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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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None of this would have been possible if my wife. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . lists of online resources. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. Karen Anderson. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. Grant Hamilton. A third report. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. have supported this research from the beginning. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. Pamela Fragomeli. Carlos Oliveira. Jennifer McDowell. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. I have provided links to online learning examples. and support at all points of my career.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. along with an index. technology. will be available in early 2007. Karen. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. Lise Bye. Pierre Cahorn. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. This report. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. The first report. Thanks. and services. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. the second in the series. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. Operitel’s CEO. Amy Davey. editing. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning.

Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. the raising of hands. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. even if the originator of the words is not present. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. as books were scarce. in fact. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. many different ways to learn.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. that lecturing. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. But learning technologies have a much longer history. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. Do not reproduce 3 .Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. still used in many institutions of higher education. Medieval universities followed the same practice.” Starting in the first century AD. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. linear teaching techniques online. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. With these reforms. There are. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. They are.just the ability to follow an example. is a 2000 year old “technology. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. to quote Donald Norman (1993). material. Technologies are any technique. or device that extends human abilities.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. The modern classroom. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. A third way to learn is by seeing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. for example. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. and language for communication. the classroom became industrialized. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Schools were started to teach accounting. fire for warmth and cooking. We tend to forget. “things that make us smart. class periods. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. or “reader. with rows. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. and recess. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. Learning became standardized and linear. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. detentions.

as this is a non-technical guide. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. When a new technology first comes into use. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Like all new technologies. At the same time. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . changing the practice of teaching. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. moving pictures (films). An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. Thomas Watson. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Eventually. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. When a new technology is introduced. chairman of IBM. it needs to adhere to architectures.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. However. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. 2006). stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other.” In 1970. Rather than pages. memorizing. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. in 1876 someone at Western Union.Students in these schools learned by reading. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. For example. and standards. and reciting. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. 2006). and talking machines (phonographs or record players). it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. Sadly.” Similarly. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. the early days of computer networking. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. frameworks.

2005. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. They provide location independence. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. php). Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. January. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. For example. presentation and interactive environments.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. Do not reproduce 5 .org). a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.grid.free. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www.org) has a number of published documents that. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.imsglobal. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. Number 3.accessgrid. In particular.fr/publication. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.

taken together. http://purl. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. Instead of just providing courses.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research .aicc. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. http://imsproject. research.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. In business.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.ieee. http://ltsc. At the same time. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).” In late 2005. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. Rather.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). Instead.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. http://sourceforge. enabling the search for content. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.is based on open. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. Major specifications for e-learning.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. and education administration. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. and makes extensive use of XML. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. http://www. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.oclc. While packaged courses still have a place. Bollier says. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. interactive learning components. They noted that “…in education. In Europe. reinforces this theme. http://www.adlnet.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.elframework. This is especially true for adult education. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. “[a] pull economy .

.. October. Wired Magazine. http://www. (2005). Weiss.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. online resources. Nov. (2005). T. Umer.. K. Sept. June 2005... http://www. McClatchey. Ali. G. S. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Moreover. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. 2005). The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. 16. 2002. and Conte. ambient networks. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. Cardiff. User-created content. N. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners.com/wired/archive/12.amazon.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Giotopoulos. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. M. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. Milan. 19. David (2005). The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.. F. M. Bryan (2006).. Bibliography Abbas. Ahmad. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. M. Montreal. http://www... M.. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 .bcs. F.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis.cscsi. mobile devices. http://www. Thus. The Long Tail. March/April 2006. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. and wearable computers.. Chris (2006). Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. As Anderson (2004. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. Switzerland. A. M. and McGinnis (2004). Reggiani. 2004. Likothanassis.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti.wired.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. Lausanne. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. is becoming commonplace. the reader can approach any topic in any order. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. http://www. Z. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Italy.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. 2006) has argued. and a bibliography. and Votis. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China.html Anderson. http://arxiv. R. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al.pdf Anderson. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. Five years ago.idi.educause..no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. those learners are now keeping their own records.org/abs/cs. Zanichelli. UK. Wales. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. I hope you will find it useful. From this. In the last chapter.1 0/tail. K.DC/0502051 Alexander. 12(10).htm Bollier. Bertolazzi. (2002).org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. Chrysostalis.. R. M.ntnu. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Odeh. Web 2. For example.pdf Bogonikolos. New York: Hyperion. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. http://ewic. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). 2004). Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Chris (2004). along with selected examples. 41(2).

American Jrnl. Madison.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203.. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).devshed.gmu. G. http://www.. (2005). C. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. Upper Saddle River..com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. N.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Aug.ca/protocols_en. http://www. http://www. of Distance Education 10.amazon.org/celda2005/index. Stephen (2004).bcs.com. of Education and Training. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. http://www. Erlanger. and Brown. NJ: Prentice-Hall.xml.au Limited. for the Australian Dept.cti.edu/pdf/ajde.co m/docs/SOA_World.det. Luo. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .pdf Erl. Green.2005.org.Dev Shed. C. J. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. A field guide to software as a service. and Putland. 2.. Sept.html Hagel. http://www. Thomas (2004). (2002). Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Working paper. Jagadish (2004). Lausanne. Stefano (2005). Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. Online. Sept. and McGreal. V.. Perth.cancore. 2005. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.html Hockemeyer. Oct. W. http://www. http://ru6.S. 6-8. Gregor (2005). Hao (2003).com/paper_pushpull. 2003. (2005).networking technology.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.. G. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.pdf Millea. Web Services . January 2005.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. I. Portugal. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. (1996). 4-36.athabascau.virtual.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. 2002 http://ewic.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1. and Zhang.pdf Cerri. Infoworld. 13.xml&DOI=10. J. Proceedings. April 18. March 2002. (2002).html Kong. (2005).computer.ascilite.infoworld. Dec.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc.. L.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.xml. Triantafillou. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). J.htm Hohpe. 2004.johnhagel.act. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. http://www. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment.asp Chatarji. http://www. ThoughtWorks White paper. International E-Learning Specifications. 30. 13-16.aspeninstitute. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). (2005). E. Australia. http://www. WI.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product. USA. http://cde. 1026-1032.ICALT 2001. D. J.pdf Knorr.iadis. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .. 14-16. T.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . R. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Tsiatsos.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. C. http://csdl2. pdf He.pdf Friesen. Centre for Distance Ed.1109/CIT. (2001).com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa.5 6 Marshall. Athabasca University. Education. and Borck.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. Porto. T.gov. Hornig. Switzerland. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. http://www. http://www. J. Norm (2006). http://www. 2001. and Albert. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.

. http://ewic.. 193–205. e-portfolios.): Proceedings. J. SCORM and the Learning Grid. (2005). Peter (2004).de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids.bcs. April 1.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.. Feijen. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Dublin.pdf Urdan. Zhou et al.28 April 2004.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. (2005). 2006.alt. Trinity College. 9. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities.pdf Pierre.com/publications. and Wade. Rhonda (2006).acten. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid.ac.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2. M. M.rwthaachen.iis. Learning Solutions.amazon. Germany. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. Mashups.ac. http://www. http://www. pp. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.pdf Roberts. http://www. and Weggen. R. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Cambridge. C. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Berlin: Springer.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.amazon. C. 911-928. (2006). E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. http://www..aspx Yang. http://www. F.pdf Werkhoven. (2003). T. W. Stuttgart. H.unikarlsruhe. C. Library+information Show. and Jarke.operitel. Lee. S. Hambrecht and Co. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. and Ho. ACTeN E-Content Report No. Birmingham. In W.. R. http://www.aifb. (2003). Harvey.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. UK.. Donald (1993).pdf Woodill. http://www. V. G. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. (Eds. (2000).Neumann. V. Research report. 21. May 15. and Vossen. and Oliveira. future thinking: digital repositories.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. Samuel (2006).astd. http://www. G.pdf Spaniol.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. 2006. and Geys. G.sinica. MA: Perseus.informatik. http://www.pdf Norman. Klamma.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. Reflective learning.edu. (2004). http://www-i5.R. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. 2005. April 26-27. ICWL 2003. Cook.alt. Aalderink. J.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. W. M. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. 27 .

selected elearning related examples. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . Included are related terms. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. and a bibliography for each section. online resources to learn more about each technology.

In online therapy. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. keystroke patterns.co. privacy. and to respond to them effectively.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.media.ac.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. http://www.html Do not reproduce 11 . heads the MIT lab on affective computing. and legality. UK. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. 2005). confused. understand. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.convo. facial recognition. too.sricbi.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. http://www. in Italy. posture. gestures. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. 2005). author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.” (Anolli. accuracy. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. et al.” http://www. speech patterns mainstream.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. emotions. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. emotional design.cs. Without the ability to understand emotions.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.. security.bham. For example. SRI Consulting (http://www.mit.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.. or sad. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. Affective Computing. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. and react to human emotions.myself-proj.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX.

Nortillaro...sics.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. (2005). In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. and Zancanaro. April 2-7. http://www. are available online: http://www. UK. B.nsma. H. April 2-7. http://www. Z. 2005. listing many links to interesting resources.it/~lhci/009. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. P.. bibliographies. (2005). University of Hertfordshire. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics.sics.sics. April 2-7.. H. Brassac. J. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. K.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide.. Vescovo. I Like It . http://www..pdf Interfaces.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau..unige.sics. http://www. S. C. Hatfield. F. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. http://emotion-research. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Pachoud. L. Y.html Fallman. December. Nass.pdf Cahour. M. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Bouraoui. with many resources. 2005. (2005). The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman. Vermersch. P. http://emotion. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. September 13. A. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. 2005 http://www.de/link/affective_port al. http://www.uniroma1. Joseph (2005).doc Chateau. CHI 2005 conference. M. J. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Oregon.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Rocchi.. April 2-7.bartneck.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. O.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.informatik.. and Confalonieri (2005). and Merisol..arizona. and Waterworth. V.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.dis. B. http://www. Stock.. Lee. 2005.. D.wired. Zurloni. http://www. Yamada. K. Iwamura. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.html In Germany. I.. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.. The Love Machine: building computers that care. Oregon. (2005). Wired Magazine. CHI 2005 conference. Isbister.doc Hook. David (2003). Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Graziola. K.. and Morishima.. and Laaksolahti. J. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.pdf Maldonado. Issue 11/12. CHI 2005 conference.aisb.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. CHI 2005. Mantovani. Oregon. http://www. April 12-15. (2005). Brave.edu/emotion.org. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. 2005. Agliati. April 2-7.pdf Diamond. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. D. Oregon. M. J.. Nakajima.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. A. April 2-7.. including studies of emotions in computers.. Pianesi. M. C.unitrier. C. Portland. Dr.pdf Goren-Bar. Balestra.. October 22-24. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing.1 2/love. R. F.sics. CHI 2005. Salembier. Portland. N. Portland. Portland. Portland.. China. and Zouinar.. Portland. Oregon.com/wired/archive/11.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. O. (2005). CHI 2005 conference. Realdon. 2005..pdf Kaye.

pdf Mentis. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.HTM Steele. April 2-7.miv.sics. S. T. Gerd (1998). (2005). University of Birmingham. Oregon. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics. Portland. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. 2002. OR.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. R.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.ruebenstrunk. and Steele.sics. Ian (1997).com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. L.amazon. (2004).bham. Journal of Research on Technology in Education.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis.iste. Erlbaum. http://www. May 26.cs. Berlin: Springer. Dec. New York: Basic. http://www. ACII 2005. M.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. Oregon.amazon. Regan (2005). http://www. April 2-7. R.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. and Picard. (2002). April 2-7. http://www.de/emeocomp/co ntent.thesis. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.ac. http://www.elearningreviews. Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Norman.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Paper for WEBIST 2005. China. (2005). http://www. 35(2). S. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Cambridge. E-book http://www.doc Wright.. (2005). http://www. and Daily. 2005.ac. Portland.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. Helena (2005).stanford. M. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Ishizuka. Beijing. Portland. Tan.pdf Masum. Affective Computing. Oregon.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. Donald A. Charlotte (2005).utokyo. http://www. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. J. CHI 2005. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures.t. 2005. NJ. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Affective Computing vs. J. MA: MIT. October 22-24. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. http://www. 2005. Rosalind (1997).Next 10 Years! Mahwah. 2005.pdf Mandryk.sics.htm Tao. Emotional Agents. CHI 2005 conference. CHI 2005. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Miami. 22.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. proactive (goal directed). of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. 2004). However. et al. For example. First. In this context. not only about environments. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. She made mistakes. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). autonomous agents. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. but Do not reproduce 15 . In such situations. see the paper by Far et al. intelligent agents program (for example. veracity. rationality. A second agent in the simulation. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof.. therefore. and the students had to continue to teach her. useful in educational simulations. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Viswanath. Mentor. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. 2004) and are. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. and. 2005. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). and many of them can actually learn. learning/adaptation. avatars.gu. 1999). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online.informatik.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. 2005). Dick Stenmark. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Katzlberger. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. and both may be found in the same http://w3. benevolence. Second. 1999). Fourth. Third. Agents have beliefs.

netobjectdays. For details see: www. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents.old. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. go to: http://ritl. See the article by Williams et al. http://www. They are available as adaptive coaches. 2000). 2.codebaby.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. acting against other teams of agents. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Student Assistant Agent 4. Therefore. Even though each agent acts independently.org/index.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.ira. Skills Manager Agent 3. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Massaro et al. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss.extempo. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. http://www.uka. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).csc. (1998) developed a conversational agent.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. Content Agent 6. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents.redwoodelearning. http://liinwww. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.ac. expert role-players. http://www. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable.fsu.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning Paths Agent 5.editlib. (2004): http://www.also about other agents. User Profile Agent. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. uses seven different types of agents: 1.com/ CodeBaby Corp.liv. go to: http://ldt.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.stanford.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. and expert guides. http://www. Baldi.

No. W.pdf Jafari.org/index. http://www. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. (2005). Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. Thomas (2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. S. L. & Kim. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management.pdf Kim. Fuhua Oscar (2005).. e-Learning 2005.old. Y. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems.org/index. & Ebbers. Y.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://dl. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2002). 1353-1356. TN. 1503-1506. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. www.. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. (2003).edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation.. July. 10 (3). W.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. E. http://www. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). In Richards. http://www. S.pdf Kao. Germany. http://www. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. A. M.cfm?fuse action=Reader. P. 11(3).edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. (Ed. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). and Telecommunications 2003. and Tsang. J. http://www. 5(7). G. Ng. Krittaya (2005).University of Southern California. Doctoral Dissertation. Norfolk. Hypermedia.org/16948 Leelawong.pdf Lin. J.educause.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. and Shaw.editlib. Koono. (2002). Y.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. Hershey.org/index. Z. Ali (2002).).editlib.aace. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www. L. VA: AACE. (2003).aace...computer. Elan.. Nashville. Proceedings. E-Learning 2003.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. http://www. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.org/index.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. C. Johnson. G. Clarebout. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. and Ho. & Bengu.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004.editlib. 306-311). 275-285. In Proceedings. Inter-active Learning Res. A. (2003). and Palopoli. (2000). http://www. http://www.editlib. & Lin. 3. Tennessee. http://www. (1999).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 75-80..teachableagents.org/newdl/index.. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Vanderbilt University. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. Erfurt... Vanderbilt University. Learning by Teaching Agents. C. Zahia (2004). http://www. & El-Khouly. 459-462. www. In Proceedings.org/index. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.isi. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. G. Nashville. G. S. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.pdf Clarebout.teachableagents. Hypermedia.pdf Guessoum. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation.. 21-38. E-Learning 2003.org/index. S. 1659-1666.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. & Johnson.editlib. Paper presented.. Educause Quarterly. Educause Quarterly. Large Complex Systems. 28(2).editlib.org/index. A. 4(1).ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. Jrnl. G. Sun.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. International Journal on E-Learning.netobjectdays. B. 267-286 http://www. http://csdl. Do not reproduce 17 .educause. (2002)..editlib. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments.

http://www. E.cs. and Higher Education 2004. Doctoral dissertation.editlib.aace. http://www. Ferat (2000).editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.indiana. & Lim.uni-karlsruhe.aace. G.. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.cfm?fuse action=Reader. R. ED-MEDIA. & Leelawong. August. In P. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. M.. S. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.org/index. (2004). ED-MEDIA 2005.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.K.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Proceedings. K. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. (2006). Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. France. S. http://www.. (2004). and Stucky. 194-201. B. (1999).edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov..). (2005). V. Finland. http://www.vt.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. M.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). R. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. June 1-4. 321333. http://www. New York: John Wiley & Sons.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung.editlib.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Richards (Eds..edu/fil/ Padgham.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno.org/index. D. Daniel. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. Peter (1998). http://dl. http://www. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. Proceedings.pdf Menczer. Wesley. Petersburg. PA.lib. 47-59. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.utexas.ogi. 1632.org/newdl/index. Doctoral Dissertation.psu. Sandel.pdf Perez.). ED. and Núñeza. and Ferneley. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Proceedings. J.ist. http://scholar. J. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.de/BIK/vpa/109. http://www. H. of California.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. G. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). (Ed. Beskow. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). http://cslu.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.amazon. 3169-3176. L.editlib.aifb. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.org/index. 10 (3).edu/565321... D..informatics.. Cohen. Carnegie Mellon University. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. & Booth. 17(2). A. K. Atreya. U. R. and Cole. Adebiyi. G.org/16968 Sahin. and Solomon. Pittsburgh.Media 2005.html Shim. http://www. 143-162. http://citeseer.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.. O.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. V. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . and Winikoff. 14(1). Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. S. (2005).com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. L. M. Government.cse. M. 1999. In Richards. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Kommers & G. Healthcare. 1999. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. http://www. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. (2005). St. Russia.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. (2004).editlib. IFIP WG12. Biswas. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Doctoral Dissertation. (1999). Toulouse.amazon. 61-65. L.org/index. W. (1999). 1415-1420.

ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.html Yan. April 18-21.upc. http://www.ac. N. J. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. 3000-3002. Paper at CLAG2004. Chicago. ED-MEDIA 2004.http://www.wiley. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. http://ca. Michael (2002)..teachableagents. (2004)..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2004).com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. http://research.org/papers/15 8bis. Chun.pdf Williams.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference.editlib. In Proceedings. M. Gilbert.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . 2004. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons. & Madsen.org/index.

. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. producing animations can be very costly. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.topshareware.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.mindworkshop. However. However.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. like pictures in a flip book. Given that. a static diagram.topshareware.Animation Software Related terms Flash. al. coupled with imagining how something worked.htm For a selection of over 400. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. The results of many experiments have been mixed.com/alchemy/gi fcon. motion graphics depiction. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. animations may even prejudice learning. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. Rather.000 pre-built animated GIFs. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. Also. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. et. 2003) Finally. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference.animationfactory. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. produced the best learning results.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al.0 http://www.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.” (Huk. (2003).” Lowe adds that “in some cases.05 http://www. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.

using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. http://faraday. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. animation.eitechnologygroup.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.swishzone. For more information on Shockwave. their 3-D character creation environment.utoronto. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.viewpoint.com/pub/products/e nliven. go to: http://www.softimage. 2004). Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. For a free demo. It is part of Final Cut Studio.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. http://www.html Falling Bodies .com/products/aftereffec ts/main.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium..com/dynamics/demov ersion.massivesoftware. For information on Flash.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online.” http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. http://www. the built-in programming language. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. effects.animationonline.newtek. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. Inc.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. http://www.macromedia. go to: http://macromedia.com Maya is a high-end modeling.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias).physics.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. and rendering tool.apple.adobe. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.. http://www. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI .html CAT . See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. To use ActionScript.autodesk. http://www.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D.Softimage Co.catoolkit. go to: http://www.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). http://www. animating.com/gallery/default. It animates fall stunts. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.com Enliven .com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. http://www. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.animats. http://www. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.

html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software.pdf Toth. Steinke. S.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.ascension-tech. Atkinson. http://www.sjsu. G.. July.com. go to AllWorldSoft.org. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. http://www.allworldsoft. March 2002. D. and Floto. http://www. Kriz. http://www.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. 2003. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Learning Circuits.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. (2003). never too much.de/pub/bscw. FreeDownloads Center. and Moreno. Flash Interactive Session. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www.learningcircuits. S. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. T. ASCILITE Conference. Educational Psychology Review. 87-99.. McBeath. Phillips (Eds. (1). S.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Lehi. R.html Malheiro. R.org/2003/aug2 003/toth.com/books_catalog . C.. G.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. July 2004.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. http://www.learningcircuits. R.pdf Lowe.htm Bibliography Castillo.htm Huk. T.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. S. July 18. 1046-1048.siggraph. http://www2.pdf Hess. 21(4). Utah: Rapid Intake Press. Animation – just enough. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. and Cate.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.aace. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference..unihannover. (2004). Thomas (2003).freedownloadscenter. (2003). S.learningcircuits. http://dl.htm Hess.psych. Cognition and Instruction. (2004).ucsb. M. 14(1). (2004). Hancock. and Hancock. (2003). Learning Circuits. and Hess. 325–360. (2002). M.rapidintake.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.. (2004).htm Hegarty. G. http://esub.ascilite.K. C.learninglab.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits. and Hancock. C. http://www.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. http://projekte.org/12937 Mayer.

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. data mining. cognitive informatics. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. expert systems. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. So far. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. multiagent systems. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. machine learning. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. Nevertheless. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. AI. intelligent tutoring. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. agents.

” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. and data mining. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. including collaborative filtering. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments.. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. The reality is that. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al.learning. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Moreover. To seem humanlike. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. recommender systems. (2003). (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help.g.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. While many systems purport to be personalized. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. To achieve their goals. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. and Aist et al. the subject matter expert. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick.” On the other hand. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. possibly undeliberate manner. and the teacher. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.

pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .unito. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.di. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. http://www. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.interactions with the system (see Smid et al.cs. http://lsa. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. 2002).edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss..cs.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.colorado. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. (2005a. Talking Head Tutor vs. objects. concepts.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system..iit.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.e. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. gestures. rather than using a single type of knowledge.” http://www.uic. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.” http://www. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. etc) and how they are interrelated. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.

Aurora . a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.cs.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b.kicinger.iis. without programming.” http://www.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.” http://ctat.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.leaonline. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. As a result. http://bach.ucalgary.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.sinica. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.enel. and INFOMAP. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. including student monitoring.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.com/doi/pdf/10. and engaging.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.” http://www.pact. see: http://lsa. http://www. Task Tutor Toolkit . “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. Infrature.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. Inc. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.edu. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.cs. http://www. http://www.infrature. http://quantumsimulations.colorado.gast. http://ariic.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .unsw.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. http://www.cmu.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.edu.html Founded in 1988. question answering (QA) techniques.pdf Oguejiofor et al. e-commerce.library.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.uc3m. intelligent conflict resolution.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. Stottler Henke Associates. challenging.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.uregina. and multiagents. so that these systems become more realistic.it.com/index. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.

