. and installation files.com/ Eclipsys Corporation .eclipsys. and animation.horizonwimba.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/ Hunter Stone .com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. http://www.eedo.epistema. http://www.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.lecturnity.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. audio.exe files.elementk.com/products/forceten. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. http://www.elicitus.e-learningconsulting.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . video. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.php e2train . or Macromedia Flash media presentations.shtml Dynamic Media . stand alone .de/ Impatica .Digital Workshop . CD Rom.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.com/products/ Pro. http://www.

pdf Intuition .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.com/index.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.com/home/home.EasyProf . http://www.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.easyprof.maxit. centralized knowledge base. Word. . http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity.uk/ MindIQ . graphics.com/prods erv.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. http://www. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.ipsinc.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons. Has its own built-in learning management system.mckinnonmulherin.mindiq. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.com/tbt/dac/index.asp Knowledge Quest . http://www.com/ NetPlay Software . http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. shtml Itaca .learnerland.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. http://www.intuition. http://www.com .maxit.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. audio.php MindOnSite . http://www. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.customcourse.com/ Learn. Works with SAP Learning Solution. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.knowledgequest.com/flashhom e. http://www. http://www. Ready-made button and navigation aids. PowerPoint slides.knowledgextensions.instant-demo.jsp Knowledge Planet . http://www. Built-in testing engine.co.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.Used to create presentations without programming skills.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www.com/learncenter. http://www. http://www.com MyKnowledgeMap .com/ KnowledgeXtensions . combining multimedia content like video.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .learn. with no programming and no plugins.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.LEARNERLand – Text.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.mohive. http://www.com/ OPTX International . with a built-in learning management system.elearninginabox.mindonsite.ie/software/publisher.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex.knowledgeplanet.htm MediaMaker .knowledgepresenter. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .htm Kookaburra Studios .

scribestudio.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.toolbook.com Respondus .rapidintake.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/sensasoluti on. and highly interactive elearning content. http://www. kiosks. http://www.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. and course player all in one software package.Nuvvo .readygo.com/common/affili ateRefer.syberworks.reusableobjects.podia.com/ Scribe Studio .toolbook. http://www. image hotspot activities.com/Products/elearnin g_objects.teds.suddenlysmart.cfm Serco (technical) .com/ Savvica . Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.ht m Techsmith .com/ Qarbon . http://www.htm Do not reproduce 49 .com/products/lc.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.net/ PointeCast .ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. http://nuvvo.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. French. matching games.com/camtasia. http://www. http://www.com/product_sa.softchalk. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. http://www.sensalearning. popups.E-Learning Objects . Audio.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. http://www. http://www. http://www. or Spanish. http://www. When content is developed.respondus. http://www. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.shtml Reusable Objects .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.com/learn_assistant.com/learn_assistant. interactive Flash presentations and online training.or SCORMcompliant. http://www.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. GIFs.pointecast. http://www.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.com/ Percepsys . a customizable. course publisher. http://www.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .qarbon.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . http://www.net ReadyGo . and Flash. crosswords.screenwatch. image labeling.com/coursegen.htm Suddenly Smart . customizable flashcards.teknical.com Rapid Intake . Microsoft PowerPoint.techsmith.podiaOnDemand . http://www.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.percepsys. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.asp TEDS .Publisher Professional . without knowing code. Courses can be posted. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. JPEGs.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://www.In minutes. http://www.com/ SumTotal .htm podia .Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.students. and assessments.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.com/products/study mate.

and text. and Riesbeck. http://www.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. P. Melia.gov/ Webex . http://www.pdf Ramp. http://www. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. and host online discussions.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). M..IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. (2005).XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.time4you. audio.com/Technology. templates.dol.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.htm Zapatec . http://www. L. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research .bloki.pdf Murray.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. Berlin: Springer.amazon. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. and Ainsworth.. http://www.com/download _rb40eval..com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. S. http://www.trainvision. publish blogs. http://workforceconnections.time4you GmbH .brandonhall. http://www.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. images. www. video. and rapid simulation. CD. (2005).2-conformant objects and assessments.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. P. Doctoral Dissertation. content conversion. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Blessing. http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. Government. or Network. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8. T. and Brusilovsky.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. D.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author .htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. interactive and intelligent educational software. Montreal.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.co. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. S. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.com/products/products _xwb.uk/index. C. Northwestern University. www.lectora. E.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.win.. Lin (2005). C. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. Illinois. De Bra.oswego. Healthcare. (2005). E.com/ US Government .funeducation. McMullen. and Pahl. (2003).php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .westcliffdata.xplana. http://www. and wizards.xstreamsoftware. http://www. right in their browser with no additional software required.Presentation Studio .webex. http://www.oswego.com/services/webpresentation-svc.asp TrainVision .tue. http://www. June 2005.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. Evanston.cs.cs.

E. October 2428. http://www. Learning Circuits.2005). http://www2.brandonhall. Sunnyvale.sis.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. The myth about tools. (2005).htm Woodill. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.htm Tozman. Technical Univ.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Canada. Eindhoven.edu/~paws/publication s.s html Do not reproduce 51 . Vancouver. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Learning Circuits. June 2005.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. W. NL. CA: Brandon Hall Research.com/publications/emerging/emerging. 2004. http://www.learningcircuits.. BC. A. AACE. Gary (2005). http://www. 2005. http://www.org/index. Masters Thesis.pitt. Reuben (2005).learningcircuits.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.htm Tozman. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Reuben (2004). Nov.

http://www. the avatar may represent an actual human being. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.sculptoris.codebaby.Avatars Related terms Agents.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. and generally simulates human activity. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. for example. especially in gamebased learning activities. in the broadest sense.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. but in e-learning. http://www.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. http://blogoehlert. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. In the context of elearning. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. games.typepad.” Maldonado et al.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Similarly.telsim. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. In some situations.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio.

In T.daden.. Raj (2003). M.ac.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. and Weber. http://www. Y. 25. (2004). Yamada. http://ww. http://isnm. in cooper-ation with a number of groups.pdf Seth. http://www. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference.stanford.redwoodelearning. D. Nass. Ahad.pdf Online Resources In Europe. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. Try them at: http://www.vcom3d. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. http://www.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.pdf Maldonado. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. S.oddcast.. A. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. C. www. New Zealand. In the toolkit. H. S.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. (2005).. Aug. http://www. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.. B.” which are avatars that teach.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.html 2005 .edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.exodus.Training Education & Education International Conference... http://www. and T. Inc.tmmy. users are represent-ed as avatars.co. J. Suthers. modular application.. and Nodder. K.co. Koschmann. 2005. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www. H. Nexus Media. Lee. (2005). Iwamura. http://www. Brave. Chan (Eds. and Morishima.elearningguild.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.naccq.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.knowledgeenvironments. C.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. Nakajima. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. eLearning Developers’ Journal. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI.. offering a large number of supportive functions.W. 2003. R.pdf Jung..uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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clickers. training the faculty member to use the software. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice.” In spite of the costs. classroom communication systems. and military settings. 2006. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. the costs and headaches multiply. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. integrated with other types of learning technologies. management. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. corporate. costs can be an issue. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. display. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. increasing their motivation to learn.einstruction. http://www. or clickers. The devices keep students alert and involved. higher education. giving almost instant feedback. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. The use of clickers has several advantages. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. Beatty. However. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. including the following (summarized from Cassidy.

com/index. http://www.com/news_issue. http://www. Inside CUA.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS. July 7. and Lederman.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. http://www. http://www.cua.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.elearning.aclearn.h-itt.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002. 2004. http://www. March 3.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.net/display.optiontechnologies. http://www. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. http://www.edu/articleprinter1. Educause Learning Initiative.utexas.gtcocalcomp. http://www. Eric (1997). Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.active-learning-site.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.” http://www. 41(5).com/cps/index.jmu. including material on the use of classroom response systems. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://www.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.pearsonncs. 2006. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.com/Default. 3.pdf Burnstein.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. Q.qwizdom. The Physics Teacher. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. Tom (2004). NJ: Prentice Hall. https://sharepoint. http://www. (2003).htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. 272-275.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.campustechnology. Upper Saddle River. http://www.physics.com. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.cisat. pdf Cassidy. http://www. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Ian (2004). See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.com/index. Volume 2004.ubc.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.pearsoned.amazon.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. Research Bulletin.utexas. E-Learning Dialogue.Publishing textbook. http://umperg. R.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. No. http://www.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.pdf Mazur.educause. 3.com/products_int erwrite. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Anne (2006).cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.learnstar. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. http://inside. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. Feb.smartroom.umass.

Melbourne.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .edu. http://www.uq.Conference. Australia.itee.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.

The Institute for the Future. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. http://www. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. social networking building. collaborate. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.g. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e.g. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. http://www. through brainstorming).Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).com/virtualoffice/index. it requires skill and experience. and There are many different ways to collaborate. e.. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. doing.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.com/products/i ndex. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.g.teamspace. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests...advancedreality.html?ad-main Annotea .Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. social bookmarking.zoho. organization. organize. clarification. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and collaborating. evaluation. reduction. many respond.

and instant access to the group workspace.cisco.courseforum. http://www.comotivsystems. and communication.avecomm. share files. http://www.com/English/ps2/product s/product. jot down notes.inteam. Presence (see who’s online). intellectual property management.gotomeeting. and collaboration.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.bluetie. with templates and workflows for product development. http://www.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .com/ EMC² . http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. calendar. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). http://www. search. http://www. and instant messaging.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .com/ourProduc t/index. http://www. version control.bantu. and information technology adoption.com/services/faq_basics .com/ Cisco . Features include IM. instant messaging.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. and searchable discussion threads. expert location.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. office.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. education.brightidea. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). http://www.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.emc.Documentum eRoom . and communicate with others. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise .w3. flexible workflow. http://www. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications. document versioning.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. http://www.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . collaborative file management. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. alerts.bookmarks.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. Includes document organization and sharing. voice and data collaboration. robust document management.jsp Engineering. http://www. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. share information. recordable conferencing.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.centraldesktop. Web conferencing. and individual users. and upload photos.citrix. http://www.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. http://www.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.digite.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. discussion forum.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. non-profit. http://software.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop .Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.backpackit.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . http://www.Unified MeetingPlace .com/ Blenks – In-team .com/microsites/eRoo m/index. and meeting manager.opencroquet. contacts.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. http://www.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .globalchat. markup of data. project planning and reporting.

gliffy. presentation tools.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .exactamerica. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . invite workspace members. cameras. Features include the following: Accessing documents.com/halo/index. easy to use online collaboration system. allow members to update and edit files. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.google. require-ment and risk management.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. voting. meeting. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.groove. 2001. conducting surveys.Live meetings and Web conferencing.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. assign file editing rights and completion dates. product quality assurance. search. resource information sharing. including whiteboards.Halo Collaboration Studio . Features include interactive data collaboration. snapshots. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. http://www.shtml Hewlett Packard . and corporate instant messaging. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.facilitate. categorizing. scheduling and using calendars.gordano.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. desktop sharing.net/home/index.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. http://www.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . attach threaded discussions to files.com/products/Collabor ation. http://www.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. http://www. http://www. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. tracking the status of assignments. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://collaboration.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. It has tools for managing multiple teams.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . powerful. http://www. interactive whiteboard.flypaper. http://www. and sending workflow tasks.ezmeeting.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. http://www. drawing tools. Web-based extranet tool. quantitative project management. and organizational process performance. share files and documents. secure. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.engineering. http://www. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. http://www.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. It provides working groups with simple.forumone. and images.groupsupport. and team management. http://www.hp.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. http://groups.grapevinesoftware.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.features a project navigator.epam-pmc. software construction. and document management. data and process tracking. The system streamlines project planning. and creating action plans. recording and playback. http://www. universal file viewer for MS office documents.com/EN/products /GSII. project management.

data. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. customers.iceweb. task manager.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.Jotspot Live. efficient. Features include the following: Document management. realtime chat. http://www. a Wiki. http://www. image libraries. and more. Customizable Web directory. peer-to-peer.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. security levels. podcasting. discussion forums.com/products/docu ment_management/index. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. blogs (Weblogs). online contact management. and Microsoft Outlook integration.com/ iLinc Communications . link sharing). an interface to a mailing list server.com/hotComm.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.kGroups provides a number of tools. online editor. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. Functions include the following: Share documents.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.jdhtech. integrates with MS Office. and customers on the Web.com/html/produ cts. and extensibility. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees.jotlive.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. versioning control.hotComm .mspx Do not reproduce 65 . and file commenting.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. partners. instant messaging and presence indication. Integrated suite of multiuser. http://www. including file sharing. online calendar.webofficepoint. and secure peer networking architecture. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. search archiving. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.Lotus QuickPlace .interwoven. calendars.com/ IBM . online document management.inquesttechnologies. private interactive access or exchange of text. Features include the following: Shared calendars. http://www. http://www.ac.hotcomm. structured. and provides search.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M .microsoft. and Lotus Notes.hyperoffice.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point . http://www.com/Smart Apps. Web resources.com/ JotSpot . http://www. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. scalable. including versioning. a powerful. voice.za/index. http://kgroups.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. Outlook. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.uwc. contacts.com/ Interwoven . folders.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business.ilinc. and photos. http://www. Features include the following: Business email. and shared documents.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . http://www. video.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . http://www.ibm.mayeticvillage. http://www03. http://www.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software.

novell. MyWorldChat Communicator . information.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .html Rallypoint .Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. schedule and track events and activities.microsoft.com/collabsuite/index. real-time application sharing.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration.com/ Oracle . audio and Webcam. and files. text chat.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. http://www. organize and discover content through categories and tags.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. and presence management solutions.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.parlano.com/ Novell – Groupwise .com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. http://www. calendaring.Corporate quality communications center. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.near-time. http://www. and share data or applications while they are online. Within each area. milestones. Allows people to talk to each other.rallypointhq. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. called an online community.santacruznetworks.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . http://www.com/terms. and contact and document management functions. and communicate. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction.com/ Same-Page.communityzero. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. and MP3 audio recording. instant messaging.Community Zero .com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. http://www.oracle. http://www. tasks. resources. task management. http://www.Rallypoint .Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. Enables individuals.mspx Near-Time – Flow . http://www. providing the best of both worlds.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. teams. http://www. share knowledge. Document Management.A suite of persistent group messaging.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. http://myworldchat. processes. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. file transfer. author and review pages individually and across the group. see each other in real time using cameras. team events.same-page. Workflow Automation. instant messaging. moderator functions.com/ Ramius .Microsoft – SharePoint .performancesolutionstech.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .com – eStudio .opentext. http://www.

and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. or use it to build a Web application. http://www. http://www. project. live video.com/company/news/press /2005.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. expertise. http://www. XML-RPC server. FTP server.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.25. and share.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. http://www. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.yahoo. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. e-mail server.Processes email.html Trichys – WorkZone .ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite.webasyst.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . Webbased whiteboarding.viack. partners. and use live audio.writely. and breakout groups. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation.00.webcrossing. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration .sharemethods.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. collaboration.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. http://www.tacit. Use it out of the box. and business partners. chat server.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.trichys. http://www.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. desktop document folders.seldensystems. instant messaging. http://groups. http://www. calendar sharing.Collaboration software that includes document management.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.com/index.sumtotalsystems.vignette. http://www. project teams. productivity applications.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and business relationships.com/content/default. http://www.com/product/ Vignette . and calendaring tools.2097.sitescape. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.stalker. video. workflow and task management.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. interact. http://www. and more.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.com SpiderWeb Communications . WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. and information sharing. and prospects – without leaving their desks.com/ SiteScape . Designed specifically for the non-technical user.com/products /stcollab. store files.Forum ZX . voice and Web conferencing.com/contentmanagem ent/0. collaboration. and other business communications. newsgroup server. and instant messaging. search. view and edit documents or images together. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. threaded discussions. Includes VoIP. http://www. documents.solutions. http://www.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.04.cyber-grad. Web conferencing server (in-house). application sharing.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.

com/ HP . Works with Microsoft Project.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.Features include Hands up.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . Share multiple projects with multiple users. video. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . scaleable.teamdynamix.hp.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. form to submit questions.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . simple. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.brevient.HP Virtual Classroom .Intuitive project management software for work teams. http://www.Instant set-up. calendars. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. content button. http://www. http://www. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. and payments. project planning.caucus. discussions. connects peers.nexprise.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.com/ applications. and collaboration to timesheet management. assign tasks. http://www.nagarro.projectdox.Projistics .com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.generation.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. invoicing. data. print icon. http://www. review button. annotation tools.com/project. http://www. and save to disk icon.com/index. online management for projects of any size and scope. content.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. project tracking.saba.Web event calendaring.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.axista.onproject.peoplecube. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . attendee list.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting . and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.0 . Access to the tool is also given to clients. scheduling solutions.opmcreator. custom stamps." virtual collabor-ation.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. identify and resolve potential problems. and data into a single storage area. http://www. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www. applaud and meter. and share documents.com Nagarro . http://www. and e-mails. set user permissions. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. http://www. and Web pages.com/ onProject – myonProject .project-open. navigation.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. http://www.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . exit and help. http://www. private/group chat. and communicate with their project teams.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. http://education. affordable. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.elluminate.tomoye. whiteboard pages. files. http://www. feedback.

Delivers unlimited voice. http://www. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities.mixmeeting.elluminate. and text chat. video. and phone use. virtual office hours.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. polling and quizzes. e-learning classrooms.batipi.liveoffice. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.net/site/getglance/exa mples.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.ivocalize. annotations. including Web conferencing. Features include shared documents.com/ iVocalize . notes. breakout rooms. shared desktop.interwise. learning.horizonwimba. instant Do not reproduce 69 . quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www. hand raising.genesys. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.0 .Synchronous Webconferencing software. desktop sharing.intralinks. http://www. http://www. video. e-mail invites. pre-recorded broadcasts.Photon Infotech – SPARK .LiveOffice provides Web-based. online seminars. http://www. meeting management. shared whiteboard and present-ation.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio.A secure.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. Multilingual. and more. office hours. and meetings. integrated content management system. Record classes or Webcasts.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. private whiteboards for each participant. and Webconferencing specialists. URL sharing. and a change presenter ability. Allows holding live. synchronous online lectures.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. http://www. sales presentations.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . For example.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. application sharing. and real-time videoconferencing. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. remote control. http://www. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. how often. instant messaging. visual.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . keyboard and voice chat. online classes. http://www.com/website2/events _imc. http://www. Web. Webcasts.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. http://www. http://www.com/ internet_conferencing. http://www. and by whom.com/ Linktivity Division.glance. and content display. session reports. toll-free conference calling. http://www. guest lectures. http://www.com/ Intralinks .adobe. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. and Web conferencing with WebEx.photoninfotech.linktivity. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. record and playback. and collaborative content-building sessions. broadcasts files.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. teleconferencing.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .convenos. attendee lists.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. transparency tools. live demos. and videoconferencing.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. and collaboration features.communiqueconferencing.

Solutions include Web meetings.webtrain. tour Web sites.Meeting One – Click&Share.telnetz.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. Webinars. or an entire desktop. send text messages. or meeting. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. course.cudenver.webex.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. discussion forums.edu/~bwilson/build ing.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. publishing. present PowerPoint slideshows.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). With the convenience of online access through an individual account.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. http://www. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. surveys.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . The suite manages the creation. http://www. set up labs and conduct quizzes.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. http://www. e-learning. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. http://www.com/home/s_vmps.netspoke. any application.Powers online meetings. http://www.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . http://www.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke .meetingone.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.com/action. http://www.Web and audio conferencing services. text messaging. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. editing. and document collaboration. and system management. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services. and into the enterprise.radvision. teleconferencing. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.voxwire.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . a graduate school of the University of Toronto. share other applications. the Internet. conference calling. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www. http://www. Requires only a browser and a phone. audio. http://carbon. Web conferencing.raindance.To support large deployments.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .wave3software.com/bridgepoint. remote support. and instant messaging capabilities. and moderation of Webcasts.edufolio.vodium. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.com/rndc/services/s ervices.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research .

collabtech.mitre. N. Nov.educause.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. communities. ChenBurger.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. http://www.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.. http://www. Sign up for free at: http://www. J. Maceió.htm Mitre Corporation. Komzak.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.. http://www.1:100250..pdf Bonk. Nov. Brazil.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. Dalton.org/collab/inde x.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. A..com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. M. http://www.uk/12081/ Beshears. http://cde. Potter.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. Curtis (2002). also known as “groupware.kolabora.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). Eisenstadt. 2003. http://www. 2006..ac. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. T..asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.usabilityfirst.writely. http://www.org/tools. Models of collaboration.clomedia.ecs. http://www. Web 2.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. K. and Coleman. Chief Learning Officer.html Do not reproduce 71 . also has a great list of collaboration tools. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.com/View..soton. 4. S.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://www.1 Bibliography Alexander.bruck.. (2003). J. Collaborative Strategies.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.collaborate. D.criticalmethods.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.com/webconf/workspa ces. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. D. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. 2002. Shadbolt.com/groupware/in dex.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.diglib. Bill (2004). September. (2004). M. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. http://collaboration. http://www.globalschoolnet. http://eprints.athabascau. Buckingham Shum. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. Bryan (2006). 2002.htm Butler. 41(2). S.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Michaelides. http://www..springerlink. De Roure. Page.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. scientific.. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. March/April 2006.org/index.” http://www. and Tate. Fred (2002).com/content/templat es/clo_feature. http://www.collaborationloop. http://www. Creating an eCommunity.ctcevents. Japan on July 13-14. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.thinkofit. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).com/writings. http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. Q2Learning White Paper. J. D.

ieee. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. 2565-2569. 5(1). and Miller. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.. J. January 21.) (2003).org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Bjorn (Ed. and Forster. London: Springer-Verlag. M.zcu. J. C. http://www. Chesapeake. and Jochems. http://wscg. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2004b). http://www. 5(1). Sept. I. CA.. J. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.htm Canali De Rossi. Live ELearning.com/Feature/109 Elliot. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . and Sharifi. Palo Alto. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. http://cde. J. R. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.editlib.pdf Kaplan. http://www.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports.masternewmedia. K.ieee.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. (Eds. A. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. Fitzgerald.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing. & Weber. 2003. Learning Circuits. August 2002. P.masternewmedia.masternewmedia.masternewmedia. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Robin Good Blog. K.N.htm # Clapp.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Collaboration First. 827-829). A. http://www. June 30.. Luigi (2004a).org/index. http://www. (2004). Robin Good Blog. http://www. Luigi (2005). Aavani.cmswatch. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Robin Good Blog. Institute for the Future White Paper. (2002). J.. (2002). A. CMS Watch.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. Luigi (2003a).. Price. and Thomas. D. J. A.masternewmedia. Findlay. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. McFerrin. D.Canali De Rossi. Soren (2002).amazon. Proceedings.athabascau. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Educational Technology & Society. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. W. January 2005.) (2004). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. (2004).org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.htm Canali De Rossi.).. Educational Technology & Society.learningcircuits. (2005). Gibson. Robin Good Blog.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. (2002). Kirschner. D.ca/online_book/ch8 .com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Then Knowledge Management. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. In Crawford.htm Canali De Rossi. Technologies of Cooperation... R. http://ifets..cfm/files/pape r_12386. e-Book. Kirschner..htm Canali De Rossi. 2004. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.rheingold. 3. and Martens. http://www.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott.org/index. http://www. R. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.. (Eds. May 2.. VA: AACE. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. June 22.html Hurst. http://www.editlib.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. Matthew (2004).org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. Luigi (2003b). The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. University of Athabasca.html Institute for the Future (2005).org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. June 5. Carlsen. Willis.html Kreijns. http://ifets. P.pdf Strijbos. http://www.html Munkvold. R..

Nov.edu. http://www.Norwell. Evaluation. 24.cqu. Innovation and Development. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. J.. (2004). Callan. & Purnell.au/include/getdoc. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.. Studies in Learning. http://sleid. K. 1(2).com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. G.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .amazon.

VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.71. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. discussion forums.uk/deletacademictalk. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. For example. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.janison. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.org/index. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. developed in Brazil.au/eq/default. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. discussion groups. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.” http://goldenswamp.48. Hegarty et al. blogs.google.editlib. whiteboards. and yet tailored and flexible. UK. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. telephony. For Laurillard. http://www. re-usable.ac.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. labs.conversate. Find her work at: http://64. http://www.com. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. telepresence. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. instant messaging. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. messaging.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. a process referred to as “text mentoring. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.jisc. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. It is being developed into a transportable. VoIP.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. including communications tools. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. chat. http://www.