The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.cmu.ac.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. http://ctat. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.” http://www. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .wpi.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.ke-corp.aaai. http://aied.org/AITopics/html/tutor.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.inf.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.ucalgary. and an interactive intelligent tutor.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.teluq.masternewmedia.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.licef. http://www.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. http://www.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. http://aied.cs.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. http://www.inf.uk/aiedsoc. http://www. preferred cadence.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). and learning style. see: http://www.ac.its2006. http://pact.cs. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. http://www. skill gaps. http://www. with the next one in 2007.edu.stottlerhenke. The AIED conferences are held every two years.ed.uquebec.htm Do not reproduce 27 .autotutor.virtuelage. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.it. For more info: http://www2.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.pact. an adaptive testing algorithm.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.learningcircuits.com/s10.cs.enel. Taiwan.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.cmu.org/cfp.” http://www.gemini.usyd.ca/eng/inde x.org/2000/feb2 000/ong. China.ed.

http://dx.pitt. http://www. B. and Frasson.com/printer_f riendly_article. and Koedinger. Argamon. 482-487. C. E. C. Kobe. Hua. R.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. M.html Barker.ac. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). B. P. Peter (2000). Lester.).wpi. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Artificial Intelligence Review. McLaren. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research ..di. Paraguaçu (Eds. T.pdf Aleven.pdf Chaffar.technologyreview.cs. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming.pitt.ht ml Aleven. K.2005.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). a pioneer in artificial intelligence. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.ri. Bibliography Aist.) (2006). S. http://www.ppt Butz. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. S. C.doi. (2004). (2004).nccu. P.edu. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. Reilly. and Picard. R. In J.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.pdf Baldoni. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. 159-165.sbg. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Brusilovsky.sis. (2005). recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. In J. R.Volume I. In Proceedings. Vicari.B. I. 22: 3–39.. E. and Read.1109/ITCC. Maceió.cs.edu/pubs/pub_4073. Eshaa (Ed. PA: Idea.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Kort. http://www. and Penstein Rosé. Roll.amazon. C. G.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read. http://lingcog.org/10. and Douglas. S. (2004). Baroglio.82 Bhatt. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. (2004). Mostow. (2004). Hershey. Lester. M. http://www. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. and Schwarz. http://imlab. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.html Brusilovsky.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit.J... Vicari. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. and Maguire. V. http://www. M. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. http://www2. Chicago. 6(1). V.iit. C.eurodl. http://www. & F. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Paraguaçu (Eds. S. R. V. Hermann (2002).. M.. Ritter. J. R. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). and Patti. (1997). Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web.Marvin Minsky.unito. http://www.cmu. and F.pdf Alkhalifa. http://www.uregina.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. (2002)...edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.pdf Barcena. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. and Evens. K. S. Brazil... C. (2004). http://nth. ITS 2004. (2004).

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Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. and documents for assessors to use. In a business situation.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. self-evaluation. affective. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). the automated scoring of essays. computer based assessment (CBA). making it hard to escape assess-ment. Assessment software can generate templates. once only done by a human assessor. online assessment. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. in the near future. evaluation. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. and output. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. computer-based assessment tools. More sophisticated forms of automated. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. 1956). rubrics. eassessment. and (4) computer marking. quizzes. For example. for example. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. aptitudes.” Bateson’s four levels of learning.info/learni ng/solo. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. or performance samples. quizzes. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. When combined into a “360° evaluation. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. samples. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. We can expect that.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. and psychomotor.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. However. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. computer mediated assessment (CMA). it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. are already available. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive.learningandteaching.

” organized by academic discipline.flaguide. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.org/ ETS.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. and past work behaviors. http://www.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. multilingual support.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www.redinq.” http://www.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. http://www. abilities.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.dialang.uc. on its Web site. For details. has recently won awards for its performance.com/wwwtools/magazines.brainbench.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. see: http://lsa.org/english/index. http://www. and adminis-tration features. http://www.horizonwimba. preview pages for all question types.testcraft.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. surveys.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. http://nt. Review it at: http://www.respondus..epistema.ets. a customizable look and feel. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.operitel.colorado. from Resources Management Services in the U.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.xstreamsoftware. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. See more at: http://www. learning tools. For information on latent semantic analysis. institutional evaluation.vantagelearning. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. and adaptive question branching.0.rmsuk. reporting. Diploma. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. Find them at: http://www. http://www. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . skills.questionmark. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. check out the Dialang web site. a completely customizable report engine.fasfind. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.com/evaluator Testcraft. and self-study. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.K. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. personality.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. http://www. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.com/redinq/html/index. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.com The Evaluator. see: http://www.pedagogue. and services useful for outcomes assessment.

htm#2. 5365.com/tools/rubrics. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.umuc. Freire.info/learni ng/solo.ac.learningandteaching.ifets.uiuc.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. is available from: http://liinwww.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. & Rodríguez. James (2005).unt. http://school. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Explore the links at: http://www.com/schrockguide/ assess.au/assessing learning/03/online. http://www.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006..quintcareers.tcet. http://cba. D. http://www.ict4lt. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. (2005). Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning.” http://www. T.info/journals/8_3/6.wlv.discovery.thinkinggear.com/career_asses sment..health.uk/cticomp/CAA.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.cshe..uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. Carro. http://www. A. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.pdf Atherton.oir.tasainstitute. http://www. http://www.3 Bateson. Educational Technology & Society.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.ac.rmcdenver.htm Atkinson. http://www.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. with over 1. Ortigosa.scit. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. G.ac.com/029.learnflex. M.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment. Obtain a copy at: http://www.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. http://www. 8 (3).ira. Online paper..200 references.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. http://www.ulster.ac.html Bibliography Alfonseca. R. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. London: Paladin.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. and Davies.heacademy. http://www.uka. P.economicsnetwork.edu.org/en/en_mod41. Pérez. Do not reproduce 37 . E. with a list of 34 strategies. M.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.uk/home.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources. Gregory (1973). Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.org/research/re views/10_01. (2004). http://www.nestafuturelab.000 different tests from its database.unimelb..html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.

Kaplan (Ed.pdf Biggs. June 22. Ciravegna (Eds. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (1997). In M. and O'Hagan. Kevin (2003). K. New York.ets.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".amazon.. 2005.iltaonline. (2002).com/news/showS toryts. Jill. and Knight. (2003). D. Mexico.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics.amazon. Shermis and J. C. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.assess.com/Books/b39739. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.pdf Brown J. IEEE Intelligent Systems. http://www.pdf. In S..iltaonline. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. 3rd Edition. Burstein.. Jill. Martin. How to Assess Authentic Learning. A.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. T.computer. K. IL: Skylight. Jill C. L.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. McNamara.com/Books/b39739. and Collis. J. and Hirschman. Chodorow.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. N. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy.msu.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj.. Arlington Heights. New York: Academic Press. www.. Robert (2005). Hillsdale. http://www. Marcu. (2001). eSchool News. Harabagiu and F. http://llt. (1989). Kay (1999).org/intelligent/archives. In M. NY: Macmillan. S. L. B. Iwashita. Missouri. http://www. (2001).assess. Louis. New York: McKay. Burstein (Eds. B.http://www. (1982). The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. New York: Oxford.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. & Leacock. Jill.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Langu-age Learning and Technology. (1956). C. Rethink testing for future success. Educational Measurement. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. 1.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. and Marcu. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein.amazon. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Online paper.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. & Olsen. V.htm Burstein. August 2003. Hillsdale. J. Inouye. In the R..htm. Daniel. Burstein.amazon. (2003). http://www. Daniel. M. http://www. http://www. http://www. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.). http://www. Linn (Ed. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement.amazon. Acapulco. Burstein (Eds. Shermis and J.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. http://www. http://www. J. http://www. In R.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield.amazon. and Chodorow. St.eschoolnews.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. J. (2003). S.

com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Online newsletter.msu. D.au/worldcall/str5.pdf Hricko.. University of Tasmania. and Howell. M. (2001).Proceedings from a Workshop. Robert. Lawrence. and Parry. New York: Basic Books. and Grellett.nap. B. (Eds.amazon. Foltz. Loughborough.htm.. Board on Testing and Assessment. Laham. n. National Research Council.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. Writing assessment: a position statement. (2001). M. S. Language Learning and Technology. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.nmsu.msu. http://www. and Sclater. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. http://www. Micheline. 2..edu. n. v. S. Online paper.iltaonline.html Davies. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. http://www. Howard. P. http://www. London: Falmer. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".msu. (2001). March 9.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. C. http://www. v. Micheline. (2004).doc. Millard. Chalhoub-Deville. W. L.utas.edu. K. C.softwaresecure. T. Morgan. http://www. (2002). (1999). Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.soton.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. 5.ac. PA: Information Science. 5.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .com/pdf/Paper Tests. (2004). http://www.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. 4. Howard (1993). Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.pdf Dunkel P.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610. http://llt. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Howell.html Frase.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. Language testing and technology: past and future.ecs.Hershey. College Composition and Communication Online. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault. O’Reilly. & Landauer. Gardner. N. Online newsletter. No.hlc.amazon.. W.. Y. http://www. EdMedia '99.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Seven technologies for assessment. http://llt. (1998). Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Davis. May. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment.html Chalhoub-Deville.) (1999).amazon.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges.) (2005).Carr.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. M.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. H. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. P. E. May.htm Cebrian. Language Learning & Technology 2.ncte. http://wwwpsych.html. http://eprints. Louis. (1999). (Ed. 2. D. www. Nathan. http://llt. (2005). 2: 77-93.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). St. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. http://mason.unimelb. In Proceedings.gmu. Language Learning and Technology..

(2005). 403-416. http://www. http://eric. Journal of Technol. K.. M.. (Ed. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. (2005). and Ma. D.. Compiegne. New York. Fremer. Mahwah..com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education.. P. C. J.. N. (1998).edu/papers/dp1. 259284.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. (2006). & Leacock. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. D. Weller. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Language Learning and Technology.amazon. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 5(2).pdf Kenyon. D.Jones. M. McArthur. R (2002).S. Burstein. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. 4(6). Potenza. C. Hershey. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.pdf Landauer. Washington. and Malabonga. http://www.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. Graham.gov/pubs2000/2000195. Hardas. M.amazon.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. M.edu/cgi/viewcontent . France. J.amazon.. http://www. http://www.proexam.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.. Patrick (2000). International Journal on E-Learning. and Assessment. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. (1999). & J. http://lsa. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.LSAintr o. May. NY: Guilford Press.amazon.medianet. http://www. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. University of Gothenburg. National Center for Education Statistics. In C.) (2002). J. R. D. and Ward.ed. Tim (2006). W.) (2000). and Watt.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. Discourse Processes. Howard. Learning.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. M. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.html Khan.. & Mason.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Online Assessment.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. (Eds. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.msu.. and Skinner. (Eds. PA: Information Science. 25.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. DC: U.pdf MacDonlad.ed. (2001). Government. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. http://llt. (2000).kent. V. S. Problem Solving.amazon. K. Fitzgerald. G. Measurement and Evaluations. http://www. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. (2006).pd f Weiner.amazon. and Hricko. W. Howell. Self. H. and Writing. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .) (2005). Information Science Publishing.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. S. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. T.. http://escholarship. Y. and Gifford. Hillsdale. Foltz. (1979). pp. http://www. M. A. Reports from the Institute of Education. http://nces. & Laham.bc. B. Handbook of writing research. J. http://www.colorado. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.

a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.operitel.com Do not reproduce 41 . Operitel white paper. http://www.

Provides another channel for material review. According to Crofts et al.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and.. compared with even a few years ago.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. which is gaining in popularity. or by “streaming. Provides feedback to learners. One audio application of interest to educators. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. the rest of the file has time to arrive. Assists non-native speakers. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. to personalized media). This frag-mentation is being fueled. such as those for iPods. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. For example.. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Enables instructors to review training or lectures.e. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. (2005). Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while it is playing. in part. (i. podcasting. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. You can’t add your own notes. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. (i. depending on the file size). The file format for podcasting is usually MP3.e. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings.5 megabytes. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. is podcasting. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming.

enhancing. phrases.avsmedia.rds.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. http://www.com/lipsync/ind ex. tools. sound editing.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.48.71.scientificcomputing.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.elearningcentre. including podcasting.ibritt. CD audio extraction. http://epnweb.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.thepodcastnetwork.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. recording.com/blogs/doug/index. http://www. including software to record and play podcasts. http://www. http://www. Microsoft Windows.com/resources/dc_media.edupodder.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. freeware. http://www. htm RECAP Ltd.automaticsync. http://www.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. http://www.htm For a list of podcasting tools. http://www. or sentences from audio Web sites.com.uk/podcasting/index.masternewmedia. http://sourceforge.apple.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . http://www. http://64. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://www. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.com/AudioTools/inde x.audiotoolsdirect.ltd.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. and utilities for conversion. http://www.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. GNU/Linux.podcasting-tools. and other operating systems.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. go to: http://www. http://www. DJ mixing.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.com/scwmarapr05sonification. and broadcasting are all found on this site.co. shareware.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. http://recap. open source software for recording and editing sounds.purdue. It is available to download for Mac OS X. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.envision. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. playback. Audio and video software.

editlib.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.adobe. Richards (Ed.educause. 45-50. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. http://www. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. http://firstmonday.multitrackstudio. Doctoral Dissertation. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Ray (2005).htm Jobbings.h tml Canali De Rossi. Robin Good’s Blog. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. and Higher Education 2003 (pp.html Curtis. In G. 10(9).edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. B. September.cakewalk.com/products/audition/ main. Eva (2005). Podcasts.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. pdf Noakes. http://dl.ltd. http://www.learningcircuits.uk/articles/podguide. Dave (2005). http://www. N. and Williams.scientificcomputing.html Girvan.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.aace. http://www. http://www.apple.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. http://digitalcommons.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. First Monday. M..unl. Healthcare. and Swenson.org/index..org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index. http://recap. C.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Podcasting and Vodcasting.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. Brenda (2001). University of Nebraska. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. Retsema. July 2005. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides).html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. April 2005. S. http://edmarketing.sonicfoundry. L.. Chesapeake. Sound Sense. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. (2005). Luigi (2005).audiolink. VA: AACE. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.masternewmedia. (2003).com/scwmarapr05sonification. Learning Circuits. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. and Lomas.bias-inc. 2005. June 2005. http://www.com/home. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Government. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. A. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. P. Scientific Computing World. 417-419). May 20.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . Dion Cory (1999). Dilley.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.html Kaplan-Leiserson. Fox.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Peter (2005). J.

rapid elearning. in the end. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects.com/publications/emerging/emerging. No authoring tool does everything. and Evaluation) processes.microsoft. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. see: http://www. Design.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. simulations. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. either directly or with third party tools. Further. content development. Implementation. 2005). 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis.s html). For details on each Microsoft product.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. In this vein. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . and. Development. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.brandonhall. As well. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. please see http://www. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). (For details.

Composica Enterprise .com/eng/index. http://www.htm Bernard D&G . http://www. htm Composica . Flash.allencomm.lersus.Designer’s Edge.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.anark.com/presenter. http://www.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming. .turbodemo.thinkingcap. visualization. Builds quizzes. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. http://www.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. http://www. Integrates various media.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. and images and turn them into 3-D training.htm ActiveSlide.htm Brainshark Inc.Thinkcap Studio . http://www.articulateglobal. pop-up messages. XML.Media – Import 3-D Models.com/index.com/ Business Performance Technology .A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.Capture Station 2.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. music.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. and PowerPoint slides.atlanticlink. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://presentation. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. buttons.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product. video. www. http://www.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. video. http://www.uk/contentpoint.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. http://www. http://www.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .com/products/ Articulate .html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .activeslide.brainshark.accordent.info/ Allen Communications . Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.copycatsoftware.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.com/ Acroservices .com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. http://www.bridge-pt.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. video.adobe.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.Content Point .com Anark .co.com/ Counterpoint . hotspots. and marketing applications. pointers.ilessons.composica.acroservices.co.com Agile .elearningpowertools. http://www. rich text.asp Bridge People and Technology . go to: http://www. http://www.

php e2train .eclipsys. and animation. http://www.impatica. CD Rom. DVD-video.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.shtml Dynamic Media . graphics.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 . http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . Post the characters on any Web site.com/ Hunter Stone .de/ Impatica . http://www.gen21.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .exe files.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. such as the following: Web. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. http://www. http://www.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.elicitus.intecllc.com/ Information Transfer . http://www.com/products/ Pro.epistema. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.e2train.com Element K .Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.digitalworkshop. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.com/index. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. and installation files.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. HTML courses.com imc AG .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .experiencebuilders.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www. stand alone .com/Solutions/Elearni ng. http://www. without programming knowledge.uk/ INTEC . http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.com/ka. audio.hunterstone. http://www.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. http://www. http://www.lecturnity.com/inde x_eng.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.dynamicpowertrainer.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www.seminar.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.ht ml E-Learning Consulting .com Imaira Digital Media . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.elementk.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . http://www. video. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.eedo.Digital Workshop . http://www.sculptoris.com/ Eclipsys Corporation . http://www.WTDS-Web Training Development System .co.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . http://www. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.e-learningconsulting.com/products/forceten.horizonwimba.

mindiq.LEARNERLand – Text.co.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. PowerPoint slides.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .learnerland.EasyProf . Word.authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www.com/learncenter.mckinnonmulherin.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/index.maxit. audio. centralized knowledge base.jsp Knowledge Planet .intuition.htm Kookaburra Studios .pdf Intuition . http://www. http://www. http://www.knowledgepresenter. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. and animations with tests and interactivity.com/ Learn.mindonsite. with no programming and no plugins. http://www.com/home/home. http://www.learn.com MyKnowledgeMap .instant-demo. Works with SAP Learning Solution.elearninginabox. http://www. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .ipsinc.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.maxit.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.knowledgeplanet.uk/ MindIQ . http://www.knowledgequest.com/ NetPlay Software . combining multimedia content like video. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. Built-in testing engine.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.easyprof.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. Ready-made button and navigation aids.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. with a built-in learning management system.Used to create presentations without programming skills. graphics. http://www. .Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.htm MediaMaker .com/tbt/dac/index.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.ie/software/publisher. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.asp Knowledge Quest .html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media.mohive.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. http://www.com/flashhom e.com . http://www.com/prods erv. Has its own built-in learning management system.php MindOnSite . http://www. http://www. shtml Itaca .customcourse.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. http://www. http://www.com/ OPTX International . http://www.knowledgextensions.

turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. http://www.podiaOnDemand .pointecast. and course player all in one software package.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. http://www. customizable flashcards.com/ Savvica . either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.com Rapid Intake . image hotspot activities.com/ Qarbon .suddenlysmart. http://www. http://www.toolbook.softchalk.respondus.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .com/products/study mate.htm podia .com/learn_assistant.or SCORMcompliant. without knowing code.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.com/sensasoluti on.teknical.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. JPEGs.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.students.net/ PointeCast .E-Learning Objects .SNAP! Studio – A course builder.com/camtasia.com Respondus .htm Do not reproduce 49 . and assessments.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .com/product_sa. French.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.scribestudio.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.htm Suddenly Smart . and highly interactive elearning content.com/learn_assistant. http://www.com/coursegen. http://www. a customizable. popups. http://www. GIFs. http://www.com/common/affili ateRefer.ht m Techsmith . http://www.syberworks. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.com/ Scribe Studio . image labeling. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. course publisher. Courses can be posted.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. kiosks.cfm Serco (technical) .htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.percepsys. http://nuvvo.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.readygo.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.rapidintake. interactive Flash presentations and online training.In minutes. or Spanish. crosswords.asp TEDS .toolbook.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.net ReadyGo .com/ SumTotal .CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.screenwatch. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. http://www.com/products/lc.techsmith.podia. http://www.qarbon. http://www. Audio. http://www. http://www. When content is developed. Microsoft PowerPoint.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.com/ Percepsys .shtml Reusable Objects . http://www. and Flash.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.Nuvvo .reusableobjects.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.teds.com/Products/elearnin g_objects.Publisher Professional . matching games.sensalearning.

E. http://www. http://workforceconnections. McMullen.Presentation Studio .Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. http://www.co. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Blessing.2-conformant objects and assessments. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. templates. P.. content conversion. Doctoral Dissertation.. Montreal. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. and Pahl.htm Zapatec .AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. and wizards.com/products/products _xwb. June 2005.oswego. http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . or Network. L.com/Technology. http://www. Northwestern University. S. Berlin: Springer.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. (2005). P.gov/ Webex . M.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. right in their browser with no additional software required.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.xstreamsoftware.pdf Murray. CD.dol. and text.pdf Ramp. interactive and intelligent educational software.cs. T. and rapid simulation. http://www. (2003).win. S.tue.funeducation.webex.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. video..oswego.westcliffdata. C. D. Illinois.lectora.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www. and Ainsworth.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research .com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. http://www.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. and host online discussions.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. http://www. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. and Riesbeck.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.time4you. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.com/services/webpresentation-svc.xplana. www. C. http://www. Government.com/ US Government . De Bra.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8. images. http://www. www.bloki. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). Evanston.trainvision. (2005). Lin (2005).sht ml Bibliography Holohan. http://www.asp TrainVision . E.cs.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. audio.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . http://www. Melia.time4you GmbH . and Brusilovsky. Healthcare.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.uk/index. publish blogs..amazon.brandonhall. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.com/download _rb40eval. (2005).nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full.

A.sis. http://www. Nov.. Learning Circuits. http://www. The myth about tools. http://www2. Masters Thesis.s html Do not reproduce 51 .editlib.brandonhall. Gary (2005). Eindhoven. BC.com/publications/emerging/emerging. http://www.org/index. Vancouver.learningcircuits. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. Technical Univ. 2004. Learning Circuits.htm Tozman. 2005.htm Tozman.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. June 2005. Another new paradigm for instructional design. W. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Canada.2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. E. Reuben (2004). Sunnyvale.edu/~paws/publication s.htm Woodill. (2005).org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. AACE.learningcircuits. Reuben (2005). NL. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. October 2428.pitt.

See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. especially in gamebased learning activities. and generally simulates human activity.codebaby. games. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. Similarly.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. In the context of elearning.sculptoris. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.Avatars Related terms Agents. http://www. for example. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. http://www. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic.typepad.telsim. In some situations. the avatar may represent an actual human being.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. http://blogoehlert. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.” Maldonado et al. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. in the broadest sense. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. but in e-learning.

The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.. http://www. K.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado.pdf Jung. Nexus Media. In T. Nass.. New Zealand.redwoodelearning. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference.co. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. and Morishima.elearningguild. M. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. D. Lee.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. http://www.pdf Seth.. http://www.pdf Online Resources In Europe.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255.exodus. Ahad. H. Suthers. Iwamura. www. (2005). Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI.. S. and Weber. J. Y. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. offering a large number of supportive functions. 2003.vcom3d. S. modular application. eLearning Developers’ Journal.oddcast.knowledgeenvironments.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.pdf Maldonado.. R. 25.tmmy. and T.co.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. In the toolkit. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. http://isnm.. http://ww. http://www.ac. Yamada. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. 2005.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.Training Education & Education International Conference. Aug. Chan (Eds.stanford. http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars. (2005). H. http://www... Try them at: http://www.. B.W.naccq. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. Raj (2003).daden. C. Koschmann.html 2005 . In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . Nakajima. (2004). C. A. http://www. and Nodder. Inc.” which are avatars that teach.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar. Brave.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. higher education. management. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. However. giving almost instant feedback. The devices keep students alert and involved. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.einstruction. integrated with other types of learning technologies. http://www. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. display. increasing their motivation to learn. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. 2006.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. costs can be an issue. and military settings. clickers. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture.” In spite of the costs. Beatty. training the faculty member to use the software. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. The use of clickers has several advantages. or clickers. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. corporate. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. the costs and headaches multiply. classroom communication systems. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems.