University of Warwick. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.com/wwwtools/m/2645.ac.learningcircuits.pdf LaCroix. James (2005).editlib.formatex.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn.. UK. 19. http://m. and telephony tools. Aug. M. http://www. University of Athabasca. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. S. London: Routledge. Sven (2002).ngfl. (2004).htm Garner. M. 20-21. 13-20. J. > http://www. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. F. D.pdf Eleuterio. http://www. (2002). chat. http://safety.com/webconf/hostsite s. and Bortolozzi. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.uk/schools/document . Computer Mediated Communication.athabascau. (2005). 2005 http://www.elearningcentre. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.ac. S. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. University of Birmingham. http://hbswk. Pattie (2005). September 23. I.html Laurik. CharityVillage.thinkofit. http://www. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.. http://cde.charityvillage. (Mlearn 2002).gov. and Collins. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im.warwick. Diana (1993).uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool.co. J. British Journal of Educational Technology.co. Learning Circuits. E-Learning 1.jisc. 31 (3). Technologies of Online Learning.bcs. http://www2. and Elliott. distance-learning course at Keele University. (2000).com/cv/research/ rmed35.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. Bostock.htm http://www. http://www. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. CAP e-Guide.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. http://www. Jan.fasfind.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. (2004).elearningcentre. Nick (2002). J.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Cerri.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.edu/item. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. International Journal on E-Learning. Komzak. 199-212.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. J.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. M. 31. June. Working Knowledge Newsletter.html Morgan. http://ewic.com Library. e-Book. Francis.co.hbs. 2002.html Laurillard. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. and Wales.pdf Kadirire.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. JulySept.ca/online_book/ch5 . 2002.elearningcentre.org/index.. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.org/micte2005/4.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.amazon. Hegarty. Mark (2004). 2004. R.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.

2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. J. June. 2002. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).king. and Briggs. A. http://dircweb.ac.uk/papers/Stone_A.Stone. (2002). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . 20-21.

The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. skills.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. https://launchpad. skills verification. go to: www.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. diagnose symptoms.imsproject. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. For a large list of competencies for physicians. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). W. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . performance appraisal. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. organizational and personal goals are tied together.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. David McClelland.org. 2000).itsc. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. skills inventory. Edwards Deming. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. entering defined competencies into a matrix. In 1973. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. Description According to Sanders (2001). and carry out proper procedures. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. competency-based training.” it started in 1950 with Dr.org/competencies/in dex. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. 2005). a Harvard psychologist.

com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.edu/paprog/clin_events. April 25.cipd. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. measurement. http://www.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . April.. a Canadian company.” http://www.com/20 050425/technologylife01. http://www.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.ca/index.syberworks.com/article16. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (1982).ibm. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. London: Wiley. http://www. See the list of competencies at: http://www. Josh (2006). R.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.hrsg.com/content/templat es/clo_article. New York: David McKay. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. Ken (2000). New York: AMACOM. Clare (2005). Read their white paper at: http://www.cpgvision.learningcircuits.htm Online Resources HRSG.shtml Hogg.clomedia. Chief Learning Officer. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. and development interventions. Express Computer. activities.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.co.html The U.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. http://www.amazon.expresscomputeronline.wmich.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.ncrel. For example.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. http://www.com/skillsman.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.amazon. Competency and competency frameworks.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.oracle. Sudipta (2005). Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.S.E.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. http://www.desire2learn.learnflex. Building a skills inventory. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. 2005. http://www. Benjamin (1956). objectives. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. htm Many companies have their own competency models. http://www. regardless of industry or sector.amazon.

A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. http://www. and Hollyforde.1/features/ewet te. pp. Sanders. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.amazon.com/2. http://www. 2nd ed.28.. and Cahorn.co. Miller.amazon. White paper from Operitel Corporation. N.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. London: IDS. Study 706. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.operitel.amazon.pdf Rankin. (2001). London: IRS. and Neathy. http://www.amazon.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm.htm Whiddett. P.blogspot. G.) (2003). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. UK: Cambridge University Press. University of Toronto.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. (2000). (2003). N. (1973).t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (Eds.collectionscanada.operitel. April 30. Gary (2004). Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. N. http://www.html Sternberg. (1999). LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. http://www. Ethan (2001). Rankin. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Ellen (2000). R. (2004).aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. P. http://parkinslot. L. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. London: IRS. Rankin.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. E. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.html Radsma. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. Master's thesis. v. Michael. Parkin’s Lot.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Learning Circuits. http://www. Competency based learning management. White paper. (2001).com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . The Psychology of Abilities. Creating a Culture of Competence. and Grigorenko. David. S. Operitel Corporation. Godfrey (2005).uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. New York: John Wiley. F. http://www. American Psychologist. http://www. 1-14. (2005). Cambridge. Johanna. 2005. Competencies.linezine. S.cipd. and Epstein. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. (2001).learningcircuits. http://www. and Expertise.htm Parkin. March 2001. E-Learning Competencies. http://www.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Competency Frameworks.com Woodill. Fall 2000.

Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning objects.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. http://www. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” http://drupal. With the advent of learning objects. rather than complementary. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. LCMS. 2006).atutor. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. Today. Repositories.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. to date. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. Unfortunately. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. and reporting. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. I feel that closed. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups.” As well. If you could afford it. the standardized railway system still works while private. you could hire a company to build a private. They have designed competitive. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. First. manage. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. and “topic maps. displaying a course catalogue. launching courses. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. functionality to an ECM. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. such as registering users. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. According to its official Web site. in fact.

Content Management: our organized future. reuse in many places. Jafari. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. March 3. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. elearnspace blog.gerrymcgovern. http://www.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. 2006. (Eds. P.ca/mt/archive/000 689.com http://www. Educause Review.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS..edtechpost.cmsmatrix. and publish to multiple outputs. C. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.ntua.com/content/templat es/clo_article..uk Bibliography Bonk. http://www. May 15. (2005). B. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. and Oliveira. George (2003). (2006). http://plone. > > http://www. PA: Idea Group. Learning Solutions. 2005.) (2005).org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. Mashups.com/publications.e-learningcentre. http://www. Budapest. Strategies for managing scalable content. (2003). http://www. March 2005. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.pdf Cohen. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.html Cisco Corp. 2005. “Monoliths. Curtis (2005). S.topicmaps. http://sakaiproject. TravelinEdMan blog. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.org Leslie. 40(3).com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. San Jose. McGovern. and Brantner. EdTechPost blog. C. http://www. (2004). Ed. 2003.educause.blogspot.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. January 23.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. May/June. Gerry (2003). 2003. Dec. June 9.htm Siemens.pdf Weigel.co.operitel. Why content management software hasn’t worked. S.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.author-it.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. A. http://www. http://travelinedman. G. http://www. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once.cisco. Hershey. http://www. 2005.softlab. Retalis. Cisco Corporation White Paper.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.html McGee.htm Simon. and Carmean. Van (2005). http://www.clomedia.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. New Thinking Blog.asp Woodill.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 .elearnspace. Scott (2005). http://www. 18. 2003.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.topicmap. http://www.

a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . personalization methods. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. knowledge discovery. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Luan and Willett. delivery models and infrastructure investment. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Consequently. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. 2001).

pdf Fayyad. http://pami. Feb. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.. Thalheim.ac.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.uwaterloo. http://www. and R. and Web mining. (2000). P. Long Beach. 68(8).. G. http://www. In Pierre.amstatonline.html Bibliography De Veaux. M. and Kamel.. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.wfu. 13-16 http://asbointl..pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning.kdnuggets. and Tschiedel. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. P.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.reeltwo. Do not reproduce 83 .com/index. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.pdf Jantke. R. G. S. (2006).cs.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.. by applying fuzzy logic. (2004). (1996). G. (cited in Luan and Willett. 1--34.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. http://www.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.au/%7Ekalina/inde x. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. and Smyth. knowledge discovery. http://imej.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. B. Smyth. http://www. Grigoriev.hkuspace. Uthurusamy. What’s Not. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://www. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. edited U. K.kent.edu.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. AAAI Press/MIT Press.pdf Iskander. Robert (2002).php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart. Piatetsky. http://www.soul.cs.uwaterloo. Lange. Australia. Data Mining in e-Learning. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. New York: Springer.convera. P.. U. http://www. http://pami. Both products are from Convera. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. B. Data Mining: What’s New. Samuel (Ed. New York: Springer.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.kdnuggets. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.icosystem.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.usyd. text mining.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. Alex (2002). Grieser. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. Piatetsky-Shapiro.pdf Freitas. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. pp. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. 2001) http://www. 1996. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. School Business Affairs. California. K.html Hammouda. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. M Fayyad.

Porto. S. MA: WIT Press. http://dl.unikiel. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).is. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.ac.ccsd.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. 3(4). Portugal. http://wwwjime. http://csdl2.pdf Loo. 52-59. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. 47-55. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://www.pdf Merceron. Yacef (2004).com/PaperInfo.open. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).actapress. Oct. K.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. Train. 238-241. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Feb. Hiroshima.asp Merceron. T. and Cheung..de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. C.org/16915 Romero. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.compmech. E. Vol 4. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.pdf Mor. http://www.pdf Merceron.org/index. Austria. http://www. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. C. (2004).pdf Pahl. (2001). analyze for more adaptive teaching. 3(1). In Proceedings. J. A. Maomi (2004).-Dec. 39-40.aace.informatik. K. Innsbruck.ags. and Yacef.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. Oliveira. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. 13-16. (2004).uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. http://www. http://www. Gord (2004). Scholl.unisb. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).. 319-346. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. 2006.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. http://www2004. David (2005).aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. 2004 (7).html Ueno. A. http://archiveedutice. RP Conference Presentation. May 17-22.computer.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and K. http://imej.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. M.editlib.. and Willett.2004. Claus (2004). (2006). (2004). and Ventura.com/acatalog/1845 641523.cnrs. http://www. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. NYC. and Minguillon. C.cabrillo. Yacef (2005). store. A. Japan. International Journal on ELearning.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . Advances in Management Information.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. 41-54.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 7(1). The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. http://www. A. J.pdf McCalla.ejel. and K. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. B. and Ullrich. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).wfu. 15(4). Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. (2006). Billerica.pdf Monk.

fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.au/dss/grassgro/index . http://www. 2) categorize.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. http://www.com/ Facilitate. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.decisionarium. For example. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . in their case study of medical education.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. 4) develop an action plan. and 6) document results.net/index. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).une.tkk. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.bnhexpertsoft.hut.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. http://www. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).edu.facilitate.utoronto. http://www. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.sal. 5) carry out a survey. http://www. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. 3) vote/prior-itize.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. http://www.whichbook. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. http://www.

hicss.pdf Power.bnhexpertsoft. K.ac. http://dssresources. V. S.pdf Jantke. Hawaii.. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. http://www. Aachen.pdf Knolmayer. B. http://www. books. G. Manchester.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.siggraph. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. (2004). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.edu. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.hut. M.pdf Ounapuu. August. SIGGRAPH publication. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. 12(2-3).. and Koskinen.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 317-328. Germany.” http://dmoz. and Tschiedel. see: http://www. Jan.com/index. Kauai.2004. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. http://www. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. http://www. Lange. H. Theresa (1998).de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.. Porto. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Grieser. Gerhard (2003). Clinical and Investigative Medicine. K. (2004). B. http://damit.informatik.sal.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. Dan (2003). June 20-24. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. (2003). In Proceedings.sal. Thalheim.dfki. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Raimo (2003). 101-110. Jay (2004). Hamalainen.html Hamalainen. Memmel.hut.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.pdf Chakrabarty. (2000). 23(4).manchester. and Frasson.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. B.pdf Jantke.html Rhyne. Thalheim.. http://science. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. and information on this area. 2005. M.is. O..com/PaperInfo. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.dssresources. Hawaii.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. Enn (2004).meetingworks. Portugal.pdf Ehtamo. B. P.site. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). 2004. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. http://www.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2..hawaii. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. 238-241. http://www.mc. USA.. White paper from BNH Expert Software.. August 16-18. Rostanin.pdf Frize.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. C. R. http://www. For newsletters. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. Kankana (2005).com/history/dsshistory . Enn (2005).fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.unikiel. and Tschiedel.actapress.uniserve. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. http://www. Jim (2002). UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.html Scott.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.uottawa. Online manuscript. Grigoriev. 6-9.

uniserve. F.com/books/details. http://science. T. http://www.html Shimizu.the curriculum.edu. Hershey. 2002. Oct.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . CAL-laborate. and Laurindo. (2006).au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott. PA: Idea Publishing. 9. M. de Carvaho.ideagroup. Vol. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies..

For air displays. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels.co.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. http://killer.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. monitors. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.edu/design/Camera. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.com/about.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. Electronic paper could change that some day. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. Finally.co. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.theregister. > > http://www. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .P rojector. digital paper. In the near future. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. still/video camera. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.cmu. http://www. lighting up theater size screens. intelligent interfaces. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book.ices. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. In regards to digital paper. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.Displays Related terms Digital ink. electronic paper. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. big enough to be projected on large walls. http://www. This can be a holographic image. Inc.siliconlight. head mounted displays. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). By stacking a second projector.com/technology/ overview NTERA. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. viewers see a floating midair image or video.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. It can display and send data out through its wireless components.html Promera is a hand-held computer.ntera.io2technology.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.theregister.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. projectors. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.” Selected Examples Samsung. in cooperation with Sony.

. W. see: http://www.). Livingston. For a list of his publications.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. M. K.unifreiburg.loaz.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Healthcare. H. Whitton. Canada.fogscreen. see: http://ad. (2005). and Ottmann. T. 2005. 3. Dec. See a demo at: http://www. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Largest LCD and video projection.acm. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.technorati. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. http://portal.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. http://www. In 2005. Oct. London: Springer.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Richards (Ed.E. State. Hamburg.. S.pdf Wang.ac.informatik. Garrett.provisionentertainment. Government. M.jisc. http://www. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 .. http://thejournal.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. A. http://ad.unifreiburg. 2005. Pisano. and Pizer.H. E. pages 3053-3068. In G. Germany. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.informatik. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. (1996).firstmonday. To access the articles.uk/index. http://blog.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Hirota.. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Vancouver. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. Tim (2005). JISC Technology Watch White Paper.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.com/timwang/index.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.org/citation... G.

uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.ac.chalkandwire. http://www.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.pupilpages.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. http://www.angellearning.iwebfolio.elearnspace. My first report in this series. http://www. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.com/eportfolio/in dex.ch/dyn/9. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. http://www.htm Educause. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.pebblelearning. 2005).com/college/portfolio s. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. thus.imsglobal. http://isle.nottingham. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.livetext.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .co.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.educause.uk/default.elearningcentre. http://www2. and simple usability.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.htm IMS.ac.co. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.foliotek. maximum flexibility.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. http://www.educa. helping to transform education and training.paisley. http://www.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://www. http://www. evaluation. http://www.org/Articles/eportf olios.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. open source electronic portfolio.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. http://www.osportfolio. http://www.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.

. and Werdmuller. Educause Quarterly.eradc. Bibliography Achrazoglou.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. D.amazon. FD Learning White Paper.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. http://connect.. College of Education http://www.pdf Greenberg.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . (2003). G. George (2004).org/Articles/eportf olios. (Focus on Teaching). engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. elearnspace. Bob (2004). 4.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. http://www. Love.becta.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. Educause Review.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. vol. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. 39. future thinking: digital repositories. J. 2004 http://www. and McKean.. 16. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. Bryde. http://ferl. Business Communication Quarterly.com/magazine/vault /A5260.cfm Dubinsky. G.doc Banks. (2002).amazon. Dublin. Trinity College. S. http://www.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. J. Harvey. http://www. http://www. 2005. http://www.alt. http://elgg. and Wade. Lee.ac. B.htm Tosh. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. V.pdf Batson. Dec. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.. ePortfolios. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. E.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001. Online paper.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. (2005). University of Iowa. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. Reflective learning.. March. (2004). 37(2). Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. with many links.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. Feijen. Educause Quarterly.educause. Online. Dec. Aalderink.educause.elearnspace.. and Haywood. 31(3). J.. Online Paper. and Hibbitts.educause.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper.thejournal. K. W. Cook.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh.. http://www. http://www. e-portfolios.. and Ittelson. An Overview of e-Portfolios. (2005).educause. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.org/collab/v.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell.campustechnology. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. http://www. Vol 27 No 4. Light.org.pdf Conway. has a section on e-portfolios. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.com/article. M. 28–37. July/ August 2004.. D. B. Trent (2002). an online resource on collaboration. D. Graham (2005). G.. Gary (2004). Fleming. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. B.. Fall. (2005). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.pdf Lorenzo. http://www. T. no.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape.educause. http://www. P.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. J. THE Journal Online. (2002).edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.asp?id=6984 Cohn. J. Frederick (2005). J. (2004). April 1.criticalmethods. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine..

A. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education..http://www. research.ht ml Young. (2002). 144-169. M.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. 2(2).3/tosh.cjlt.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1.A.citejournal. & Figgins.ca/content/vol31. http://www. and portfolios. C.

serious games. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .com/ http://www. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.clickteam. and Second Life. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. allows members of a game development team to work together. writing about “first person shooter games. from the University of Wisconsin. This game allows users to play.myspace. Cyworld.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. identity work.hive7. helping speed up the game creation process.freescale. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. http://www. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. The toolset. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.thinkingworlds.com/ In 2005. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. MySpace. dubbed XNA Studio.com/ http://www. http://www.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. create. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. edit.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.” says that “in the mod world. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.com.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.com/xna/ Softimage. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. complex problem solving. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. 2003). There is a free 30-day trial version.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms.facebook. as such. Constance Steinkuehler.com/ http://www. play. http://www. Examples include Hive7. http://www.secondlife. Dr.cyworld. For a brief review of these tools. Marc Prensky (2003). and learning (Amory.com http://us. games. simulations. see: http://news. Facebook.microsoft. 2005).

” http://www.ucalgary.siggraph.” Read her research at: http://website.programmersheaven.uga. > > http://www.education. http://www. Canada.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. For example. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. produces educational games for training. You can read about them at Pluginz. http://www.org/?14@33.pluginz.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. Inc. Review them at: http://esub.wisc. http://www. http://www.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).nasaga. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.mpjgaBKQ dAe.org/index2. Many of their learning games resources are free.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.seriousgames.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.futureplay.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games. http://www.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.org.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.digiplay. along with their Web sites. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. and speakers on all aspects of gaming.magnetargames.gdconf. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. http://it. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. Started in North America.coe.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.com/zone 8/index.htm Dr. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.com/solutions/g ames/default.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.htm Dr. Sign up at: http://www.it-c. http://www.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. researchers.uk/index2.com/news/548 http://www.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research .” Find his list of publications at: http://www. See the selection of games at: http://www.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.dk/people/sen/public.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.muzzylane. http://www.seriousgamessummit.aspx urces. implementation.for the Xbox.com/ Thiagi.softimage.

com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. N. Marc (2003). Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. 2005. http://website. Serious Games: Games That Educate. SRI-BI. D. Williams. http://www. G. 17-22.uwf.wisc.amazon. January 2.pdf Guetl.php Rieber.php Reynolds. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. In Richard E.ukzn. Fourth Quarter. http://www. Multimedia learning in games. http://www. C.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. and Biswas. 9(1). (2005). Xplanazine. http://www.ac. R. http://www..edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. 2003.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. S. 549-567.. Learning on Demand Bulletin. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Gamasutra. http://llt. Montreal. Oct. Clifton Park. Honolulu.marcprensky. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. 2005. Jan.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. and Inform. (2005).xplanazine. 19. Gupta. March 10. (2006).pdf Swamy.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa. Gaming. Alan (2003).Bibliography Amory. (2005).xplanazine. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. June. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . 2003. H.pdf Bergeron. http://www.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003. Constance (2005). see: http://www. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. Dreher. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach..edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. Technology Trends for the Year. University of Wisconsin Madison.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. D. N.amazon.uwf. and Swamy. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. pdf Reynolds. Lloyd (2005). Beers.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren.pdf Godwin-Jones. C. and Chen. Rob (2006b).teachableagents. Developing Serious Games. and Michael. 2006. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Chapter 33.cambridge. Train. R. Hawaii. http://jason.iicm.. Mayer (Ed.education. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. http://www. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2005. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. http://www. Rob (2006a).com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Bryan (2006). Language Learning and Technology. Bob (2005).itc. Xplanazine. http://www. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. IT-University Copenhagen.pdf Do not reproduce 95 .) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. 2006.amazon. June 25-28. Doctoral dissertation.msu. http://www.pdf Michael.pdf Prensky. and Maurer. Simon (2005). Clifton Park. (2005). simulations and microworlds. J. S. http://www. H.

Masters Thesis.msu. 2004.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Michigan State University. Jason (2004). http://woz.Tye.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis.commtechlab.

April 10-12 2006. March. (2005).org/reports/ReportNR-03. 2008. Artificial intelligence techniques.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.” http://mplab.fg2008. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. Aug. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.soton.com/~ccohen/gesture . http://www. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Munich. looking for particular sequences. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. L. 18.tudelft. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. was held in Southampton.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. London. Porta. F.smartkom. and robotics in elearning.ac.com/pdf/2/081 803DES.pdf Borghi. http://www. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.pdf Beringer. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Report No. artificial intelligence. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. 3.cybernet. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. Nicole (2001). For a list of papers: http://www. UK.ecs.ucsd. haptics. 2003. Michael (2003). http://www. at the University of California. M. FG2008. Lombardi. FG2006.. affective computing. such as Markov models. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . including identifying commercial products. Ludwig-Maximilians University.fg2006.elearningguild..html Research by Dr. http://www.

191-196... and Yang. In Proceedings. 884 – 900.html Chang. X. (2002). Wesson. Las Vegas. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. (1997).stat. Lai. (2005). Vancouver. and Ma. http://portal. 21(9).cse.org/10. http://www.com/PaperInfo. Sept.ucsb. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. September 2002. IEEE Transactions.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. http://cbcl. T. (2002).Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference.pdf Lee. http://www. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.. J. P. Geiger.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. http://www.ercim. W. Communications of the ACM. J. and Carreira.pdf Daugman. and Koike. July 22-27.actapress.. R.pdf Ou. Y. July 1997.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. L. C. 47(1)..884693 Chen. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.mit. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. http://www..pdf Ebert. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. Michael (2004). Lee. M. M.rutgers. http://www. Proceedings. 442-446. J.ogi.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci. 27-30.. http://interact. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. and Chang. Korea. Canada http://cims. Face and gesture recognition: overview. A.research. Nevada.. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). A. http://doi. G. J. Gao. 242-245. S. IEEE Transactions. (2004).2005. C..pdf Peixoto.iscslp2006.pdf Wilson.acm. H. Visualization. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. http://csdl2.pdf Loi. Computer vision in the interface.. Y.actapress. (1997). 19(7). 57-64. (2005).pdf Corradini.ieeecomputersociety. (2005). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.2000. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. 1999. and Wong.110 9/CMPSAC. S. D.media. January.676 http://lcv.. and Bobick. A.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).clayton. October 14-16. P. Y. L. PA.F (1999). Y. Sato. Shi-Kuo (2000). J. (2004). Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.org/citation.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction.com/PaperInfo. and Kim.Computer Communication.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini.mit. British Columbia. and Bender.fsu. http://www.. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. A. 675 .xml&DOI=10. and Cohen.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. and Poggio. C. Chen.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. In Proceedings. (2003). 2000. Pittsburg. J. Park. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).computer.edu/mas963/enh encedwall. C. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. (2000).aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. Deller. 2004. M.recveb.1109/ICALT. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Setlock.. http://www. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. T.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.1 50 Nakanishi.D. Wong. Fussell.

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h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. Designing Web-Based Training. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Download a copy: http://www. animation.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.0. In acquiring Macromedia. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. post-production. the same principles apply to user interface design.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .com/TechIllustrator. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. rendering.autodesk. e-Learning By Design. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.Graphics Tools Related terms Design.org/cms/Home.techillustrator.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.2. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. and in his recent 2006 book. and playback.acdamerica.corel.adobe.blender3d.html Blender . visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. interactive creation.com/software/soft_t/gshar p.broderbund.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. Nevertheless. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.avs.

X.pdf Qiu. Pheonix.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.IBM CATIA http://www306.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. William (2006).com/index. Potsdam. http://www.3dlinks. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.carto.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.uk/index. http://www.google. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).amazon. Do not reproduce 101 . A. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.amazon.com SmartDraw http://www.ucs.itedo. (2005).co. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. http://www. William (1991). Japan · Sept 7-10. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. A. William (2000).amazon.uk/index.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. Gloria (2004).. S. Pallickara. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.pdf McConnell. Tools Usage Survey Results. http://www.xaraxtreme.co. Kommers & G. Tokyo.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Proceedings.smartdraw. June 1-3. http://www. Germany. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.ibm. http://www.editlib.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.). Fu-Kwan (2004).org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.elearningcentre.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. Richards (Eds. and Uyar. e-Learning by Design.stcphoenix. http://grids. Designing WebBased Training.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. In P. ED-Media Conference.siggraph.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.indiana.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.org/index.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. (2004). New York: John Wiley.microsoft. http://www.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. The most listings are for 3-D software.com.co. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . NY: John Wiley.com/E/1335. http://esub.

Carolina Chapter. STC.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. CT: Graphics Press.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. Edward (1997). Edward (2001).amazon. http://www.stc.pdf Tufte.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon. http://www. CT: Graphics. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. 2nd Ed. http://www. Edward (1990). Cheshire.amazon. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. Cheshire. Frances (2004). Evidence and Narrative . Envisioning Information.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.

in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope . a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.mpbtechnologies. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.html http://www.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . joysticks/ joypads.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.sensable.se/index. http://haptex.asp Body-based devices include gloves. Do not reproduce 103 . > > http://wwwpercro.handshakeinteractive.sensegraphics. http://www.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.forcedimension.immersion. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.” http://www.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. suits. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. http://www. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).it/projects/pureform.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom. Finally. gloves.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. When used approp-riately. Haptic devices come in many forms.pureform.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. including pens. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.unige. and force-feedback mice.miralab.sssup. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Read the press release at: http://www. http://www.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. http://www. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.

.” http://www. S. Proceedings.html Levesque. July 31.pdf Hespanha.unige. McLaughlin. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. M. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. J. and Rusbridge. G. Wired News. July 3. (2000). http://www. Donnelly.pdf O’Modhrain.mcgill.net/article-7304.pdf McLaughlin.. CA.ccii. The Haptic Museum. April.unitrier.S. Centre for Intelligent Machines.2005. and Gillespie. M. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics.. Blindness.informatik. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. Nakamura. Oct.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. Research report. Technology and Haptics.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. (2004).. Dobreva. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. and Essl.matr. http://www. Prentice Hall online article.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Reaching through the net to touch. Shahabi.phptr.html O’Malley. M. http://www. http://haptex. NJ: Prentice-Hall.1.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. Haptics Laboratory. Y. Upper Saddle River.piaggio.. professional. G. http://csdl. M. and Ichitsubo.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. 2003. Reality bytes. (2003).computer.. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. Laurie (2004). C. (2005).html Ross. 917-921.computer.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Rowell. Japan. L.usc.1_release-public. http://www.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Deliverable D4. http://web. G. David (2003). Medioni. and Hughes. http://www. R. Iwane. G.xml&DOI=10.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .miralab.. M.digicult. 2005. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). 2004. M. http://www. Report delivered January 15. McGill University. N.unipi. McHugh.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.ra. Chapter on Haptics. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. M. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. New York Times (Online). (2002).media. Abbott. and Jaskowiak. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector..ht ml Kushner.mit. 22.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. (1997). Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).pdf Ó hAnluain. A.. Matsubara. Vincent (2005).smh. S. 2003. http://www. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4.. 2005. Italy in March. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.ethz.haptics-e. M.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.roblesdelatorre.isfh. M.pdf O’Modhrain.. and Sukhatume.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.com. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. Daithí (2003).B. Proceedings.” http://www. http://csdl2. Santa Clara. Sukhatme. http://www.cim.S. D. 3-5 June 2004. M. A.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239. J. (2005).1109/ICALT.

& Uchikawa.http://www. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. 1(3). Y. H. http://www.com/articles/printerfrie ndly. 250a.asp?p=345621 Sakano.journalofvision.. K. Kaneko.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 . Journal of Vision. (2001).informit..

Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.eink. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. monitors. digital paper. they must interact with it through an interface device. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. For a review. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. input devices.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.html http://killer.ices. In 2005. electronic paper. haptics. textures. Writing will require special digital pens. human-computer interaction." http://web. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.com/technology/howitwork s.fujitsu.html Sony.edu/design/Digita link. handwriting recognition. > > http://killer.html Description For humans to use a computer. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.” http://www. gesture recognition. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.cmu. Now in the research and development phase. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. projectors.buffalo. experience computing. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.cmu. Called Librié. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. head mounted displays.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. see: http://www.com/b/archives/00 2571. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. However.dottocomu. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory.mit. tangible computing. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. like digital ink and paper.media. Philips. and some. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. wearable computing.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. see: http://www.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .ices. http://www. display technologies.

This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. These methods are 1) touch.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.com/wired/archive/5 . Following are three such articles: > http://www. and graphic. http://whiteboards. it is constantly being improved and updated.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. 2) roll.sony. http://www.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. http://www.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .cs.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. human computer interaction. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.ac. http://www. http://www.becta.aclearn. http://www.wired. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.devx.edu.smarttech. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.net/display.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.com whiteboards.com/index.cs.au/edna/page4588.wacom.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.edfacilities. 4) bend. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.channelnewsasia.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.org.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.elearningcentre.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://www.logitech. http://www. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.swan. http://www.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. and 5) build.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.org. consisting of a pen and a charger. http://www.lifehacker. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. http://www.thegrid.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.edna.thewirelessdirectory. Although this technology has been around for a few years. http://www. http://www. See their advice and resources at: http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years. http://www.co. http://www. 3) throw.05/ff_digitalink_pr.usask.

08/epapers.html Wong. June 1.com/wired/archive/9 . Vancouver. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. 2004. Adelaide. Jan. http://education. Bandoh. Scotland. 15(3). Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.anoto. HCI2005. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www.. Richards (Ed.unifreiburg.uk/elearning/ story/0. (2005).informatik.pdf Cross.guardian.. Indurkhya.. C. S.uk/elearning/ story/0. T.co.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. University of London.htm Zeichick. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. 26. http://www. January 6. B.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Guardian Unlimited. 257-269. 2004. K. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Fri. (2004). 108 © Brandon Hall Research . Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. Haag. April 7.10577. J.04/anoto. and Ottmann.wired. T.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Nicole (2006). 2006.com/wired/archive/8 .ac.org/16321 Read. December 22. 2005.).pdf Revell.aace. The most flexible paper yet revealed. with its use of digital ink.com/news/showst ory.html In G. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. (2006).mspx Bibliography Cogill. http://www.virtuallearning. NewScientist Magazine (Online). http://education.uclan.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. and Nakagawa.> > http://www. Tablet PC Developer. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. is described in a 2002 press release.newscientist.00. N. Springer.10577. eSchool News Online. Australia.. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. http://www. H.com/article. 2004. F. J. and Ottmann.devx.pdf Mohamed.informatik. http://dl. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. (2003). 2006. Edinburgh.wired. Peltason.unifreiburg. 2003.html eSchool News.guardian. Dal-RI. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Will (2004).microsoft.00. Y.org.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. M. Guardian Unlimited.1116483. (2005)..eschoolnews.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. http://www. http://www. Kato. K.pdf Otsuki. Alan (2004). http://ad. Jan. Julie (2002). Michael (2005).mercurynews.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. Oct. King’s College. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. The Mercury News. http://ad. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. Phil (2004).html http://www.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop. http://www.1585516.co. 6.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388.

and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. elearning portals.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become.. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. Course Management Systems (CMS). But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. 2005). the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Content management.e. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. conversation. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. Whenever possible. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS).Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals.

TrainingMine http://www.gen21.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. .” http://elgg.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book. more control over their own data For faculty.com/ Compendium Corporation . one of the LMS vendors listed below.trainingpartner.com/ IBM .com Gyrus . The LMS companies. To quote the developers.net/index. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. .fldata.KnowledgeHub http://www. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.com/ Frontline Data Solutions.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.GeoMaestro http://www. content-driven forums run by experts.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.cornerstoneondemand. groups.avilar.compendiumcorp. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.g.Training Partner http://www.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).WebMentor LMS http://www. a search engine. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. http://www. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e. a communic-ation platform. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). . a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics.ieee. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. roles. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.academici. more control over the learning environment For institutions. a leading open source learning management system. The roles. .allencomm.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. and other academic services.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.gyrus.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. in alphabetical order. Inc.com/ GeoLearning Inc. .geolearning. http://opensourceschools.php EVE.com/ Element K . is available as a free download. a contact management system.elementk.

com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.ips-inc.intellinex. .KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www. .com/ Do not reproduce 111 .html?Open InfoSource Inc.com/ TeraLearn. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.com/portal/index.sap.TopClass LMS http://www.SSA Learning Management http://www.strategia. – TEDS http://www.intralearn. – KnowledgeBridge http://www. .ssaglobal.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.knowledgeplanet.SSElearn Portal http://www.TotalLMS http://www.iPerform http://www.com/isnm2005/in dex.outstart. .teralearn.IntraLearn XE http://www.com/ Vuepoint .Oracle Learning http://www.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.com Inc.Isoph Blue http://www.learnsomething.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.com/ Strategia .com/ WBT Systems .mgen.vbtrain.Vuepoint Learning System http://www. .teds.com LearnSomething Inc.com/ MaxIT .com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.InfoSource http://www.jsp Operitel Corporation .Net http://www.asp Learn.com/index.CourseMill LMS http://www.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.novasys-corp.trivantis.com .com/2004/index.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.html IntraLearn Software Corp.oracle.com/ mGen Inc. Tracker.websoft.net/trackerinfo.com/ Syntrio . .com/flashhom e.LearnCenter http://www.ibm. .TeraLearn LCMS http://www.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.LearnFlex LMS http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems. .Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.sumtotalsystems. .operitel.redbooks.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/products/saba/learni ng/index.netdimensions.maxit.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. .epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.learn.com/ NetDimensions .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.wbtsystems.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.SAP Learning Solution http://www.mGen Enterprise http://www.html Plateau Systems .html OutStart Inc.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .DOTS .howtomaster.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.html Trivantis Corporation . .htm SAP .com/ Saba .webraven.meridianksi.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.com/ SSE .com/overview.aspx RISC .wizdom.OnTracker LMS http://www.TM SIGAL http://www.sselearn.Ed Training Platform http://www.risc-inc.http://www.com Websoft Systems Inc.plateau.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.LMSLive http://www.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.syntrio.cfm TEDS Inc.ttg-inc.Intellinex LMS http://www.aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.isnewmedia.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www. .oracle.technomedia.LearnerWeb http://www.saba.vuepoint.ca/en/default.Plateau Learning Management System http://www. .com/ Intellinex LLC.

Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.unitn.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.edutools. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems.mq.com/ from the JISC in the UK.ieee. T.cetis.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . 2006. Ronchetti. C. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. (2002).nxtbook.The Learning Manager http://www.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).science. http://www. Pierre (2000). Jan.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. http://www.co.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. October. Chief Learning Officer.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Proceedings. Incorporated Subversion.edu.xtention. Ed.melcoe.e-learningcentre.building new education strategies for schools.48. http://www. http://www. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Dalziel.uk/index. A.uk Teresa A.thelearningmanager.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.. Sam (2005). Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .A possible future for online learning.htm Bouras. James (2005). Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.com XStream Software Inc.learningcircuits. (Online edition).ac. Virtual Learning Environments.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. June 20-21. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. Building educational virtual environments.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools.brandonhall. http://www.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. M. and Tsiatsos. (2006).” and open source course and learning content management systems..Xtention Learning Management System http://www.pdf Dillenbourg. http://www.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. (2002). A. 2005.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS)." http://www. http://www.xstreamsoftware.learningcircuits. UK. ICALT2002 Conference.ac. James (2003). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies.eun. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. Molinari. 21.com/ Xtention Inc. University of Birmingham. by Sam Adkins.jisc. http://incsub. .pdf Cohen. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.org/eun. http://www. . Learning Circuits. August. L.71.PDF Farmer.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. http://lttf.info/static. . http://www. and Trifonova. Workshop on virtual learning environments.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.

edu. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Proceedings. Derek (2004). Czech Republic. L. Healthcare. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Maomi (2005).edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533. Plzen.infodiv.pdf Do not reproduce 113 ..Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. 5(2)..bath. Jan.edu. Government. T. Exeter. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.educause. J.anadolu. Proceedings of ALT-C.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). May 2006 http://www. October 2005.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.pdf Tsinakos. http://tojde. 31-Feb.. R. (2005).ucisa.pdf Wise.pdf Ueno. Van (2005). Report published by UCISA. 2005. and Walker.ac.unimelb. A.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .cfm?fuse action=Reader. J.pdf Sadeghi. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Browne. 4. Avgoustos (2004). M (2005). Vancouver. (2006). May-June.org/newdl/index. Aavani. and Higher Education 2005.zcu. http://wscg.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.ac. Educause Review. http://www. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. http://www.aace. 2005.au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005. http://www. and Quealy. M. November 2004. Report for the Melbourne.pdf Morrison. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. http://www. and Sharifi. April. 40(3). WSCG Conference 2005. LMS Governance Project Report.

2004. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. intelligent tutoring. learning object model (LOM). Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . Wiley. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. culture. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education.” such as a graph. Beyond that. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. As online educational materials are produced. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. The acronym SCORM. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. computer-use practices. curriculum. of learning objects. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. learning object repository (LOR). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. a well-known standard for learning objects. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. However. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects).” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. sharable content objects (SCOs).” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. They are emulations of “software objects. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. 2006). but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Learning objects have several uses.” To facilitate searching and retrieval.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. At the simplest level. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. SCORM.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. reusable learning objects (RLOs). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. rapid learning. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. This idea is based on older.” This use has been more successful. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Rather.

http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. http://nsdl.uwaterloo. and distributes digital research material.llearn.sir.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.maricopa. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. http://www.lolaexchange.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).fedora.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.cdlib.000 items.uvic.goenc.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .lrc3.mcli.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). preserves.dist.org/Home. stores. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. http://learnware.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. resources for grades K-12.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://dspace. http://www. http://www. with almost 15.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://www. http://www.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://www.arizona. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://ideas.merlot.unsw. http://mlor. http://www. http://dlist.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. indexes.thegateway.edu/DesktopDefault. http://www.oise.utoronto. http://www.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions. http://www.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. with a focus on information literacy.koha.rice. http://web.downes.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://lester. http://www. http://www.profetic.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.org/index.wisconsin.educanext.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. and they can be general or subject specific.net/project.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.edu. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.

and Anderson.irrodl.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.it/~lhci/002. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. C.. http://dl. Version . EdTechPost. A. 116 © Brandon Hall Research .html http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.uwm. Celentano. 2(4).shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. http://portal.org/guidelines/index.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. 2(1). http://www.amazon. (2004).ca/implementing_proje cts.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.cancore.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.elearnspace. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. March. (2004).pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. F.lornet. 5-16.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.L. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.doc Christiansen.html Edusource (2003).publiclibraryofscience. & Strijker.1/downes . see Teemu Leinonen’s article.org/eng/scientifiques. M. (2000). http://www.unesco.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. And Longo.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. A. International Journal on E-Learning. 1(3). CANCORE. http://www. Software Architecture Document. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.edtechpost. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.. is available at: http://www. authored by Rachel Smith. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. B.nmc.org/blog/archives/ 002089. http://www.uniroma1.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.org/14190 Downes. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.ca/mt/archive/000 681. M.uwm.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. T.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.itdl.uis. Bibliography Barritt. http://www.9. http://www.org/content/v2. Online document.dicole.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.aace. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. http://www.cisco. Online paper. (2003). Stephen. http://www. http://www.dis. (2004). Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. http://www.htm Collis. J.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.org/ci/en/ev.jcdl. and Alderman.

The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. V. T.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. http://www.learninglab.. INTERACT 2005. Rory (Ed. Learning Material Repositories . Final Project Report. (2002).htm Nejdl.html Heery.. 14. T. Anderson. Norm (2005).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. G.editlib. Derek (2004b). M. Online paper. Babin.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. N.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.http://www.ac. http://www. Derek (2004a).bath. and Pragnell.html Leeder.cfm/files/pape r_11841. http://www. http://ideas.. July 14.. S. http://www. 2004. Paquette.cancore. G. Downes.. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. http://www.9%2015-11-03. J. http://www.learningcircuits.. (2004). March. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.html Friesen. Lori (2002). http://www. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. A Primer on Learning Objects. March. Aug. S.Rafts or Battleships? .htm Friesen. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.html Murphy. http://www. Mattson. and Morales. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://www. M. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.kth. 2004. London: Falmer. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.blogs.usq. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Rachel (2006). InSITE conference. 12.edusource. March.edu.eduserv.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments.ac.doc Fiaidhi. Learning Circuits. D. and Mohammed. 1 (3). Harrigan. Warren (2000).org/index. Paper presented. and Schafer. MacLeod. R. K.ca/implementing_proje cts.Rafts or Battleships? . N. Norm (2006). Elizabeth (2004).amazon. Richards. D.) (2004). Online.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.Part 2. http://www. Wolfgang (2004). McGreal.org/mar2000/p rimer. Roberts.. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.informingscience. http://www.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. http://www. June.itdl. S.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.html McGreal. Learning Material Repositories . International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf Krauss. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.bath. http://www. (2004). 2004.learningcircuits. G. Hatala. R. March. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Learning Circuits. http://proceedings.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. M. and Freisen.. Friesen.org. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. R.p df Roselli.. T.cancore. Rossano. Do not reproduce 117 .htm Morrison... Research Report.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Fredinand (2004). 1(3). G. (2005).. Online Education Using Learning Objects.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200..itdl.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Jan.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).pdf Richards.Part 1. 7(1). (2004).ca/protocols_en. April 2002.

fastrakconsulting.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research .org/read/ Wiley. (2004). David A.dis.itdl. A. (2002). (Ed. (2000).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. David A..htm Shepherd.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Iterating Toward Openness. : http://reusability. 1(7).uniroma1. David A. http://opencontent.. http://opencontent. Online. M. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. and Senteni. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Objects of Interest. Brigham Young University. (2000).pdf Santally. Govinda. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.co.). M.dis. (2006).org/docs/dissertation.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. http://www. Jan.pdf http://www.uniroma1. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.htm Wiley. 9.> > http://www. http://www.p df Wiley. Doctoral dissertation. Clive.

cadcorp. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. as with any new technology.intergraph. and security issues. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.com/ Clark Labs .mapinfo. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.com/ MapInfo . Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. including cell phones.http://www.http://www. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . findability. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.http://www. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. galleries. and wearable computers. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information.S. geocaching.com/ Intergraph . proximity tools.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. more demands for a person’s attention. users will be able to use a variety of devices. Do not reproduce 119 .frappr. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. galleries.http://www. location-based systems are found in museums. Department of Defense. laptops. including privacy concerns. However. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. PDAs.esri. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.http://www.clarklabs. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). gaming consoles. personal media players.org/ ESRI. http://www. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. navigation.

org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. http://www. http://earth. http://www. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.cetadl. http://www. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.edu. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. http://earth. similar to what a GIS system uses. http://www. http://www.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. it is a great tool for teaching science. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.biogeomancer.greatestplaces.fi/english/page. http://www. http://www.pangonetworks.il.smm.confluence.asp?path= 500. While not very useful for most people.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. as well as papers on trends in GIS.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.5372. http://www. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.org/index.google.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.live. at: http://www.chimer. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.ac.leeds.bham. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.geog.” http://www. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.com/index.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.esri. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .berkeley.google.museum.google.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.searchable from a database. http://www. http://mvz. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. http://www.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.state.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.ac.google. See their complete range of products. http://portal. http://platial.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.000 archaeological sites in the state. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. create.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. http://local.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.

Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Jan 2004.pdf Tsirliganis.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. Dobreva.gees. enthusiasts. (2003). S.com/ Bibliography Benford.00. G.com/gis4mt/index. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space.pdf Spohrer. Online article. http://www.html Ross... Location systems for ubiquitous computing.intergraph. http://www. http://www. January.wisc. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. A. http://pngis.digicult.. http://www.. IEEE Report.co. and visualize spatial information. McHugh. and Location-Based industry professionals. Donnelly. A. C. Issue 6.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. http://www. and Borriello. DigiCULT Newsletter. (2001). Part II.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. manipulate.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. Heather (2005). We learning: social software and e-learning. 2005.. J.guardian. http://www.htm McLean.geocomm.ac. http://www. (2005). http://www.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. Guardian Unlimited. 2005. Nov. http://www..eoscenter. Information in places. Abbott.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. http://elearningeuropa. http://www.intelresearch. CAD.info/index. 38(4). 2003.http://www.. and Rusbridge. IBM Systems Journal. M. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. J.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. M. Dec.geography. D.com/geo/ Cardinali. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Learning Circuits.ibm.com http://geotags. N. G.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. Steve (2005). Fabrizio (2005).ac. http://education. 15.learningcircuits.uk/oswebsit e/education/index.uk/elearning/ story/0.1642288. A.bc. > > http://geotags.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. and students. Earth. Arnaoutoglou.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.opensourcegis.digicult. see: http://www.edu/sco/gis/his tory. Chapter on Location Based Devices.C.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . 1999.ordnancesurvey. Mapping. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Eva (2004). and Chamzas. F. Pavlidis.. (1999). and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.co. Koutsoudis..cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography.ca/ Geotags.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.directionsmag.jisc.research.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. Future LocationBased Experiences.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

run all by themselves. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. such as those for collaboration. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. or through “Web services. Programs can be “stand alone. For example. integration. Many of these objects are software programs. also called “object interoperability. A “mashup. or protocol. 2004). in schools and universities. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and.” then. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations.Mashups. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. API clouds. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. the rules for sending files across the Internet. Similarly. tag clouds. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. of how to communicate with each other. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . personalized. document management. to a lesser extent. Mashups are constructed in several ways. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. all expressed in binary code. at the same time. composite applications.” that is. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.” Using SOAP. communications. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. providing an informal collaborative environment. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. For two or more programs to talk to each other. etc.. hybrid applications. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions.

http://www. a writer for Business Week. Paul (2002). http://www.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.com/publications.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Many have educational value. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. Infoworld.programmableweb. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.mashupfeed. and Padron.” It has many examples of mashups.ieee.operitel. As Warlick (2006) has noted.emilychang. > > http://www. Learning Technology newsletter. match. 2006. Vol.businessweek. G. techLEARNING. J.html Hof. May 15. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Issue 1. Douglas (2004). http://www. http://del. 6. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. George (undated). Enterprise mashups.wikipedia.icio. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. C.elearnspace.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. David (2006).bctechnology. Galen (2006). (2004). Business Week Online. http://en.icio. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.html Rob Hof.com/products/print_fr iendly. Vol. July 28.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.html Woodill.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.org/resources/web services. 6. 6. and mutate.pdf Seimens. Robert (2005). March 6. Learning Technology newsletter. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.programmableweb. 2006.pdf Stacey. http://ww6.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .0 APIs.htm Siviter. http://www.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. (2006). Web Services. 2005.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.techlearning.. http://www. C.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.infoworld.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.html Warlick. SOAP. Issue 1. and Oliveira. http://www. 2006.com/ http://www.htm Torres.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.businessweek. January 2004 http://lttf.ieee. http://www. Dec.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. Curriculum as Mashup. Learning Solutions.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Dodero. January 2004 http://lttf. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. Mashups.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. 2002. Elearnspace.deitel. http://blogs. July 25. Bibliography Gruman. Mix. J.us.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.

imsglobal. In Proceedings. H.cetis. Ohio. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. metadata. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning..xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. 98-111. Barry.edu/o4e/viewhome.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.wssu. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.cancore. (2004). Benayache.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy..ifets. and artificial intelligence are being developed. (2004). Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin.umbc.html Description At the same time that learning objects. Finin.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.do?tm =O4E. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. T. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. and services. Boston. M. June 2004.edu/get/a/publication /105. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. search engines. B.educause.. A. http://simile. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Delphi Group report. http://www.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.. C. pervasive computing. and Chaput.. D. and Joshi.mit. 7(4).ac. http://dublincore. http://libraries. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. MA. in the context of information technology.edu/content.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. Moulin. C. An ontology. http://www. community. http://www. A. http://metadata.mit.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). Perich.Metadata.. F. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. and institutional stores.php?id=25 Chen. repositories. http://ebiquity. http://iiscs. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. Lenne. to develop metadata standards. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.pdf Delphi Group (2004).info/issues.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Bibliography Abel. http://www.