Educause Learning Initiative. http://www. Ian (2004).com/audien ce-response-systems/index.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research . Feb. http://www. http://www.jmu.smartroom.com/products_int erwrite. https://sharepoint.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. The Physics Teacher. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.umass. July 7.com/cps/index.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.com/index.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002.com.utexas. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://umperg.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.elearning.campustechnology.Publishing textbook. http://www. 2004.net/display.aclearn. Volume 2004. and Lederman.active-learning-site. http://www.h-itt.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Q. including material on the use of classroom response systems.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.cua. http://www. Upper Saddle River. NJ: Prentice Hall. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.com/index.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. http://www.pearsoned. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. 2006. http://www. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.physics.educause. http://www.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. http://www. (2003). pdf Cassidy.optiontechnologies. Eric (1997). The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.learnstar.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.com/news_issue.utexas. E-Learning Dialogue.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.com/Default.ubc. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.amazon. Tom (2004). http://www.pdf Burnstein.” http://www. http://www. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.gtcocalcomp. Inside CUA. Anne (2006).edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. 3. 41(5).au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. March 3. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). R. 3.pearsonncs.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.qwizdom. http://www. No. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Research Bulletin.edu/articleprinter1. http://www.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. http://inside.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.cisat. 272-275.pdf Mazur.

Melbourne.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. http://www.itee.Conference.edu.uq.pdf Do not reproduce 61 . Australia.

e..html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . doing. organize.advancedreality. The Institute for the Future.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). evaluation. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. and collaborating.html?ad-main Annotea . Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.com/virtualoffice/index. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. http://www.teamspace. http://www. clarification. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . reduction. social bookmarking.com/products/i ndex. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. it requires skill and experience.. social networking building. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository.g.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. and There are many different ways to collaborate.zoho.g. collaborate. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. organization.g.. http://www. through brainstorming).Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. many respond.

centraldesktop. jot down notes. and searchable discussion threads. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://www. Presence (see who’s online).Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. and upload photos. and information technology adoption.Documentum eRoom . A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.courseforum.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. markup of data. Includes document organization and sharing. and communication. robust document management. http://www.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.jsp Engineering.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .com/ Blenks – In-team .php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.citrix.globalchat.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. expert location.com/microsites/eRoo m/index. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook).cisco.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www. search.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. http://www.com/services/faq_basics . and individual users. http://www.w3.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://www. http://www.emc. share information.bookmarks.digite.com/ourProduc t/index. http://www.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).com/ EMC² . instant messaging. http://www. http://www. non-profit. voice and data collaboration. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. Features include IM. contacts. and instant messaging.Unified MeetingPlace .avecomm. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. and communicate with others. and meeting manager.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . http://www. flexible workflow.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.backpackit.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. http://software.com/English/ps2/product s/product.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . project planning and reporting. Web conferencing.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .comotivsystems.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.inteam. share files. discussion forum. http://www. and collaboration. office.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www. http://www.bluetie.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . alerts. http://www. calendar.opencroquet.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.com/ Cisco .An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. version control.brightidea. document versioning. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. with templates and workflows for product development. recordable conferencing. and instant access to the group workspace. intellectual property management. collaborative file management. education.gotomeeting.bantu.

and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.ezmeeting. snapshots. and corporate instant messaging.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. cameras.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . and sending workflow tasks. universal file viewer for MS office documents. powerful.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces .features a project navigator. http://www. presentation tools.groupsupport. Features include the following: Accessing documents. http://groups. search. and organizational process performance.Halo Collaboration Studio . and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. recording and playback. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www.facilitate. http://www. resource information sharing. desktop sharing.gliffy.flypaper.forumone. assign file editing rights and completion dates.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. invite workspace members. product quality assurance. categorizing. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. project management. conducting surveys.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected.gordano. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. voting. software construction. and document management.com/products/Collabor ation. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.exactamerica.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . interactive whiteboard.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. tracking the status of assignments. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. and creating action plans. It provides working groups with simple. secure. http://www. http://www. 2001. http://collaboration. http://www. share files and documents. meeting.groove. attach threaded discussions to files. It has tools for managing multiple teams. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. require-ment and risk management.com/halo/index.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. Web-based extranet tool.com/EN/products /GSII. drawing tools. http://www. Features include interactive data collaboration. The system streamlines project planning. http://www.net/home/index.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . and team management. http://www. and images. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. easy to use online collaboration system. http://www. allow members to update and edit files.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. quantitative project management.shtml Hewlett Packard .A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.hp. scheduling and using calendars.google.Live meetings and Web conferencing. http://www.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .epam-pmc. including whiteboards. data and process tracking.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. http://www.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .grapevinesoftware.engineering.

hotcomm. http://www.kGroups provides a number of tools.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. voice.hyperoffice. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.com/ iLinc Communications . http://www. an interface to a mailing list server. structured. Outlook. online calendar. Functions include the following: Share documents. and file commenting.com/ Interwoven . http://www.za/index. online document management. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. http://www. http://www. online editor. Customizable Web directory. blogs (Weblogs).mspx Do not reproduce 65 .inquesttechnologies.com/Smart Apps.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. and secure peer networking architecture. http://www03. http://www.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . and customers on the Web. versioning control. peer-to-peer.jdhtech. and shared documents.microsoft. calendars.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. realtime chat.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. private interactive access or exchange of text. and more.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. and extensibility. Features include the following: Shared calendars. discussion forums.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. http://www. search archiving.uwc.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.com/ JotSpot . online contact management. Integrated suite of multiuser. and Lotus Notes. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. including file sharing. http://kgroups. efficient.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. including versioning. Web resources. customers. security levels.interwoven. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. http://www.ilinc.com/html/produ cts.mayeticvillage.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software.com/ IBM . podcasting.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. and Microsoft Outlook integration.Jotspot Live. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. integrates with MS Office. and provides search. link sharing). Features include the following: Document management. http://www. http://www. and secured fashion – up to 399 users.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. a Wiki. folders. instant messaging and presence indication. scalable. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.hotComm . contacts. a powerful. video.ac.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. partners.com/products/docu ment_management/index. Features include the following: Business email. and photos.jotlive.com/hotComm.iceweb. http://www.webofficepoint. data. image libraries.Lotus QuickPlace .php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.ibm.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M .A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. task manager.

author and review pages individually and across the group. milestones.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. and files. http://www.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates.mspx Near-Time – Flow . http://www. instant messaging. moderator functions. Allows people to talk to each other.html Rallypoint . http://www. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research . task management. providing the best of both worlds.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.com/ Same-Page. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction.oracle. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. real-time application sharing. team events.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . http://www.performancesolutionstech.Corporate quality communications center.novell. and contact and document management functions.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.opentext.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. calendaring. called an online community. Workflow Automation.communityzero.same-page.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. Document Management. and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat.rallypointhq. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.A suite of persistent group messaging. http://www.near-time. teams. see each other in real time using cameras. http://www. processes. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall.com/ Novell – Groupwise . resources.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . instant messaging. tasks. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.Community Zero . and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. and share data or applications while they are online. organize and discover content through categories and tags. audio and Webcam.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Microsoft – SharePoint .santacruznetworks.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.com/terms. schedule and track events and activities.com/ Ramius .com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard.microsoft.com/ Oracle . http://www. share knowledge. Enables individuals. information. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. file transfer.Rallypoint .com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management.com – eStudio . Within each area. and presence management solutions. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. http://www. MyWorldChat Communicator .Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. http://www. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.com/collabsuite/index.parlano. http://www. text chat. and communicate. http://www.

vignette. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. e-mail server. application sharing. or use it to build a Web application. project. collaboration.com/product/ Vignette .yahoo.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased.webasyst. Includes VoIP. http://www. and breakout groups. desktop document folders.2097.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . workflow and task management. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. Webbased whiteboarding.com/company/news/press /2005. documents. instant messaging.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.sitescape.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/products /stcollab.Collaboration software that includes document management. live video. chat server.com/ SiteScape . and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.00. Web conferencing server (in-house). search.04. and more.sumtotalsystems. voice and Web conferencing.tacit. http://www. http://www. and use live audio.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.html Trichys – WorkZone .com/contentmanagem ent/0.writely.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.seldensystems.com/content/default.viack. threaded discussions. http://www.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .1-1-1928-4149-19684491.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.cyber-grad. http://www. and business partners. productivity applications. http://www.com/index. video. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. store files. project teams.25.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. and information sharing. http://www. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. newsgroup server. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .solutions.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. http://www.stalker. FTP server.Processes email.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.trichys. view and edit documents or images together. interact. collaboration.Forum ZX . and calendaring tools. http://www. http://www. expertise. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. Use it out of the box.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. http://groups. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and share. and prospects – without leaving their desks.webcrossing.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. http://www. http://www.sharemethods. and instant messaging.com SpiderWeb Communications . calendar sharing.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and other business communications. partners. and business relationships. XML-RPC server.

navigation.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . http://education. annotation tools. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.brevient.saba.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. print icon.Intuitive project management software for work teams. identify and resolve potential problems. Share multiple projects with multiple users. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.elluminate.Web event calendaring. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .caucus. and payments.com/ HP . discussions. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software.com/index. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. scaleable.generation. http://www. custom stamps.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. set user permissions. data.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. http://www. feedback. connects peers.com Nagarro . project planning.Features include Hands up.teamdynamix.nagarro. invoicing. http://www.peoplecube. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .com/project. scheduling solutions. exit and help.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products.opmcreator.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.hp.project-open. Access to the tool is also given to clients. form to submit questions. and collaboration to timesheet management. whiteboard pages.com/ onProject – myonProject . review button.0 . http://www.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. and communicate with their project teams.Instant set-up. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress." virtual collabor-ation. assign tasks. private/group chat.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. http://www.HP Virtual Classroom . video.com/ applications. project tracking. content button. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.projectdox. and Web pages. Works with Microsoft Project. http://www. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. applaud and meter. attendee list. calendars.Projistics .nexprise. http://www. http://www. and save to disk icon.axista. and data into a single storage area. simple.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. http://www.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.tomoye. and share documents. http://www.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.onproject.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. content. http://www. and e-mails.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator .com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . files. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. http://www. affordable.

video. and a change presenter ability. URL sharing. http://www. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.intralinks.net/site/getglance/exa mples. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.Photon Infotech – SPARK . and real-time videoconferencing.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. meeting management.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. and meetings.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. breakout rooms.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. synchronous online lectures.Delivers unlimited voice. Record classes or Webcasts. live demos. office hours. e-learning classrooms.horizonwimba.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. and Webconferencing specialists.elluminate. and more. notes. sales presentations. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. integrated content management system. hand raising. instant messaging. record and playback.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.batipi. annotations. e-mail invites. desktop sharing. session reports.LiveOffice provides Web-based. online classes. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies.communiqueconferencing. http://www. attendee lists. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. http://www. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. pre-recorded broadcasts.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. polling and quizzes.photoninfotech. http://www. toll-free conference calling. and collaboration features. http://www. broadcasts files. shared desktop. remote control.A secure.com/ Intralinks .interwise. http://www.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . how often.Synchronous Webconferencing software. and by whom. Allows holding live.com/ iVocalize . teleconferencing.liveoffice.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. and collaborative content-building sessions. keyboard and voice chat. Webcasts. including Web conferencing. and videoconferencing.com/website2/events _imc. and Web conferencing with WebEx. and text chat. and phone use. http://www.com/ Linktivity Division.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .0 . http://www. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. online seminars. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. visual.mixmeeting. application sharing. Web. private whiteboards for each participant. http://www.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple.adobe. For example. shared whiteboard and present-ation.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . http://www. Features include shared documents. Multilingual. guest lectures. http://www. video.genesys. transparency tools.com/ internet_conferencing.convenos. virtual office hours. learning.glance. instant Do not reproduce 69 . and content display.linktivity.ivocalize.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging.

edufolio. Web conferencing.com/action. http://www. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. share other applications. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.edu/~bwilson/build ing. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. publishing. text messaging. editing. http://www. present PowerPoint slideshows. The suite manages the creation. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.webex.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.Web and audio conferencing services. http://www. the Internet.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.com/rndc/services/s ervices. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. http://www.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . show rich multimedia content and documents. Requires only a browser and a phone. http://www. conference calling. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. any application. Solutions include Web meetings.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . or an entire desktop.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . course. audio. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. discussion forums.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. surveys.To support large deployments.meetingone. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.Meeting One – Click&Share. remote support.webtrain.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . and instant messaging capabilities.raindance.Powers online meetings.com/home/s_vmps.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .telnetz. http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. and desktop videoconferencing services. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. http://carbon. e-learning.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. and system management.voxwire. http://www.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).vodium.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. tour Web sites.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .com/bridgepoint. and moderation of Webcasts.wave3software. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. http://www. Webinars. and into the enterprise. teleconferencing.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .radvision.netspoke. send text messages. set up labs and conduct quizzes.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. http://www. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke .Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. or meeting.cudenver. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. and document collaboration.

K.com/webconf/workspa ces. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. ChenBurger. Maceió. 2002.criticalmethods.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.org/tools. D.collabtech. Eisenstadt. Bill (2004).1:100250. Collaborative Strategies.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.athabascau.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston..htm Mitre Corporation. S.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 41(2). Web 2. 4.ctcevents... http://www. (2004).clomedia.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. D. Q2Learning White Paper. Page. and Tate.globalschoolnet. M. Chief Learning Officer. J. Buckingham Shum. Creating an eCommunity.. (2003).thinkofit. http://www.collaborate. A. http://www.collaborationloop.org/index.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.usabilityfirst.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. http://eprints.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).html Do not reproduce 71 .pdf Bonk..htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). http://collaboration. and Coleman.htm Butler.diglib.ac. Bryan (2006).uk/12081/ Beshears. Potter.com/writings. http://www. J. De Roure. Nov. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. M. N.” http://www. J.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. Sign up for free at: http://www. http://www.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. September.. Dalton.. http://www.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. Nov. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. scientific..com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. S. Brazil. http://www.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts..educause. 2002.writely. Komzak. http://www. http://www. http://cde.bruck. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.springerlink. also known as “groupware.ecs. http://www. Curtis (2002).1 Bibliography Alexander. Shadbolt. Japan on July 13-14.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. Models of collaboration.org/collab/inde x. http://www. also has a great list of collaboration tools.kolabora. 2006. Fred (2002). T.com/groupware/in dex. March/April 2006. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful..asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck.com/View. communities.soton. http://www.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.mitre. Michaelides. 2003. D. http://www.

In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.learningcircuits. (2002). P... A.html Hurst. Collaboration First. (Eds.. Robin Good Blog. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Then Knowledge Management. Carlsen. K. January 21. Robin Good Blog.htm Canali De Rossi. CA.. http://www.amazon. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Luigi (2003b). Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. J. http://wscg. C. W. Findlay.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. J. P.htm Canali De Rossi. Aavani. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.html Kreijns. VA: AACE.. http://www.rheingold. Kirschner. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. http://ifets. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned..org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Chesapeake.editlib. M. A.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. R. Live ELearning.masternewmedia. Educational Technology & Society. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. http://ifets. University of Athabasca. Gibson. 827-829). (2005).editlib. http://www. http://www. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.) (2004). A.. 2003. (Eds. London: Springer-Verlag. 2565-2569. 2004. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. J. Robin Good Blog. (2004).masternewmedia.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. http://www.athabascau. http://www. Luigi (2004b). CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.. (2004). Institute for the Future White Paper. August 2002. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. January 2005. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. Learning Circuits.N.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan.ieee.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. 5(1). & Weber. R.htm Canali De Rossi. Soren (2002).. Bjorn (Ed. (2002). June 30.htm # Clapp. A. Technologies of Cooperation.masternewmedia. Luigi (2004a). World Conference on Educational Multimedia. CMS Watch..Canali De Rossi. Educational Technology & Society.. http://www. May 2. Price.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. McFerrin. and Miller.cmswatch.. J. Sept.htm Canali De Rossi.com/Feature/109 Elliot.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.) (2003). Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. D. (2002).Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. http://www. D.org/index. In Crawford.).org/index. Robin Good Blog. and Forster. http://www. June 5. e-Book.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise.masternewmedia. and Sharifi.. Robin Good Blog. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. http://www. Palo Alto.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing.html Institute for the Future (2005). Luigi (2005).masternewmedia. D. Fitzgerald. 3.html Munkvold. and Martens. Luigi (2003a).pdf Strijbos.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. http://cde. Matthew (2004).zcu. 5(1). R.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns.cfm/files/pape r_12386. and Jochems. K. June 22.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Willis. I. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . R. Proceedings. and Thomas. http://www. Kirschner. J.pdf Kaplan.ca/online_book/ch8 . J. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.ieee.

.cqu. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. G.edu. Callan. 24. (2004).Norwell. 1(2).com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.. http://www. Studies in Learning.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . Innovation and Development.au/include/getdoc. http://sleid. & Purnell. Evaluation. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Nov.amazon. J. K.

whiteboards. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. telephony.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.com. a process referred to as “text mentoring.” http://goldenswamp.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. http://www.jisc. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return.uk/deletacademictalk. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. including communications tools. For example.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.conversate. discussion forums. VoIP.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.ac. http://www. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. blogs. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. telepresence. For Laurillard.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.editlib. messaging. labs. re-usable.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. discussion groups.au/eq/default.google. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. It is being developed into a transportable. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student.71. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.org/index. and yet tailored and flexible.48.janison. instant messaging. http://www. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. chat.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. UK. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. Hegarty et al. Find her work at: http://64.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. developed in Brazil. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.

http://www.bcs. International Journal on E-Learning. (2000). Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. University of Warwick.jisc. distance-learning course at Keele University. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. chat. and Bortolozzi. 2002. University of Birmingham. (2002).cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.learningcircuits. Sven (2002).elearningcentre.pdf Kadirire. Francis. Nick (2002).ac. 13-20. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. Diana (1993).ca/online_book/ch5 . (2004).html Laurik. 2005 http://www.com/wwwtools/m/2645. J.co.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.co. e-Book. 31 (3).html Laurillard.. and Collins. (2004). Mark (2004). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. http://www. June. 2002.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. J.uk/schools/document .. 19. http://ewic. Jan. http://www2.com/webconf/hostsite s.elearningcentre.edu/item.editlib. Working Knowledge Newsletter. Aug.htm http://www.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. 2004. and Wales.thinkofit.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool. Komzak.com/cv/research/ rmed35. S. http://safety. http://www. Bostock.. CharityVillage.athabascau. Learning Circuits. http://www. http://www.formatex. Pattie (2005).uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. M. M. University of Athabasca.warwick.pdf LaCroix. Hegarty.org/index. CAP e-Guide. and telephony tools. 31.charityvillage. JulySept. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. > http://www.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.amazon.co. M. 20-21. J. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.ngfl. (2005).ac. Technologies of Online Learning.html Morgan. J. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. (Mlearn 2002). http://cde.gov. S.hbs. and Cerri. E-Learning 1. James (2005). 199-212. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. September 23. London: Routledge. and Elliott. UK. D.com Library. F. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. http://hbswk.fasfind.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.pdf Eleuterio.elearningcentre.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. R. Computer Mediated Communication.org/micte2005/4. http://m. British Journal of Educational Technology. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.htm Garner. I.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.

Stone. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. 2002.king. (2002).doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . and Briggs. J.ac.uk/papers/Stone_A. 20-21. A. June. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). http://dircweb.

skills inventory. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . Description According to Sanders (2001).” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. https://launchpad. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. organizational and personal goals are tied together. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin.org/competencies/in dex. 2005).” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. entering defined competencies into a matrix. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. skills verification. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. go to: www. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. In 1973. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. For a large list of competencies for physicians. diagnose symptoms. competency-based training. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. and carry out proper procedures. Edwards Deming.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” it started in 1950 with Dr. skills.org. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. W. a Harvard psychologist.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. 2000).sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). performance appraisal. see below) and performance or talent management systems.itsc. David McClelland. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring.imsproject.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data.

Competency and competency frameworks.learnflex. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.com/content/templat es/clo_article. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.com/20 050425/technologylife01.shtml Hogg. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.” http://www.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. and development interventions. objectives. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. Clare (2005).ca/index. London: Wiley.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. Benjamin (1956).cipd. http://www. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.desire2learn.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.learningcircuits. Josh (2006).com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. measurement.htm Online Resources HRSG.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.ncrel. http://www. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. http://www.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.expresscomputeronline. April..co. See the list of competencies at: http://www.clomedia. For example. Building a skills inventory. Ken (2000). Express Computer. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. April 25. http://www. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. http://www.S.amazon. New York: David McKay. a Canadian company.com/article16.ibm. Chief Learning Officer.edu/paprog/clin_events. http://www.amazon.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.html The U.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.cpgvision.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.wmich. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. Sudipta (2005).org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.com/skillsman.E.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . Read their white paper at: http://www.hrsg. R.amazon. (1982). http://www. activities.syberworks. htm Many companies have their own competency models. http://www. 2005. regardless of industry or sector. New York: AMACOM. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.oracle.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach.

http://www. http://www. (1973).linezine. London: IDS.html Sternberg. March 2001. 2nd ed.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. University of Toronto. Rankin. L. and Cahorn. Cambridge. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. and Neathy.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. http://www. S. Operitel Corporation.amazon.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. Miller. v. David. Competency based learning management. (2001). http://www. http://parkinslot.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. Study 706.htm Parkin. Creating a Culture of Competence. http://www. (2000).uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. Michael. Ellen (2000). Master's thesis. F.html Radsma.collectionscanada. and Grigorenko. American Psychologist. Godfrey (2005). Johanna. 2005. London: IRS. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www. (2004). Learning Circuits. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. P. (1999). S. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. 1-14. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. P.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . (Eds. (2003).htm Whiddett. http://www. E-Learning Competencies. E. UK: Cambridge University Press.operitel. and Expertise.com Woodill.amazon.com/2.pdf Rankin. N.cipd. (2005). Ethan (2001). Fall 2000.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. Competencies.learningcircuits. Parkin’s Lot.) (2003). New York: John Wiley. London: IRS. April 30. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. and Hollyforde. Sanders.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867.co. http://www. Rankin. White paper from Operitel Corporation. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. pp. (2001). N.amazon.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. Gary (2004). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. White paper.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. The Psychology of Abilities. (2001).amazon.operitel.28. Competency Frameworks. http://www..blogspot. R. G.1/features/ewet te. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. and Epstein. http://www. N.

Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. such as registering users. in fact. rather than complementary. With the advent of learning objects. launching courses. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. They have designed competitive. 2006). displaying a course catalogue.atutor. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.” such self-contained systems have been described as being.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . to date. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. http://www. manage.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. Learning objects. If you could afford it. I feel that closed.” http://drupal. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. and “topic maps. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. you could hire a company to build a private.” As well. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. Repositories. functionality to an ECM. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. the standardized railway system still works while private. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Today. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. First.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. and reporting. LCMS. According to its official Web site. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. Unfortunately.

softlab. http://www. (2004). (2003). A. Content Management: our organized future. Cisco Corporation White Paper. “Monoliths.clomedia. S. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.html Cisco Corp.org Leslie. reuse in many places.htm Siemens. Curtis (2005). 40(3). http://www. 2006. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. and Carmean. San Jose.gerrymcgovern.. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. January 23.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. and publish to multiple outputs. C. http://www.com/publications.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.e-learningcentre. Educause Review. TravelinEdMan blog. March 3. 2005. Van (2005).blogspot.edtechpost. (2006). http://www. PA: Idea Group. March 2005. 2003. http://plone. Jafari. Dec. and Brantner.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.pdf Cohen. Learning Solutions. May 15. http://sakaiproject. Scott (2005). http://www.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. (2005). http://www. May/June.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. http://www. G. Why content management software hasn’t worked. 18. June 9. McGovern. elearnspace blog. C.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533.co.operitel.author-it. Hershey.topicmap. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. http://travelinedman.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 .htm Simon. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.) (2005).pdf Weigel. http://www. (Eds.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. George (2003).org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. Gerry (2003). SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.educause. http://www.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.cmsmatrix. http://www.. 2003. 2005. New Thinking Blog.asp Woodill. Budapest. and Oliveira. http://www.uk Bibliography Bonk. 2005.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. B.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Mashups.ntua.topicmaps. Ed. EdTechPost blog.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. > > http://www. 2003. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy.cisco. P. S.elearnspace.com http://www.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. Strategies for managing scalable content.ca/mt/archive/000 689. Retalis.html McGee.

it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. 2000. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. 2001). How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Luan and Willett. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. delivery models and infrastructure investment. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. knowledge discovery. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. personalization methods. Consequently. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux.

convera.pdf Iskander. P.pdf Fayyad. 2001) http://www. G. B. (2004). pp.uwaterloo....pdf Jantke.uwaterloo. http://pami. Grieser.icosystem. http://www. AAAI Press/MIT Press. and Web mining.wfu. M. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc. (2006). and R. http://www.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.. Samuel (Ed. 13-16 http://asbointl. Both products are from Convera.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.pdf Freitas. S.html Hammouda.. New York: Springer.edu. G.. Uthurusamy. Smyth. knowledge discovery. California.hkuspace. by applying fuzzy logic. G. http://www.reeltwo.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. Data Mining: What’s New. Long Beach. Alex (2002). 1--34. edited U.ac. Do not reproduce 83 .) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. http://www. School Business Affairs. and Smyth. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. New York: Springer.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. http://www. 1996.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. and Kamel. (cited in Luan and Willett. M Fayyad.au/%7Ekalina/inde x. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.amstatonline. Thalheim. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. Piatetsky-Shapiro.com/index. P. http://imej. (1996).ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. K. Robert (2002). http://www. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. P.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux.html Bibliography De Veaux. Data Mining in e-Learning. U. http://pami. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments.soul. text mining.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. In Pierre.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.kent.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. http://www. K.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. (2000). rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.kdnuggets. Piatetsky. What’s Not. 68(8).cs.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.cs. Grigoriev. Lange. R.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.usyd. and Tschiedel. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. B. Australia.kdnuggets.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Feb.

Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.pdf Monk.ags.com/PaperInfo. 52-59. and Ventura. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. Vol 4. Yacef (2005). Oct.cnrs. http://imej. A.pdf Merceron. and Yacef.informatik. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. B. NYC. In Proceedings.ccsd. Japan. Austria. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Train. (2006). C. (2004).de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. http://dl. http://www. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. and Ullrich.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . S.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm.open. Scholl. Gord (2004). 47-55.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264.wfu. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. 7(1).com/acatalog/1845 641523. T. http://www. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. and Willett. J. (2004).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://archiveedutice.editlib. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. http://www. 15(4). Yacef (2004). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).pdf Mor.pdf Loo. International Journal on ELearning..compmech.pdf McCalla. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. J. A.actapress. M. and K. analyze for more adaptive teaching. C.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. (2004).2004. 3(4). Oliveira.pdf Pahl.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. Feb. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. http://www. and K. http://www2004.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. store..ac. C. A.org/index. Innsbruck. Portugal. MA: WIT Press.ejel.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.pdf Merceron. http://csdl2. and Minguillon. 39-40. 13-16. May 17-22. 41-54.cabrillo. http://www. Hiroshima. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Maomi (2004). (2006). 2004 (7). K.. E. RP Conference Presentation. and Cheung. 3(1).unisb. 238-241.unikiel. http://wwwjime. http://www. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). Claus (2004). Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning.org/16915 Romero. 2006. Advances in Management Information. Data Mining in e-Learning.is. 319-346.-Dec. Porto.computer. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. David (2005). K. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.html Ueno. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. Billerica.aace.asp Merceron. (2001). A. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.

http://www.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.net/index. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).facilitate. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.decisionarium. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.hut. in their case study of medical education. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. http://www. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. 3) vote/prior-itize. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index. For example.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.com/ Facilitate.tkk.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).bnhexpertsoft.edu. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.whichbook.une. http://www.sal. http://www.au/dss/grassgro/index . with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. http://www. 4) develop an action plan. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. http://www. 5) carry out a survey. and 6) document results.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.utoronto. http://www. 2) categorize.

and Koskinen. C. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.pdf Chakrabarty. http://www. http://www. http://dssresources.informatik.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Raimo (2003). Hawaii. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference.. Jay (2004).mc. 238-241. Rostanin. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Jan. Lange.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Grigoriev.com/history/dsshistory . Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Jim (2002). Thalheim.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.. http://www. Enn (2005).site. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. K. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.pdf Jantke. Memmel.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings.dssresources. Hawaii. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. For newsletters. see: http://www.hawaii. June 20-24. O. http://www.. 2004. Online manuscript.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. B. B. August. Thalheim. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. Kauai. Portugal. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. http://www.pdf Jantke. August 16-18.pdf Ehtamo. Enn (2004).html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.. In Proceedings.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.meetingworks. 6-9. (2004).bnhexpertsoft. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf Ounapuu. http://science.2004. http://www.ac. Grieser. (2003).pdf Power. and Tschiedel. S. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Germany. Gerhard (2003). SIGGRAPH publication. (2004).pdf Knolmayer. V. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . 317-328.manchester.hicss. http://www. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.com/index. http://www. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Theresa (1998). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.. Aachen. 101-110.dfki. Manchester. USA..org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.uniserve. Kankana (2005).uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. Information Systems for a Connected Society.html Rhyne. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. http://damit. G. K. (2000).actapress. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. and Tschiedel.edu.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT.html Scott. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.sal. http://www. B. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. H. 2005. P.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS..siggraph. White paper from BNH Expert Software.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. http://www. 23(4). An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. B.pdf Frize.is. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. R. and Frasson.hut. and information on this area.html Hamalainen.hut. Dan (2003). Porto.uottawa.com/PaperInfo. Hamalainen.sal. M.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.” http://dmoz. books.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. M. 12(2-3).unikiel.

Vol.. PA: Idea Publishing. and Laurindo. M.uniserve. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.ideagroup. Hershey.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott. CAL-laborate. F. de Carvaho.the curriculum. http://science. 2002. T.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . Oct. (2006). 9.html Shimizu.edu. http://www.com/books/details.

uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. In regards to digital paper.io2technology.Displays Related terms Digital ink. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. For air displays. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.co. Inc. electronic paper. http://www.cmu. This can be a holographic image.P rojector. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.” Selected Examples Samsung.theregister.siliconlight. viewers see a floating midair image or video.ntera. in cooperation with Sony. lighting up theater size screens. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. digital paper.co. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. intelligent interfaces. > > http://www. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. In the near future. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.com/about. big enough to be projected on large walls. http://killer. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. head mounted displays. Electronic paper could change that some day. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. Finally.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. http://www. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. monitors.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard.theregister. By stacking a second projector. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book.ices. projectors.html Promera is a hand-held computer.edu/design/Camera.com/technology/ overview NTERA. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. still/video camera. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.uk/index. Pisano.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). State. A. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. Canada. To access the articles. 3.ac.unifreiburg..org/citation. Garrett. http://blog. Tim (2005). 2005. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.unifreiburg. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. W. Healthcare. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. http://thejournal. T. See a demo at: http://www.informatik. K.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. For a list of his publications.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Richards (Ed. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Hirota.. E. Livingston.loaz.pdf Wang. S.com/timwang/index. G.acm. M. see: http://ad. Oct. and Ottmann.jisc. In G. M. Hamburg. http://www... Dec. Government.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.).com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . Germany. Vancouver.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.. pages 3053-3068. In 2005. (2005).provisionentertainment.fogscreen.E. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.informatik. (1996). see: http://www.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. Largest LCD and video projection.technorati.H.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. http://ad. H. 2005. London: Springer.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Whitton.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. http://portal. and Pizer. http://www.firstmonday.

http://www. http://www.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. http://www.paisley. open source electronic portfolio. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.htm IMS. http://www. http://www.educause.org/Articles/eportf olios. http://www.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.elearningcentre.chalkandwire. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. thus.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. maximum flexibility.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. helping to transform education and training.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www2.elearnspace.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.com/college/portfolio s. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. http://www. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.livetext.angellearning. 2005).” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.osportfolio.htm Educause. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.nottingham.co.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.pupilpages. and simple usability. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.com/eportfolio/in dex.co.iwebfolio.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.uk/default.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios.ch/dyn/9.pebblelearning.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.ac.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.ac.foliotek. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. evaluation.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.educa.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://isle. http://www. My first report in this series.imsglobal.

uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper.. B. Aalderink.doc Banks. FD Learning White Paper.. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. 39..pdf Conway.becta. no. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. http://www. http://www.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens.. Vol 27 No 4. Bryde. and Wade. (2003). ePortfolios. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Cook.alt. http://www. http://www. 4. Trent (2002).com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . e-portfolios. with many links.htm Tosh.educause. http://www. (2005).educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001. (Focus on Teaching). Feijen. J. M. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. THE Journal Online. http://www. B. Frederick (2005).criticalmethods. http://connect. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. E. Online paper. Harvey.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape.asp?id=6984 Cohn. G. Love. April 1. and McKean. T. Dec. 31(3). March. and Ittelson. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. V. S. An Overview of e-Portfolios.educause.. W.. and Werdmuller. Trinity College.. elearnspace.ac. vol. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441.. Gary (2004). J. 2004 http://www. Educause Quarterly.pdf Lorenzo. http://www. http://www. B. (2002). D.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.. J..amazon.org/collab/v. Dublin. G.thejournal..com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. Educause Quarterly. (2005). Bob (2004). http://www.educause. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.educause.com/magazine/vault /A5260. D. D. http://elgg. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. J. Reflective learning. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Lee. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits.org/Articles/eportf olios. K.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. (2004). future thinking: digital repositories. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. and Hibbitts. University of Iowa. Business Communication Quarterly. J.eradc.cfm Dubinsky.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Bibliography Achrazoglou.com/article. 28–37. J. Graham (2005). Online. Fall. George (2004).amazon. Light. 16.org. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.pdf Batson. Online Paper.pdf Greenberg. (2002). 2005. http://ferl. College of Education http://www.elearnspace. (2005).. G.. P. has a section on e-portfolios. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. Educause Review.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224. Dec. http://www. Fleming. July/ August 2004. (2004). 37(2). an online resource on collaboration. and Haywood.campustechnology.

& Figgins.3/tosh.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .http://www. http://www.A.ht ml Young. research.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1.A.citejournal. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. 2(2).ca/content/vol31. and portfolios. (2002). C. 144-169. M.cjlt.

microsoft.hive7. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. The toolset. Dr.thinkingworlds. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. http://www. and Second Life. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. Marc Prensky (2003).” says that “in the mod world. and learning (Amory.freescale.com/ http://www. identity work. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. For a brief review of these tools. edit. from the University of Wisconsin. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. create. allows members of a game development team to work together. MySpace.cyworld.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). writing about “first person shooter games. http://www. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. games.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.facebook. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.com/ In 2005.com http://us. http://www.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.com/ http://www.clickteam. http://www.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. dubbed XNA Studio. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . helping speed up the game creation process. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. 2003). There is a free 30-day trial version.com.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. complex problem solving. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. play. Facebook.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. Cyworld. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.com/xna/ Softimage. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.secondlife. Examples include Hive7. 2005). see: http://news.com/ http://www.myspace. simulations. serious games. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. This game allows users to play. as such.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. Constance Steinkuehler.

org/?14@33.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.com/zone 8/index. Review them at: http://esub.nasaga.com/ Thiagi.org. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.com/news/548 http://www.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.digiplay. researchers. http://www.programmersheaven.htm Dr.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.” http://www.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.” Read her research at: http://website. Many of their learning games resources are free.siggraph. You can read about them at Pluginz. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research . Canada. For example.uga.seriousgames. along with their Web sites.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.aspx urces.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.ucalgary. Inc.education.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. Started in North America. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.futureplay. produces educational games for training.coe.softimage.htm Dr.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. http://www. http://it.com/solutions/g ames/default. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.pluginz.muzzylane.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. Sign up at: http://www. http://www.mpjgaBKQ dAe.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.uk/index2.it-c.org/index2. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. > > http://www.magnetargames.dk/people/sen/public. http://www. http://www.gdconf.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.seriousgamessummit. See the selection of games at: http://www. implementation.wisc.for the Xbox.

http://www. (2005). SRI-BI. March 10.php Rieber. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. (2005).uwf. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. simulations and microworlds. pdf Reynolds. Dreher.itc. R.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. http://www. June.pdf Prensky. Jan. Beers.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. June 25-28.ukzn.xplanazine.xplanazine. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. http://www. (2006). Simon (2005).wisc. D. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Xplanazine. Bryan (2006). and Biswas. 2006. Lloyd (2005).cambridge. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003. Chapter 33. D. C. In Richard E.pdf Guetl. Serious Games: Games That Educate.. Marc (2003). New York: Cambridge University Press. Multimedia learning in games. http://www. and Swamy. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. 19.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.teachableagents.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Bob (2005).com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa.msu.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . Rob (2006a).iicm. http://www. Mayer (Ed. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. Fourth Quarter. H. 2005. Gupta. IT-University Copenhagen.pdf Godwin-Jones.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Williams.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.amazon. 9(1). University of Wisconsin Madison.pdf Swamy. 2003.Bibliography Amory. http://website. http://www. Train. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.ac. http://jason. J.. Honolulu.marcprensky. Rob (2006b). and Inform. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. see: http://www. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.php Reynolds. http://www. 2005. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. 2005.. and Chen. Oct. C. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. http://www. 17-22. R. http://llt. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Technology Trends for the Year.pdf Michael.uwf. G. 549-567. Clifton Park. and Maurer.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . 2006. (2005). Gaming. N. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Constance (2005). 2003.amazon. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Clifton Park. http://www. Developing Serious Games. S. H. Hawaii.pdf Bergeron.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Montreal. (2005).education. Alan (2003). S. Gamasutra. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Language Learning and Technology. N.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Xplanazine. and Michael. January 2.. Doctoral dissertation. http://www. http://www.amazon. Learning on Demand Bulletin.

msu.Tye. 2004.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. http://woz. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.commtechlab.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Masters Thesis. Jason (2004). Michigan State University.

eLearning Developers’ Journal. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. looking for particular sequences. 2008. M. such as Markov models. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. including identifying commercial products.cybernet. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.fg2008.com/pdf/2/081 803DES.. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. Nicole (2001). haptics. Aug. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.ac. (2005). will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.com/~ccohen/gesture .uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. 2003. Lombardi.tudelft. FG2006.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing.fg2006.pdf Beringer.org/reports/ReportNR-03. March. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 .elearningguild. Ludwig-Maximilians University. http://www.soton. Artificial intelligence techniques. and robotics in elearning. Michael (2003). http://www. http://www. April 10-12 2006. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. 3.pdf Borghi. Munich. http://www. Porta. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video..” http://mplab. UK.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. L. FG2008.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. artificial intelligence. London. 18.smartkom.ecs. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. affective computing.ucsd. For a list of papers: http://www. at the University of California. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. Report No.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen.html Research by Dr. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. F. was held in Southampton.

edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. 2000. In Proceedings.recveb. (2005). http://www.. Sato. In Proceedings. Communications of the ACM. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Proceedings.pdf Ebert. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.mit.computer. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning.1109/ICALT. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. and Ma. and Wong. J. J. M. 19(7).. Setlock. (1997).stat. D.mit. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Gao.media. Visualization. C.D. X..iscslp2006..com/PaperInfo. http://www. http://www.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.research. L. J. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. C. and Kim. July 1997.pdf Ou.fsu. A. Canada http://cims. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.org/10. 57-64. Korea.acm.pdf Wilson. 442-446. Y. J. M. October 14-16. Lai.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. (2000). J. G. C. (2005). Y. and Poggio.pdf Daugman.ucsb..actapress. Deller. Wesson. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. W.pdf Lee.xml&DOI=10. and Cohen.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). and Chang. and Bobick. M. (1997). and Yang. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. S.clayton. and Bender.2005. Vancouver..actapress. Michael (2004). Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. P. Lee.rutgers. Wong... R.Computer Communication. P.F (1999). September 2002. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. and Koike. http://cbcl.html Chang. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. Geiger... PA. (2004). Y.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. IEEE Transactions.1 50 Nakanishi.org/citation.ieeecomputersociety.pdf Corradini. L. A. http://interact.edu/mas963/enh encedwall. A.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Chen. C. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). A.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. http://csdl2. (2005). 27-30.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Nevada. (2002). Shi-Kuo (2000).. J. http://www. Pittsburg. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar.pdf Peixoto. http://www. (2002).. 2004. T.110 9/CMPSAC.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. Sept. http://www. H. S.2000. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. T.pdf Loi.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk.884693 Chen. 242-245. 21(9). EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. 191-196.. 47(1). IEEE Transactions. and Carreira. http://portal.cse.com/PaperInfo. (2003). Las Vegas. http://doi. 675 . British Columbia. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . Park. Fussell. Y.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. (2004).ogi. http://www. Computer vision in the interface.ercim. January.676 http://lcv. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. 1999. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 884 – 900. July 22-27.

com/GetPDF.hindawi. http://www.illumination variations. 2004:16.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2533–2543. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.

com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.blender3d.adobe. animation.broderbund.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. Download a copy: http://www.Graphics Tools Related terms Design.corel. Nevertheless. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.avs.html Blender . the same principles apply to user interface design. and playback.com/TechIllustrator. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. In acquiring Macromedia.acdamerica. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.org/cms/Home.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. interactive creation. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. e-Learning By Design. Designing Web-Based Training.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .autodesk.0.techillustrator.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.2. and in his recent 2006 book. post-production. rendering. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.

cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. William (1991). William (2006). NY: John Wiley. (2004).html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.com/index.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. http://www. Kommers & G.amazon.co. Designing WebBased Training. Pheonix. http://esub. http://www.).com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Germany.elearningcentre. Richards (Eds. and Uyar.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. The most listings are for 3-D software.amazon. http://www. http://www. Tools Usage Survey Results. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Gloria (2004). Japan · Sept 7-10.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.carto. http://www. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Pallickara. http://www.xaraxtreme.pdf McConnell. Fu-Kwan (2004).com. http://grids. Potsdam.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.ucs.editlib.siggraph. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.pdf Qiu.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.uk/index.3dlinks.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.amazon.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.smartdraw.org/index. Tokyo.uk/index.co.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. http://www. (2005). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). http://www. Do not reproduce 101 . A.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.itedo. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.google. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. William (2000).php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. e-Learning by Design. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. June 1-3.indiana.IBM CATIA http://www306. In P.. S.com SmartDraw http://www. New York: John Wiley.ibm. X. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.microsoft.stcphoenix. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.com/E/1335. ED-Media Conference. Proceedings.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. A.co.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.

Evidence and Narrative . STC.amazon. http://www. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. CT: Graphics Press.amazon. http://www. Cheshire.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. Envisioning Information. Edward (1990).stc. CT: Graphics.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Cheshire. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. 2nd Ed.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.pdf Tufte. Edward (2001). http://www.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Edward (1997).amazon. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Carolina Chapter. Frances (2004).com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.

especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). http://www. and force-feedback mice. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.se/index.handshakeinteractive. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.” http://www.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom.html http://www.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.forcedimension. including pens.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.immersion. http://haptex. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. Do not reproduce 103 . http://www.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.sssup.it/projects/pureform. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . suits. When used approp-riately.pureform. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. Read the press release at: http://www. http://www.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. http://www.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.sensegraphics.miralab. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . Haptic devices come in many forms. > > http://wwwpercro. joysticks/ joypads.sensable.mpbtechnologies. Finally. gloves.unige.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.asp Body-based devices include gloves.

2005.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. M. Santa Clara.ccii. Medioni. (2000). not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics... Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). G. Abbott. Technology and Haptics. Italy in March. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4.ethz. Y. http://www.xml&DOI=10. CA. Reality bytes. M. A. (2005). New York Times (Online).ra. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. S.. July 3. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. and Essl.pdf O’Modhrain. http://csdl2. and Ichitsubo.roblesdelatorre. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Sukhatme.mcgill. http://web.” http://www. http://csdl.unipi. and Rusbridge. David (2003). Proceedings. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. (2004).pdf Rowell..org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.1109/ICALT.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.ht ml Kushner. 2004. http://haptex. 917-921. (2005). Nakamura.piaggio. and Sukhatume..unitrier.digicult.html Ross.. http://www.net/article-7304. Centre for Intelligent Machines..1_release-public. 2003. Upper Saddle River. The Haptic Museum..computer. http://www.html O’Malley. http://www.com. http://www.pdf Hespanha. Laurie (2004). M.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . M. http://www. (1997). Reaching through the net to touch. Donnelly.usc. A. McHugh. M. Matsubara. (2002). Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).isfh. Daithí (2003). http://www.smh.html Levesque.haptics-e. Vincent (2005).org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.mit. McGill University. C. D.2005.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. M. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. and Jaskowiak. Dobreva.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. J. July 31. Blindness.. M. M. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.pdf McLaughlin. R.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. Wired News.miralab.1.S. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.unige. 3-5 June 2004. M. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Japan. J. and Hughes.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. Iwane. McLaughlin. (2003). 2003. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. Chapter on Haptics. http://www.media. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Shahabi.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. Report delivered January 15. Oct.informatik.phptr. Deliverable D4.S.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005.computer.B.” http://www.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. Prentice Hall online article..ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Haptics Laboratory. 22. 2005.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. N.. M.pdf Ó hAnluain.matr. G. professional. L. April. Research report. and Gillespie. S. G. Proceedings..cim.pdf O’Modhrain. G. NJ: Prentice-Hall.

(2001). http://www. 1(3). & Uchikawa. Kaneko.journalofvision. Y. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. 250a.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 ..informit.com/articles/printerfrie ndly. H.asp?p=345621 Sakano.http://www.. Journal of Vision. K.

head mounted displays.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . gesture recognition. Called Librié. Now in the research and development phase. monitors.edu/design/Digita link. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory.mit.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. like digital ink and paper.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. they must interact with it through an interface device. see: http://www. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).dottocomu.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. In 2005. tangible computing.ices. Writing will require special digital pens. input devices. http://www.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. see: http://www. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.com/b/archives/00 2571. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.” http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. > > http://killer. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.eink. electronic paper. and some. textures.html Sony. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. human-computer interaction. digital paper.buffalo. display technologies.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.ices. For a review.html http://killer. However.fujitsu." http://web. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.com/technology/howitwork s.cmu. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. wearable computing.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. experience computing. haptics.html Description For humans to use a computer. Philips. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. handwriting recognition.cmu. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.media. projectors.

sony. 3) throw. Although this technology has been around for a few years.05/ff_digitalink_pr.com/wired/archive/5 .thegrid.com whiteboards.edfacilities. http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. Following are three such articles: > http://www.wacom. http://www. http://www.becta.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years.devx.smarttech.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards. http://www. and 5) build.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. http://www.ac.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. 2) roll.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.wired.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. http://www.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.au/edna/page4588.com/index. These methods are 1) touch. human computer interaction.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.aclearn.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. http://www. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. http://www. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. http://www. and graphic.elearningcentre.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. consisting of a pen and a charger.co.lifehacker.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.swan.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. See their advice and resources at: http://www.org. http://whiteboards. http://www.usask.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards. 4) bend. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.edu.edna.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.net/display. http://www.logitech. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.thewirelessdirectory.org. it is constantly being improved and updated. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.channelnewsasia. http://www.cs. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.cs.