. TagOntology . W. 82-97.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. International Journal on E-Learning. http://tomgruber.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. Building a Metadata-Based Website. Dec. and Poulymenakou.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). November. 11(7/8). Online article.php?id=25 Kroski. http://www. Adam (2004). 7(4). Pouloudi.adammathes. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. BoxesAndArrows.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. I. 7. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.org/.delphigroup.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. B.html Wodtke. (2004). http://infotangle. D. Trondheim. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). http://www.learningcircuits. N. J.pdf Henze. (2002). Do not reproduce 125 . 2004. October-December.. 2004. Infotangle. and Mosoiu. Defining “taxonomy”. (2003). P. and Diaz. http://www. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. April 9. http://tomgruber. Norway. (2004).. (2004).. D-Lib Magazine.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. (2003).pdf Friesen.niso.org/10614 Mathes. NISO Press. http://www. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. Presentation to Tag Camp. Patrick (2006).cancore. 2006.aace. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. April 18. http://dl. April 21.ppt Ricci. Nov.. A.htm Gruber. Lytras. and Nejdl. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.pdf Oin.ifets..com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Dolog. M. http://www.dlib. Christina (2002). Thomas (2005a). A. Understanding Metadata. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://www. 26-28. Chen. 2005. A. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.php?id=25 Tozman.greenchameleon. S. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).info/issues.blogsome. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. Ellyssa (2005).html Gruber.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. BoxesAndArrows. http://www.ecdl2003. and Godby.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. G. Christian (2004).info/issues. http://www. N.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP.ca/editors.http://www. J. 2002. BoxesAndArrows.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. and Shao.tagcamp. 7(4). Green Chameleon. October 29. Learning Circuits. http://www.boxesandarrows. http://www. 2005. http://www. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.boxesandarrows. May 22. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.boxesandarrows. University of Illinois graduate paper. Stuart (2005). Wagner. Thomas (2005b).htm Weibel. 2002. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Norm (2005). P.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel. July/August.ifets. Reuben (2004). http://www. M. 2003.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. http://www.

Journal of Educational Technology and Society. 7(4).info/issues.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 70-81.ifets.

any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. brokerage. MP3 players. tablet PCs. using ambient intelligence. strong search capabilities. Do not reproduce 127 . location-dependence. communicative skills and community building. pervasive computing. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. there were estimated to be 1. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. cell phones. podcasting.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. powerful support for effective learning. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. mLearning. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. (2004).Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. 2003). wearable computing. instant messaging (text. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. improved identity creation. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. cellular telephones.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. multimedia.” Two years ago. in Japan.6 billion units in operation by that year. personalization. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). Cited in Prensky. tablets. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. laptops. video) and distributed databases. 2004). Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. rich interaction. and mentoring. time and space. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. conversational learning. Essentially. it is predicted that there will be 2. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. personal digital assistants (PDA). such as increased computer literacy. collaborative learning. However. personalization. location based technologies.

com/wwwtools/m/271 7.fasfind.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.ccu. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture. activities.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. http://www. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.knowledgepulse.computer.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.htm Jari Laru. http://urbantapestries. of the University of Oulu in Finland.pdf http://www.ccu.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.” They have a “firefly watching system. http://www3. links. http://csdl2.com/home_en.edu.edu.” > > > http://m.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.cs.pdf http://www.fasfind.mobilelearning. US. http://news.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. http://www.edu.cs. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. http://www. Learn more at: http://www. pictures.stockholmchallenge.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research . including issues.com/wwwtools/m/890 7. audio.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. Australia.cs. or a combination of media.mobilearn.telus. http://spotlight-mobile.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. and a glossary. applications.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.elearningcentre. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.se/projectd ata.ccu.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.fasfind.” and a “bird watching learning system.beta80group.harvard. http://urbantapestries. and pre-service teachers.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://www. http://gseacademic.” a “butterflywatching learning system.co.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. http://www. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.bbc.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.co.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.” > > > http://www.pdf location-specific text. resources. movies. Israel. technologies.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.

of Birmingham http://www. Paul (2005). 9(1). and Pagani. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. No.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.ac.J.. http://213.cs. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. James (2005). and Sharma. (2003). Emerging technologies: Messaging.ac.ac. http://www. (2005).msu. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.232. and Trifonova. (2004).pdf Godwin-Jones. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.edu.ccu.eee.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. Gaming.org/micte2005/4.135/ipodined/news. 5. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.pdf Jasola. Bryan (2004).. Vol. Gaming.uk/handler/public ations. Molinari.94.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. R. http://www. Knowledge Tree e-Journal..itdl. and Sheu.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). JISC Guide. (2002). Learning and Skills Development Agency. S.jisc. http://www. T.html Kadirire.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.pdf Attewell.kaywa. 19. http://www. http://www. A. B.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Ireland. http://www. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.formatex. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.uk/eli_practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Report.ntnu. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. For example. L. No. http://www.html Grew.au /edition06/download/geddes. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. EDUCAUSE Review. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.net. Jill (2005). Bob (2005). European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . http://www. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. http://knowledgetree.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. M.iadis.pdf Bibliography Alexander.m-learning. 17-22 http://llt.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.html Chen. P. E.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Sept. http://www.6. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 2(9).idi. Ronchetti.unitn. http://www.msu.flexiblelearning.educause. September 2005. A. http://mobile. January 2005.bham.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. (2005). Y.pdf Geddes.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. J. Kao.pdf Colazzo. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Univ.science.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. 2006 in Dublin. http://llt.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. 347-359.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. Language Learning and Technology.jisc.htm JISC (2005). 39.pdf Anderson.

doc Meisenberger. May/June 2005. August 29-30. L. Greece. Teleborg Campus.com/content/templat es/clo_article. June 27.uk/public/getfile.digicult. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. http://drei. A.uk/elearning/ comment/0.. Donnelly. Enabling Mobile Learning.educause.pdf Metcalf. http://kn. ASCILITE2005 Conference..cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.co. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Pigozzi. (2001).. J.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. http://education. Understanding. Romagnoli. Neil (2003). http://www. May 23. Marc (2004). 2005. E. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.1490476. E.ac. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Peter (2005). M. Michael (2005).at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. http://www.org/10. S. M.fil.phil-inst. 2004.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. T. Feb.2002.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. T. D.pdf Mellow..pdf Sharples. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples.00.century. computer-aided. Budapest. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Chan.guardian. Australia. Draft paper submitted for publication. Presented at WMTE 2002.ascilite. (2005).au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. http://www. and Dobreva. and Vavoula.. Christopher (2005). M. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Wang. T.ieeecomputersociety.1039222 McLean.110 9/WMTE. M. F.open. http://www. Växjö. Coralini. A. J. http://21st. and Cultural Heritage. Mike (2005).org.usabilitynews.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. Ellen (2005). M. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview... Feb. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. MA: HRD Press.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Proceedings. and Nischelwitzer. Glyfada. 2002. Vecchietti. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models..pdf Scagliarini.org/citation. Archeology. http://www. 2005.pdf Thomas.. Galasso.2. 1(5). Ann (2005). http://portal.Light. http://www. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.info/index. and. http://doi.. EDUCAUSE Review. H. Proceedings. http://www.clomedia.htm#Implications Prensky. Learning in the Mobile Age. April 2005.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. G. Malavasi. and Sforza. S..asp Liu. J. Brisbane.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Hungary. http://www. Taylor.innovateonline. E-Learning on the move.ac. and Yang.amazon.acm. Växjö University.ox. 40(3). Kristóf (2002).eee. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). 2005. (2004). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.oucs.ac. (2005). http://www. multimediabased learning application. Sweden.html von Koschembahr.fhjoanneum. M.bham. Cinotti.. (2002). UsabilityNews. Amherst.com/news/article 2490. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. June/July 2005. Conference on Virtual reality.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Chief Learning Officer. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. 40-53. Roffia. David (2006). Guardian Unlimited.. http://www. Liang. A theory of learning for the mobile age.

TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).lexxe. et al.itc. and standards.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. http://tcc. http://www. i.org/aitopics/html/natlang. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. http://www.uk/~silvia/litReview. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. Di Eugenio. (2005a.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento.it/index. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. (2004).ldc. Lee et al. Kim (2000).org/softwaremap/trove_list . found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. speech synthesis.aaai.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. http://eduforge.upenn. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.translating one natural language into another. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. (2004). http://wwwusers. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.e. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.york. natural language understanding. http://www.elsnet. machine translation. rather than just returning Web pages.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.ac. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.” See also Jordan et al. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.. http://www.. http://dmoz. tools. speech recognition.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. Do not reproduce 131 .Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.cs. natural language generation. research.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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discussion forums. Individualization in an LMS is weak. work places. blogs.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. social environments. it helps the user plan.bham. In many cases. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. such as search engines. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner.ac. and social bookmarking sites. there can be no electronic interaction. A PLE is structured by the learner. A PLE must support lifelong learning. Running on the learner's PC. Technology needs to be situated. and. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . manage. This requires support over time. whiteboard). they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. often only for the purposes of the course. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. Secondly.cetadl. learners need to be in real-world situations. chat. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. http://portal. learning management systems.). but these are only available to members of the course.. e-portfolios. and review his or her learning activity. and through a variety of technologies. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. for the learner.uk/ilogbook/d efault. To practice real-world situations. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. libraries. as learners move between institutions. track. without an offline client to the LMS. etc. amongst institutions. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. (Cortlett et al. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. wikis. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution.

mlearn.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan.edublogs. James (2006). http://www. Colin (2005).cetis.ac. UK. O. 11.ac. http://www.za/CD/papers/Corle tt.elearning.ac. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). http://www.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. J.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. Chan.ac. http://elgg.org. 2006.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. http://www.pdf Farmer. Edinburgh.ac. Incorporated Subversion. Nevada. D. http://www.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. (2005). Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.jisc.cetis. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.. Terry (2006). T.ac.uk/index. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. and Westmancott. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. 22-27 July 2005. http://www. http://incsub.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Ting. 2006. PLE Reference Model. Online case study paper.. Jan.jisc. Sharples.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.bath. M. January 9. Las Vegas.. http://terrya.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson.

but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. Keenoy et al. and/or presentation of materials.hcrc. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs.).” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. through a questionnaire).” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. http://www.uk/ilex/final. PDAs). Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.ed.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.g. 2005). collaborative filtering. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.g. Often. etc. navigation. picture.. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). rule-based filtering. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour.org/en/index. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. These techniques include content-based filtering. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. learning environments. Furthermore. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. etc. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching..elenaproject. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. However. (Filippini-Fantoni. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. http://www.g.ac. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. the personalization can be applied to content. or it can be an implicit model.. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. artificial intelligence. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.

C.unibo. http://smart.. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.. The Future of Access (or.noekaleidoscope.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces..org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation.pdf Calimera Project (2005). G.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.html http://www. Kay. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. B. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.ca/English/Pers onal/index. T.cognitive traits. (2005).metmuseum. Daisy (2002).directa.org/ Bibliography Abbott. > > http://www. W.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. PowerPoint presentation.pdf Cavalluzzi.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. A. http://www. A. http://www. and FilippiniFantoni. (2004). A. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. A demo is available at: http://www. Ngo. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. Borda.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. http://www.calimera.arces. http://www. dynamic user profiling techniques. http://arxiv. S. J. (2004).. Online paper. Online paper. https://www. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.ac.calimera.ecdc. wireless networks. and Nuguid. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. http://www.beta80group.hatii. http://www.pdf Bright.net/home.arts. http://adiret...pdf m/index.unimagdeburg. William Niu.virtualmuseum. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. S.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. and Kuflik.emarcon.pdf Callaway. (2005).it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .ascilite.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. and Cook J. J.org/default.umuai.cs. with a particular focus on the museum sector. Ler.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. D. Melbourne. De Carolis.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. University of Glasgow. http://www.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). A. http://www.gla.CY/0409055 Boyle T.org.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research . Cozzolongo.pdf Beler..nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.(2001). K.org/pdf/cs. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.. Bowen.firstmonday. HATII.. http://www. A. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. Pizzutilo.

and Tasso. http://www. R.acm.Information Access.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. Subramaniam (Ed.ichim. Online paper. Montreal.uniba.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. D. M.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. (2002). In R.24_Conlan. and Sintek. and Humphreys. 2005 www.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.tcd. interactive services in home automation.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File.designshare. (2005).itc. PEACH http://peach. Graziola. V. Paper presented at ELearn 2002.nestafuturelab. 2004.pdf Goren-Bar. (Eds. L. Gallipoli. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference.jpbowen. May 25.) (2002).1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.Info. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Roy (2004). Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. (2004). F.usyd. 1–27.it/papers/gorenbar2005. (2004). (AVI 2004). C. K. September 2002.pdf Copa.pdf Eirinaki. 3(1). Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.it/intint/people/papers /aims04. D. Sanna. Stock. April 2004. Soro..uni- Do not reproduce 141 .cs. Moulin. M.uniud. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization.futurelab. Dominik (2003). science centres and galleries.cs. Pianesi. University of Sydney (2004).. Henze.. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education..) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers.dimi. Italy.pdf Conlan.. http://w5.pdf Giroux. Bowen.1145/643477.pdf Fuschi. http://tmtfactory.. Rocchi.p df Green. http://www. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. I. May 25.org/posters/ moulin. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. (2003). Web mining for web personalization.pdf Ceccaroni. G.. (AVI 2004).semanticweb.. Dillon. T. http://www.org. (2002). Paris. and Numerico. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. http://www. T. February. F. M. T. http://www.pdf Heckmann.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. http://iswc2002.. S. Kuflik.com/pub/evsc05b.. May 2002. S.di. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. PA: Idea Group Publishing. and Cardinalli. DigiCULT .. O. M. S. Issue 7. N. George (2005). Dagger.2004-1213. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. https://www. and Vazirgiannis.. (2005). Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.ppt Correia. Hershey. Ecole du Louvre. http://lrnlab.org/10. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. FutureLab report. Facer.ie/Owen.edu. and Paddeu. In Mizzaro. Rudd. http://www. FutureLab. Italy.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Personalization and Digital Technologies. Personalization through IT in museums. C. (2004). http://www. A. O. H.learnexact.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. X. Wade. D. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. C.. Barcelona. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum..www2004. and Verdaguer. (2003).. URL: http://doi. P. M. Gallipoli. Online paper. 2004. May 2004.htm Hawkey. P. Málaga. New York.pdf Dolog. Spain.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.p df Filippini-Fantoni. In Proceedings of WWW2004 .. N.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. http://www. Silvia (2003). (2005). Magical Mirror: multimedia. J.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. W.edfac. and Boavida. Nejdl. P. and Zancanaro.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1.

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and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience .Portals Related terms Collaboration. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. http://www. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.elearningeuropa. In the business world. learning management systems.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. 2001). the portal offered information on more than 20. which form a dynamic user profile.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. As of early 2006. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . collaborative environment. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. content management. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. Knowledge Management. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. instructorled. vendors.

You’ve come a long way. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. (Eds.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. and schedules. Hershey.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . Tom (2000).com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. and universities. Campus Technology Magazine.microsoft.amazon.microsoft.tamtam.proquest.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. K. school administrators. museums. In Jafari. Campbell. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.campustechnology. audio and/or video. go to: http://www. calendars.700 online courses http://www.com/home.000 lesson plans http://www. administrators. e-mail distribution lists.htm Brockbank.fathom. http://www. Heidi (2001). 2004. http://h20219. M.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing.teach-nology. R.asp Element K – Access to over 2.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. http://www.nl/mart/CategoryView.300 online courses http://www. interactive discussion groups. category. including educational uses. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.amazon.cyberu.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.Education.com/article.students. instructors. http://knowledgemanagement. Bray (2001).learningcircuits. March 1.worldwidelearn. students. May 2000. http://www. http://blogs.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. http://www.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. news and announcements. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. document management information.saba.elementk.ittoolbox.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. http://www. Ron (2004).com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.hp. Learning Circuits.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. instant messaging. (2003). A Portrait of Learning Portals. and Aucoin.asp?id=9028 Barron.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.trainingregistry. baby! E-learning portals.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. and Sheehan. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.000 online courses http://www.mspx For a demo of SharePoint..000 publishers worldwide http://www. New York: AMACOM.www2. A. online meetings with text. and shared lists for tasks.executrain.

Collins. C. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.educause. September 2000. PA: Information Science Publishing. Reviewed at: http://www.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. and Gordon. (Eds. and Sheehan. http://www. http://www. Cornelia (2000).edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113.learningcircuits.asp Katz. San Francisco: JosseyBass.. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. http://www.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. M.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. Heidi (2003).htm Do not reproduce 147 .amazon. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. New York: AMACOM.educause. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.) (2003). Richard & Associates (2002). J. http://www. (2003). Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal.asp Terra. A.amazon. Hershey.

lsc. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. While it is expensive.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Online presentations can be very boring.elluminate.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience.macromedia. web conferencing. in partnership with Dreamworks. http://www. webcasting.mit. Skypecasting. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. http://www. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. although many are trying to change this practice.masternewmedia. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. when experts are not readily available. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.edu/TEAL). See the TEAL Project at MIT. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. the word “lecturing” means “to read.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.replayhq. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.com Hewlett-Packard. In fact. However.com/site/index.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. virtual classrooms. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. http://icampus. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. http://www. webinars Consequently.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Experience them at: http://www. http://www.” In the Middle Ages. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.

00.htm http://www.kolabora.infoworld. > > http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach. Captivate.com/publications/lel/lel.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.e-learningcentre. http://cde. virtual teams. and whiteboarding. and Flash. virtual classrooms.silicon. and Web presentations. although it does not have to be. Web conferencing.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. videoconferencing.edu.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. online meetings.infoworld. Do not reproduce 149 . Authorware.380 0005416. http://www.acue.elearningcentre. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. http://www.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.com/eweek/web conferencing.eweek.elearningcentre.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.co. intranets. http://www.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www.com/cxoextra/0. forums and message boards.> > http://www.co.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.elearningcentre.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. Webcasts. http://buyersguide.brandonhall.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live. http://www. social software for online collaboration.com/udell/200 5/01/22.com/udell/200 5/02/25.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.com/webconf/index. and kidneys.hp.humanresourceWebinars.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.athabascau. brain.elearningcentre. online communities.htm http://www. videoconferencing.co. and e-learning.html#a1185 http://weblog.kolabora. groupware. > > http://weblog.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.thinkofit.adelaide.co.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.ccimeet.lsc. independent listing of Webinars.39155030. virtual meetings. Breeze.co. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. Coursebuilder. a columnist at InfoWorld.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. presentation and streaming presentation tools. http://www. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.htm http://www.com/news_radars /web_presentations. http://www. instant messaging. Web seminars. http://ajax.” > http://www. Dreamweaver.

July 26.russellmcnally.learningcircuits.pdf http://www.russellmcnally. http://www. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. http://www. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www. http://www.asp McNally. 7(3).com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. Robin Good Blog. and Furr. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . K. 2003. 3.com/software/present ation. Jennifer (2004). Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. 2003. Sept.html Using Apreso software. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN)..com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. http://www.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.masterviews. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2003c). 2003. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. P.com/downloads/sear ch. Luigi (2003a). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. (2004).amazon. http://labnol.programjunction.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Digital Inspiration. http://www.pdf Scott. http://www. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/21593.apreso.com/product /software/795/index.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. http://www. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. May 15. Christine (2001).filesland.masternewmedia. Russ (2004).com/Breeze Part2. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Live ELearning.html Canali De Rossi.com/Breeze Part1. Armit (2005).timelyweb. K. July 8. Sept.http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. Learning Circuits. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. http://m.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.htm Duckworth. P. 2005.htm Canali De Rossi. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.aace.presentations. July.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime..fasfind. April 30.01.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.downloadjunction.blogspot. Belinda (2003). techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. http://www. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.htm Hofman. 2004.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. and Quick. Live and Online!: tips. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. (2002).aln. (in two parts) > > http://www.com/presentatio ns/index. Luigi (2003b).masternewmedia. http://www.

Software.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. Choose your presentation tools carefully. 11..open. InfoWorld. and Winfield. S. but… Presentations Magazine. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. AMACOM. Dec.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. Feb.pdf Spielman. 2005.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.http://kmi. Choose the Right Vendors.infoworld. Start Saving Time and Money Today. http://www. and Equipment. http://www.amazon.html Zielinski. (2003). Choices are great. L.ac. Dave (2002).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. http://www.presentations.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .

learning objects. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. graphics. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. Instructional design built in. but not always good for you.automatically assures that all navigation works. programming.. easy to use. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . It is best suited to text-based materials. Navigation built in . In the second sense of the term. FAQ. microlearning > down pages. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Standardize approaches. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. manage the content and the users.e. Deploys easily . and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. by necessity. 2003). It can refer to learning something quickly. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. virtual classroom. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. In the first case. just-intime e-learning. tests. and based on preformed templates for layout and design.does not require any plug-ins. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. and communicate deliverable expectations. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. or HTML knowledge. Reduce the number of development vendors. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Assign SMEs who are committed. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. According to Ready Go!. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. simple.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Advanced features. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Does not require any advanced skills. low. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. glossary. Tools for rapid e-learning are.versus high-interaction). Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. including tools and templates. or where the online information frequently changes. For example. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. such as creating links. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. are built in. 2003). extreme e-learning.

com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Dianne (2005).clomedia.microlearning. LTI Newsline. http://www. Josh (2005). E-Learning for short attention spans. conferences. version control protocols. http://www. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.elearningguild. and Bersin.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.pdf Aldrich. (2004).elearningmag.com/studio.transformmag. http://www. schedule and due dates. http://www. http://www.scate.elearningguild.asp Bersin. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. http://www. Templates. and other good stuff.co. Transform Magazine. Bill (2005).readygo. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work.ltimagazine. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.com/showArticle. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Kendrick (2006). Extreme Learning: Decision Games.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.pdf Brodsky. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. http://www.meetingone.org Web site.bersin. http://www. LTI Newsline.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Reusability.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Enhance. 2006. January. J.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1.articulate.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Paper. Future-Proofing. June 30.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. See sample templates at: http://www.elearningcentre.” Find out more: http://www. Clark (2005). Tips and Techniques. http://www. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. which contains information on resources. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.clomedia. Penny (2004). http://www.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. and Publish. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.htm Bibliography Abell. June. Lane (2002). http://www.raptivity.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. January 23. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. Jennifer (2004).com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. 2004). Edit.learningcircuits.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Learning Solutions. centrally located files. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Mark (2003).amazon. http://www. tools. Making rapid e-learning work.masie. Do not reproduce 153 . Josh (2004).htm Bersin. August 2004. July 2.pdf Crosman. J. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. 2004.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.access to a clear project plan. Learning Circuits. Larstan Business Reports.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. San Francisco: Pfieffer. April. http://www. Jay (2005). Chief Learning Officer. http://www. computer games. July 2004. See a demo at: http://www.

February 2005. Kevin (2002). Learning Solutions. April 20. 9. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Press release. http://www. Rapid Intake White Paper.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. http://www.adobe. 2006. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.e-learning programs in weeks. 2002. (2004b). Learning Circuits. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.macromedia.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.learningcircuits.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Ed (2004). Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning.elearningguru.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. January 16. Simulation. http://download.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.elearningguild. Ray (2005). http://www.elearningguild. http://www.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. Mar. Nick (2005). http://www.clomedia. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. http://www.trainingpressreleases. Jan.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. Macromedia White Paper.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. LTI Newsline. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.pdf Jimenez. Bersin and Associates White Paper. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.pdf Shepherd. Learning Solutions. http://vftraining. http://www. June 2004.com/articles /default.ltimagazine. Macromedia White Paper.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.macromedia. Chief Learning Officer. 10. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. (2004a). Garin (2004).clomedia. Chief Learning Officer. http://download.trainingfoundation.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Eric (2003). Joe (2005). http://www. http://www. 2006.pdf Macromedia Inc.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . e-Learning Crop Circles.htm Masie Center (2005).pdf Gustafson. Ray (2006).com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. 2005.com/new sstory.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. 2006. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Clive (2006). Nov. The Training Foundation online article.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.pdf Mayberry. January 2003.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Stephanie (2006).pdf Jimenez.clomedia.

for underwater exploration.cmu.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. engineering. technology. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. technology. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. one child at a time.active-robots. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.gov.lego.edurobot. Inc.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.rec.botball. http://robotics. engineering.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. > http://www.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. and math.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://mindstorms.com/r_home. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.org/aboutbotball/overview. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.ife. http://www. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.aad. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.ri. http://www. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.euron.evolution. http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .nasa.whmsi. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. and mathematics. http://www.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. simulation > http://www.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.edu/index.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.

sci.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. and Yanco. links. Germany. (1980).uml. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.l3s. http://robotics.. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). http://www. (2004).brooklyn. Ferrari.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.edu/~sklar/er /edu. (2004).net/ Run by NASA. D. and Hempel.. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . Meeden.com/solutions/mw exrobotics.pdf Nourbakhsh.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.pdf http://www. (2004). Mr. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. M. It features news. http://www. http://dangermouse. Mindstorms: Children.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. R.osaka-u. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. (2004). Kumar. D. and Loose. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. M.pdf Papert. and vocal tics.ams. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Keating.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. C. U.. Kumar. J. Find out more about this group at: http://www.wtec.... > > http://www. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. http://zeus. and Mataric. I. and Powerful Ideas. Proceedings.amazon. D. By donning motion sensors. Computers. http://robothaven.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics. and Dautenhahn. G. http://www. (2005). http://www.tools for accessible education. Germany. M.php Bibliography Blank. and Meeden. Hohmann. K.. AAATE Conference 1999. and other information on robotics. Harwin.brynmawr. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. L. June.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. lip movements.eng..ac. Paper at the American Assoc.pdf Boersch. Sept.microworlds.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. New York: Syngress Publishing. I. B.. P. http://www. November.profetic. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. particularly robotics. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.jp/ Blank.ed. Artificial Intelligence Conf.atr.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. D. Heinsohn. (1999). Miller. Lathan. W..kipr. http://www. http://www.fhbrandenburg. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. and Wagner. S. Basic Books. New York.cs. go to: http://www.pdf Cooper.cuny. D. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.andrew.org/article. H.. L.l3s. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. http://www. H. D. H.pdf Ferrari.nasa. (2001). Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.amazon. Robots in the classroom . Yanco.cmu.gov/rcc/index.jp/ See also: http://www.technology.irc. Düsseldorf.

Donnelly. A.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.. http://rob. Ottawa.pdf Stewart. M. S. (2005). Sept. and Rusbridge. http://www.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. (2001).ccmlab. 28-30. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.. McHugh. Abbott.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . T. Ontario. M. A.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. R. and West. Dobreva. D.digicult.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education..

resource discovery. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest.com and Alta Vista.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. Ezzy (2006a. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. each with their own defining feature sets. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser.so they take the structure of the Web into account. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking .Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. for a variety of reasons. federated search. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. search engine optimization. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. Web directories. information retrieval. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. data mining. collective intelligence. They bring into the equation user preferences. which submit queries. One is the problem of finding relevant. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. such as Google and Altavista.examples are early yahoo. While search engines have improved over the past several years. meta-search engines. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. a rich user experience. dependable information. in parallel. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. 2004). Examples are Google and Overture. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. collaboration. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. as this section of the report shows. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. such as Yahoo. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . One new approach is called “federated searching. But. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Meta–search engines. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines.” The first type searches the Web as it exists.

icerocket. and text.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ Answers.hotbot.altavista.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://www.aeiwi. video.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://www. get answers http://www. http://getoutfoxed.gigablast. http://dmoz.grokker.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .alltheweb.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www. http://search.com/ Gravee . http://www.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www. http://www. then fill in the search box. http://www.lexxe.com Gada.umdl.ask.umich.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://www.otavo.answers.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. blogs.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://search.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://www.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.about.gnod.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.looksmart. http://www.com’s search service http://a9. http://www.convera. http://www. http://www.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).google. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.jookster.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.alexa. http://oaister.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.gada.msn.aol. http://search.netscape. http://channels.com/search/defa ult.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.gravee.com About.mooter.faganfinder.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. and the Web.

koders.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://froogle.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.wink. http://www. http://infomine.healthfinder. users tag their favorite results and block spam.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.pubsub.topic appears. http://www. http://www.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.psu. AwesomeLibrary. http://books.eurekster. http://www. http://icerocket.blinkx.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.com/v2a/flash. http://www.ucr.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. books.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.google. ArtKIDSRule.imdb.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. http://www.ai.qelix. Much of this information is hidden from view. http://rollyo.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. FactMonster.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.sri.gnoosic. http://citeseer.gpoaccess.ist.yahoo.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. Yahooligans.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . http://scholar.com/v2/index.stumbleupon.google. > > http://firstgov. reviews.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://kids.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www. http://www.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.Clusters results.google. reviews.ujiko. Wink then diplays the results. http://vivisimo.imdb. & KidsClick!. http://tagjag. http://www.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.govmine.ithaki.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www. AolKIDS. http://swicki. cast lists and theatre schedules. cast lists and theatre schedules.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.squidoo. http://www. and movies.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://qube. http://www.acronymfinder.gov/ http://www.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.

searchedu.columbia. http://www.gov/entrez/query.cfm?doid=10 56808.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.ncbi.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://www.com/ MediaFinder .The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.searchking.psu. http://www. http://www.org/citation.ee.nlm. http://www.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.krugle.rrzn. http://smealsearch1.com/ LitLinker . http://portal. http://www.nih. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.merl. http://www.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.last.technorati.findlaw. http://www.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.org/ Omgili .ee.almaden.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.” Content-based search engines for pictures.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www. http://www.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. http://lawcrawler. as of this writing.uni-hannover.f cgi QBIC . http://www.truveo.convera.ist.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.psu.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.A legal search engine.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www.cmp. http://www.Krugle – A search engine for developers.liveplasma.columbia.soundspotter. http://www.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.rawsugar.pandora.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.acm.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine. http://www.ee. http://wwwqbic.com/ Last.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education. http://techsearch. http://wang16.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.columbia. http://www.scirus.ibm.htm Do not reproduce 161 .4 billion links.seekport.omgili.fm/ LawCrawler .

http://www.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.ixquick. dating and personals.trovando. white pages.dogpile.search. companies.bolton. http://www. hotels. http://www. focused searches on topics they care about. greeting cards. http://www. http://clusty. bookmarks. http://www.ac. Unlike other search engines. Known as “meta-search” engines.nyu. http://www. is a valuable resource for researchers.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. tickets. city guides.ithaki.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. eBay. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. and links the clusters.net/indexu. http://www. and Web mail for the topic entered.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. games.info.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. classifieds. flights. http://www.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.inria.intute. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.xcavator.zapmeta.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. and their relationships. movies. lottery results. health information sources. jobs. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.searchtools. pictures. audio.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://www. shopping sites. http://www. therefore. http://www.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.zoominfo.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. http://www-rocq. video. yellow pages.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . http://a9. http://searchenginewatch.kartoo.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. news sources.ac. http://www. weather. or federated searching. the user's community has total control over the results. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.com/ Info – Searches reference works. apartment rentals.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. http://www. and notes. http://vivisimo. http://www.copernic. http://nlp.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.cs. maps/directions.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.researchbuzz.uk/ SearchTools.com/ clusters. and tracks a user's search history.

ucr. June.ala. http://www.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. 2006. 7-12. Ebrahim (2006). http://www. No. http://www. http://www. (2004). 10(12). Search 2. New York: Portfolio. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. DigiCULT Thematic Report.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores.com/ Stephen Downes. Traditional Search.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. (2005). http://www.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1.. 6. and Searching in eLearning Systems. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. 2004.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. Users can also browse by subject category. Ebrahim (2006).readwriteweb. and Apprato. 6.readwriteweb.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. Do not reproduce 163 . Read/Write Web. July 20.digicult. 2006. Part 2.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.0 vs.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. http://www. and Shoham.amazon.gov/ http://www. Exchanging.gov/ http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). http://www. > > http://firstgov.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.ac.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.netmasters.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. Resource Discovery . The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.php Ezzy.php Geser. First Monday.. Part 1. S. can be published on the user's site. O.html Battelle. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. F. No.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. A.pdf Ensor.searchenginecolossus. John (2005).downes. Traditional Search. International Journal on e-Learning.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.gpoaccess. Search 2.0 vs. July 25. is against the idea of federated searches.editlib. phrase.co.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.elearning. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. Y.tveyes. December. July-Sept. Frank. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). Guntram (2004). Pat (2005).citysearch.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro.org/index. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing.eurekster. June 2004. http://infomine. For example. or topic . Read/Write Web. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. http://www. or swicki. http://swicki.just as a search engine is used for text. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. http://www. DigiCULT Thematic Report.htm Ezzy. http://www. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.firstmonday.. This search engine.

Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. A.pdf Gincel.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.digicult. 2004. http://homepages. 2005. InfoWorld. and MacColl. 15. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Refining enterprise search.ht m Pratt. (2000). html Porco. Stanford University. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches.eschoolnews.18 69408.ischool. Lisa (2005).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. http://www.pdf Sullivan. 149-166. April 28. June 30.infoworld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.ed. eWeek.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.com/links/article . A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.html Heck. 2004.isnoldenburg.com.aace. 2004.prescientdigital.com/alertbox/20030630. White paper. Oct.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/boon/delos200 5.pubsub.pdf Schlenker. (2005). J. http://www. Search engines don’t suck. (2004). 10. Simple advice for complex search solutions.org/16955 Low. International Journal on E-Learning.eweek. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . http://www. http://dl. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. S. (2005). Mimkes. 2005. 2004. http://www. eSchool News. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox.. 2005.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Mittal. May 8.washington. It’s Gada. Mike (2004). Carmine (2006).1759.com/news/showS toryts. Oct. Jakob (2003).. Doctoral dissertation. Bob (2005). E.infoworld.com/article2/0. http://www. Major Search Engines and Directories. 4(1).asp Wyman. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think….php/2156221 Vaas. Oct. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. P.htm Part II: http://www.pdf Murray.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. and Gupta.. Danny (2004). http://www. they’re just limited. B. S. http://www. Corey (2005). Prescient Digital Media.http://www. Parts I and II.00.html Kumar. and Hilf. InfoWorld. http://bobwyman.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. M. Oct. Part I: http://www.ac. Richard (2004). http://searchenginewatch.prescientdigital. W. Kashyap. J. 3. 2003. SearchEngineWatch.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. 15.useit.

” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. http://www. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF).ibm. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources.org/en/index. 2003). (2005) note that “historically. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. are now falling short of earlier promises.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. Like it or not. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. search. metadata. near Boston. http://www. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. semantic grid.alphaworks. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web.aktors. but it will not be in general use for some time. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. such Do not reproduce 165 . ontologies. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. microformats. founder of the World Wide Web. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). http://www. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. taxonomies. Abbas et al. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. It has both its advocates and its critics. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary.elenaproject. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. Selected Examples In Europe.

the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing.amazon. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. J.de/html/ Aguirre..ac. http://www. Sobernig. http://www. Web Services.jxta. A. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).net/ Bibliography Abbas.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. Scientific American. semantic infrastructural services.com/article.amazon. O. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web.. http://www.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. M..com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. S. and Hendler.. (2003). Z. A Semantic Web Primer.aimatshape.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. The first issue is free. MA: MIT Press. http://www-jime. S. Olmedilla. M.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou.open.info/index. (2004)..pdf Anderson. S. D.) (2003). Miklos. J. (2001). Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference.. Mark (2005). Markus.. May 2001. (1).ideagroup.dit.. Obrst.seco.. T. and van Harmelen (2004). K.amazon. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education.ifets.ac.upm. L. In Fensel. Huber. (Eds. MA: MIT. F. http://www.. S.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. and Knowledge Management.. http://www-jime.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. Wahlster.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. xi. Ali. Brantner. Salvachua. W. implementing. Hendler. T. A. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Umer.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. New York: Wiley. Simon.php?http://www . http://www. J. H. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. B. 2005.info/issues. http://www. Z.hp.personal-reader. and Ahmed. and Zillinger. Odeh. G.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. http://jungla.tkk. May 29 June 1. and Lassila.. D. May 9-12. and Smith. http://www. (2005). T.as semantic portals for end-users.hpl.semanticweb. Cambridge. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. Mozo. http://arxiv.sciam.. http://www. (2005).pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . G. D.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. http://edutella. Cambridge. http://www. McClatchey.ifets. R. Forward. Lieberman. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.. M. http://kaon. and Whitelock. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications.. Greece..open.. The semantic web. http://www.pdf Daconta.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.. Tim (2003).

pdf Doctorow. Online article. Online article. Lieberman. (2004).downes. D.1961106.amazon. (Eds.well. A. L. Oct. 10. Wahlster. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. CT: Manning.. C. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia.unihannover. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. http://www2002. Rutledge. (2001). France. 2005.jisc.kbs.pdf Downes..pdf Henze. J.) (2003). Brian (2005). Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. (2001). Oct. Lund. Sweden.com/article2/0. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Greenwich.asp Hatem. MA: MIT Press.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. Amsterdam.ftrain.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.ac.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.De Roure. http://homepages. Sikora. Semantic Networks and Social Networks.com/~doctorow/metacrap. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web.ac.9/semgrid. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Palmer.cwi. Journal of Computer Science. W. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. M.) (2005). Cory (2001). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. May 27. http://www. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. CETIS Online article.189 5. Paul (2003). 18-22 July 2005. L. Paper presented at the GLS conference. Syllogism.00. and Worldview”. Nicola (2005a).kbs. Juan-les-Pins. M.ca/cgibin/page. htm Dorai.amazon. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. G. http://www. and Neagu. N.Some Architectural Guidelines. Wilbert (2005). http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.amazon.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. http://www. http://www. Phil (2006). Cambridge.. 500-504.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. (2005). Nicola (2005b). 2001. N..devsource. H.. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning .pdf Nilsson..cetis. A. F. Nack. and Naeve. 2006. H. A. and Shadbolt. http://www. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. http://www. http://www.scipub. http://www. 1(4).semanticgrid. Hershey. DevSource.pdf Kraan. and Gouarderes.pdf Henze. Stephen’s Web. T. M.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. http://www.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. (2002). and Zetti. Mauthe. http://www. Jennings.html Haack. and Hendler. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. M. D. Semantic Web Technologies.unihannover.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin. http://www. and Naeve.org/v1. The Netherlands.. D. Ramadan.com/ContraShirky. Stephen (2005)... (Eds. Thomas (2004). H.

Who said that? Metadata. Millard. M. Networks.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism.ecs.ac. http://www. Scott (2002).981948. (2003). Wagner.. and Stumme. (2005). http://www. D. and Christodoulou. L. 2004.pdf Sampson.. and the Semantic Web. Peter (2003). http://www. http://www. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. December 3. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. Syllogism.. and Davis. Millard. http://www2004.dcs. 7.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . June 14.. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. F. B. http://ewic. John (2004). New York.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. 2628. K. S. F.html Wilson. Clay (2003).10577. A. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.uk/elearning/ story/0. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. Online article. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. Woukeu. Darwin.p df Tao. June 21. (2001).uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. Semantic Web. J.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Nov.co. Economics and Culture. Karenos.unikarlsruhe. 2005. 2004.pdf Tao. http://poorbuthappy.com/read/swiftkick /column. (2004).info/journals/7_4/5. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. 2003. http://www.marketingprofs. David (2002). The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. and Miller. http://www. 2003. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. E.ifets. http://www. trust.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.cetis.uk/selene/reports/ Del3. Online article. L. http://www. Lytras.soton.infoworld. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. 2002.asp Udell.. P.pdf Shirky.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. G.ac.pdf Tane. http://education.guardian.pdf Updegrove. Schmitz. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.w3.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. G. Scott’s Workblog. 7 (4). R. C. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. and Worldview. eLearning based on the Semantic Web.bcs.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. H.inria.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. http://www. D. (2004).bbk. Scott (2005).ac.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. A. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. H.html Van Dijck.aifb.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast.html Stojanovic. G. Staab.pdf Samaras. and Woukeu.ac.shirky. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. (2005). Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. http://eprints.00.darwinmag. Marketing Profs. and Diaz. USA.. Davis. August 2.com/login/sign up. http://www. D. 2005. New York. CETIS Online article.. January 17. and Studer.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).. The Semantic Web.cetis. InfoWorld. Andy (2005). (2003). May 17–22.sop.

especially ones set by themselves.calt. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. http://sos. role-playing. http://www.noaa. learn. 2005). reviewed simulations as an online content format. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.e.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.ncsa.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www.calt. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.gov/ Winters et al. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.insead.calt. It was decommissioned in 2005.” My first report in this series.arcscience.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.insead. microworlds.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.calt. games. http://cave. http://www. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. http://www. i. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.com/omni.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.uiuc. http://www.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.insead. participants will be motivated to evaluate. According to High (2004). http://www.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.calt.insead. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.icherubini.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.insead. but information about it remains on the Web.

http://www. http://www.miami.umich." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. http://www.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. http://www. and murmurs.soe.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.sdsu.net/ Biographix . It runs on Windows.experiencebuilders.com/broadcastoverview.adobe. heart sounds. http://www.stt-global. http://www.noaa. http://www.virtualfishtank.fsl.net/celestia/index.shatters.forio. Linux. However.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma . http://www.biographix. to play in a virtual fishtank. http://www.ISLE .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://www.dc.geo.berkeley.ht m Intermezzon .com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.lsa.insead." http://www. http://www. without programming knowledge.edu/harvey_about. http://www.edu/ http://um3d.med. http://thinkertools.umich. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. For example.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index. http://www. http://crme. with many examples to try.making-history.html weather forecasting.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.com/ Forio .sdsu. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.adobe. go to: http://www.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.edcenter. > > http://geowall.edu/geowall/ind ex.calt.. and Mac OS X.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.atghome.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . pulse rate. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.edcenter.intermezzon.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. Mass.assima.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. they are only available for Macintosh computers.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . breathing.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . has issued "The Calm and The Storm.

learning2005.knowledgepresenter.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. http://www. http://www.percepsys.stottlerhenke.outstart.knowledgequest. http://www.com/portal/index.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.com/ Kookaburra Studios .com/products /firefly.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www. http://www. http://www.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.bc.nexlearn.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.sdsu. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .com/ MaxIT .com/ MaxIT .icherubini.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.qarbon. http://www.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.jibc. http://www.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.maxit. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.com/ Reusable Objects .elearningcentre.knowledgeplanet. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.xstreamsoftware. which can then be used to build simulations.reusableobjects. http://coe.knowledge-director.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.com/3dTraining. Integrates with many media types. including simulations.maxit.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.stagecast.virtualcontrolroom. http://www. http://www.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www. http://www.” http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.com/product_r pe.com/ Knowledge Planet . create courses specifically on using computer software. http://www. Do not reproduce 171 .htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .teds.com/products/sim. http://www.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.co.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.the click of a mouse.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.

and Sund Martin. M.cs. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). http://www. and Bostan.. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. Feb. (2002). computer games. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Mazloumian.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir.PDF Blikstein. Simjour.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. (2002). In Interaction Design and Children. 12. Les (2004). October 2004. A. U.ht m Sloman. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. R. http://www. Montréal. L.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. H.html Learning Circuits.science. Laser. Aaron (2005)... 2002. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. (2004).org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. 1(10). Implementation and Evaluation.projects.net/papers/ELearning. Six criteria of an educational simulation. (2005). September. http://www. and Wilensky. and Hou.bbk. P. http://www. 2004. The promise of online simulations. Paper presented at Robocup conference. 8. San Francisco: Pfieffer.ft. Financial Times. Holland.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. Aug.ncassr.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.learningcircuits.pdf Cherubini.amazon.pdf Swaak.http://www. J. June.for Philosophers and Engineers. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.htm Aldrich.html Linser. http://www.html Karrer. p. T.clomedia. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. September.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. Jennifer (2004).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt..ac. http://www.learningcircuits.case studies. Learning Circuits. Simulation levels in software training.uva. A.bham.htm eSchool News (2004). A. and McCloughlin. eSchool News.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. http://itdl. http://www. 2004. (2004). How playing power drives lessons home. Shannon (2004). 4. http://www.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. T. http://www.blikstein. Learning Circuits. B.. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . October. (2001).html Sobeih. 172 © Brandon Hall Research .htm High. Learning Circuits. Bjorn (2004).. http://www. 2004. A. http://www. AACE conference. Gash. October 15-19. A.pdf DeVries. J. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. J. M. Online report. and Ip. Clark (2005).ac. Chief Learning Officer.simplay. http://www. Utrecht. July. Viswanathan.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Computer simulations in distance education. A. http://www. Clark (2004). Kamau (2004). Making the most of software simulations.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. (2001).com/news/showS tory. & de Jong.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. http://www.medialabeurope.eschoolnews. F. Rasmussen.learningcircuits. Sept. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. A. Department of Computer Science.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s.learningcircuits.. International Workshop. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Taghiyareh.html Lunce.. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.

. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.knowledge.pdf Turkle. N.. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. 8(31). Cherubini.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .protonmedia. M.-Apr. The American Prospect. April.. Sherry (1997).prospect. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. (2003). 1997.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Mar.uc. 17. Fort Lauderdale. 284-294. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.html Winters. C.pdf Tjaden. http://www.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. Florida. In Association for Computing Machinery. http://www.icherubini. and Strohecker.dei. USA. Online paper at: http://lsm. http://www. Gary (2003). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

grease. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.checkpointsystems. infrared (IR) tags. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. RFID technology is developing rapidly. 2005). http://cnm. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.edu/102605_meal. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.org/Template. For a full discussion of this issue.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.com/default . which transmits over short distances. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.iu.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. http://www. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.open.edu/index. easily changed. therefore.iu.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.ala.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. optical tags. especially for tagging retail items in stores. They are programmable and.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. While controversial.” http://vis. especially in museums and for outdoor education. or water. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . http://uitspress.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.ac. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.

K. (2006). http://www.digicult. http://www. R. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).csmonitor..com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. adoption and innovation. T.html?s=feature Heining. http://www.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. http://www. Masters Thesis.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant.aace.. April 13. 4(3). M.infoworld. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). N.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. http://www. James (2006).1109/WMTE. (2005). describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. 2005. 2004.jisc. van Kranenburg. June 27. Donnelly.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn.msu. Ogata. and Case.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www. C. A. P. S. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Infoworld.toydirectory. http://www.aace. Andrew (2005). http://www. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags.rfidnews. Noma.com/monthly/articl e.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x.. In Kommers. Technology Watch Report 1. Aparna (2004). eSchool News Online. standards.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. 261-263. K. A. Corey (2004). H.). S.org/ Bibliography Borck. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.msu. March. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. TD Monthly. & Richards. G.. M. M.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. Y.computer.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. Shibuya. Michigan State University. R.cfm?fuse action=Reader.pdf Murray. http://www. January 1.toydirectory. G..ac. http://www.. in a 2005 online article.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. Ando. (2004).pdf Robinton.asp?id=1222 Ross.org/newdl/index. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Proceedings. Y.pdf Osawa et al. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .xml&DOI=10.com/monthly/articl e.. http://www. (Eds. and Yano..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal..pdf Salcedo. (2005). and Backhouse. & Kondo.66 Ward. http://csdl2. 276-283.org/news/showsto ry.html Osawa. 5. and Dobreva. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.. Noda.digicult. 2004. RFID: frequency.. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.eschoolnews.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. Oct. http://www.. (2003).pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. Tsukagoshi.2005 .

icio.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. search. Second. printouts. while users of the del.” However. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.connotea. and search for a specific user's Blinks. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. and Web links.blinklist. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Students. http://ask. no matter their location or timing. share their stories.net/ CiteULike . as each member can upload resources discovered. get inspired. or check out what everyone wants to do. http://www. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content.citeulike.First. Also.us Web site (http://del. share references with colleagues. music. http://www. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. The result is something called a tag cloud. or distributed in e-mails. and organize the academic papers they are reading. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. store.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. ontologies. researchers at all levels (students. tagging. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. in turn. Third. Blink also provides tools to sort. and books.A free service to help academics share.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. metadata. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. http://www. connect with others. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. and to share them. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research .icio. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Fourth. Fifth. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them.com/ Blinklist . They can save references. search others’ references. they act as an “outboard memory. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.us) post their favorite Web sites. describe. http://www. For instance. http://blogmarks.43things. For example.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Flickr held over 100 million images. As of April 2006. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. users can see what others are Blinking. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. faculty.metafilter. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.

They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.networkltd.clipmarks.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www. updated in near real time.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://www.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. the users decide.html Linkroll .jookster. http://www. http://consumating.yahoo.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.com/ Jots .search.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. http://www. http://www. or enter new items and tag them.com/ Simpy – Search tags.furl. and share photos with others.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.com/ Project Pad .com/archives/beta_up date/index.us/ Digg . users submit stories for review. search.com/ Magnolia . Tags can be shared or kept private. http://blog. similar to Digg.feedmarker. http://projectpad. http://flickr.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. and non-hierarchical editorial control.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. RSS. http://www.simpy. http://myweb2.northwestern. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.com/ Furl .A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.net/ Jookster . http://jots. With digg.com/ Del. blogging. but.pageflakes.us .com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://www.gnolia. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.com Clipmarks .icio.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.netvouz. http://www. http://www.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.eu/products/networ k_menus.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.memeorandum. and/or books and find them again.org/news. http://www. http://www.edu/ppad2/ index. and discover relevant links.A free.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.netscape.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.rojo. http://www.Consumating .com/ Kaboodle .digg.com/ Flickr – Store. http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. based on what is happening in the news media.linkroll.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. Also retrieve it easily. sort. http://www. share.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.eventful. http://ma.shadows. http://del.kaboodle. http://www. music.icio.