(2006).> > http://www.informatik.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388.mspx Bibliography Cogill.eschoolnews. http://ad.pdf Otsuki.html In G. is described in a 2002 press release. Alan (2004). Edinburgh.pdf Cross. Springer. (2005). University of London.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. NewScientist Magazine (Online).com/wired/archive/9 . The most flexible paper yet revealed.pdf Revell.org. T. HCI2005.virtuallearning. F.microsoft. M. December 22.unifreiburg.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. 15(3).. Indurkhya. (2004).org/16321 Read. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.com/wired/archive/8 . eSchool News Online.wired. http://www. Australia. 26. K. H.co. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. 2006. Tablet PC Developer. and Nakagawa. Jan. Jan.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard.guardian.guardian. Guardian Unlimited. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. 6.10577. http://education. and Ottmann. Adelaide. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . Peltason. http://ad.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.00. Vancouver. 2004. Y. http://www.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Haag.anoto.uk/elearning/ story/0.. http://dl. http://education.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop. B.1585516. 2003. J. Dal-RI. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Julie (2002). June 1. Richards (Ed. 2004. (2003). Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. http://www.. and Ottmann.unifreiburg.).com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.html eSchool News.00.04/anoto. Scotland. with its use of digital ink.html Wong. Michael (2005). K.devx. 2006. http://www.1116483.aace.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. http://www.co. J. 2004.com/article. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Kato.informatik.ac. Guardian Unlimited.uclan. Bandoh. January 6. Phil (2004). Nicole (2006). N. Oct. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper.08/epapers.newscientist. Fri. T.com/news/showst ory. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems.mercurynews.htm Zeichick. 257-269.. 2005.. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. C. King’s College. http://www. The Mercury News. April 7.pdf Mohamed. Will (2004).html http://www. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. S.. (2005).wired.10577. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.

> > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Content management.. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). as this category of software has been around for about ten years. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Course Management Systems (CMS). Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. conversation. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. elearning portals. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. 2005). and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems.e. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. Whenever possible. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems.

more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). groups.academici.g. a communic-ation platform.WebMentor LMS http://www.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.” http://elgg. http://www.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. a search engine. and other academic services. .com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.compendiumcorp. in alphabetical order.com/ Compendium Corporation .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.. more control over their own data For faculty. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.net/index. . more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.com/ IBM . content-driven forums run by experts.gen21.Training Partner http://www.fldata.avilar. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.cornerstoneondemand.geolearning. is available as a free download. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.allencomm.elementk. To quote the developers. . Inc.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.TrainingMine http://www.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. http://opensourceschools.com/ Element K .org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).gyrus.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.com/ GeoLearning Inc.ieee. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). a contact management system. a leading open source learning management system. more control over the learning environment For institutions. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications.trainingpartner.GeoMaestro http://www. .com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.KnowledgeHub http://www.com Gyrus . . The LMS companies. one of the LMS vendors listed below.com/ Frontline Data Solutions. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. roles.php EVE. The roles. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.

com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.trivantis.TotalLMS http://www.sap.com/ NetDimensions .PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.Isoph Blue http://www.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.mgen.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.SAP Learning Solution http://www.mGen Enterprise http://www.netdimensions.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.cfm TEDS Inc.html OutStart Inc.com/ Vuepoint .intralearn.plateau.teralearn.com Websoft Systems Inc. .strategia.html Plateau Systems .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. .com/ Wizdom Systems Inc. .com/ TeraLearn.IntraLearn XE http://www.htm SAP .com/ MaxIT .html IntraLearn Software Corp.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.CourseMill LMS http://www.com/ Saba .technomedia.aspx RISC .ttg-inc. .html Trivantis Corporation .sumtotalsystems.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .Intellinex LMS http://www.isnewmedia.jsp Operitel Corporation . .knowledgeplanet.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.TM SIGAL http://www.com/redbooks.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.Net http://www.ca/en/default.TopClass LMS http://www.asp Learn.html?Open InfoSource Inc.intellinex.ips-inc.com .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/ SSE .com/ WBT Systems .teds.net/trackerinfo. .redbooks.Ed Training Platform http://www.syntrio.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www. . .novasys-corp.com/ Intellinex LLC.operitel.webraven.vuepoint.SSA Learning Management http://www.oracle.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.LearnCenter http://www. . Tracker.meridianksi.DOTS .aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/ mGen Inc.ssaglobal.com/flashhom e.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www. .risc-inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www. – TEDS http://www. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.oracle.outstart.com Inc.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.saba. .Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.com/isnm2005/in dex.com LearnSomething Inc.SSElearn Portal http://www.com/index.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.learn.LearnFlex LMS http://www.OnTracker LMS http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .Dynamic Online Training System http://www.wizdom.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.howtomaster.websoft.sselearn.com/ Syntrio .iPerform http://www. .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.Oracle Learning http://www.http://www.LMSLive http://www. .com/overview.maxit.com/2004/index.LearnerWeb http://www.wbtsystems.ibm.com/portal/index. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.InfoSource http://www.vbtrain.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.com/ Strategia .learnsomething.

http://www. August.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.pdf Dalziel.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.jisc.A possible future for online learning. (2002). Jan.uk Teresa A.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. http://incsub. Learning Circuits.mq.ac.unitn.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).pdf Dillenbourg.co.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. University of Birmingham.science. James (2005).com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. Workshop on virtual learning environments..org/eun. (2006).xtention. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. http://www.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo. (Online edition). Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.building new education strategies for schools. by Sam Adkins.ac. Proceedings.htm Bouras. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64. 21.48. Ronchetti.71.info/static.cetis. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. http://www. http://www.The Learning Manager http://www. L. C.learningcircuits.. . Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems.pdf Cohen. M. Virtual Learning Environments.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems.com/ Xtention Inc.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. UK.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. . T. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS." http://www.nxtbook. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. (2002). ICALT2002 Conference.thelearningmanager.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.brandonhall. http://www.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.” and open source course and learning content management systems. http://www.learningcircuits. Incorporated Subversion.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. and Trifonova. http://lttf. http://www. http://www.com XStream Software Inc.uk/index. October. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.PDF Farmer. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . A. June 20-21. Chief Learning Officer. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). Ed.xstreamsoftware. and Tsiatsos.edu. A. Pierre (2000). For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. Building educational virtual environments. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.eun.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . Sam (2005). 2006. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . Molinari. 2005.ieee.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. .edutools.com/ from the JISC in the UK.e-learningcentre. James (2003). http://www.melcoe.

(2006).au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport.pdf Wise. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut.pdf Ueno. and Quealy. Proceedings. Healthcare. May 2006 http://www. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. and Higher Education 2005. J. WSCG Conference 2005. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . 40(3). CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. M.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.org/newdl/index. http://wscg. http://tojde. Government. T. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Aavani. Proceedings of ALT-C. L.. 2005. M (2005). 5(2).cfm?fuse action=Reader.pdf Morrison.unimelb. LMS Governance Project Report. 2005. Jan.pdf Tsinakos. Van (2005). November 2004. Report published by UCISA. Derek (2004).bath.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.ac..ac.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .pdf Sadeghi.edu.. R. (2005).infodiv. J. Plzen. Czech Republic.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. Browne. Avgoustos (2004).uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.educause. and Walker. Vancouver.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). 4. 31-Feb.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.ucisa. http://www. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. A.zcu.anadolu. and Sharifi. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. May-June. Educause Review.edu. October 2005. Exeter. http://www. http://www. Report for the Melbourne. Maomi (2005).aace. April.

learning object repository (LOR).” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. rapid learning. 2006).” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs).” This use has been more successful. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. Rather. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. curriculum.” such as a graph.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. This idea is based on older. As online educational materials are produced. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. culture. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. Learning objects have several uses. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. 2004. sharable content objects (SCOs). There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. intelligent tutoring. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. They are emulations of “software objects. SCORM. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. Wiley. The acronym SCORM. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. At the simplest level. computer-use practices. learning object model (LOM). and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. reusable learning objects (RLOs). However. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. Beyond that. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. a well-known standard for learning objects. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. of learning objects.

aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://www.edu/DesktopDefault.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.unsw. http://www.uwaterloo.thegateway.edu.dist.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.downes. with a focus on information literacy. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada. http://dspace.uvic.rice.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.mcli.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. resources for grades K-12.net/project. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://www.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.utoronto.merlot.educanext. http://learnware. http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.llearn. http://www.lolaexchange.profetic.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).fedora. http://ideas. http://nsdl.org/index.maricopa.lrc3. http://mlor.org/Home. and they can be general or subject specific. http://www. http://lester. http://web. http://www.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). preserves.000 items.oise.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. and distributes digital research material. stores. http://dlist.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://www. with almost 15. http://www.koha.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://www. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.wisconsin.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .goenc.sir. http://www.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.cdlib.arizona. http://www.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn. http://www. indexes.

html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. (2004)..uwm.dis. http://www.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. International Journal on E-Learning. http://www.org/14190 Downes.itdl. 2(1). A. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.aace.unesco. Software Architecture Document. http://www.ca/mt/archive/000 681. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. 5-16. 2(4).org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.it/~lhci/002. http://www. EdTechPost. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.9.html http://www.html Edusource (2003). “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. Online document.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. Stephen. (2003).edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. 116 © Brandon Hall Research .html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.uis. March. CANCORE. J. 1(3). Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. authored by Rachel Smith.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.ca/implementing_proje cts.nmc. And Longo.L.irrodl.htm Collis. M.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. http://www. F..org/blog/archives/ 002089. C. M. and Alderman.org/ci/en/ev. is available at: http://www. Celentano.lornet. B. http://www.1/downes .org/guidelines/index.cancore.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.uniroma1.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. T.amazon. and Anderson.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.edtechpost. http://www.elearnspace. http://www.jcdl.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. A.org/content/v2. (2004). & Strijker. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. http://portal. http://dl.publiclibraryofscience.cisco.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.uwm.org/eng/scientifiques. Version .edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.doc Christiansen. http://www. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. (2000). (2004).dicole. Bibliography Barritt. Online paper.

http://www. M. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. 1(3). IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.amazon. N. T. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Norm (2006).. (2004). G. Mattson.) (2004). (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Research Report. G. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. http://www. 7(1).http://www.pdf Krauss.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. INTERACT 2005.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Richards.Rafts or Battleships? . and Pragnell. http://www. Learning Circuits.. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. Learning Circuits.. Derek (2004b).pdf Richards. Downes. V.doc Fiaidhi. and Freisen. N. Rossano. http://www. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network.eduserv. A Primer on Learning Objects. and Mohammed. http://www.p df Roselli.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report.html Heery.. D. S. Anderson. InSITE conference. London: Falmer. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.informingscience. http://www. 1 (3). M. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. Rachel (2006). McGreal..org. 12. MacLeod. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. R.ac.9%2015-11-03.bath. http://www.bath. Paquette.usq. 2004.org/mar2000/p rimer. (2004). http://www.kth.Rafts or Battleships? . http://proceedings. R. Warren (2000).ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. March.ca/implementing_proje cts..edu. and Schafer.htm Friesen. Final Project Report.Part 2. Paper presented.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. S..html Leeder. http://ideas.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. (2002). Learning Material Repositories . G. April 2002.html McGreal.edusource. S. M. Elizabeth (2004). Babin. D.learningcircuits.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Aug.ca/protocols_en. Rory (Ed.itdl. K. Hatala. http://www. Lori (2002). Online paper. 14.editlib..htm Morrison. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. 2004. 2004.cfm/files/pape r_11841. March.cancore.blogs. Online.learninglab.html Murphy.htm Nejdl.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. March.. T.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Jan.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. http://www..com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. http://www. Derek (2004a). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. G. Fredinand (2004). T. July 14. June. Online Education Using Learning Objects. R.Part 1. http://www. Wolfgang (2004). Friesen.ac. Learning Material Repositories . J. http://www. Roberts.html Friesen. Harrigan. Do not reproduce 117 . CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. (2005).. March. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action..cancore.learningcircuits. Norm (2005). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. and Morales.. (2004).org/index.itdl.

itdl. Objects of Interest.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects.pdf http://www. 1(7).dis. (2004).p df Wiley. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.dis. Doctoral dissertation. : http://reusability. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. M. (2000). Jan. David A.uniroma1.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.).. Clive.pdf Santally. (2002).fastrakconsulting.uniroma1. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. Online. Brigham Young University. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. A.. David A. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. and Senteni. http://www.htm Wiley. http://opencontent.org/docs/dissertation.htm Shepherd. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.co. David A.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. http://www. Iterating Toward Openness.org/read/ Wiley.> > http://www. Govinda. (2006).it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. (Ed. 9.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . http://opencontent. (2000). M.

or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. proximity tools. location-based systems are found in museums. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. Do not reproduce 119 .com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. Department of Defense.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content.org/ ESRI. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. findability. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. http://www.cadcorp. gaming consoles.S. as with any new technology. including privacy concerns. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).esri. more demands for a person’s attention. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. personal media players. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. and security issues. navigation.http://www. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.com/ Intergraph . and wearable computers.frappr. However. laptops. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.com/ MapInfo .http://www. users will be able to use a variety of devices. including cell phones. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map.intergraph.mapinfo.http://www. galleries. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .http://www. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. galleries. geocaching.clarklabs.com/ Clark Labs . PDAs.http://www. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.

The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.esri. similar to what a GIS system uses.museum.smm. http://www.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.confluence. http://www.ac.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.asp?path= 500.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.chimer.berkeley.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.org/index. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. it is a great tool for teaching science.edu. create. http://www.greatestplaces.000 archaeological sites in the state. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.5372. http://local. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.fi/english/page. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.cetadl. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.ac. http://www. http://www. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. http://earth. as well as papers on trends in GIS. http://www.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. See their complete range of products.google.il. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://mvz. http://www.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. http://platial. http://portal. http://www.google.bham.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.google.geog.state. http://www.” http://www. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.searchable from a database. at: http://www.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.live.biogeomancer.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.pangonetworks. http://earth.google. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. While not very useful for most people.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.leeds.com/index.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.

htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. (2005). http://www. and students. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.directionsmag. http://education. A.wisc.ac.. http://pngis. Eva (2004). http://www. (2003). M. and Chamzas.digicult...jisc.com/ Bibliography Benford. C.http://www.co.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. Koutsoudis. Mapping.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.learningcircuits. Jan 2004. Issue 6.1642288... and Location-Based industry professionals. Donnelly.com http://geotags.ca/ Geotags.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. manipulate.digicult.uk/oswebsit e/education/index. > > http://geotags. 2005.geography.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. We learning: social software and e-learning. January.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www.opensourcegis. M. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. and visualize spatial information.guardian.pdf Spohrer. Information in places.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.edu/sco/gis/his tory.eoscenter.bc.intelresearch. 38(4). 1999.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. G.C. http://www.pdf Tsirliganis.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).. D.gees. Dec. CAD. http://www. (1999). N. F.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.com/geo/ Cardinali. J.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.. DigiCULT Newsletter.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. Guardian Unlimited.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. see: http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 121 .cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. McHugh. IEEE Report. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. http://www. Heather (2005).00. 2005.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. IBM Systems Journal. Arnaoutoglou.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.ac. Abbott.html Ross. Online article.intergraph.ordnancesurvey. Fabrizio (2005). J. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Learning Circuits. and Borriello. 15. http://elearningeuropa. Future LocationBased Experiences. 2003. A.ibm.research. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Dobreva. http://www.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.geocomm. S.info/index. Pavlidis. Nov.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.com/gis4mt/index. (2001). enthusiasts.. A. and Rusbridge.co.. http://www. Earth. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Steve (2005).uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www.htm McLean. G. Part II. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Chapter on Location Based Devices. http://www.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.

composite applications. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. at the same time. to a lesser extent. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. all expressed in binary code. of how to communicate with each other. run all by themselves. or through “Web services. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. providing an informal collaborative environment. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. etc. tag clouds. For two or more programs to talk to each other.” Using SOAP. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application.” then. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Many of these objects are software programs. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses.” that is. Programs can be “stand alone. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. also called “object interoperability. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. such as those for collaboration. in schools and universities. 2004).. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. hybrid applications.Mashups. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. A “mashup. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. personalized. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. For example. or protocol. Mashups are constructed in several ways. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . Similarly. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. API clouds. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. integration. document management.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. communications. the rules for sending files across the Internet. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.

” It has many examples of mashups. July 28.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. G.htm Siviter.ieee. (2006).org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. Mix. 6. January 2004 http://lttf. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.com/publications. David (2006).deitel. George (undated). Paul (2002).com/products/print_fr iendly. Issue 1. Mashups.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter. Web Services. As Warlick (2006) has noted. http://blogs.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.com/ http://www. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.emilychang.mashupfeed.businessweek.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. 2006.ieee.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. Issue 1. Many have educational value. Douglas (2004).com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.elearnspace. http://www. http://www.html Hof.html Rob Hof.. http://www. techLEARNING. http://www.wikipedia.us. and mutate. C. March 6.techlearning. Learning Technology newsletter. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications.html Woodill. http://www. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. match. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. a writer for Business Week. http://en. (2004).programmableweb. Robert (2005). 2002. Infoworld.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. 6. Elearnspace. Vol.icio.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. http://www. May 15. 6.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Learning Solutions. Dodero. Business Week Online. July 25. Learning Technology newsletter. J. SOAP.infoworld. Bibliography Gruman. Dec. 2006. J.bctechnology. http://www. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. > > http://www. 2006.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.businessweek.0 APIs.pdf Stacey.pdf Seimens.htm Torres. and Padron.org/resources/web services. and Oliveira. 2005.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. http://del.icio. C. Galen (2006). Curriculum as Mashup. Vol.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.operitel. http://ww6.html Warlick. January 2004 http://lttf. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.programmableweb. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Enterprise mashups. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.

Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning.. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Perich.edu/get/a/publication /105. Bibliography Abel. http://www. Benayache. C. H. T. A..mit.. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. in the context of information technology.wssu. 7(4). community. and artificial intelligence are being developed. and services. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.ac.ifets. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. http://simile. http://www. MA. M.imsglobal. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.educause. search engines. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. and institutional stores.. http://iiscs. Lenne. An ontology. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. B. Ohio. C. Delphi Group report. and Joshi.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . Boston. (2004). It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. Finin. metadata. 98-111. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. A.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.mit. (2004). F. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.html Description At the same time that learning objects.do?tm =O4E. http://ebiquity. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy.info/issues. to develop metadata standards. pervasive computing.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.edu/content.php?id=25 Chen.Metadata. and Chaput. repositories.edu/o4e/viewhome. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. D.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. http://metadata. June 2004.cancore. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways.umbc..ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). Moulin. Barry. In Proceedings.cetis. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program..pdf Delphi Group (2004). http://libraries. http://www. http://dublincore. http://www. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.

2006. Green Chameleon.info/issues. 82-97. 11(7/8).org/10614 Mathes. 2004. http://www.pdf Oin. Defining “taxonomy”. Chen. http://www.ifets. Do not reproduce 125 . and Poulymenakou. http://www.html Gruber. and Mosoiu.delphigroup.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Stuart (2005). November. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. 2002. P. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. NISO Press. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Christina (2002). BoxesAndArrows. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.. 2002. G. A. Building a Metadata-Based Website.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. http://www. Learning Circuits. Norway.boxesandarrows. 7(4). P.dlib. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. http://dl. April 21.ppt Ricci.boxesandarrows. (2002). Trondheim. Online article. Presentation to Tag Camp. 2005. Ellyssa (2005). and Diaz.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. 7.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Reuben (2004). BoxesAndArrows. May 22. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. I. http://www.php?id=25 Kroski. D-Lib Magazine. and Nejdl. and Shao. University of Illinois graduate paper. Lytras. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. October-December.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel. Wagner. July/August. http://www. 26-28. 2005. 2003.pdf Henze. Dec. Thomas (2005a). http://www. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies.org/..aace. Norm (2005). (2004). Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. http://www. http://www. J. A. N. April 9.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras..htm Gruber. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.tagcamp. October 29.learningcircuits.niso. Infotangle. Christian (2004). Pouloudi.ecdl2003. 7(4).org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Adam (2004).adammathes. http://tomgruber.ifets. M. N. J. http://www.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. http://infotangle. (2004). 2004. B. Nov. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). International Journal on E-Learning. BoxesAndArrows. TagOntology .com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson.. (2003). S. Thomas (2005b). Another new paradigm for instructional design. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. April 18. http://www. (2004).com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. W.ca/editors.blogsome. http://www. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. http://tomgruber. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. (2003).com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.. Patrick (2006).http://www. Understanding Metadata..cancore.greenchameleon.html Wodtke.htm Weibel. and Godby.boxesandarrows. http://www.info/issues. Dolog.pdf Friesen. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. A. M. D.php?id=25 Tozman.

ifets.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.info/issues.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . 70-81. http://www. 7(4).

conversational learning. location based technologies. using ambient intelligence. improved identity creation. podcasting. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. MP3 players. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. location-dependence. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. time and space. it is predicted that there will be 2. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. multimedia. mLearning. delivery and tracking of learning and information content.” Two years ago. instant messaging (text. such as increased computer literacy. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. Essentially. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. in Japan. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. tablets. and mentoring. there were estimated to be 1. wearable computing. cellular telephones. personalization. laptops. personal digital assistants (PDA). including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. collaborative learning. cell phones. pervasive computing. tablet PCs. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). rich interaction. 2003). powerful support for effective learning. strong search capabilities. brokerage. Cited in Prensky. communicative skills and community building. However. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. video) and distributed databases.6 billion units in operation by that year.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. Do not reproduce 127 .” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. personalization. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. (2004). 2004). any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits.

telus.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. Israel.stockholmchallenge. audio.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.edu.pdf http://www.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. http://www3.co.harvard.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.ccu.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.mobilearn.cs.edu. http://gseacademic. Australia.edu. http://spotlight-mobile. or a combination of media.com/wwwtools/m/271 7. links.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index. http://news. movies. pictures.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.fasfind.computer.se/projectd ata. and pre-service teachers.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. http://urbantapestries.fasfind. Learn more at: http://www. resources. http://urbantapestries.” > > > http://m.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.knowledgepulse. http://www.ccu.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. and a glossary.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. http://www. http://www.ccu.” and a “bird watching learning system. applications.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.mobilelearning.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.” > > > http://www.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. http://www.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.” They have a “firefly watching system. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.beta80group.” a “butterflywatching learning system.fasfind.elearningcentre.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.bbc. activities. http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://csdl2. including issues. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture. US. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.cs. technologies.pdf http://www.co.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.pdf location-specific text.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.htm Jari Laru.com/home_en.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.cs. of the University of Oulu in Finland.

P. http://www. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.ac.ac. Ireland. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. and Sheu.pdf Attewell. 9(1). (2002).94.itdl. M.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . Ronchetti. EDUCAUSE Review. 347-359.htm JISC (2005).ac. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.net. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. J.m-learning. and Trifonova. and Pagani. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. 2(9).msu.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.msu.kaywa. R.J.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. B.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).pdf Geddes. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf Jasola. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Molinari.pdf Bibliography Alexander. A. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.eee. January 2005.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. Paul (2005).flexiblelearning.pdf Godwin-Jones. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. Jill (2005). Vol. S.jisc. Emerging technologies: Messaging. and Sharma. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. http://213. Learning and Skills Development Agency. No.formatex.edu.idi.jisc. http://www. For example. No. James (2005). http://www. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. http://mobile.pdf Anderson.educause. 5.org/micte2005/4. JISC Guide.uk/handler/public ations. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Bryan (2004).html Grew. (2005). Gaming.unitn. (2003).org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.bham. Kao.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. 19.html Chen. Univ. Gaming. http://www. E. T. Language Learning and Technology.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.232..One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. http://www.ccu.science. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. (2004).ntnu.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.iadis.uk/eli_practice.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. http://www. http://llt. L. http://www. http://www. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.html Kadirire. Knowledge Tree e-Journal..tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.au /edition06/download/geddes.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. http://knowledgetree.. of Birmingham http://www.135/ipodined/news. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.6.cs. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. http://www. Report.pdf Colazzo. http://www. 2006 in Dublin. 39. (2005). A. Y. 17-22 http://llt.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. September 2005. Bob (2005). Sept. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.

MA: HRD Press.1490476. http://drei. Chief Learning Officer. Michael (2005).ascilite.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Metcalf. Kristóf (2002). Liang.acm. Chan. multimediabased learning application.. Ann (2005). http://www. 40(3). Brisbane.. http://www. Proceedings. 40-53. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.fhjoanneum.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. G. Taylor. Feb. and Vavoula. Malavasi.pdf Sharples. ASCILITE2005 Conference.Light. Ellen (2005). http://www.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Christopher (2005).edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. E.pdf Mellow. Coralini. Understanding.amazon. (2005). M. M.2.innovateonline.. http://21st. 2002. and Yang.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. Peter (2005). Sweden.co. August 29-30. T.htm#Implications Prensky.pdf Thomas. UsabilityNews.educause. Feb. http://education.bham.century. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. A theory of learning for the mobile age. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. David (2006). http://www. Neil (2003).uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.open. Draft paper submitted for publication. April 2005. D.pdf Scagliarini.clomedia.digicult. and Dobreva. 1(5). Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. Wang. A. Budapest.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Guardian Unlimited. Växjö.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow..html von Koschembahr. E. Mike (2005). May/June 2005.. Pigozzi. Vecchietti. Proceedings. http://portal. Learning in the Mobile Age.110 9/WMTE. S.org/10.. http://kn. (2001).ac. J.org/citation.asp Liu.com/news/article 2490. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).uk/public/getfile. 2005. EDUCAUSE Review.com/content/templat es/clo_article.ieeecomputersociety. http://www. Archeology. J.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner.doc Meisenberger. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. F. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. http://doi. T. computer-aided.ac. Australia. http://www.org. L.eee. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.. Hungary. http://www. Växjö University. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Conference on Virtual reality. (2005). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. and Nischelwitzer. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. http://www.2002. and Sforza. A. Greece..cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. E-Learning on the move..oucs. Amherst. T.guardian. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector... Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.00. June/July 2005. Presented at WMTE 2002. Glyfada..usabilitynews. (2002). M.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. M. May 23.ox. June 27. J.info/index. http://www.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. Roffia.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. and. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Romagnoli. 2005. 2004.1039222 McLean. S. http://www.. Teleborg Campus.uk/elearning/ comment/0. Donnelly. Marc (2004). M.phil-inst. and Cultural Heritage. M.ac. Galasso.fil. (2004).. H. Cinotti. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Enabling Mobile Learning. 2005.

lexxe.translating one natural language into another.it/index.” See also Jordan et al.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). Di Eugenio.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.cs.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.upenn. http://wwwusers. http://www.ldc. (2004). http://www. (2005a. natural language understanding. research.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.org/softwaremap/trove_list .org/aitopics/html/natlang. rather than just returning Web pages. speech recognition. speech synthesis. http://dmoz. Do not reproduce 131 . an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. natural language generation.e. et al. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.ac.itc.elsnet. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. and standards.york. (2004). found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://eduforge. i. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. Lee et al. http://www. Kim (2000).aaai. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. http://www. machine translation. tools. http://tcc.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.uk/~silvia/litReview. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education.. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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manage. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. it helps the user plan. (Cortlett et al. wikis. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. This requires support over time. e-portfolios. chat. http://portal. track. learners need to be in real-world situations. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered.bham. but these are only available to members of the course.ac.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . amongst institutions. learning management systems. and social bookmarking sites. without an offline client to the LMS. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals.uk/ilogbook/d efault. as learners move between institutions. A PLE is structured by the learner. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. libraries. In many cases. work places. social environments. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. Technology needs to be situated. such as search engines. for the learner. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. Secondly. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. often only for the purposes of the course. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. whiteboard). It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. and through a variety of technologies. discussion forums. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. there can be no electronic interaction. blogs. Individualization in an LMS is weak.. To practice real-world situations. Running on the learner's PC. and. and review his or her learning activity. etc.cetadl. A PLE must support lifelong learning.). Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.

uk/index. (2005).ac.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. PLE Reference Model. 2006. Las Vegas. Edinburgh.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. O.elearning. Online case study paper. Nevada. Chan.ac. http://www. http://elgg. D. James (2006).cetis. http://incsub.pdf Farmer. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . January 9..jisc. http://www.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. http://www.. Terry (2006). Incorporated Subversion.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.mlearn.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan.ac.. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.cetis. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.edublogs.org. http://www.ac. http://www. Jan. 11. http://www.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. T.ac. http://terrya. 22-27 July 2005.ac.jisc. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. Ting. UK. Sharples. M.bath. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. 2006.za/CD/papers/Corle tt. and Westmancott. Colin (2005). J.

through a questionnaire).elenaproject. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. navigation. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. http://www.uk/ilex/final. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. and/or presentation of materials. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. Furthermore.. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. etc. or it can be an implicit model. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.org/en/index. Often.g. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. However.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals..g. (Filippini-Fantoni. PDAs). learning environments.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.ed. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour.hcrc. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). These techniques include content-based filtering.. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. artificial intelligence.ac.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . 2005). based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . Keenoy et al. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. picture. rule-based filtering. the personalization can be applied to content. etc. http://www. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. collaborative filtering. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.). Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.g.

html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Online paper.pdf Calimera Project (2005). http://adiret.pdf Bright. Online paper. Bowen. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.cs. T..emarcon. A.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. Cozzolongo.ascilite. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.calimera. and FilippiniFantoni. Borda. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. S.ac. http://arxiv. (2004). D. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.html http://www. http://www.unibo.umuai.gla.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .cognitive traits. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.(2001).three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. http://www. A demo is available at: http://www. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. http://www. http://www.calimera. http://www.metmuseum.. Ngo. Pizzutilo.arts.org/default. (2004).ecdc. dynamic user profiling techniques. The Future of Access (or. W. with a particular focus on the museum sector. S. J. http://www.. http://www.hatii. > > http://www. De Carolis.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.pdf m/index. Melbourne.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.firstmonday. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). https://www.pdf Callaway.. http://www.directa. and Nuguid. William Niu.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. (2005). and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. A. A. B.. J.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. (2005). http://www.pdf Beler.. A.noekaleidoscope.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.org. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.pdf Cavalluzzi.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. Daisy (2002).org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. Ler.. PowerPoint presentation. http://smart. Kay.org/ Bibliography Abbott. HATII.virtualmuseum.net/home. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.beta80group. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.unimagdeburg. and Kuflik. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.ca/English/Pers onal/index. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.CY/0409055 Boyle T. C.. A. and Cook J. wireless networks.org/pdf/cs. K. G. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.arces. University of Glasgow..

N.p df Filippini-Fantoni.nestafuturelab..1145/643477. R. V.. Personalization through IT in museums. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization.. Issue 7..com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. F. Italy. W. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.cs. Facer. O.. Gallipoli. In Proceedings of WWW2004 .futurelab.com/pub/evsc05b.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. 2005 www.pdf Giroux.org/posters/ moulin.cs. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. Paris. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. May 25.org.. (2002). Gallipoli. 1–27.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. http://www.learnexact. May 2004. K. In R. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. DigiCULT . (Eds. http://w5. Stock. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. P. Bowen. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. P. M.pdf Ceccaroni.edfac. (2003). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. and Zancanaro. Online paper.usyd. (AVI 2004).com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. Spain.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. M. University of Sydney (2004). Personalization and Digital Technologies. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. X. http://tmtfactory.. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. Subramaniam (Ed. Montreal. PEACH http://peach.pdf Copa.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference.pdf Heckmann.pdf Goren-Bar. S.uniud. D. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. (2004). Rudd. O. http://www. http://iswc2002.ichim. Wade.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . Soro. Italy.www2004. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. and Paddeu. http://www.. C. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. (2003). and Vazirgiannis. S. N. http://www.. Barcelona. (AVI 2004). and Tasso. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.dimi. and Verdaguer..24_Conlan. J. Online paper.semanticweb. Silvia (2003). http://lrnlab.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. April 2004.pdf Dolog. (2005). PA: Idea Group Publishing. L. and Humphreys. A. http://www.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File.pdf Eirinaki. May 25. FutureLab report. George (2005). (2005).uniba. Nejdl.. H. https://www. (2002). http://www..htm Hawkey.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. and Sintek. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Málaga. Dominik (2003).) (2002). Hershey. S. (2004).. D. Pianesi. T. Dagger.jpbowen.ppt Correia.. and Numerico. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Sanna.ie/Owen. February. http://www. and Boavida. Kuflik. Henze. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. C. New York.it/intint/people/papers /aims04. FutureLab. Graziola. 2004.acm.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education.designshare. Roy (2004). Dillon. F.pdf Fuschi.2004-1213. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. science centres and galleries..di. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. C. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. T.tcd.. http://www. (2004). 3(1).. (2005). Rocchi. interactive services in home automation.org/10.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. May 2002. September 2002.Info.itc.edu. Web mining for web personalization. and Cardinalli. 2004. M. G. Ecole du Louvre.it/papers/gorenbar2005. URL: http://doi. P.p df Green. Paper presented at ELearn 2002.pdf Conlan.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. M.Information Access. D. In Mizzaro. M. I. Moulin. T.

inf. Penserini. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. Online paper.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc.cs. 2005.cs. UK. Seničar. (2004). M. IEEE Computer Society. Jaroslav..pdf Klobučar..unimagdeburg.pdf Kuflik. J.. P. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. 2004 http://www. C. http://www. J. Italy. Turcsanyi-Szabo. K. SeLeNe . and Nejdl. M. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. 2004... J.. http://www. R. http://www. and Zancanaro.pdf Kay. (2004). Rocchi. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. October 2004. Kummerfeld. Bratislava.. 7(4):70-81. and Niu.si/eng/ijceel. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). M.Self E-Learning Networks. http://eprints.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. PIA Conference.sb. Goren-Bar. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.bbk. and Okamoto. W.edu. Callaway. .ijs. W.. http://www. K.cs. Busetta.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.ed.computer.pdf Kuflik. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.p df Iwazaki.. Levene. L. A. http://peach. 142 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Kay. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. Kaszas.. Final Version. (2004). Edinburgh. Online paper.kbs.stuba.ippr. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. Levene.. (2005). Brasher.. Brusilovsky. P. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. N. and Lauder.. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22.pdf Kay. WP4 Deliverable 4. Gallipoli. A. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).unihannover.2.pdf Keenoy.. B... T. Martin (2004).. S.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. http://www.1.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web.bbk. Kummerfeld. (2001). P. P. Educational Technology & Society. P. Personis: A Server for User Models. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.pdf Keenoy.it/papers/avi2004. and Montandon. In Mária Bieliková. T. Online paper. and Conejo. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research.. Nicola (2005). http://w5.pdf Kuruc.. (2004). The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.. Online paper. P.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. D.usyd. 23-30 July 2005.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14. P.itc. T.ac. B... W. S. Waycott. and Peterson. Jones.l3s. T. pages 249-256. (2004). http://csdl2.ac.fiit.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication.e5.usyd. de Freitas. LSC. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. J. and Lauder.. In: De Bra.. B. M. M. Lum. Dolog. editor.cs.au/~piers/papers/ pums. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. Proceedings of IIT.dcs. C. and Blažič.4. May 25. J.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941.pdf Henze. (2002).ac. (2005). V. O. and Zancanaro. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. Yokoi.PDF Kay. (2002).pdf Johnson. (2005). Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02).uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005. UM 2005. UK http://homepages.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004).. D. Stock.edu. (2005). T.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1.. Niu . P. Yasuda.. http://adiret.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. http://www. (eds.. K.pdf Henze.uni-sb. A.

L. Keenoy.1.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor.dcs. Spain. C. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal. (2004). A. Maier P. Pluhar.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final. Lejeune.ipsi. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Margaret (2002). Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Turcsányi-Szabó. M.mrl. Faure. August.pdf Mizzaro. Keenoy. Gutl. 2004. and Tasso.. H.pdf Niederee. http://www.. Barrios. C. http://www. Online paper. C.. Jones.H. Winterhalter. D. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. V.. F. http://www.html Schmidt.um.ac. Diagne. http://www. Montandon. Julia (2004).. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS). and Hemmje.elearningguild. May 7. A. Enric and Minguillon.depaul.sts.. May 2004. Montandon.com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century. Ken (2000). A. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. J. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference. 2004 http://www2. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning. (2004). Gallipoli.tuharburg. Lejeune.. (Eds. A. New York. J. (2004). ACM Press. M.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.) (2002). Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.pdf Ng M...uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069.bbk...lsc.uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. S. (2004a). Budapest.cs. (2000). Y. available from www. Preis. Jones.www2004.dimi. Kaszás..fraunhofer.2. 2002. C. January 2004. Blake. J-P.ac. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. Goita. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.ecs.2. Muller.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning.ac. http://www.. M.. http://www. B...org/proceedings/doc s/2p264.gov..pdf Pivec. http://www.. Hall W. May 25. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22... Hungary. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). Bossung.pdf Mobascher. (2004b).. Kaszás.pdf Do not reproduce 143 . Malaga. B. J-P. Paper presented at EDEN 2004. and Srivastava.pdf Martinez. A. Armstrong R..org.. Z.bbk.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.. Mehta.de/~mehta/uuc m.2..pdf Reeves. A.iicm... M. pp. A Multi-Dimensional.428-431. http://www. David.pdf Schoonenboom.http://senet... and Modritscher. K.ac. Turcsányi-Szabó. P. (2002). 43(8):142–151. and Levene. May 2002. URL: http://maya. (2005). R. P.dcs.. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. and Levene.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605.. S. available from www. Schmidt.ac. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. David.ncsl. Cooley. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.uniud. L.nott. Trummer. C. H.uk/trails Schoonenboom. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection..it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub. A. Communications of the ACM. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a. Stuart. (2005). http://eprints. K. C. M.soton. F. Online paper. J.uk/trails Sehring. Italy.learninginprocess.pdf Sakamura. M. http://www.uk/6832/01/ah 02. Flypad Report. J..utokyo. Stewart.. Spain. Málaga.

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000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. In the business world. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.elearningeuropa. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. http://www.Portals Related terms Collaboration. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. vendors. which form a dynamic user profile. instructorled. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. the portal offered information on more than 20. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. learning management systems. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . content management. As of early 2006. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. 2001). Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. Knowledge Management. collaborative environment. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.

(Eds. audio and/or video.amazon. category. calendars.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . baby! E-learning portals. You’ve come a long way. school administrators.students. http://www.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.htm Brockbank.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121. PA: Information Science Publishing. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.000 lesson plans http://www.trainingregistry. news and announcements.microsoft.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. Heidi (2001). K. May 2000.microsoft.000 publishers worldwide http://www.000 online courses http://www.saba.executrain. Bray (2001).com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo.elementk. http://knowledgemanagement.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. M. instructors. go to: http://www.www2. Tom (2000). and schedules. http://www. Learning Circuits.fathom.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. including educational uses.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. Hershey. March 1. and shared lists for tasks. 2004.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. http://www.cyberu. students.worldwidelearn. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. Campus Technology Magazine. document management information. New York: AMACOM. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.300 online courses http://www. instant messaging. (2003).teach-nology.hp.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.ittoolbox.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. http://www. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. and Aucoin. http://www.proquest. interactive discussion groups. http://h20219. and universities.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.700 online courses http://www.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.tamtam. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning..asp Element K – Access to over 2.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.campustechnology. administrators.com/article. http://blogs. A Portrait of Learning Portals.amazon. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.learningcircuits.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.nl/mart/CategoryView. A.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. Campbell. R.asp?id=9028 Barron.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.com/home.Education. and Sheehan. Ron (2004). HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. http://www. museums. In Jafari. e-mail distribution lists. online meetings with text.

http://www.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. and Gordon. C. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Richard & Associates (2002).asp Terra. J.amazon. New York: AMACOM. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www. M. Reviewed at: http://www.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. and Sheehan.learningcircuits.amazon. Hershey. (2003).. http://www. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.Collins. A.) (2003).educause. (Eds. September 2000. Heidi (2003). Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Cornelia (2000). Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. http://www.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.educause.asp Katz.htm Do not reproduce 147 . E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.

It is clear that in this age of entertainment.edu/TEAL).” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. web conferencing.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. in partnership with Dreamworks. http://www. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.masternewmedia.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.com/site/index. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Experience them at: http://www. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. although many are trying to change this practice.replayhq.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Skypecasting. http://icampus.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. http://www. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. http://www. However. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. While it is expensive. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. when experts are not readily available. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. virtual classrooms. Online presentations can be very boring. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.” In the Middle Ages. See the TEAL Project at MIT.elluminate. webcasting. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.mit. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.com Hewlett-Packard. In fact. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.lsc. webinars Consequently.macromedia.

ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.co.com/udell/200 5/02/25.infoworld.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. virtual meetings.com/udell/200 5/01/22.co.humanresourceWebinars.brandonhall. http://ajax. > > http://weblog. a columnist at InfoWorld.edu.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.co.com/news_radars /web_presentations. > > http://www.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.elearningcentre.00. virtual classrooms.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos. http://www. http://www.htm http://www. http://www.e-learningcentre.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.silicon.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. social software for online collaboration.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.kolabora. videoconferencing.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. online meetings.> > http://www. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. presentation and streaming presentation tools.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.com/cxoextra/0. and Flash. virtual teams. http://buyersguide. Authorware. groupware.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/eweek/web conferencing. and e-learning. and kidneys. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.html#a1185 http://weblog.acue.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations. http://www.elearningcentre.” > http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach.ccimeet.elearningcentre. instant messaging. brain. http://www. http://www.athabascau. Web seminars. Captivate.39155030. Web conferencing.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.adelaide.kolabora. videoconferencing. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. Webcasts.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.htm http://www.infoworld. independent listing of Webinars.com/webconf/index. Do not reproduce 149 . intranets. Breeze.380 0005416. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. and whiteboarding. although it does not have to be.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. and Web presentations. online communities.lsc.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.thinkofit.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. http://cde.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. forums and message boards.hp.co.co.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.com/publications/lel/lel.eweek. http://www.htm http://www. Coursebuilder. Dreamweaver.

timelyweb.com/software/present ation.asp McNally.com/Breeze Part2.com/product /software/795/index. P. Luigi (2003a). Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Russ (2004).filesland.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.pdf Scott. 2003. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.downloadjunction.htm Canali De Rossi. May 15. http://www. Christine (2001).com/Breeze Part1. http://www. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.htm Hofman.. July.learningcircuits. http://www. (2004).php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. 2005.com/presentatio ns/index.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.com/wwwtools/m/21593. July 8. Sept. Digital Inspiration.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Live ELearning. http://www.programjunction. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.http://www.aln.htm Canali De Rossi. http://labnol.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.presentations.html Using Apreso software. K. http://www. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.apreso.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. July 26.fasfind.aace. (in two parts) > > http://www. http://www.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. 2004. http://www. http://www. http://m. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Luigi (2003c). and Furr.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. Robin Good Blog. Sept. 3. 7(3).russellmcnally. 2003.. Robin Good Blog. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. http://www. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.pdf http://www. P.russellmcnally.html Canali De Rossi.amazon.com/downloads/sear ch. Jennifer (2004). http://www.masterviews.htm Duckworth. http://www. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. Armit (2005). Luigi (2003b). 150 © Brandon Hall Research .html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. K. and Quick. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.blogspot.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Learning Circuits. (2002).org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. 2003. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.masternewmedia.01.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. April 30. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Belinda (2003). Live and Online!: tips. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.masternewmedia.

http://www. 2005. http://www.ac.http://kmi. and Winfield. 11. S.amazon.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. Software. Dec. but… Presentations Magazine.presentations. Start Saving Time and Money Today.infoworld.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Choices are great. (2003). Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. InfoWorld.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. and Equipment. Feb..open.html Zielinski. Dave (2002). AMACOM. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Choose the Right Vendors.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .pdf Spielman. L. http://www.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1.

usually when it is needed (Brodsky. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. programming. It can refer to learning something quickly. Advanced features. low. just-intime e-learning. learning objects. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel.. a demand to produce online content very quickly. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . glossary. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource.e. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. In the first case. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. virtual classroom. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. It is best suited to text-based materials. simple. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Deploys easily .does not require any plug-ins. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. According to Ready Go!. Navigation built in . Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. or HTML knowledge. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. extreme e-learning. but not always good for you. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Reduce the number of development vendors. are built in. tests. manage the content and the users. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. such as creating links.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. or where the online information frequently changes. 2003). Assign SMEs who are committed. 2003). easy to use. Instructional design built in. FAQ. microlearning > down pages. Standardize approaches. and communicate deliverable expectations. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Does not require any advanced skills. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. In the second sense of the term. by necessity. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. including tools and templates. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. For example.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes.automatically assures that all navigation works.versus high-interaction). graphics. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve.

Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Bill (2005). Jay (2005). centrally located files.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. (2004).elearningguild.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. LTI Newsline. See sample templates at: http://www. http://www.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. http://www. http://www.elearningguild. June 30. which contains information on resources.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. 2006.clomedia. Do not reproduce 153 .readygo. and other good stuff.ltimagazine. Future-Proofing. http://www.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.elearningcentre.access to a clear project plan. Learning Circuits. J. January. 2004). Lane (2002). tools.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Dianne (2005). Larstan Business Reports. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. http://www.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.pdf Aldrich. July 2004.clomedia.amazon. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. July 2. Learning Solutions.microlearning. June. computer games. Chief Learning Officer. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.htm Bibliography Abell.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.org Web site.com/showArticle.raptivity. Reusability. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough.” Find out more: http://www. Tips and Techniques. http://www. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.learningcircuits. Paper. Chief Learning Officer.asp Bersin.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.co. http://www.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.meetingone.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Josh (2005). Templates.scate.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. http://www. version control protocols. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www. LTI Newsline. http://www. January 23.com/studio. http://www. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer. See a demo at: http://www. Jennifer (2004).pdf Crosman. Enhance.masie. Edit. August 2004. April. Kendrick (2006).asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. http://www.elearningmag. schedule and due dates.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. and Publish.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Making rapid e-learning work. http://www. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. J.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Penny (2004).uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. Clark (2005). Transform Magazine.articulate.pdf Brodsky. and Bersin.transformmag.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Josh (2004). conferences.bersin.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.htm Bersin. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. 2004. Mark (2003). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.