Online Resources Jon Udell.net/ Suprglu .html http://tagsonomy.wists.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. http://www.” http://www. 41(2).com/archives/000 558.A.peterme.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup.suprglu.com/index. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. and social bookmarking.zvents. Web 2.veotag. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. http://tabblo.fasfind.S.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.us. and Digg. with contributions from users.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. http://swik.spurl. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. http://www.quickonlinetips.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/wwwtool s/m/6350.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.wink.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/ SWiK . allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.html http://atomiq.” > > http://magazines.quickonlinetips. http://www. http://upcoming.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. Bryan (2006).Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.html http://www. If a city is not there. Flickr.com/wwwtool s/m/7172. http://www.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com Wists – A social shopping site. http://www.com/udell/gems/d elicious. http://www. http://www. http://unalog.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.infoworld.icio. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . and share it with others. > http://www.educause.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.us. March/April 2006.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.fasfind.smugmug.quickonlinetips.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.tagzania.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.com/ about how tagging works with del. tags. http://weblog. http://www.icio.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. http://www.yelp. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.

infoworld. http://tomgruber. Tag mania sweeps the Web. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. and Huberman. Adam (2004).. Webblogg-ed. Sept. Jon (2005). Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. 2006. Tom.typepad.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1.typepad. Shamus (2006). http://many. Hannay.html McGillicuddy. Jan. Tags vs. J.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Collaborative knowledge gardening.00.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.ejournal. The New School of Ontologies. T. 11(4). HP Labs Report.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. April 2005.php Lund.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. 20. InfoWorld. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.sid19_gci1195182.html Mathes. and Hannay. 11(4). and Scott.corante. InfoWorld. Tom (2005).html Do not reproduce 179 . Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. Hammond.pbs.dlib.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.html Coates. http://www. T.plasticbag. B. Online Paper. Online paper. S.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. 2. 2005. http://www.org/teachersource/learning . Social consequences of social tagging. 2004.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.289142.. D-Lib Magazine. http://www. http://searchcio.ascc.htm Hammond. http://ideant.. Ulises (2005). Jon (2004). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. T. (2005). Ideant.. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. http://www.pdf Gurber. (2005).org. Flack.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.weblogged. M. Nicholas (2004).com.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd.pdf Mejias. (2005).com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. June 21. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Plasticbag. Keynote address. http://www. T. SearchCIO. Many2Many.ht ml Mejias.hpl. Andy (2006). http://www. Trusted Sources.html Udell. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. Lund. May 5. 2005. August 20. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. 2. May 20. Liz (2005).isi. (2005).com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. http://www.html Lawley.hp.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. http://www.http://www.com/originalCo ntent/0. 2005. B.shtml Golder. Will (2005).techtarget. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. http://www. http://ideant. Ulises (2004).adammathes. Aug.pdf Richardson. 2005.html Mote. D-Lib Magazine.educause. 2005. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse..infoworld. April 2005. B. http://dlib.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.. July 20. 2006.

family.) Relationship Management (Orkut. My first report in this series. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.icio.classmates. and the military. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. etc. etc.” that is. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. shared links. Friendster.us.al. etc. social networking sites such as Friendster. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. etc. communities of practice.) Experience Sharing (blogs.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. online personals such as Match.com. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. http://www. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning.com. shared link libraries such as del. e-mail. tagging. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. 2005).) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. e-mail. SMS. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. reviewed social networking as an online content format.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . (2005) call an “architecture of participation. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. social software. work. photo albums. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. photo sharing sites. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. dating sites. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs.

audio. http://www.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.my-diary. and geographic regions.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.myspace.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.codeville. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. http://www.esnips. Share it with others if desired.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.com/inflow3. https://www.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. and files and then make them available to others.livejournal.analytictech.com Platial – A site to create social maps.last.faceparty. http://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www.linkedin.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. http://www.com/introNetwor ks.com/ Live Journal . photos.com/signin/index. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.stumbleupon.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. http://www.orgnet. http://www. http://www.freeopendiary.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. http://www.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. workplaces.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.com/reg/sample. Facebook has networks for colleges. video.” http://www. or as a social network.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.netminer.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.friendster. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.yahoo.spartasocialnetworks.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. as a blog. http://www. https://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. upload photos.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.facebook. http://www.diaryland.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. http://www.orkut. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.xanga. http://360. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. documents.com/ Orkut . http://www. which is then open to other readers.intronetworks. http://www.com/ucinet. http://platial. in associations. Users share their writings and meet each other. and within “communities of interest. http://www.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. high schools. It costs several thousand dollars.html Last. http://www.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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advanced.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. The driver sits in a box. London: Routledge. http://www. J.berkeley. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. Cambridge. http://www. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. C. as well as news. A. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). http://www.virtual-presence.html http://www. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.sourceforge.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. http://kmr.unizar. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Hubert (2001). http://gaim. history. and Windows.html Goldberg.net/ Jabber – An open. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.“Simultaneous Presence. http://www. MA: MIT Press.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. http://www. (2002).com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.aim. A.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. http://get.yahoo.kth.advanced. and Handberg. On the Internet. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. 44-49. BSD. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. secure.ibm.pdf Knudsen. Naeve.networkworld.txt Knudsen.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd." http://www.com/index. http://www2. Sept. http://laimuz.org/rfc/rfc2779. 2004.pd f Fontana. C. Network World.percro. the CAVE.fakespace.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www. Nils (2000).live.org/teleimmersio n2.ieor. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. (2001)..) ACS 2000 Proceedings. L. John (2004).no/at/nmm/enlund. (Eds.nada. http://www.org Bibliography Dreyfus. Network Working Group (2000). Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.org/teleimmersio n.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society.jabber. http://www-142. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.amazon. http://www.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 .ebuddy.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.acs.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. http://www. In Soldek.ietf. 6.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. J. and Pejas. Ken (Ed. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Online memo. Presence applications poised for takeoff. MacOS X. and Naeve.) (2000). http://messenger.hig. > > http://www. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.

and Rusbridge. Abbott. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.pdf Udell. Calgary. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3... McHugh.. Jon (2005). Donnelly.kth. C.pdf Lynn. http://www.pdf Sponberg.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . H.. Regina (2004). InfoWorld. June 1. http://www. January 2005.swedishlearninglab.. (2005). S. 2002. F. http://www. Alberta.amazon. Jan.infoworld. G.se/pdf/CID-206. D. L. Germany: Hagen.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1.org/docume nts/Sponberg. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Amsterdam: IOS Press. A. Dobreva. Ins and outs of teledildonics. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. http://www.com/news/culture/0. A. (2001).Banff.. M. 28. http://cid.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. H. M.modes. In Hoyer. (Eds. Knudsen.) (2003).wired.650 64-0. et al. Being There: Concepts. (Eds.Learning. September 24. Wired News. http://www.nada. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. and Handberg. and IJsselsteijn. W.html Riva. Davide.digicult.

Once video goes on the Internet. IPTV. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. streaming video. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. 2005). even a video plug-in for Skype. according to Foroohar (2006). Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. in all its formats. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). amateur and professional video cameras. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. BT. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Britain's largest telecom firm. tlearning. In spite of the limitations. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Further. television. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). screencasting. A new version of television. videocasting. cell phones. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. However. reviewed video as an online content format. video blogging. bandwidth becomes an issue. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. 2002). games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. My first report in this series. the largest Internet telephone service. As the following examples show. Do not reproduce 189 . vodcasting. telepresence. Video blogging has become common. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. video on the Internet is not readily searchable.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. PDAs.

video.html Dialcom Networks. http://www.veotag.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. and multimedia content to customers.” Users can upload video clips for free. employees. http://www. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. tag them.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.dfilm.org/ At YouTube.bittorrent. desktop. See samples at: http://www. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.addictingclips.concord.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. and divide them into chapters or segments. PDA. It is still going strong at: http://www. voice.axor.com For an example of a video blog. http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. http://www.org/ In 1999.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. See examples at: http://www. http://www. see Rocketboom. http://www. http://www.com/pressrelea ses.youtube. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. http://vpb.com/ BitTorrent. cellular. partners. http://www.com/default.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.co. http://video.xstreamengine. a three-minute videoblog.com/index_about. the “triple play” of video. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://www.ourmedia. See the current selection at: http://video.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.rocketboom.com.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. http://participatoryculture.dmeurope.rocketboom. http://www. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.bittorrent.uk/index. or students through a high quality.brightcove. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. improves the satisfaction of the client.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.on2.apple. http://www. with IPTV.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. the Internet telephone service.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.google.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.ar/iptv_en. low bandwidth video stream.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. or set-top box.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. whether dial-up. and maintains loyalty.com/nara.google. http://www.medialogic. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.

pdf Bardia. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.upenn.com/article.” http://knowledge. and visual resources. The site already contains nearly 6.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.masternewmedia. Luigi (2005a).mefeedia. P.uk/tlearning/contents.lsda. http://www. and by tags.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.dvguru.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. Online article at: http://www. 2005. https://www.navy.co.mil/index.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www.elearnspace.masternewmedia.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.thinkofit.co. For example.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.org/doing/media. Peter (2003).com/ http://www. Pradeep (2004). http://www.” http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. and Bates. (2003).uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019. Luigi (2005b).htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.” http://www.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. www. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. D. http://www.uk/files/pdf/1443. http://eduscapes.com/webconf/video.hpc.educause.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. termed “mobile television. http://www. 1. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. but business models are fuzzy.veoh.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. http://www.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.elearningcentre.edu/articl e.ht m Canali De Rossi. Dec. Wi-Max.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.com/seeds/index.” http://www.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds. http://www.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog.iptv-industry.wharton. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. by alphabet.org. t-learning Study .500 vlogs organized by popularity. which users can submit. Beyond Wireless Broadband. Wi-Fi. read “Ten video sharing services compared.streamingmedia.” Bibliography Atwere. http://www.pjb.spider.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. http://www. video.

). http://www.com/showAr ticle.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).htm Curtis. Durham. pdf Nolle.php Taplin. NC: Duke University. Tom (2005). Asensio. 7.aace. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Changing Channels.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.amazon. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV..campustechnology.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp.bcr. June 6. S.umist.) (2002). Rana (2005). and Young. http://www1. Campus Technology.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.msnbc. Peter (2005). IAT Services White Paper. http://www-rcf. discussions and implications. 2005.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. Robin Good Blog. The IPTV Revolution. Dec. L. M. 2005. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. Newsweek (International Ed.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. http://www. Manchester.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. (2005). Brian (2005).ibm. and Swenson. P.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.).pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Networking Pipeline. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. 2. April 26.pdf Klass. http://www2. http://edmarketing. Jonathan. Mon. (2003). Nov. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Brian (2002). University of Missouri. (Eds.org/newdl/index.XMax Goes The Distance. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. In Richards.usc. Online paper. http://www. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Feb.apple.networkingpipeline. 2005. (Ed.cfm?fuse action=Reader.pdf Thornhill. IBM Institute for Business Value study.ac. G. http://www. 2005.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.msn.com/article. 2005. 8-9. 417-419). C. http://www. Matthew (2005). http://www. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.masternewmedia.asp?id=7769 Meng.

net/wiki2/index. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 .uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. and re-experiencing or reusing past events.futurelab. designers. Exploration and discovery are enabled.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.netofpeers. http://ancient. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. Shape has developed the augurscope.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. skin color. interaction. http://solipsis.ca/index. By using aspects of game play. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.ubc. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.org. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. and the aim of the virtual experience.kahootz. and storytellers.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.columbia. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.org/highlights/augur. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://www. Creed. desktop virtual reality.arts.shapedc. http://www. Near Eastern. exchange enabling. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. and Religious Studies department. Depending on the level of realism achieved. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. simulation. http://www.ac.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. inventors. To do this. http://www.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. http://www1.equator.cs.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. distributed virtual environments. mixed reality. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. augmented virtuality. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Videoconferencing is not required. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.

epfl.spider. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. including education.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. T. T.opencroquet..cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. http://vrlab.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.ch/About/about_index. August 9. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. http://vr.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.navy.com/article.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.activeworlds.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. Luigi (2004). A. and Tsiatsos.cti.ahds. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).pdf Bouras. 175-199. http://ru6.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 ..hpc. (2001).healthdatamanagement..S. and Tsiatsos. http://www.html The U.pdf Bouras.informationinplace.ac.ac.ergonetz.edu/vrel. G. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. http://www.intuition-eunetwork. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. http://www. For example.secondlife. Technology Area .gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. East Carolina University. https://www. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.ahds. Hornig. C. 2006. T. http://www. 24. (2006).cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.com http://www.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany.org/index. Campus Technology. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. Research report.com/edu/index.cti.cti.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. Triantafillou.ecu. Philopoulos. > http://vads.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. and Tsiatsos. (2001).de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.html Bibliography Bouras.coe. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. V. http://ru6. C. C. http://ru6. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. http://www. http://www.campustechnology.mil/index. > > http://www.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.

F.actapress.oln. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. July 9-16. Dec.1314022. Abbott. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. 1. http://www. Istanbul. P. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. M. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. A.html Jones.masternewmedia. G.pdf Do not reproduce 195 .elearning.actapress. Proceedings.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen.p df Prasolova-Førland.ikg. Donnelly. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. 28.unibo. M.pdf Ross.tcd.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. 2004. and Rusbridge. R.htm Dickey. Web-based Education 2005 conference.unihannover. Guardian Unlimited. D. Gerard (2002). http://www.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. Proceedings. http://education. A. Sept.. (2004).org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.html Liarokapis.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. http://courseweb. (2002).de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. J. http://www. Monahan. and Sester. http://www.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.. and Hicks. Web Based Education 2005 conference. McHugh. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. P. G.pdf Katterfeld. (Section on Virtual Reality). M.guardian. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. (2005). 35. C. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.digicult. F. 2004.unt.. International Archives of Photogrammetry. 2005. M. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. M.htm Katterfeld. Conlan.10577. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Learning Circuits. 1(2). Eva (2004). & Sester. January 2005. (2005).. T. http://www.edu.actapress.com/PaperInfo. (2005). and Seyedarabi.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. Trend: augmented reality check.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.learningcircuits. http://www. M. Dobreva.pdf McArdle.. Stephen (2004). (2005). Petridis. La Coruna/Spain.Good Blog.. Sept. http://www. Bertolotto. No.icc2005. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.monash. 27.com/PaperInfo.. Michelle (2003). and Mangina. Ekaterina (2005). C. 2004. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. O.org/htmleng/english.eng. https://www. (2004). S.. http://www. Vol.ie/Owen.com/Reference.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.00. 2004.pdf Hoare. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. E. and White.cs. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. http://www.. http://www.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Lister.uk/elearning/ story/0. ISPRS.co.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen.

html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. http://www. GIS. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. allowing for innovation or new understandings. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. which showcases their potential. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. mapping.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. cybercartography.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. and data rendering. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. data filtering. pattern recognition.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. 2005). Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. See some amazing demos at: http://www. For an example. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. location based systems. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data.inxight.semagix. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research .net/omnigator/models/ index. The educational advantages of visualization are many. et al.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. Finally.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. On the other hand. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. http://www. graphics. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. http://www. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. visualization can represent alternative points of view.com/solutions. Flash.unifiedfield. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. geographical information systems. dynamic displays. cognitive collage.ucar. 2003).Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps.zoomclouds. images. see ZoomClouds. data mapping. such as a blog. reviewed visualization as an online content format. http://www. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money.dpc.ontopia. My first report in this series.

html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.idc.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.”’ BBC News.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.ddd.typorganism. a young graphic designer.0 authoring system.medtropolis.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity. delivery.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. http://www.tmm. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.medibolt.vista. http://www.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.nlm. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.edu/index. April 7th.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. http://news. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 . Be sure to explore the “zoo. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. http://www.esa.com Web site in Tokyo.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. http://esapub. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.ul.gsfc.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.ac.edu/ Paul Nixon. Free demo at: http://www.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.marumushi.alice.cs. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .media. http://www.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.mit.gov/index. http://www.utexas.ubc.in English or Spanish.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch.nixlog.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.” http://www. Museum Edition. Sample the collection at: http://svs. and display (without glasses!).pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. See: http://www.bbc.co.esrin. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. VR.vrco. It has images of space and the earth from space.bham. 2004.” http://richie. http://www.nasa. http://www.lecielestbleu. See his list of resources at: http://www. http://www.html For a practical application of visualization. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival. and visualization applications.org/timeformations/ intro.com/VBody. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.skyscraper.nih. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. http://chatcircles. http://www.

http://makingmaps.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. for example. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.nih. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. one million items.spotfire.gfdl.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.nlm.mccrackendesign. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.semagix.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. http://research.owu.com/cat/dashb oard/index.com/solutions.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. http://www. http://www.corda. http://www.vicodi. http://www.amnh.cs.feedtank.edu/postcartoaag06.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.com/omni. See their tool set and examples of their work.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. anatomically detailed. http://www. See this technology in action.com CenterView http://www.unifiedfield.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.ambientdevices. http://www.at/home.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.indiana.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. in the U.noaa.ontopia.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.idashboards. http://www.cs.xcelsius.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/index.umd.arcscience.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension. http://clustrmaps. http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.vrvis.html XCelsius http://www.microsoft.at: http://www. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com WorkPlace http://www.S.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com/applicati on.ibm.html Top Tier http://www. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . and information presentation.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.net/omnigator/models/ index.com/index. retrieval.org/about.

http://www.mapinfo.visualthesaurus.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. for 3-D landscaping and animation. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. and. associations. and rendering. including the following: Bryce. http://www.musanim.accurender.com Pixologic is 2. Clicking a related term extends the process.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. and anomalies in data.advizorsolutions. http://www.visualcomplexity. Didger.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. animation.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://tangible.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.timemap. http://www. http://www. trends.pixologic.com/mam/mam.esri.mit. including the following: Voxler.” http://www. http://www. http://www.golden.softill.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. Strater. modeling. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.topozone.okino.formz.intergraph. Carrara. for 3-D modeling.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.oziexplorer.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. http://www.S.microsoft. and rendering software. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. MapViewer. http://research. http://www. http://www. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . http://www.visualanalytics. for well log and borehole plotting. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. http://www.com/vc/index. for 3-D data visualization. Grapher. for thematic and analytical mapping.goes far beyond static JPG map images. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. networks.daz3d. http://www. http://www. http://www.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. many of which are unique.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. They have worked with the U.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. Try a demo at: http://www.media.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.

gatech. He finished his PhD.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.masternewmedia.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.mit.net/printRec.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. B. > > http://www.agocg. Jacques (1967).edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. A.ac.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. 14(1). together with their estimated depth of influence.ubc. Mackinlay. and Shneiderman.stanford.gatech. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. http://www. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. K.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. is available online.liveplasma. J. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. P. http://www.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.topicmap.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. http://www. M.pdf Bertin. and Resetarits. EXYSTENCE network.sdsu. http://coe.editlib.media. Madison: University of Wisconsin. both visualization companies.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. http://www.fakespace.mit..htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. The Semiology of Graphics.pdf Bergmann.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.gvu.edu/eet/ Ell.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www.media. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.iu.) (1999).com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.edu/index. (Eds.vrco. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. > > http://acg. (2003). G.com/ Bibliography Alpert.ualbert a.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.edu/research/r esearch.infovis.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. les cartes. 31-49 http://www. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.edwardtufte. http://www. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.com/ http://www. J. Proceedings.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Paier. > http://www. J. http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Following are two: > > http://graphics. http://www.cs.complexityscience.complexityandeducation. Paris: La Haye. Jacques (1983). les réseaux.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.org/index.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.” http://vis.. http://acg.topicmaps. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Working Paper.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. Sherman (2003).” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. http://www.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.gvu. and Woodill.

Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. August 11. (2005). Morales. K. pp. Spence. http://www.. England: AddisonWesley. http://www.aace. Reading. Luca (2003). Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.pdf Scaife. A.amazon. January 2005. 1-34. (2004).org/index. C.ht m O'Regan. http://www. 185–213 http://www. http://nivea. June 1. Information Visualization.editlib. Arns.pdf Shneiderman. (2006). (1998).elearningguild.slis. M.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 .. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. September. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 42.campustechnology.amazon. (Section on Visualization). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. May/June. 17-30. M.com/publications.html Madhavan. Mike and Rogers.. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. http://www. pp. K. 2.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell.digicult.cfm/files/pape r_5994.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.asp Mittal. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Switzerland: University of Lugano. Donnelly. G.html Ross. August. Abbott. 3. (2005).fr/CanJ/CanJ. http://www. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. Dobreva. and Knezek. http://www.ac..psycho. http://createdrealities. (2005). Siggraph.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.K. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. D. Canadian Journal of Psychology. 2005. 46: 461-488. 4(1). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. P. http://www. S. http://itdl.asp?id=11222 Metros.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. (1992). 16(4).org/dl/index. No. http://www. Campus Technology. J. International Journal on E-Learning. Educational Media International. Harlow. 329-351. EDUCAUSE Review. McHugh. 45. A. Luca (2005). K. available online at http://www.istituti. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory.pdf Goldfarb. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. A. Brent (2006). NC: Duke University.usilu.indiana.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. G.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. Vol. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.educause.com/articles/abs tracts/index.agocg. http://www. Durham.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. Robert. Theresa (1998). and Bertoline. Lugano. (2001). 3(1). S. http://www. and Woolsey. http://www.com/article. B. and Pagalthivarthi. L.html Rhyne.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.univparis5. J. and Rusbridge.. Brian (2002). Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Vol. (2005).org/Journal/jan_06/article02. 4th Edition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 41(3).. 69-82.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.amazon. Ruth (2003). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. No.siggraph. Yvonne (1996).

com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research .edwardtufte. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Press. CT: Graphics Press. http://www. http://www. Sharpe.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman.com/tufte/index Ware. 2nd Ed. M.E. Computers. David (2005).amazon. Visualization.com/tufte/index Tufte. Envisioning Information. evidence and narrative. Edward (1997).edwardtufte. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Cheshire. Cheshire. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Fall.amazon. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Threshold. Cheshire. Edward (1990). CT: Graphics Press. Colin. From multimedia to multisensory education.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. http://www. http://www. (2004). Information Visualization: perception for design. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www. 2nd Edition. Edward (2001). http://www.amazon.com/tufte/index Tufte.org/threshold Tufte.edwardtufte.ciconline. David (2002). Matt (2002). Digital Information Graphics.

Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. Internet telephony.elearningcentre. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. http://www.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. Internet telephony is relatively simple. http://www. In the near future.ac. March 2005.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. http://www.susx.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Geraldine (2005). Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. but it is rapidly improving. Join the discussion at: http://voip.spectrum.org Bibliography Cherry. Using VoIP. http://www.avaya. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. http://www. http://www.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity.co. and a microphone.voipreview.jajah.html Do not reproduce 203 .ieee. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. Steven (2005). IEEE Spectrum Online. requiring an Internet hookup.infoworld. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. headphones or speakers. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. http://www.skype.cogs.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. http://www. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. 1996). bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.envisioninc. communications tools. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. in remote communities. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.weblogsinc.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. http://www.

. Language Learning and Technology. M. http://www. 9-12.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Robert (2005). September.pdf Ottoson.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. I.org/xpl/freeabs_all. Mobile distributed e-learning center.nald. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing.Ganchev.msu. Meredith (1996). S. http://ieeexplore. and O’Droma. (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. 9(3). http://llt.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .ieee. Stojanov.

html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. 1998): 1. 6.cmu. or repairing complex machines. http://killer.bbc. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. Selected Examples In Europe. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. In January 2006.edu/design/VuMan. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.ices.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.bris. http://www.ac. managing. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. anytime. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers.hubuska. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. http://killer. The entire system. especially for comercial airlines. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. ubiquitous computing > http://www. the automotive industry. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. weighs less than three pounds. http://www. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. It is attentive to the surrounding environment.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.cs. It is controllable by the user 5. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. including wearable computing.pdf http://www.com/Home/Home. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. http://wearables.learnexact. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.cmu. For example.edu/design/Ion. It is observable by the user 4.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.ices. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. training.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.co.sportbrain. and other organizations involved in inspecting. training to do their jobs. like a wristband or jewelry. including batteries. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. Do not reproduce 205 .checkpointelearning.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. http://news.

html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.wired. http://www. 2006.com/news/culture/0. http://www. http://isd.ac.uk/wear-it http://www.org/index_graphical. Dec.html Garfinkel.com/news/culture/0.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. 1. Simson (2004).” including computers built into underwear. http://www. H. Wearable computers that you can slip into.ac.org/index.edu/research/wear ables/index.bham. http://www. (2003). Fairfax. ICWC98.ht ml http://www. M. Technology Review (Online).ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.uoregon.ethz. March 8. 2005. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon.eee. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. May 12-13. (2004).wired. Toronto: Anchor Books.technologyreview. M. (2002).org is a rich source of references.704 81-0.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. Olga (2005).shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.edu/ http://wearcam.gsfc.jisc. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.businessweek. 2004. See: > > > http://genesis.html The design of “smart clothing. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Steve (1998).uk/index. Wearable Computing for the Commons. http://www. and Levene. March 24. C.org/icwckeynote.704 81-0. http://www.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. http://www.pdf Kharif. S. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.media. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.http://www.nasa.wearable.eecg. VA. Business Week Online. Wired News. especially in the area of wearable cameras. S.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. and Niedzviecki. What you’ll wear in 10 years.eecg.htm Mann. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.mit.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.toronto.eyetap. http://about.com/read_arti cle. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.toronto. http://wearcam.cs. and Lupisella. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Mmoma (2006). http://www.