A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. http://www. June 2004. http://vftraining. http://www. http://www.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. http://www.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning.clomedia. 2002. Macromedia White Paper. 2006.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms.ltimagazine.elearningguild. Ed (2004). Stephanie (2006). Learning Solutions.elearningguru.e-learning programs in weeks.pdf Macromedia Inc.macromedia.pdf Mayberry.clomedia.com/new sstory. Eric (2003).pdf Jimenez. Jan.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Garin (2004).pdf Jimenez. Joe (2005). Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. http://www. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Nov. Mobile and Device Based Learning.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. Press release. 9. http://www. Learning Solutions. Rapid Intake White Paper. January 16. 2006. http://download. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . Ray (2006). Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.jsp?id=150619 Hess.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study.htm Masie Center (2005). http://www. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. January 2003. Clive (2006). April 20. Chief Learning Officer. LTI Newsline. Ray (2005). 10. Chief Learning Officer.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. http://download.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Kevin (2002). February 2005. e-Learning Crop Circles. Mar. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.elearningguild.learningcircuits. Nick (2005). Bersin and Associates White Paper.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. (2004b).trainingfoundation. (2004a).adobe.pdf Gustafson.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. Simulation. 2006. 2005.com/articles /default.pdf Shepherd.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. Macromedia White Paper.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Learning Circuits.trainingpressreleases.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. http://www.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. http://www.macromedia. The Training Foundation online article.

http://www. simulation > http://www.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.aad.lego.active-robots.euron.botball.edurobot.evolution.gov.org/aboutbotball/overview. and mathematics.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. one child at a time. technology.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.ife.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.nasa. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation.ri.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. technology.edu/index.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. Inc. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.cmu. http://www. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. > http://www.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.whmsi. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. engineering. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. http://mindstorms. http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. for underwater exploration.com/r_home. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.rec. http://robotics. http://www. engineering.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. and math.

l3s. D. G. (2004). Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. H. http://www. H. http://www. M. http://dangermouse.net/ Run by NASA.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. http://www. P.ams.pdf Cooper.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. Germany.pdf Boersch.pdf Ferrari. November. http://www.technology. (2001).jp/ Blank. J. and Dautenhahn.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.php Bibliography Blank. and Hempel.nasa. Miller. Robots in the classroom . S. Hohmann. lip movements. M.andrew. June.wtec..cuny. Germany. Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://robothaven.l3s. I. (2004).edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. I.eng. D. L. Keating. Basic Books.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.com/solutions/mw exrobotics.jp/ See also: http://www.sci.cs. M...org/article. Computers.uml. http://robotics.microworlds.edu/~sklar/er /edu.fhbrandenburg. (1999). http://www.gov/rcc/index. L. Kumar. go to: http://www. and vocal tics.pdf http://www. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Lathan. and Meeden. Paper at the American Assoc. C.tools for accessible education. K. (2005). Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Kumar. U. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. It features news.cmu. New York: Syngress Publishing. Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2004).. Meeden. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Yanco. Proceedings. (2004). B.atr..de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. and Wagner. Mr. (1980). http://www.. particularly robotics. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. and Mataric.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.pdf Nourbakhsh.irc.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke. > > http://www. http://www. D.profetic.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Düsseldorf. AAATE Conference 1999. Harwin.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . Sept.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. By donning motion sensors.osaka-u.brynmawr. H. D.pdf Papert.kipr. and other information on robotics. Ferrari. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). links. http://zeus. D.. New York.. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. D.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner..brooklyn.amazon. Heinsohn. and Powerful Ideas. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.ac.ed. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. W. http://www. Mindstorms: Children. R. and Yanco. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.amazon.. and Loose.

S. A. Donnelly. D.. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. 28-30. T. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. and West.ccmlab. Ontario.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. (2001).pdf Do not reproduce 157 . and Rusbridge. Ottawa. http://rob. Dobreva. http://www. Abbott.. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.. A.pdf Stewart.digicult. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Sept.. McHugh. (2005).ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. M. R. M.

2004). One is the problem of finding relevant. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines.examples are early yahoo. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. for a variety of reasons. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . information retrieval. in parallel. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. as this section of the report shows. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. Ezzy (2006a. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. a rich user experience. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. Meta–search engines. But. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.com and Alta Vista. such as Google and Altavista. federated search. They bring into the equation user preferences. One new approach is called “federated searching.” The first type searches the Web as it exists.so they take the structure of the Web into account. collaboration. Examples are Google and Overture. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. While search engines have improved over the past several years. dependable information. which submit queries. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. resource discovery. such as Yahoo. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. meta-search engines. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. search engine optimization. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. collective intelligence. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . each with their own defining feature sets. Web directories. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. data mining. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list.

http://www. http://www.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.mooter. http://www. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://channels.jookster.com/search/defa ult.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.msn. and the Web.com’s search service http://a9. then fill in the search box.gnod. get answers http://www.umdl.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.alltheweb.otavo. blogs.altavista. video. http://oaister.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.aol.icerocket. http://www.netscape.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.com Gada.about.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.convera. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages.answers. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.faganfinder.ask.grokker. and text.umich. http://www. http://www. http://www.looksmart.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. Shares advertising revenues with content owners. http://search.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www. http://www.gravee.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ Gravee . http://www.General search engines: A9 – Amazon.google.gada. http://getoutfoxed. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).hotbot.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://search. http://search.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.alexa.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://www.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ Answers.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 . http://dmoz.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.aeiwi.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.com About.gigablast. http://www.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.lexxe.

google.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. and movies. http://www.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.gpoaccess. http://citeseer. http://www.blinkx.ai. Much of this information is hidden from view.eurekster. http://www. > > http://firstgov.pubsub.sri.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://www.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research .google.imdb. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.govmine.topic appears. AwesomeLibrary.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. Wink then diplays the results. http://www.qelix.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. http://vivisimo. users tag their favorite results and block spam.com/v2/index.psu. http://www.gov/ http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . FactMonster.Clusters results.ithaki.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.stumbleupon. http://swicki.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.ist. http://froogle. http://www.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.gnoosic.ucr.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://scholar. & KidsClick!. http://infomine.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. AolKIDS.imdb. http://books.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://www.wink.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.acronymfinder. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.koders.com Google Book Search – Search just for books.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://www.com/ Wink – Using social networking. http://www.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. Yahooligans.ujiko. http://tagjag.squidoo. http://www. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. cast lists and theatre schedules. reviews. http://www.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.google.yahoo. http://www. reviews.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.healthfinder. books. http://qube. http://rollyo.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://kids. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://icerocket. ArtKIDSRule.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.com/v2a/flash.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.

http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://www.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.ncbi.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .psu.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.gov/entrez/query.findlaw.krugle. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.rrzn.seekport.A legal search engine.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://www.last.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files. as of this writing.psu.com/ MediaFinder . http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). http://www.htm Do not reproduce 161 .columbia.com/ Last.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.ee.cmp.” Content-based search engines for pictures. http://www. http://lawcrawler. http://smealsearch1.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://www.nih.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.nlm. http://portal.Krugle – A search engine for developers.almaden. http://www.cfm?doid=10 56808.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.com/ LitLinker . http://wang16.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.liveplasma.uni-hannover.ist.org/citation. http://techsearch.ibm.convera.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.columbia.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.searchking.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.ee.truveo.columbia.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www. http://www.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.org/ Omgili . http://www.pandora.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://wwwqbic.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.technorati. http://www.soundspotter.omgili.fm/ LawCrawler .acm.searchedu.scirus. http://www.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.ee. http://www.rawsugar. http://www.4 billion links.f cgi QBIC .merl.

fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.ac. maps/directions.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. companies.zapmeta. and notes. bookmarks. http://www.com/ clusters. games.com/ Info – Searches reference works.xcavator. including a set of international telephone directories. weather. news sources. pictures. classifieds.inria. city guides. and their relationships.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages.search. focused searches on topics they care about. lottery results. is a valuable resource for researchers.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://www. http://www. http://www. or federated searching. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.net/indexu. http://www.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. http://searchenginewatch.dogpile.bolton.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://www. http://www. health information sources. http://www.copernic.researchbuzz. http://www. and tracks a user's search history. http://www. http://www. yellow pages.uk/ SearchTools. tickets.cs. http://nlp. greeting cards. http://a9.intute. http://clusty. Known as “meta-search” engines.kartoo. movies.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.ac.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng.trovando.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. eBay. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research .com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. and Web mail for the topic entered.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.info.zoominfo. apartment rentals. flights.searchtools. video. Unlike other search engines. white pages.nyu. shopping sites.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.ithaki. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. http://www. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. http://www. http://vivisimo. therefore. http://www. and links the clusters. dating and personals.ixquick.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. http://www.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. audio. http://www-rocq. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. the user's community has total control over the results.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. hotels.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. jobs.

gpoaccess.ala. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. Users can also browse by subject category. can be published on the user's site.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. http://www. http://www. Exchanging. July 25.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.digicult. Traditional Search. Part 1. O. 6. Read/Write Web. Y. http://www.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. First Monday. http://www. July 20.just as a search engine is used for text. DigiCULT Thematic Report. > > http://firstgov. June 2004.php Ezzy.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. http://www. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). 2006. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. Read/Write Web. Part 2.gov/ http://www. http://www.readwriteweb.html Battelle. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing.readwriteweb.0 vs.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. This search engine.downes. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. A.firstmonday.php Geser. http://swicki. John (2005).com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. is against the idea of federated searches.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. July-Sept. (2004). Ebrahim (2006). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. 2004. June.amazon. 7-12. No.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.ucr.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. Frank.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).com/ Stephen Downes..co. http://infomine. or swicki. 6. 10(12).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.citysearch.Position Paper: Putting the Users First.. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Search 2. For example. Pat (2005).gov/ http://www. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. International Journal on e-Learning.eurekster. Do not reproduce 163 . December. http://www. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.editlib.0 vs. 2006. New York: Portfolio. Guntram (2004). http://www. F. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. or topic .org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. and Apprato.searchenginecolossus.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. phrase.htm Ezzy.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.netmasters. http://www.ac. No. Search 2.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. DigiCULT Thematic Report.elearning. Resource Discovery .org/index. and Shoham. http://www. S. Ebrahim (2006)..pdf Ensor. and Searching in eLearning Systems. Traditional Search. (2005). Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.tveyes. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.

April 28. http://www. http://www. Mike (2004). 2005.digicult.prescientdigital. (2000). http://bobwyman. Oct. 2004.uk/boon/delos200 5. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Parts I and II.com.com/alertbox/20030630. http://homepages.aace.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Mittal. 15. J. 4(1). http://www. W.prescientdigital. Lisa (2005). http://dl.com/article2/0. Bob (2005).eschoolnews.html Kumar. Oct.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . Richard (2004).. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Simple advice for complex search solutions. It’s Gada.ed. http://searchenginewatch.pubsub.ht m Pratt. (2005).. B. and Gupta. Oct. eSchool News. Oct. 3. Doctoral dissertation.eweek.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. Danny (2004).washington. Part I: http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. html Porco.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. they’re just limited. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Search engines don’t suck. 2004.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. M. InfoWorld. International Journal on E-Learning.useit. Jakob (2003).com/news/showS toryts.ac. 2004. (2004). Prescient Digital Media.pdf Murray.html Heck.pdf Gincel.asp Wyman. Kashyap. http://www. P. http://www. SearchEngineWatch.htm Part II: http://www. June 30. Refining enterprise search. 10.infoworld. InfoWorld. 2005. 2005. White paper.pdf Schlenker.00. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 .edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. May 8.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.http://www. J. S.18 69408.1759. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Carmine (2006).ischool.org/16955 Low. and MacColl. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. 149-166. E. 15.infoworld. S. 2003. http://www.pdf Sullivan. http://www. Stanford University. (2005).info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Major Search Engines and Directories.com/links/article .com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Corey (2005). and Hilf. eWeek. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.. Mimkes. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.php/2156221 Vaas.isnoldenburg. A. 2004. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference.

asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. (2005) note that “historically. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. It has both its advocates and its critics. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate.aktors. http://www. ontologies. semantic grid.elenaproject. 2003). but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location.org/en/index.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. Abbas et al. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. http://www. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). Like it or not. metadata. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. search. are now falling short of earlier promises. founder of the World Wide Web. but it will not be in general use for some time. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. taxonomies.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Selected Examples In Europe. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. microformats.ibm. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). near Boston.alphaworks. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). such Do not reproduce 165 . the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects.

K. The first issue is free.tkk.. Greece.) (2003). Mark (2005). and Zillinger. G. MA: MIT. A Semantic Web Primer. Scientific American. Salvachua.. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. D. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. Hendler.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .hp. http://kaon. May 2001.info/issues. Tim (2003). New York: Wiley. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. and van Harmelen (2004).jxta. J. W. implementing. T. http://www. http://www.com/article. R.aimatshape. 2005.hpl.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler.open.net/ Bibliography Abbas. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). http://www.as semantic portals for end-users.php?http://www . (2004)..amazon..com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. McClatchey.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. Sobernig. Cambridge. F. Simon.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. M.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. Umer.ac.. and Hendler. Web Services. (2005). http://arxiv. http://www. (Eds.seco. May 9-12. S. MA: MIT Press. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications.de/html/ Aguirre..pdf Anderson. D.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. Obrst.open.upm.personal-reader. Olmedilla. H. The semantic web. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).amazon.. http://www. http://jungla. T.ifets. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web.amazon. xi.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.sciam. (2001). O. A.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. (1). and Whitelock...uk/2004/1/ Antoniou. M.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. http://www. (2005). and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications.. http://edutella. (2003). Brantner.. A. Lieberman. Huber. Mozo.. Z. and Lassila. Forward. http://www. M. S.ifets. and Ahmed.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. S.. Cambridge. J. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML... and Smith.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. S. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Odeh. B. In Fensel. http://www. http://www-jime. Miklos. http://www-jime.ideagroup. G.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning..semanticweb. Ali. http://www.ac.dit. and Knowledge Management. May 29 June 1. http://www.. Markus. Z. D.pdf Daconta. semantic infrastructural services. J. Wahlster. L. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education..info/index. T. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference.

com/article2/0. Lund. C.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. http://www. http://www. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again.cetis.. Semantic Web Technologies. and Naeve. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . Nicola (2005b).org/v1. Paul (2003). CETIS Online article.well. Wilbert (2005). Rutledge. H. F. Stephen (2005).jisc. Syllogism. Journal of Computer Science.De Roure. Brian (2005).pdf Kraan.html Haack.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. G. Stephen’s Web. 2001. 18-22 July 2005. D. http://www. Amsterdam.asp Hatem.pdf Henze. http://homepages. J.kbs.downes. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . A developer’s introduction to micro-formats.unihannover. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. M. http://www.kbs. pdf Doctorow. T.. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. H. 2006. and Neagu. PA: Information Science Publishing. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. and Naeve. Sweden. Online article. H. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE).. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. Wahlster. and Zetti. 1(4). Paper presented at the GLS conference.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. DevSource.amazon. http://www.scipub.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. http://www. Cambridge. and Shadbolt. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. http://www. Nack. http://www. M. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web.. Palmer.amazon. Sikora. D.) (2003). Nicola (2005a). (2005). (Eds.189 5.pdf Downes..) (2005). CT: Manning.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.9/semgrid. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. M.. A. and Gouarderes. 10. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.unihannover. and Worldview”.ftrain. Jennings.com/~doctorow/metacrap.. http://www.Some Architectural Guidelines.1961106. Greenwich. (2002). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. MA: MIT Press. W. Thomas (2004). http://www.com/ContraShirky. May 27. Online article. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. France. The Netherlands. N. http://www. Hershey. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. 500-504. Lieberman.ca/cgibin/page. Oct. A.ac.semanticgrid.cwi.devsource. Ramadan.00. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web.. A. and Hendler. Cory (2001).amazon. L. Juan-les-Pins. 2005. Oct. N. (2004). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. Phil (2006).pdf Henze. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. L. (2001). http://www. (Eds.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. M. http://www2002.. D.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.pdf Nilsson. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. http://www.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05. Mauthe. (2001). htm Dorai.ac.

InfoWorld. http://ewic. Online article.marketingprofs. (2004).html Stojanovic.html Van Dijck.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. Millard.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.pdf Shirky.cetis.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). Journal of Educational Technology & Society. http://www. trust.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. F.uk/selene/reports/ Del3.. (2005). The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. John (2004).Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. P. and Miller.. J. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. http://www. H. D.soton. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.pdf Sampson. http://eprints. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application.darwinmag. 2003. Who said that? Metadata. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.w3. http://www. and Worldview.. L.. 7 (4). December 3. and Woukeu.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism. Karenos.guardian. http://www. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. Scott (2002). A.html Wilson. USA.bbk. 7. The Semantic Web. 2005. (2001). http://www. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. Syllogism. Millard. (2005). and Diaz. Scott’s Workblog. January 17. May 17–22. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion.co. 2628.com/read/swiftkick /column.unikarlsruhe.cetis. Davis. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.ac. New York. Schmitz. (2003). August 2.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.sop. Wagner. G. http://poorbuthappy.. M. E. H. Woukeu. and Studer. June 21. Staab.00.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). Online article.com/login/sign up. http://www2004. June 14. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. G. http://www. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.pdf Tao.inria. (2003). and Stumme. Lytras. David (2002). CETIS Online article. http://education.ac. http://www. Networks. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee...ac. F.dcs. and the Semantic Web. http://www.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.bcs. B. Economics and Culture.p df Tao.10577. and Christodoulou.aifb. C. Andy (2005). 2002. Marketing Profs.ecs. http://www. D.. Clay (2003).. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. K.info/journals/7_4/5. R. Semantic Web.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. and Davis. Scott (2005). D.pdf Updegrove. New York.asp Udell. Nov.pdf Tane.shirky. Peter (2003). 2005. http://www. A. L. 2004.uk/elearning/ story/0.981948.pdf Samaras. Darwin. S. 2004.ac. G.ifets.infoworld. 2003.

especially ones set by themselves. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.icherubini.calt.calt.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. but information about it remains on the Web. microworlds.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.insead.ncsa.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.insead.” My first report in this series. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 .insead.insead. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. http://www.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. i. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.uiuc.com/omni.e. According to High (2004). learn.arcscience. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.calt.gov/ Winters et al. http://www.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. role-playing. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. participants will be motivated to evaluate.calt. http://cave. games. 2005). http://www. It was decommissioned in 2005. http://sos.calt. reviewed simulations as an online content format.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.insead. http://www.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. http://www.noaa.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. http://www. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.

http://www. http://www. and murmurs.ht m Intermezzon .html weather forecasting.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.shatters. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.umich.edu/harvey_about. breathing. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.lsa.com/broadcastoverview.experiencebuilders.biographix. go to: http://www. they are only available for Macintosh computers. http://www. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . http://www.atghome." http://www. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.insead.stt-global.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. and Mac OS X. For example.dc.making-history.net/ Biographix . http://www. Linux.soe.assima.calt.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.med.edcenter. http://thinkertools.miami.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. http://www.virtualfishtank.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. Mass. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.noaa.ISLE .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.adobe. http://www.fsl.adobe. without programming knowledge.edcenter.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. http://www.berkeley.com/ Forio .Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .sdsu.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. pulse rate.sdsu.geo.net/celestia/index. http://www. http://crme.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. to play in a virtual fishtank. However.edu/geowall/ind ex.forio.http://www. It runs on Windows.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. http://www.intermezzon.umich.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. heart sounds.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index. > > http://geowall.. http://www.edu/ http://um3d.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. with many examples to try.

com/ Knowledge Planet .Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.co.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. http://www.outstart.the click of a mouse. http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. Integrates with many media types.nexlearn.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.stagecast.learning2005.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.percepsys.reusableobjects. which can then be used to build simulations.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.icherubini. http://www. including simulations. http://www. http://www. Do not reproduce 171 .com/products /firefly.maxit.knowledgequest.maxit. http://www.teds. create courses specifically on using computer software.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.knowledgepresenter.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .com/3dTraining. http://www.knowledgeplanet. http://www. http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.qarbon. http://www. http://www.sdsu.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.com/products/sim.knowledge-director.com/ Kookaburra Studios .org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www.” http://www.com/ MaxIT .htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.asp Knowledge Quest .com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. http://coe. http://www. http://www.com/ MaxIT .stottlerhenke. http://www.xstreamsoftware.virtualcontrolroom.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.bc.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.elearningcentre.com/portal/index.com/ Reusable Objects .jibc.com/product_r pe. http://www.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.

learningcircuits.uva.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. 12. http://www. F.clomedia. T. J.ft. 172 © Brandon Hall Research .org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. H. Kamau (2004). (2004). http://www. Bjorn (2004). June. (2001).htm eSchool News (2004). Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. (2005). and Sund Martin. Making the most of software simulations..learningcircuits. September. Learning Circuits.blikstein. and Bostan.html Sobeih. Clark (2004).projects. A. October. L. Simulation levels in software training. September.eschoolnews. http://www. & de Jong. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. (2001). (2002). http://www. http://www. http://itdl. A. and Ip. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. B. U.medialabeurope. Learning Circuits. Aug. (2002). Montréal.for Philosophers and Engineers.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. International Workshop. computer games.htm High. Financial Times. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. Chief Learning Officer. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich.case studies. A. A.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. P. http://www. Online report. Utrecht. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Taghiyareh.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. M.htm Aldrich. and Hou.. T. J. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. 4.. 2004. A. J. San Francisco: Pfieffer.cs. http://www. 2004. 1(10).html Learning Circuits. p. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. In Interaction Design and Children.ht m Sloman. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.ncassr. 2002.. July.PDF Blikstein.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. 8. Clark (2005).uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. October 2004.html Karrer. Six criteria of an educational simulation. A. http://www. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.amazon. The promise of online simulations.. Jennifer (2004). http://www.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.bbk. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences..html Lunce. http://www. A.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.pdf Swaak. http://www. Viswanathan. 2004..com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005).. Shannon (2004). R. Laser.learningcircuits. eSchool News. Sept. Paper presented at Robocup conference. How playing power drives lessons home.simplay.net/papers/ELearning.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. Les (2004). http://www.ac. Simjour.http://www. Department of Computer Science.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Implementation and Evaluation. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. http://www. M. AACE conference. Mazloumian.ac. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . Aaron (2005). and Wilensky.com/news/showS tory. Feb.bham.pdf DeVries. Computer simulations in distance education.html Linser. Holland.science.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. October 15-19. (2004).pdf Cherubini.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. and McCloughlin. Rasmussen. Gash. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science.

8(31)..knowledge. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. Sherry (1997).. (2003). 17.uc.pdf Tjaden.pdf Turkle. http://www. In Association for Computing Machinery. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. http://www.dei.html Winters. N. 1997. M.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 284-294. Fort Lauderdale. USA.protonmedia. Florida..icherubini.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. Gary (2003). http://www. and Strohecker. April. Mar.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. The American Prospect. C.prospect.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.-Apr. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. Cherubini. Online paper at: http://lsm.

Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. RFID technology is developing rapidly. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. http://cnm.checkpointsystems. For a full discussion of this issue.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. grease. especially for tagging retail items in stores.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. http://www.ac. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.ala. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. They are programmable and.edu/102605_meal. easily changed. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.iu. especially in museums and for outdoor education. optical tags. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. infrared (IR) tags. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.. While controversial. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. 2005).open. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. http://uitspress.org/Template. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. therefore. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. or water.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.edu/index.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.com/default . according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. which transmits over short distances.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.iu.” http://vis.

P. April 13. (Eds. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. http://www. http://www. and Case.). Technology Watch Report 1. 5. van Kranenburg. Y.html Osawa. Shibuya.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.eschoolnews. G. 261-263. January 1. Michigan State University.toydirectory. http://www.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. March. (2004)... A. http://www. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. and Dobreva. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.2005 . Noda. http://www.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www. Ogata. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.xml&DOI=10.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant.org/newdl/index.. http://www. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). in a 2005 online article. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Donnelly. Andrew (2005).edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.. 2004. Masters Thesis. TD Monthly.csmonitor.infoworld.msu..org/ Bibliography Borck. RFID: frequency.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. http://www. and Yano. http://www..jisc. H. (2005). describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. & Kondo. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.pdf Robinton.rfidnews.org/news/showsto ry.com/monthly/articl e.toydirectory. Infoworld. http://www. In Kommers. M.aace.html?s=feature Heining. June 27.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. N.ac.cfm?fuse action=Reader...1109/WMTE. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. Aparna (2004). http://www. (2003). http://www. R. S.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.msu.. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). Y. eSchool News Online. M. http://csdl2.pdf Murray.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.. K. http://www.66 Ward. James (2006). 2005. C. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. Proceedings.digicult.. M.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. T. (2006).pdf Salcedo. Tsukagoshi. Noma. Oct. R. 2004. adoption and innovation. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. 4(3).com/monthly/articl e. 276-283.asp?id=1222 Ross.pdf Osawa et al.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. (2005).digicult..aace. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. Ando. & Richards. Corey (2004). K. G. S. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .computer. and Backhouse. A. standards.