0 format). Brightcove http://www. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. feeds. podcasts.brightcove. Aggie http://bitworking.” as its content is changed by the author. Amphetadesk http://www.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds.com/productBlog Express. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Here is a list of 48: 1. blogs. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. listings of the latest books.com 9. including cell phones. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. basic text format for quick review. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). CDs. and electronics.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. photo collections. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).disobey. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. social bookmarking. BlogLines http://www.bloglines. and Atom is the second.com/ 5. this method of finding out what is new is spam free.org/Aggie.com/ 8. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. To read content from a Web feed. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML.com/ 7. TV guides.net/dl. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. and laptops. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. job searches. Awasu http://www.com/ 4. and course offerings.awasu. Attensa http://www. PDAs. When changes are made to a Web site.html 6.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 .attensa.bloglet. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. > For learners and teachers. each with its own features.html 2. Bloglet http://www. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated.com/ampheta desk 3.

com/feedscout.mozilla. Topix http://www.fuzzyd. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Feedroll . RSS Software http://www. see: http://www.ca/edurss02.net/ 45. Videora http://www.mozdev.net/ 24.org/ 37. Project D.newsisfree. To have a blog aggregated.sharpreader.com 40.com 32.protopage. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.uk/rssreader / 23.rssreader.feedzilla.com/ 17. StepNewz http://www.feedburner.pubsub.feedforall. including listings for various electronic devices. Reader http://www. Sage http://sage.topix.net/index.com/ 46.com 28.onfolio.learningfeeds.com/rss/ 39. EaZy RSS reader http://www. NewsIsFree http://www.hebig.10.somee.com/thunderbir d/ 48.puremis.com/myrssto olbar. Thunderbird http://www.com/ 16. Feed-Directory http://www. My RSS Toolbar http://www. FeedForAll http://www.feedpublish. RSS Orbit http://www.rssreader.http://www.com/ 21.feedreader. Feedtier http://feedtier.com/ 15.downes.videora. RSSCalendar http://www. FeedReader http://www.php.com 18.sh tml 41.U. feedbeep http://feedbeep. Rojo http://www. FeedPublish http://www. Edu_RSS 0.com/ 43. Feedster http://www. LearningFeeds http://www. Protopage http://www.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.bytescout.blogplanet. RSS2Exchange http://www. PubSub http://www. FeedScout http://bytescout. FeedBurner http://www.com/ 34. Syndirella http://yole.rojo.com/ 19.ht ml 20.com/ 22. Newsgator http://www. Pluck http://www.html 27. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.com/ 30.pluck.com/ 29.newsgator. OnFolio http://www. Fuzzy Duck http://www.com 14.rss-to-javascript. Gregarius http://gregarius.projectdu.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.feedroll.rsscalendar.com/today/ 36.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.com/ For a list of more aggregators.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35.com/ 13.com/ 25.com/v2 33.feedster.com/ 31. RSS Bandit http://www.net/ 26.com/ 42.co. SharpReader http://www.org/ 44.shtml 11.2 http://www.h tm 12. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .rssbandit. RSSReader http://www.hexamail.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.feed-directory.

RSS: a learning technology.downes.com/news/showS tory. maintains a long list of RSS resources. eLearning Developers’ Journal.redjupiter. Online paper.contentious. Online paper.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. Learning Circuits.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. May 2004.ca/edu_rss. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . D. Vancouver.eschoolnews. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www. 2005. Mary (2003). a blog by Alan Levine.php 2003.htm Levine. Aug.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. Learning Circuits. Robin Good Blog. Lamb.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes.elearning.ca/files/RSS_Educ. University of North Carolina. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.mcli.downes.htm Harrsch. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. Version 1.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. June 2004.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://www. http://www. http://www. Aug. 1.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Oct. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.ubc. Brian Lamb.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. 2004. http://www. Bill (2003). Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.downes. 31. http://technologysource. Aug. http://careo.teachinghacks.maricopa. 2004.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. 5-8. RSS: the next killer app for education. RSS Ideas for Educators.dist.usatoday.learningcircuits. Eva (2004). USA Today (online). Stephen (2002).vccs. The Technology Source Archives.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. Stephen (2004).maricopa. BC. http://www. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.mcli. http://www.com/wiki/doku. Brian Lamb. http://www. RSS could transform online communications.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. July/August 2003.htm David.pdf Gannett. http://www. http://www. B. and Norman. Do not reproduce 209 . Read his article written specifically for educators..1.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.teachinghacks. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. (2003).com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. http://www.wcc. 2003. and D’Arcy Norman. http://timyang.Possible Future Evolution.dist. Luigi (2004). Anh (2005). Quentin (2006).ca/cgibin/wiki. May 19. eSchool News. Dan (2004).pdf Canali De Rossi. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. http://www. A.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.masternewmedia.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.htm Downes.learningcircuits.htm D’Sousa.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.elearningguild.lo. http://www. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.ca/files/RSS_Educ. http://www. 3.

2006. http://www. 2005. http://www. The Shifted Librarian.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Alexandra (2005).html?page=1 Udell.alexandrasamuel. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. http://www. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. M. 13. March 23. O’Reilly Network. July 7.blogspot. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . Aug.oreilly.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.mediathink.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. http://googlereader.html Samuel. Google Reader Blog. Mihai (2006). 2005. http://www.pdf Parparita. InfoWorld.html Powers.theshiftedlibrarian. http://www. Sept.html MediaThink (2004). June 18. MediaThink White Paper.xml.infoworld. 2005. Using RSS for data integration. and Webb. Namespaced extensions in feeds.Levine. (2006). Jon (2005).com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. T. Otherwise Engaged. http://www. Jenny (2005).com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.oreillynet. Shelly (2005). RSS: the next big thing online.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. 3. 2006.

There are now over 1. custom permissions. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. http://www. http://wikipedia.org/index. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. 2005). social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. http://www. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. 4. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. time-less. See the progress at: http://edu. and projects. 3. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. http://www.seedwiki.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.schtuff.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. an image gallery.300.” Essentially. is available for other applications.org/tiki-index.tikiwiki. http://www.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. My first report in this series.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. RSS. http://www.com/cgibin/mb. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. and never finished.sourceforge.10. Anyone can add to it.net/features. approaches.gilbane. can be used by a team for joint writing. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. Do not reproduce 211 . With some basic instructions. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.wikipedia.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. http://www.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.sourcewatch. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.com/artpdf/GR12. it is important to have several contributors. http://www. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Content is ego-less.com/cgibin/wiki.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. For wikis to work. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. features.usemod. and email notification. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.usemod. 2. the software used to run Wikipedia.

including a section on wiki tools. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.org. W. First Monday.48. http://whiplash. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. http://careo.com/ Jon Udell. Dec. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. Andrea (2003).infoworld.wikibooks.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis.co.se/wikipaper.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Teaching and learning online with wikis. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. 8(12). that she updates regularly. Perth. http://www. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. and Zhou. R. Twiki. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.learningwiki. N. A free trial is available. http://www. as well as an analysis of how they work..com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16. http://aronsson.infotoday. http://64.jot.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. including wikis.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. Operation of a Large Scale. Phantom authority.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. (2002).org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.shtml Brian Lamb.ikiw. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.nu’s first nine months in service.ubc. http://www. http://www.com/ WritingWiki.socialtext.” http://writingwiki. http://www. Dec.” http://tlc. http://weblog.html Ciffolilli.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. Australia.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. http://www. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. (2004).” is a rich source of information on wikis. “Quickiwiki. His article.elearning.Weblogs. 5-8.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.elearningcentre.org has lots of resources on wikis.ascilite.different. http://m. of the University of British Columbia.71.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.dicole. Raitman.com/wwwtools/m/25242. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. http://flosse.fasfind. http://radio.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. Swiki.ucalgary.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. is provided by David Mattison. L. http://kairosnews.html Bibliography Aronsson.pbwiki.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. http://en.html Augar.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.

uk/issue42/ Udell.profetic.asp Schmitt. Issue 42. UniversityWiki. Wiki Tools. Quickiwiki. The wiki way. Searcher.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. 2005.html Stafford. L. Jon (2004). Nov. http://Weblog. and Rudolph.com/article2/0. M.10. W. http://www..4149.irrodl. Emma (2005).shtml Rubenking. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. April 2004. Online article.educause.com/cgibin/mb. Ariadne. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).pdf Leuf. Online paper. http://www. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. (2004).com/udell/2004/1 0/19.14 02872.pdf Fountain.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer. Richard (2003). http://www. Online article.educause. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. Lauren (2005). and Webb. http://www. Brian (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.1/technot e_xxvii. J.pdf Do not reproduce 213 .ariadne. Online article at PCMag. David (2003). Neil (2003).. Making the case for a wiki. 2004. 2006.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).oreillynet. M. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. (2001).com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. 36-48.. International Journal of Information Ethics. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. July. 12(10). (2006). T. Sept.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Oct. Anja (2004). http://www.pcmag. David (2004).00.infotoday. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. http://www.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. http://www.http://firstmonday. InfoWorld.org/content/v5.zkm. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. O’Reilly Network.amazon.. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .html Wood.usemod. Bo & Cunnin.html Tomkin. January.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Online article at: http://www. Educause Review. July 7.com. Twiki.com/artpdf/GR12. Renée (2005).Oct. 2. Clark. http://gilbane.infoworld. Cossarin. Swiki. http://www. S.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.pdf Kulisz.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. April 2003. http://c2. Wiki pedagogy. 19. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. http://container. Why Wikis Work Not.ac.

CD-ROMS. in turn.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. After a product has been successfully launched. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which. floppy disks. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which can then lead to inventions. However. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago.

The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. this approach is now rapidly changing. both in classrooms and online. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Further. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and decline. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. video games. in both formal and informal settings. However. 2003). without clear guidelines on how to proceed. some will never leave the development stage. peak.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. The experience of younger learners with television. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. For a variety of reasons. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. change itself seems to be inevitable. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. Some will die quickly. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. mature. while others will last for decades. But not all technologies will travel this road. or may never become commercially viable. In any field. in part. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. ascend the curve. Ontologies. The technology of e-learning. to the complex. means that they actually think differently. This is due. and computers.

28). until we become habituated. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. terrorism. p. whereby the action of one participant.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . 1994). movie theaters. commercials. In approaching electronic educational media. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. generally went to work earlier. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. that is all about to change. television. 2002.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. In North America. and digital ink and electronic paper. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. and the globalization of corporate capitalism.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. To keep our attention. global warming. gaming consoles. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. surprise. the computer. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. born in the 1970s. The speed of change increases with each passing year. in a back-and-forth exchange. the space race. we will see the restructuring of education and training. Their children. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. For example. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. and personal digital assistants. the baby boomers. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. Generally. ecological disasters. Once we master the art of reading. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. results in an action by the other participant. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. sex. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the learner. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. wearable computers. Then even more movement. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. video games. In contrast. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. But they are usually disap-pointed. Within the next five years. huge data wall displays. mind-altering drugs. It works for a time. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. designers of Sesame Street. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. or violence is needed to keep our attention. libraries. The children of the baby boomers. digitization of smell. mobile phones. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. For the older generation. touch and taste. However. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. With feedback. Because of this. the civil rights movement.

In the next wave.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. portfolios. Marc. Douglas (2005). Guides are optional. (2001). May 2006. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. and the mapping of everything. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. http://www. At the individual level. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Gary (2006).com Bibliography Christensen. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 .amazon.amazon.amazon.amazon. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. http://www. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Dallas. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. shortly.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. New York: Collins. Digital Game-based Learning. Clayton (1997). FutureHype: the myths of technology change. http://www. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Rushkoff. http://www. Likewise.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. New York: McGraw-Hill. Texas. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power.operitel. http://www. creative products. It is already a place for massively multiple player games.amazon. technologies and services for the next 5 years. Two hundred years ago. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. James (1994). Bob (2006). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.

se/~muse/hom e. Building 5. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. 27A 2º esq.org/ AiLive Inc.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Palo Alto.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.bartneck.nngroup. Marc Schröder. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. UK http://www.O.mit.ailive. 3400 Hillview Avenue.bham. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.auburn.Portugal Tel.com/ WEBIST Av. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.net/ Auburn University Auburn.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. CA 94304 USA http://www. 1515 Broadway. Manuel I.unige. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Box 513. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. 17th Floor. Den Dolech 2 P. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.myself-proj.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .ac.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .umu. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. L69 7ZF.agentlink.51.informatik. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.webist. 2910-595 Setúbal . New York.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.de/link/affective_port al.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.cs. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.media. D. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.

CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.O.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.isi.org. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.ascension-tech.O.csc.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. Edmonton. O.educause.apple. L69 7ZF. Bloomington. Inc.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. W Toronto. Secretariat. Inc. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.animats. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. N.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. #1910. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.W.rit.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Washington.ac. Box 527. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.extempo. Box 2124 Menlo Park.au/index.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.mindworkshop. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Suite 206 Boulder.liv.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.codebaby.redwoodelearning.com/ Apple Computer. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. 1900 East Tenth St.edu Extempo Systems.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.com Alchemy Mindworks P.ascilite.animationfactory.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Burlington. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Huntsville. Box 5200. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. P.indiana. 10004-104 Avenue.computer.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.adobe.informatics.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.

MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.macromedia.San Rafael.siggraph.htm Macromedia. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.psych. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.ucsb.460.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.asp EI Technology Group.html Ulead Systems 970 W.com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/index.org/home. PO Box 24478. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. Inc.cognitivesciencesociety.org/ SWiSHzone. 110 Cuba Mall. Wellington.A.com/home.S. TN 38152 USA http://www. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.massivesoftware.autotutor. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. Suite #480 Torrance. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.cmu.pact.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.aaai. Inc. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.aclweb.com/ Avid Technology.com/pub/index.autodesk. Tel: +1. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.6450 http://www.newtek.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. Suite 100 Menlo Park.viewpoint. One Park West Tewksbury.swishzone. 190th Street.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.818. Santa Barbara.avid.com/ NewTek. Avid Technology Park.eitechnologygroup.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.catoolkit.cs.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. San Antonio. Inc.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.

edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.cis. Suite K.umuc.gemini.cs. H-1111 Budapest. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. 1. Calgary.W.edu Quantum Simulations. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.edu.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. Calgary. Alberta. East Adelphi. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. 100 Sherbrooke St.cs.eden-online. Suite 360 San Mateo.it.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. Suite 1500 Montreal.wpi.edu.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Inc.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. u. CA .htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.brainbench.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.unisa. Egry J. Chantilly.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.org/eden.teluq.ca/eng/inde x.com/index. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.enel.licef.ucalgary.cs.W.uquebec.10th Street S. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.iit.cmu. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.virtuelage.com Do not reproduce 221 .usyd.stottlerhenke. West Montreal.ke-corp.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .

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New York 12054 USA Tel: (866) 532-7659) http://www.com Eedo ForceTen 76 Northeastern Blvd . NSW.com Elicitus Content Publisher Harbinger Knowledge Products P. Berlin.64. CA 92651 USA Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. P. local 3 E-08028 Barcelona. Spain Tel: +34 93 490.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. Inc. WA 98074 USA Tel: (425) 868-4841 http://www.mohive.com ExpertAuthor.. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. NH 03062 USA Tel: (603) 889-3784 Fax: (603) 595-7932 http://www. ExpressTrain c/o Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. O. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.68 http://www.com Flash Companion eLearning Studio Rapid Intake Inc. Laurent Blvd.eclipsys. UK Tel: +44 (0)1903 538844 Fax: +44 (0)1903 536080 http://www.uk Impatica Inc.co.64.8053 Graz.knowledgequest.dynamicpowertrainer.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Decoy Rd. Fax: +61 2 4272 1338 http://www.com EasyAuthor c/o Eclipsys Corporation 1750 Clint Moore Road Boca Raton.instant-demo. 38-40. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. BN14 8ND. West Sussex.com iLessons c/o Counterpoint MTC Ltd Unit 2 Timberlaine Trading Est.elicitus. Suite 29A Nashua.rapidintake.ht ml e-Learning Consulting 1722 232 Avenue NE Sammamish. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.impatica. Suite 205 Ottawa.easyprof.elearninginabox. Worthing.10 Fax: +34 93 490. Austria http://www.experiencebuilders. 500 Kenwood Avenue Delmar.edufolio.eedo. Australia. 441 W Main St.com/products/forceten. Unanderra Wollongong. 1725 St. CT 06023 USA Tel: (860) 828-5650 Do not reproduce 225 .. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Box 9083 Grønland N-0133 Oslo Norway Tel: +47 22 44 94 50 Fax: +47 97 32 37 08 http://www. Suite B Lehi.com Firefly Publisher c/o KnowledgePlanet 5095 Ritter Road.com/Solutions/Elearni ng.ilessons.O. Box 2827 Redmond.knowledgeplanet.asp EasyProf Rambla Brasil. Ontario K1G 3V4 Canada Tel: (613) 736-9982 Fax: (613) 736-9084 http://www. PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 Fax: (717) 790-0401 http://www.com Intiva c/o Business Performance Technology 1224 Mill Street East.com E-Learning in a Box c/o KnowledgeXtensions.com Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System c/o Mohive. FL 33487 USA Tel: (561) 322-4321 Fax: (561) 322-4320 http://www..e-learningconsulting..com Instant Demo c/o NetPlay Software Tamarind Drive. Utah 84043 USA Tel: (866) 231-5254 Fax: (360) 838-0828 http://www.

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com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .maxit. #1910.syberworks.turbodemo. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www. Suite 1550 San Jose. +49(0)721. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.suddenlysmart. 10004-104 Avenue.seminar. 55 South Market St. 323 Newbury Street Boston. Suite 200 Tampa.com/coursegen.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas..com Trainersoft FunEducation.5709 http://www.83 01 616 http://www. Redmond.time4you. SC. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. Gandy Blvd. Inc.thinkingcap.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.qarbon.sensalearning.xplana.percepsys.com/products/study mate. Edmonton.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www. CA 92101 USA http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.toolbook. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp.4259 Fax: (760) 635.respondus. 4.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.codebaby. 76133 Karlsruhe. Inc. Germany Tel.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.hunterstone.co.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.funeducation. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.com DA Group The Lighthouse.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.

com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.wavemarket. Mazgaon.vcom3d.blogburst.com OmniWeb Omni Development. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. INDIA.omnigroup.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www.com GTCO CalComp. 219 Tampa.. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View.qelix.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.com WaveMarket. Inc. W Toronto. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.oddcast. P.flock. USA http://www. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.O.cramersweeney.telsim. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com Moorestown.. Moseley. Suite 260 Orlando.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. Birmingham. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. 11th Floor New York. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . Nesbit Rd. Inc. Suite 900 Austin. Ste. Mary Apts.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 6th Flr. CA 94608 USA http://www.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N..daden. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.tmmy. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.html Knowledge Environments. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.mozilla. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. Inc. B13 9SG.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle..com/v2/index.redwoodelearning.active-learning-site. Dale Mabry Hwy.uk/chatbots. Inc. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Mumbai 10.knowledgeenvironments.opera.co.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.co.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.O. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.

Pleasant St. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.qwizdom.telnetz.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. Inc. Suite 103 Toronto.944.physics. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.adobe. 100 North Lake Avenue. Pittsford. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.optiontechnologies.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.com Brightidea.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. Orlando.edu Batipi 11 St.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. Suite# 401.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Ontario. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Amherst.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. Suite 101E Falls Church. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. Jospeh Street.com Breeze c/o Macromedia. 1192 East Draper Parkway. #205 Pasadena. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.0162 http://www.aspx Qwizdom.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Inc.com.pearsoned.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. Somerset.batipi.com Centra c/o Saba. Inc.backpackit.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.caucus. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.brightidea.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. 12617 Meridian E.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.bantu. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Puyallup.umass. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. SW. 6th Floor New York.com BlueTie.bluetie. Inc.gtcocalcomp. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Suite 522.saba. Draper.brevient. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.Columbia.smartroom. NJ .inteam. Inc.com 404 Fifth Avenue.avecomm.

same-page.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Digi-Net Technologies. Ontario.communityzero.com LLP PO Box 325.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Lauderdale.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.collaborationloop. Sanibel FL. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .emc. Suite 950 Portland.courseforum.comotivsystems.epam-pmc. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.digite. Inc.com Cisco Systems. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.digi-net. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. Suite 600 Ottawa. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. San Jose..centraldesktop. 57th Street Gainesville.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. Inc. 82 Pioneer Way.communiqueconferencing. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Suite 630 McLean.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc. 232 http://www.elluminate. Inc.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.com Digité. 795 Folsom Street. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.cisco.convenos.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.html Citrix Systems.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.citrix. 1034 N.com Engineering.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.engineering. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.W. 170 West Tasman Dr. 6th Floor San Francisco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.edufolio.

Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.groove.groupsupport. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.V.genesys. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. El Camino Real. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. #115 Rockville. Clevedon. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. ON. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. Suite 500 Markham. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.com GoToMeeting.hyperoffice. Inc.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.net Global School Net 132 N.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.exactamerica. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com Glance Networks.gotomeeting.facilitate.novell.horizonwimba.hp.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. Suite 2300 New York. Inc. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.globalschoolnet. Inc.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.hotcomm.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .com c/o Citrix Systems.forumone.net GroupSupport. Ste.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.com Groupwise c/o Novell.gordano.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.net Groove Networks.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. 395 Encinitas.com B.grapevinesoftware.glance. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.flypaper.4517 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.ezmeeting.

com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.ilinc. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.linktivity.jdhtech.http://www03.onproject.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Sunnyvale.com Do not reproduce 233 . MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. 25 First Street.interwise. Suite 100 Tucson.meetingone. 1289 N.microsoft. Suite 412 Cambridge.. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.ibm. Fordham Blvd.mspx LiveOffice.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.com Interwise.mayeticvillage.liveoffice. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. Suite 1401 Denver. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. 3 Wing Drive.inquesttechnologies.iceweb.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.interwoven.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.intralinks. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Phoenix. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.netspoke.org/tools. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.near-time.com onProject. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Inc.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. Suite #150 Herndon. 44th St. Inc.ivocalize.mitre.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. 11th floor New York. Suite 6500 Woburn. Suite 300 Torrance.com Near-Time. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. Inc.

Adyar Chennai.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. New No. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 440 San Jose. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.peoplecube.performancesolutionstech. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. Suite 445 Scottsdale.ht ml Parlano 10 S. 51. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. P.microsoft.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.parlano. Riverside Plaza. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.nagarro.O. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.oracle.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.seldensystems.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Inc.sharemethods. Suite 210 Maynard. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. Harbor. 3679 Concord Road.radvision.opmcreator. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.photoninfotech.com Photon Infotech Inc. Ste 275 Mill Valley. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.sitescape. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.projectdox.com SpiderWeb Communications.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. Inc.com/collabsuite/index.com Selden Integrated Systems. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.q2learning. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. 17-17 State Highway 208. Suite 1450 Chicago.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. 1175 58th Avenue.opentext. 35. Inc. Suite B. Cactus Rd.cyber-grad.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Suite 200 Greeley.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.raindance.project-open. Box 3325 York. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com Raindance Communications.com RADVISION Inc. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.

backpackit. Ontario M2N 6H8. Kierland Blvd. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.teamware.net WebEx Communications. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.teamdynamix.stalker. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. Suite 950 Washington. Suite 100 Scottsdale.Box 2900 Alameda. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.O. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.vignette. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.webtrain. Suite 810 Toronto.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.O.webasyst. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.axista. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.webcrossing.trichys. Inc.com Do not reproduce 235 . Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. P.vodium.tomoye.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.com/groupware/in dex.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.teamspace.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.webex.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.webofficepoint.sumtotalsystems. Inc. Canada http://www..usabilityfirst.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.txl Viack 14811 N. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.viack.tacit.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com/content/default.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Suite 100 Austin. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.com Web Crossing.wave3software.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.com Teamware P. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com TEDS Inc.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. 100 Foxborough Blvd. Louis.teds.technomedia. Glebe Road.outstart. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.mgen.meridianksi. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.saba. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. 500 West Madison. Inc.maxit.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.plateau. West.oracle.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. East . Inc.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco. LTD 671 N. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.wizdom.Suite 350 Toronto.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.oracle.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal.teralearn.sap.isnewmedia.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Inc. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. St.syntrio. Suite 260 Foxborough. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. Suite 700 Arlington. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ca Do not reproduce 241 .LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.sselearn.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.ssaglobal. Suite 2200 Chicago. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. Chantilly. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. 550 Queen St.

org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.gyrus.fldata. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. 17041 El Camino Real. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Inc. Laurent Blvd. 4th Floor Oakland. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.sumtotalsystems.vbtrain.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Inc. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. Suite # 105 Columbia. 2280 St. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Ontario. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 240 Bay Street.arizona.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.sir.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Inc.wbtsystems. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.O. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.risc-inc.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. 122 West Way. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. NY.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Box 9752 Boulder. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.uwm.cdlib.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Inc. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.info/index. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .edutools.com Tracker. Suite 101 Houston.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.avilar. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.trainingpartner..vuepoint.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.xtention.ttg-inc.xstreamsoftware. 4 Expressway Plaza. Victoria.

org/eng/scientifiques. AZ.cadcorp. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.netera. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. SG1 2JY.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. Fondren Library.mcli.4464 Markham Street Victoria. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.dist.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. 5151 East Broadway.O.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .edu.esri.O.cf m ESRI Suite 300. Suite 1600 Tucson.lrc3.edu/DesktopDefault. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. Hertfordshire. Box 1892. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.goenc. Houston. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.com/gis4mt/index. Box 3000 Boulder. Suite 3100 San Francisco.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.llearn.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. Rice University. Sterling Court.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. ETRAC.plos. P. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.clarklabs. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource. MS 44.eoscenter.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.lornet.rice.com Do not reproduce 243 .geocomm. Stevenage.thegateway.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.ca ENC Learning Inc. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.merlot. AZ 85250 USA http://www.unsw. Norton Road. CT 06459 USA http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.maricopa.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.lolaexchange.

asp?path= 500.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.uk/handler/defaul t. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.cancore.knowledgepulse.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.intergraph.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.mapinfo. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Electrical and Computer Engineering.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.ac.aaai.fi/english/page. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.com Metadata. Suite 100 Framingham.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . of Geography. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Dept. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.stockholmchallenge.org/aitopics/html/natlang. 959 Concord Street. Suite 501 Portland.pangonetworks.bham.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.org/ Spotlight Mobile.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.edu. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.imsglobal.edu PanGo Networks. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. html ELSNET Trans 10. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.O. Suite 100 Menlo Park.O. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.berkeley.cetis. Austria http://www.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.smm.mobilearn.5372. Box 240000 Huntsville.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.eee. PMB #112 Lake Mary. Inc.ac. P. Inc.

1st Floor A .groove.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.stockholmchallenge. Inc.advancedreality. PA.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.ac. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 19104-2653.upenn.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.itc.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .com MoveDigital. Italy http://tcc. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.it Victoria.internet2. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. Inc.com Groove Networks.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.ldc.Project Coordinator CSI .edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Inc.elsnet.org/site/pp.lexxe.cetis.llearn. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Deane Rd. NY.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.lockss. Suite 300.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.sun. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.movedigital.overnet.net internet2. Whisman Road Mountain View. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .asianart. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.elena-project. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 10010 USA http://www.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.seti.

CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.elluminate.virtualmuseum. NE Calgary.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.com/presentatio ns/index. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.teach-nology. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. New York 10973 USA http://www. Suite 225 Santa Monica.com Teachnology. Box 172 1039 .proquest.com ProQuest 789 E.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. 3333 http://www.cyberu.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.ca Slate Hill.rmv.mit.org Macromedia.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Ninth St.6526 http://www.executrain. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. 3º 08021 Barcelona.apreso.333. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.O.com Presentations. Alberta. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.microsoft. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Eisenhower Parkway P.trainingregistry.presentations. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.macromedia.17th Avenue SW Calgary.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.lsc.elementk.saba. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Inc.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau. 3016 5th Ave.com 50 S.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .com Portals CyberU. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.worldwidelearn.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.elearningeuropa.genesys. Inc. Alberta.saba. Minneapolis.

cmu.eng.aad.html Norman.gov. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. Ste.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.whmsi. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.com ReadyGo Inc. Inc. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Michigan. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.rec. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.readygo.generalrobotics. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Centre for Autonmous Systems.articulate. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.ed.irc.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Suite B Orion. Box 2827.scate. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Henrik I Christensen. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.ri. D.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. Chilcompton. Redmond. SWEDEN.evolution.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.com/halo/index.org Euron c/o Prof. CA 94040. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.active-robots.atr. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.botball.nasa. Union St.hp.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Inc. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.ams.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Lindsey Bldg. O. 130 W. Radstock Somerset.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. Pasadena. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.com Raptivity P.raptivity.ife.euron.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.ac. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.osaka-u.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.org Evolution Robotics.

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CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Suite 900 Austin. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.com Social Bookmarking del.socialtext. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.shadows.eu Rojo Networks..networkltd. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. Suite 125 San Diego. Suite 224 Bloomington. 795 Folsom St.analytictech.. Inc. Inc. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. WA 98055 USA http://www.com Friendster.checkpointsystems. 625 Second Street San Francisco.rojo. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. Ltd.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. Suite 500 Renton.spurl. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.classmates.furl.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text.iu. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www.. Menlo Park. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.icio.zvents.netscape.com FURL c/o LookSmart. Thorofare.icio. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 101 Wolf Drive. Inc.friendster. Box 920089 Needham. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. 655 High Street Palo Alto.O. Inc.com/ mag. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CA. 2001 Lind Ave.edu/index.gnolia.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Spurl ehf. Inc.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Morton Street.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.us Eventful c/o EVDB. CA 94089 USA http://del. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.com Classmates Online.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.tagzania.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research . TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. SW.

jabber.com Jabber Software Foundation P.1011 CM Amsterdam. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. CA 94105 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.dfilm.navy.net Sparta Social Networks. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.ergonetz.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.hpc.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.org Fakespace 11 E.percro. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.spider.activeworlds.O.com Do not reproduce 253 .P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. CA 90028 USA http://www. Inc.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CA 92121 USA http://www.O. Inc. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . Suite 1001 Los Angeles. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Box 1641 Denver.jabber.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.hp.com Brightcove. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.org Veoh Networks. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.apple. New York. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.fakespace. VA 23461-1924 https://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. Cupertino.org. Suite 900 San Francisco.percro.futurelab. 7220 Trade Street.veoh. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.sociosite.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. 4th Floor Marshalltown.brightcove. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.advanced. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Box 1641 Denver.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.bittorrent.spartasocialnetworks.html Jabber Software Foundation P.com/halo/index.xstreamengine. Suite 115 San Diego. Church Street. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.

Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego. Columbus. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.bham. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Danvers.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Inc.intergraph. Draper. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Inc. Suite 280 Downers Grove. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.corda.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Suite 206 Bloomington.formz.esri. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.advizorsolutions. Suite 3 Brooklyn.edu/vrel.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.ambientdevices. IC ISIM VRLAB.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Box 240000 Huntsville. Williams Building College Park. Tracy. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.golden. Troy.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.com Intuition 9.epfl.com ESRI Suite 300.mapinfo.O.daz3d.com/ MapInfo One Global View. Suite 110 Troy.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.xcelsius. Box 884.accurender. Suite 100 Lindon.ecu.cs. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.V.vista.feedtank. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.501 North Morton Street. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Cambridge.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions. 1333 Butterfield Rd.informationinplace.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.umd.idashboards. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.com Golden Software.coe.. Golden. 350 South 400 West. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.intuition-eunetwork. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.O. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.ac. 809 14th Street.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.

com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.net Pixologic.nlm. 73 Princeton Street.vrvis. Donau-City-Strasse 1. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.spotfire.visualanalytics. Inc.com Unified Field. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. MA 01863 USA http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.topozone. FL 34108 USA http://www.ontopia.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Riga. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . CA 94712 USA http://www.musanim. 212 Elm Street Somerville. 3 East 28th St.skype.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.nih.S.com Spotfire. RIDemo Brivibas 183.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.okino. NY 10012 USA http://www. Suite 3A New York. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 155 Spring Street.pixologic. Ltd. 869 97th Ave N.mccrackendesign. 94043 USA http://www.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.microsoft.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 2513 Charleston Road. 20010 Fisher Avenue.org Visual Analytics Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Unit A2 Naples.vicodi. 9th floor New York. Suite 102 Mountain View. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. Inc.unifiedfield. Inc.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. U.softill. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8. 2nd Floor Poolesville.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.jajah.inxight.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.com JAJAH Inc.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. A-1220 Vienna.visualthesaurus. Inc.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. Unit # 1 Mississauga.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.sportbrain. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. California. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Inc. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.

jot.715135858 http://www.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva..com Brightcove. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.ch Web Feeds Attensa.V. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Inc. Suite 900 Austin. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Petersburg.feedforall. Inc.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Valdeku 100. San Francisco.feedzilla. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Seventh Floor New York. Hanover. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Coldbrook Business Corp.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.feedster.onfolio. 795 Folsom St. Inc. CA 95008 USA http://www. Inc. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.com Rojo Networks.pubsub. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www.1001 W.pluck. 116 New Montgomery Street.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. 64 Fulton Street. Suite 2260 Portland. P. 11211.mozilla.microsoft. Pacific Business Centre #101 .brightcove.org JotSpot. Building K Mountain View.feedreader.bloglines. First Floor.ethz.feedburner.com Feedster. Switzerland http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com PubSub Concepts. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. 3rd Floor Cambridge. Inc.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.rssreader. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. Suite 381 Vancouver. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Suite 100 Campbell.. Tallinn. Inc. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.wearable. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.rojo.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. 200 2nd Ave. 167 Hamilton Ave.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. South #358 St. Nederland Tel: +31.attensa. Broadway.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Estonia http://www.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

189. 90 Assessment. 67. 15. 101. 112. 127. 80. 193. 49 AJAX. 93. 198 Data mining. 29. 146. 29. 75. 110. 27. 127. 85. 47. 219. 215 Communities of practice. 70. 66. 57. 159. 70. 57. 70. 160. 24. 200. 139 assessment. 47. 100. 84. 26. 28. 35. 85. 18. 180 Competency Tracking. 125. 46. 127. 95. 172 Audio. 48. 44. 77. 80. 91. 2. 41. 74. 203. 193. 153. 93. 26. 22. 69. 90. 211. 209. 196 collaboration. 23. 51. 26. 91. 39. 16. 156. 28. 148. 223. 20. 127. 25. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 35 Content management. 45 Avatars. 64. 171. 50. 158. 203. 72. 122. 86. 211 Communications Tools. 65. 39. 165. 48. 42. 127 Cooperation. 176. 67. 103. 201 Adaptive systems. 93. 18. 7. 24. 25. 195 Authoring tools. 67. 217 Collaboration. 165. 49. 94. 145 Conversational learning. 109. 128. 45. 56. 80. 216 Computer based assessment. 100. 196 cognitive maps. 78. 177. 174 Bayesian probability. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 66. 43. 198. 193. 180. 89. 94. 58. 127. 46. 205 Animation. 79 Complexity theory. 6. 27. 50. 101. 47. 122. 59. 43. 12. 226 Authorware. 128. 57. 85. 66. 123. 23. 194. 191. 114. 203. 121. 46. 137. 11. 97. 35. 18. 196. 66. 50. 174. 139. 128. 4. 231. 78. 112. 22. 81. 196. 21. 199 Architectures. 159. 52. 191. 117. 65. 71. 177. 145. 212 Boolean searches. 4. 71. 136. 180. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 74. 100. 21. 24. 69. 207. 70. 68. 159. 160. 197. 36. 16. 196. 162. 30. 216 Affective computing. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 170. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. educational. 161. 190. 17. 145. 64. 201 cognitive collage. 47. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 97. 74. 15. 149. 33. 129. 109. 209. 44. 46. 63. 194. 46. 84. 169. 69. 122 Ambient computing. 65. 23. 149. 146. 93. 165 Air display. 189. 150. 170. 160. 63. 46. 18. 125. 193. 146. 110. 179. 35. 178. 140. 59. 218 Agents. 85 Blogs. 171. 191. 65. 21. 189. 48. 5. 199. 170. 4. 116. 207 Classroom response systems. 34. 29. 13. 27. 50. 145. 89. 23. 65. 35. 52. 66. 81. 135. 69. 59. 50. 122. 55. 42. 83. 190. 132. 177. 140. 31. 40. 137. 48. 116. 174. 21. 112. 84 Adobe. 53 barcodes. 69. 171. 144. 193. 37. 60 Cognition. 165. 15. 60 Clickers. 196. 52. 184. 119. 5. 209. 211. 91. 63. 36. 181. 196 Dashboards. 82. 211. 141. 208. 176 Cell phones. 170. 121. 184. 28. 50. 20. 109. 93. 72. 83. 180. 72. 74. 62. 113. 54. 16.Index 3-D graphics. 36. 67. 45. 137. 209 Augmented reality. 63. 74. 45. 176. 197. 190. 130. 27. 24. 21. 74. 23. 180. 192 Browsers. 39. 15. 181. 169. 196. 88 cybercartography. 194. 138. 27. 170. 211 Broadband. 203. 118. 8.

88. 109. 166. 122. 63. 134. 170 Federated searches. 179. 162. 217 Instant messaging. 53. 47. 89. 125. 70. 153.Decision support systems. 187. 86. 119. 88. 5. 42. 162. 134. 100. 26. 80. 49. 48. 201 Grid computing. 215 Informal learning. 225. 51. 139. 5. 28. 196 e-Commerce. 201. 6. 103. 27. 169. 159. 132. 156. 78. 216 Distributed systems. 16. 31. 26. 210. 125. 91. 137. 7. 160. 217 images. 134. 178. 27. 26 Emotional design. 12. 13. 193. 121. 114. 66. 25. 24 e-Portfolios. 100. 172. 22. 80. 110. 149. 124. 169. 49. 80. 68. 146. 90 Experiential learning. 106. 34. 17. 67. 127. 63. 75. 173. 239 Individualization. 151. 124. 11. 193. 72. 193. 141. 85. 193. 54. 70. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 176. 74. 134. 133. 106 Haptics. 180. 106 Healthcare applications. 120. 158. 37. 166. 35 Frameworks. 197. 196 Immersive environments. 180. 109. 194. 205 Hybrid systems. 25. 91. 52. 184 e-Science. 11. 120. 3. 60. 9. 154. 134. 217. 165 Handwriting recognition. 49 Google. 174. 189. 69. 74. 196. 162 History. 189. 167 evaluation. 4. 5. 71. 161. 8. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 198. 35. 89. 121. 200. 86. 123 Hype in e-learning. 107. 74. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 108. 119. 197. 3. 89. 163. 32. 58. 18. 7. 27. 170. 155. 25. 199. 9. 15. 107. 116. 47. 120. 250 Folksonomies. 154. 63. 201 FrontPage. 119. 47. 70. 162. 122. 152. 85 Extreme learning. 4. 95. 94. 219 Infrared tags. 114. 137. 48. 33. 93. 196. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 45. 169 Expert systems. 59. 93. 33. 196. 81. 103. 35. 131. 94. 55. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 123. 20. 88. 13. 100. 196 Graphics. 103. 24. 153 Facial recognition. 23. 13. 199. 88. 200. 46. 197. 9. 37. 106 Head mounted displays. 106. 122. 110. 97. 26. 215. 203. 86 Deep Web. 88. 196. 216 Director. 205. 30. 57 Flash. 15. 216. 193. 196. 187. 80. 29. 178. 25. 8. 64. 175. 101. 5. 84. 85. 210 formative assessment. 19. 202. 158. 152. 174. 64. 214 Human-centered computing. 88. 83. 170. 21. 93. 104. 197. 190. 146. 23. 149. 45 Displays. 75. 26. 11. 60. 98 GIF graphic format. 97. 158 Design. 152. 79. 97. 183. 127. 57. 66. 199 Gesture recogntion. 65. 57. 16. 169. 106. 106. 26. 11. 107. 119 FireFox. 9. 158 Informatics. 20. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 164. 191 Games. 69. 4. 34. 59. 158. 198. 16. 45. 45 dynamic displays. 248 graphics. 152. 90. 11. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 119. 238 Geocaching. 163 Findability. 176. 101. e-learning. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 84. 49. 184. 16. 23. 170. 94. 215. 30. 20. 186. 204 Dreamweaver. 109. 25. 52.

137. 77. 160. 49. 234. 23. 36. 17. 20 Museums. 189. 100. 45. 134. 179 Optical tags. 153. 116. 191. 114. 77. 35. 120. 135. 63. 95.Interface devices. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 145. 127. 53. 250 mapping. 141. 238. 136. 45. 135. 143. 192. 183. 178. 127. 122. 191. 90. 68. 124. 26. 193. 165. 170. 233. 215. 80. 146. 176. 114. 119. 26. 171 M-learning. 148. 176. 194. 189. 6. 108. 127. 7. 26. 152 Lecturing. 242 learning object model. 193. 141. 101. 63. 169. 211 Knowledge management. 65. 42. 25. 30. 36. 45. 45. 150. 119. 114. 165 Microlearning. 113. 129. 159. 18. 130 Mobile computing. 139 Personalization. 122. 196 Pedagogy. 42. 142. 134. 24. 176. 65. 165. 137. 17. 199 Neural networks. 182. 29. 148. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 156 Legacy materials. 121. 78. 65. 116. 124. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 166 Pervasive computing. 49. 78. 47. 34. 80. 166. 174. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 107. 244 Motion Graphics. 178. 42. 158. 255. 40. 91. 66. 125 Lab book wiki. 116. 127 Podcasting. 240. 165 pattern recognition. 85. 64. 139. 7. 106. 5. 145. 145. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 125. 156. 192. 80. 112. 79. 110. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 100. 180. 127. 48. 226. 220. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 134. 178. 205 Macromedia. 183. 6. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 134. 190. 122. 139. 130. 139. 85. 146. 98. 22. 186. 172. 65. 54. 155. 57. 6. 165. 119. 149. 80. 244 Meta-search engines. 110. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 25. 130. 138. 125. 172. 47. 8. 199. 58. 230. 174. 134. 119. 97 Ontologies. 69. 154. 80. 15. 149. 124 iPod. 189. 114 Learning Objects. 93. 103. 189. 6. 43. 216. 128. 131. 86. 76. 69. 161. 123. 149. 137. 119. 145. 180. 11. 128. 7. 48. 48. 93. 249. 120. 44. 138. 213. 127. 190. 125. 171. 143. 147. 205. 190. 111. 112. 148. 62. 60. 42. 124. 124. 109. 175. 21. 115. 139. 246. 68. 180. 211 latent semantic analysis. 6. 162. 246 Location based tools. 239. 174. 122. 237. 135. 114 learning object repository. 21. 70. 23. 109. 223 Portals. 35. 140. 26. 129. 89. 114. 65. 34. 26 Metadata. 146. 109. 152 Libraries. 47. 121. 128. 137. 152 Networks. 127. 129. 32. 90. 59. 140. 80. 171 Metacognition. 4. 256 Microworlds. 206. 82. 62. 140. 145. 199. 196. 20. 66. 7. 180. 128. 46. 45. 143. 43. 4. 81. 123 Medical applications. 74. 174. 97. 113. 144. 124. 46. 60. 191. 114. 43. 215 Interoperability. 23. 150. 15. 4. 166 PowerPoint. 152. 144 Navigation. 139. 163 Microformats. 153 Microsoft. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 216. 111. 26. 160. 140. 204. 54. 187. 135. 31. 196 Mashups. 42. 81. 241 Learning Management Systems. 120. 27. 2. 107. 246. 146. 26. 161. 115. 191. 109. 107. 47. 54. 241. 16. 181.

93. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 11. 47. 49. 139. 125. 170. 50. 4. 149. 189. 199 Turing Test. 122 Tagging. 184. 203 Telepresence. 68. 48. 71. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 174. 176 Team management. 57. 181. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 119. 175. 160. 246 Privacy. 88. 165. 35 Symbology tags. 106 Proximity tools. 191 Tours (online). 123 Simulations. 9. 227. 59. 152 Thin clients. 148. 26. 54. 156. 16. 36. 125. 54. 119 quizzes. 175 Tag clouds. 179. 133. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 77. 132 Streaming video. 141. 131. 57 T-Learning. 74. 46. 95. 169. 217 Translation. 207 Social networking. 91. 161. 36. 176. 8. 35. 124. 135. 163. 189. 189 Security. 35. 109. 40. 74. 26. 177. 9. 114 Robotics. 120. 119. 109. 134. 215. 48. 178. 22. 15. 174. 80. 54. 83. 137. 185. 82. 106. 161. 11. 180. 215. 9. 182. 39. 180. 49. 190. 27. 47. 176. 66. 110. 174 self-evaluation. 155. 171. 199 Single-user wiki. 65. 124. 50. 170. 46. 52. 91. 163. 90 Reusability. 174 Social bookmarking. 166. 150. 114. 162. 115.Presentation tools. 176. 5. 38. 189 Search engines. 74. 167 reusable learning objects. 172. 114 Repositories. 168 résumés. 37. 141. 84. 174. 134. 193. 178. 122. 174 Project management. 36. 4. 64. 114 Screencasting. 54. 197. 86. 35. 30. 64 Telephony. 35. 42. 177. 153. 26. 155. 119. 154. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 191 Tangible computing. 158. 131. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 209. 20. 166. 47. 186. 94. 93. 131. 21. 175 Rapid e-learning. 62. 170. 70 Radio. 171 Science. 36. 52. 9. 122 sharable content objects. 148 Smart labels and tags. 72. 50. 38. 27. 138. 150. 189. 89. 191 summative assessment. 158. 141. 169. 81. 45. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 179. 191. 116. 189. 124. 7. 137. 40. 97. 159. 47. 165. 171 Scenarios. 88. 49. 179. 247 Role-playing. 35 Semantic Web. 152. 116. 46. 188. 173. 34. 177. 189 Television. 48. 39. 168. 156. 148. 155. 203. 114. 6. 180. 153. 112. 174. 211 Tags. 69. 48. 125. 178. 225. 11. 35. 215. 125. 211 Skypecasting. 216 Tests. 175. 47. 165. 110. 48. 221 SCORM. 93. 114. 47. 144. 141. 75. 150. 37. 117. 183. 167. 5. 118. 152 Projectors. 160. 177. 174. 116. 55. 94. 154. 115. 87. 247 rapid learning. 35 Quizzes. 129. 124. 122. 172. 169. 62. 205 Shockwave. 196 Serious games. 83. 57. 26. 181 Speech recognition. 199 Taxonomies. 134. 46. 119. 159.

168 Do not reproduce 263 . 253 Videocasting. 176. 196. 198. 148 Virtual classrooms. 57. 205. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).Ubiquitous computing. 98. 150 Webinars. 108. 206. 80. 215. 209. 74. 130. 106. 148. 255 Wearable computing. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 154 Virtual learning environments. 137. 109. 187. 207. 131. 43. 215. 216 Vlogs. 148. 213. 9. 60. 7. 165. 67. 119. 88. 91. 203. 148 Whiteboards. 106. 137 Virtual reality. 210. 208. 11. 51. 69. 9. 3. 64. 200. 194 Video. 217 Word. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 197. 192. 174. 211. 49. 57. 205 Usability. 22. 211. 89. 40. 108. 189 Vodcasting. 4. 145. 123. 199. 255 Web conferencing. 187. 127. 200. 212 Wikis. Gary. 81. 239 Wikipedia. 46. 74. 182. 150. 13. 123. 159. 100. 210. 177. 5. 164. 193 Visualization. 66. 121. 62. 148. 65. 45. 256 Woodill. 256 Webcasting. 212. 211. 44. 56. 190. 189. 79. 160. 106. 214. 90. 193. 209. 74. 189 virtual classroom. 182. 124. 68. 107. 236. 191. 149. 113. 177. 216. 112.

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