Flickr held over 100 million images. Fourth. printouts. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. in turn.us Web site (http://del. As of April 2006. Also.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. as each member can upload resources discovered. researchers at all levels (students. ontologies. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. no matter their location or timing. Fifth. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. and organize the academic papers they are reading. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted.43things. and search for a specific user's Blinks.” a location to store links that might be lost to time.” However. metadata.connotea. store.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . they act as an “outboard memory. users can see what others are Blinking. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. and to share them. For example.icio. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. Third. http://ask. or distributed in e-mails. http://www. get inspired. connect with others. http://www.us) post their favorite Web sites. http://www. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research.First. or check out what everyone wants to do.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.blinklist.citeulike. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. http://www. Students. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. Second. and Web links. search.A free service to help academics share. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term.metafilter.net/ CiteULike .icio. tagging.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. The result is something called a tag cloud. faculty. share references with colleagues. and books. http://blogmarks. search others’ references. They can save references. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. For instance. music. while users of the del. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. describe. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. share their stories. Blink also provides tools to sort.com/ Blinklist . Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.

com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://blog. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.gnolia. http://www. RSS. Tags can be shared or kept private.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.digg. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://www.netvouz.feedmarker. http://consumating.pageflakes. http://www. based on what is happening in the news media.rojo.linkroll. and discover relevant links.networkltd.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://myweb2. http://www. http://www. share.html Linkroll .edu/ppad2/ index.kaboodle.com/ Del.clipmarks.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.icio.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www.us/ Digg .com/archives/beta_up date/index. search. and non-hierarchical editorial control.com/ Project Pad . Also retrieve it easily.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.com/ Do not reproduce 177 . but.Consumating .netscape.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.shadows.com/ Kaboodle . http://www. music.com/ Simpy – Search tags.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.com Clipmarks . http://www. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. http://www.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.icio. sort. http://jots.com/ Magnolia . similar to Digg.simpy.search. http://projectpad.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. users submit stories for review. http://ma. http://www.yahoo.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.eventful. http://www.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.com/ Flickr – Store.A free.us . and share photos with others.jookster.com/ Furl . and/or books and find them again. http://www.eu/products/networ k_menus.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. http://del.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. updated in near real time.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.org/news. With digg.com/ Jots . http://flickr. or enter new items and tag them.net/ Jookster .com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.northwestern. blogging. http://www. http://www. the users decide.memeorandum.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.furl.

fasfind. Web 2.infoworld.icio.S. http://weblog.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.spurl.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. http://www.yelp. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .peterme. Flickr.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.educause. Online Resources Jon Udell.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. http://tabblo. http://www.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story. http://www. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.html http://atomiq.html http://tagsonomy. http://www. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.com Wists – A social shopping site. http://www.quickonlinetips. 41(2).org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. and Digg.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. and share it with others.wists. http://www.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.” > > http://magazines.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.suprglu.us. http://unalog. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/ about how tagging works with del.zvents.com/index. tags. http://www.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.html http://www.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.com/wwwtool s/m/6350.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.com/archives/000 558.quickonlinetips.” http://www. If a city is not there. and social bookmarking.quickonlinetips.net/ Suprglu .fasfind.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup. > http://www.com/ SWiK .html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.veotag.icio.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs. http://upcoming. March/April 2006.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. Bryan (2006).us. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.com/wwwtool s/m/7172. http://www. http://swik. with contributions from users.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/udell/gems/d elicious.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.A.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.tagzania.smugmug.wink.

Hammond. June 21.hp. and Hannay.pdf Gurber.pdf Mejias. D-Lib Magazine. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.dlib. 2. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems.hpl. Will (2005).ejournal.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. Trusted Sources.ascc.php Lund.infoworld.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Jan.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.00. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. J.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1.html Mote. http://many. (2005). Online paper. http://dlib.typepad.html McGillicuddy. HP Labs Report. August 20.plasticbag.html Coates.. 20. and Huberman.289142. 2005.htm Hammond. http://www. Tom.pbs. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Keynote address. Shamus (2006). July 20. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). SearchCIO.org/teachersource/learning . (2005). http://www. http://www.shtml Golder. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. 2005.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. 11(4). 2006. B. The New School of Ontologies. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. 11(4). 2. Aug. http://www. T. May 5. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.weblogged. http://ideant. Tom (2005). http://www. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.pdf Richardson. Flack. Hannay. Jon (2004). (2005).corante. Liz (2005). 2004. Tag mania sweeps the Web.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. 2005.techtarget.isi. T..html Lawley. B.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.html Mathes. May 20.. and Scott. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. Tags vs. (2005)..com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. Many2Many. InfoWorld. Nicholas (2004).org.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. April 2005. Sept.com/originalCo ntent/0. Jon (2005). http://www.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. D-Lib Magazine. S.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.. M. B.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. T.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Collaborative knowledge gardening. http://searchcio.html Do not reproduce 179 . Lund.educause. Ulises (2004). http://www. Adam (2004).com. 2006. Andy (2006). http://www. http://www.adammathes. April 2005..org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. 2005.http://www.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.html Udell. http://ideant.infoworld. 2005. Social consequences of social tagging. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.typepad. http://tomgruber. Webblogg-ed.ht ml Mejias. Online Paper. Plasticbag. InfoWorld.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.sid19_gci1195182. T. Ideant. Ulises (2005).

shared link libraries such as del. photo sharing sites. tagging. online personals such as Match. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. etc.) Experience Sharing (blogs. work. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. e-mail. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. Friendster.com.al. shared links. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research .” that is. e-mail. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.classmates. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. etc. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. and the military. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. social networking sites such as Friendster. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. etc. My first report in this series. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.com.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. photo albums.icio. SMS. communities of practice.) Relationship Management (Orkut. reviewed social networking as an online content format. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. http://www. 2005). etc. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. family. social software.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. dating sites.us. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites.

analytictech. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com/inflow3. http://www. http://www. and within “communities of interest. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.myspace. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. as a blog.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.com/ Orkut .com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. https://www.com Platial – A site to create social maps. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.diaryland.xanga. http://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www.netminer.com/reg/sample.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. and geographic regions. documents. http://www. http://www.yahoo. photos. audio.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. and files and then make them available to others. http://www. http://www.faceparty. in associations. http://360.my-diary. http://www. http://www. https://www.esnips. video. Users share their writings and meet each other. http://www. http://platial. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.codeville.friendster.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.com/ Live Journal .last.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. Share it with others if desired. http://www.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. http://www.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.linkedin.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. http://www. http://www. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 . or as a social network. Facebook has networks for colleges.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://www. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. upload photos.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.stumbleupon. which is then open to other readers.com/ucinet.com/signin/index.” http://www.com/introNetwor ks.orgnet.freeopendiary.livejournal.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.spartasocialnetworks.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.orkut. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. http://www.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.html Last.facebook.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. List who a person knows and find out who others know. It costs several thousand dollars.intronetworks. workplaces. high schools.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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html http://www. http://www.pd f Fontana.sourceforge. http://get. http://www. as well as news. history.ebuddy. http://messenger.) (2000).jabber. http://www. Cambridge. J. 6. On the Internet. The driver sits in a box. A. and Handberg. Sept.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. Ken (Ed.amazon.pdf Knudsen. Naeve.org Bibliography Dreyfus. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. > > http://www. http://www. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. http://laimuz.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society. secure. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. http://www-142. Online memo.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.berkeley.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.ieor. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 .ietf. (Eds. C. BSD.advanced.org/rfc/rfc2779.hig. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). Nils (2000). the CAVE. 44-49. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. http://www2.networkworld.org/teleimmersio n. J.nada.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://gaim.advanced.txt Knudsen.virtual-presence.no/at/nmm/enlund. A. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.net/ Jabber – An open. Network Working Group (2000). L. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.unizar. http://www. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.ibm." http://www.com/index. http://www.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. Hubert (2001).percro. London: Routledge. http://kmr.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. MacOS X. C.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd.acs. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.. http://www. Presence applications poised for takeoff.yahoo. John (2004).“Simultaneous Presence.html Goldberg.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. and Pejas. http://www. Network World. (2001).com/software/swlotus/products/product3. http://www. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. 2004.kth. In Soldek.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. and Naeve.org/teleimmersio n2.fakespace. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. and Windows. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.live. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.aim. MA: MIT Press. (2002).

com/news/culture/0. Germany: Hagen. 28...kth. January 2005. et al.org/docume nts/Sponberg. http://www.modes. http://www. A.wired.se/pdf/CID-206.pdf Lynn. Knudsen. September 24. and IJsselsteijn. http://www. 2002. (Eds. Ins and outs of teledildonics. (2005). DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. and Handberg. http://www. A. Amsterdam: IOS Press.pdf Udell. Being There: Concepts. Wired News.650 64-0.digicult. and Rusbridge.amazon. C.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .swedishlearninglab. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. InfoWorld.Banff.html Riva. (Eds. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.. http://www. Alberta. F. M.infoworld.. In Hoyer.pdf Sponberg.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. http://cid. Jan.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.. (2001). Abbott. H.) (2003).nada. McHugh. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. L. G. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Dobreva. D. M. Jon (2005). Davide. H. June 1. Donnelly. Regina (2004)..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. S. W.Learning. Calgary.

A new version of television. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. videocasting. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. even a video plug-in for Skype. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. 2005). It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). amateur and professional video cameras. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. As the following examples show. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. tlearning. IPTV. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Do not reproduce 189 . My first report in this series. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. cell phones. Further. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. BT. Video blogging has become common. reviewed video as an online content format. vodcasting. However. according to Foroohar (2006). entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). streaming video. Once video goes on the Internet. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. bandwidth becomes an issue. video blogging.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. Britain's largest telecom firm. PDAs. screencasting. the largest Internet telephone service. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. in all its formats. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. In spite of the limitations. television. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. telepresence. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. 2002).

and divide them into chapters or segments.com/default.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. the Internet telephone service. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.bittorrent.uk/index.veotag.brightcove.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .concord. http://www.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. or set-top box. http://www. employees. See the current selection at: http://video.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.youtube.org/ At YouTube. http://www. improves the satisfaction of the client. http://www. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. or students through a high quality. See samples at: http://www. http://www.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www.com/index_about. and multimedia content to customers.” Users can upload video clips for free.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. cellular. voice. http://www. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. whether dial-up.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.addictingclips. http://video. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. http://www.ar/iptv_en.ourmedia.co. with IPTV.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.com/pressrelea ses.com/ BitTorrent.dmeurope.html Dialcom Networks.com For an example of a video blog.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.com.google. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. and maintains loyalty. http://www.bittorrent.apple. http://www. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. partners.axor.rocketboom. low bandwidth video stream.on2. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. PDA.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. See examples at: http://www.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.xstreamengine.medialogic. http://www. desktop. a three-minute videoblog. the “triple play” of video.rocketboom. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.dfilm. http://www.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. http://participatoryculture.com/nara. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. http://vpb. video.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.org/ In 1999. tag them. It is still going strong at: http://www.google. see Rocketboom.

masternewmedia.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. P.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. D. Dec.com/article.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. Luigi (2005a).org/doing/media. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. https://www. by alphabet. Beyond Wireless Broadband.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.” http://www.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. (2003).org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.thinkofit.masternewmedia. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .com/webconf/video.org. The site already contains nearly 6. http://www. http://www. http://www.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. and Bates.pdf Bardia.” http://www. Peter (2003). which users can submit.500 vlogs organized by popularity.spider.” Bibliography Atwere.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. 1. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.lsda.uk/tlearning/contents.com/ http://www.pjb.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. http://www. Wi-Fi.mil/index.co. termed “mobile television. For example.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.navy. http://www.masternewmedia. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.uk/files/pdf/1443. http://www.” http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.veoh. but business models are fuzzy.educause. and visual resources. Robin Good Blog. video.edu/articl e.mefeedia. and by tags.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.streamingmedia.elearningcentre.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. Online article at: http://www. www.co. http://www.iptv-industry.” http://knowledge. t-learning Study .upenn. Pradeep (2004).html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. http://www. Wi-Max. http://eduscapes. http://www.com/seeds/index.masternewmedia. 2005.htm Canali De Rossi.elearnspace.hpc.ht m Canali De Rossi.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.wharton.dvguru. read “Ten video sharing services compared. Luigi (2005b).ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.

2005.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. G. (Ed. June 6.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. 2005. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. 2005. 8-9.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . Networking Pipeline. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. http://www2. Rana (2005). http://www-rcf. IBM Institute for Business Value study. 2.). http://www.XMax Goes The Distance.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. April 26. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. Dec. http://www1. discussions and implications. IAT Services White Paper. (2005). Asensio.asp?id=7769 Meng.pdf Klass. Mon.com/showAr ticle. University of Missouri. In Richards. Campus Technology.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. (Eds. 2005. Robin Good Blog.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . C. Peter (2005).php Taplin. Durham. Brian (2005). http://www. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Jonathan. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development.htm Curtis.networkingpipeline.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).msnbc. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Nov.ibm. 2005.amazon. Brian (2002). Changing Channels.com/article. Manchester. S.campustechnology. http://edmarketing. M. L.) (2002).com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.aace. Online paper.umist. http://www. 7. http://www. http://www. Tom (2005).ac. Matthew (2005).org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.bcr.). and Young. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. NC: Duke University. The IPTV Revolution.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Feb.apple..org/newdl/index. 417-419). The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. and Swenson.msn. pdf Nolle. http://www. http://www.pdf Thornhill.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. Newsweek (International Ed. (2003). Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.usc. P. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp.masternewmedia.

html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. http://ancient.futurelab. http://www.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. http://www.ubc.ca/index. exchange enabling. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Shape has developed the augurscope.org.equator. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. simulation. and re-experiencing or reusing past events.shapedc. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. distributed virtual environments.arts. and storytellers. skin color. http://www. By using aspects of game play. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. desktop virtual reality. and the aim of the virtual experience.net/wiki2/index. and look do not count much in virtual spaces.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. Videoconferencing is not required. http://www1. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Depending on the level of realism achieved.netofpeers. Creed.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.org/highlights/augur.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.cs. inventors. To do this. http://www.kahootz. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. mixed reality. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. interaction. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time.columbia. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). and Religious Studies department.ac.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. http://solipsis. augmented virtuality. Near Eastern. designers. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.

.navy.activeworlds. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.ac.. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. C.cti.intuition-eunetwork.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. http://www.ecu. Hornig. Triantafillou.mil/index. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.ac.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. Luigi (2004). Research report.org/index.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads.cti.pdf Bouras. http://www.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. http://www.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.ergonetz. http://ru6.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).uk/guides/vr_guid e/index. (2001). > > http://www.healthdatamanagement. > http://vads.html Bibliography Bouras. including education.com/edu/index. (2006).net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.epfl. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.campustechnology.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany.ahds.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7. 175-199. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.html The U. T. and Tsiatsos. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 .pdf Bouras. C.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . 2006.hpc.com http://www.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.com/article.ahds.informationinplace.coe. http://ru6.. and Tsiatsos.edu/vrel. https://www. T. http://ru6.ch/About/about_index. East Carolina University. For example. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.S. http://www.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. http://vr. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. 24. (2001). G.cti. C. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. August 9.spider.secondlife. A. Technology Area . One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. http://www. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).opencroquet. V. and Tsiatsos. T. Philopoulos.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. http://vrlab. Campus Technology. http://www.

M. T.. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.unihannover. O. and White.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. Donnelly. http://www. Vol. La Coruna/Spain. J.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld..html Liarokapis. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.guardian. Sept.pdf Ross. 2004.edu. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. http://www. (Section on Virtual Reality). P. Gerard (2002). Petridis.. Abbott.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. R. ISPRS.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends.digicult. http://www.actapress. Lister. and Seyedarabi. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. P.eng. http://courseweb. Web Based Education 2005 conference. and Hicks. 27. and Mangina. Monahan.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.Good Blog. F.htm Dickey.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.com/PaperInfo.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. https://www. Conlan. & Sester. S. (2004).icc2005. Eva (2004).pdf McArdle.tcd.1314022. http://www. G.pdf Hoare. Dobreva. Trend: augmented reality check. D. 35. Bertolotto.00. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Virtual teaching aids become a reality. M. Istanbul. Dec. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. 2005. http://www. M. 2004.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10..p df Prasolova-Førland.pdf Do not reproduce 195 .masternewmedia. Guardian Unlimited.ikg.elearning. 1. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. (2005). Ekaterina (2005). 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. July 9-16.learningcircuits.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. McHugh. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Proceedings.com/Reference..cs. C.10577. (2002).pdf Katterfeld.monash.org/htmleng/english. (2005). 2004. http://www. 28. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. F.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.. Web-based Education 2005 conference. A. and Rusbridge.. http://www. (2004). http://www. Michelle (2003).html Jones. C. (2005).com/PaperInfo. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments.unt. E. Proceedings. M. 1(2). (2005). Stephen (2004).unibo.actapress. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. A. http://www.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen..uk/elearning/ story/0. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.. 2004.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. M.htm Katterfeld. January 2005. http://www.actapress. M.co. G.oln. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. International Archives of Photogrammetry. No. Sept. and Sester. http://education. Learning Circuits.ie/Owen.

dpc. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. see ZoomClouds. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. reviewed visualization as an online content format. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. cybercartography. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.semagix. The educational advantages of visualization are many. et al. visualization can represent alternative points of view. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. pattern recognition.ontopia. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. data filtering. Finally.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. images.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. For an example. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. data mapping. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. location based systems. http://www. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. such as a blog. cognitive collage.zoomclouds.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. which showcases their potential. 2005).com/solutions. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. http://www. http://www.inxight. On the other hand. 2003).unifiedfield.ucar. graphics. dynamic displays. allowing for innovation or new understandings. Flash.net/omnigator/models/ index. My first report in this series. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. http://www. See some amazing demos at: http://www. and data rendering. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. mapping. geographical information systems.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. GIS.

” http://www. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .”’ BBC News.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.marumushi. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.medibolt. 2004. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch. http://www. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. http://www.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.typorganism.org/timeformations/ intro. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. http://www.utexas.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .nasa.gsfc.tmm.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.cs.in English or Spanish. http://www.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.bbc.esa. http://esapub. delivery.lecielestbleu. See his list of resources at: http://www. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography. http://chatcircles. and display (without glasses!).ubc.media. http://www.edu/ Paul Nixon. Sample the collection at: http://svs.vrco.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.gov/index. a young graphic designer.” http://richie. It has images of space and the earth from space. http://www. VR. http://www.edu/index.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.idc.co.medtropolis.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www.nlm.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. http://news. Free demo at: http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.ac.0 authoring system.vista. Museum Edition.ul. See: http://www.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.bham.esrin.ddd.alice. and visualization applications.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.mit.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.nixlog. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.com Web site in Tokyo.com/VBody.skyscraper.html For a practical application of visualization. http://www.nih. April 7th.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. Be sure to explore the “zoo.

htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. http://clustrmaps.com/index.gfdl. See this technology in action. and information presentation. one million items.microsoft.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.ibm.corda. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .com/omni.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code. http://research. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/applicati on. See their tool set and examples of their work.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. http://www. in the U. http://www. http://www.net/omnigator/models/ index. http://www.S. retrieval.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.amnh.feedtank.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.spotfire.nih.html XCelsius http://www. http://www.org/about.vicodi.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.ambientdevices.owu.xcelsius.html Top Tier http://www.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.com CenterView http://www.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. http://www. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. anatomically detailed.at/home.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com/index. http://www.semagix. http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://makingmaps.com/cat/dashb oard/index.com/solutions.edu/postcartoaag06.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension. http://www.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. http://www. for example.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.noaa. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.arcscience.at: http://www.cs.cs.idashboards.nlm.unifiedfield.ontopia. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.vrvis.umd.mccrackendesign.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.com WorkPlace http://www.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.indiana.

and.” http://www. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. including the following: Voxler.intergraph.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. and rendering.5-D modeling and rendering software. Carrara. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. including the following: Bryce.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. They have worked with the U. http://www. MapViewer. Clicking a related term extends the process.advizorsolutions. http://tangible.media.musanim.golden. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.esri.visualcomplexity.formz.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.oziexplorer.accurender. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . http://www.visualanalytics. Didger.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www. http://www.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.com/vc/index.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.goes far beyond static JPG map images.com Pixologic is 2.pixologic. modeling. http://www. http://www. Strater.visualthesaurus.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www.softill. http://www.timemap. for 3-D landscaping and animation.daz3d. http://research. trends.S. http://www. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. many of which are unique.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.mit. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. networks. and anomalies in data. http://www.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. Grapher. associations. animation.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. for well log and borehole plotting.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://www. http://www. for 3-D modeling. http://www. http://www.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. Try a demo at: http://www.microsoft. for thematic and analytical mapping.com/mam/mam.okino.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. http://www.topozone.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. for 3-D data visualization.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. and rendering software.mapinfo.

Madison: University of Wisconsin. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. K.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. as part of his doctoral work at MIT..mit. les réseaux.edu/index. http://www. Mackinlay.topicmaps. A.) (1999). http://www. http://www. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. J.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. 14(1). 31-49 http://www.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. > http://www.org/index. Jacques (1983).cs. is available online. http://coe.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.gatech.ubc. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.liveplasma.pdf Bertin.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. M.editlib.. J. and Resetarits. together with their estimated depth of influence.complexityandeducation. http://www. Proceedings.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.media.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.iu. > > http://acg.com/ http://www.stanford. (Eds.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.topicmap.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www. Following are two: > > http://graphics.” http://vis. Paris: La Haye. > > http://www.edu/eet/ Ell.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . G. Jacques (1967).org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.com/ Bibliography Alpert.media.infovis.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. J. EXYSTENCE network. and Shneiderman. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. les cartes.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.masternewmedia. (2003). http://acg. http://www. and Woodill. Sherman (2003). http://www.ac.agocg.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.ualbert a. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.vrco. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. P. both visualization companies. Paier.mit.edwardtufte.fakespace.gvu.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.edu/research/r esearch.gatech. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www. He finished his PhD.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.sdsu. http://www.. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. Working Paper.pdf Bergmann.net/printRec.gvu.complexityscience. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. The Semiology of Graphics. B.

August 11. Educational Media International.pdf Scaife. (2005).amazon. Canadian Journal of Psychology. available online at http://www.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638. June 1.. Vol. D. pp. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. 17-30.amazon. 185–213 http://www. (1998). 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. January 2005. C. eLearning Developers’ Journal. J. and Woolsey. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Dobreva. (2004). (2005). Morales. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. http://www. and Bertoline. Spence. September. 41(3)..html Madhavan. Brian (2002). England: AddisonWesley. and Knezek.com/article. 1-34.univparis5. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.siggraph. 4th Edition.ht m O'Regan. G.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. EDUCAUSE Review. No. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.amazon.istituti. Brent (2006). Harlow.fr/CanJ/CanJ. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.asp?id=11222 Metros. 4(1).pdf?fuseaction=Reader.slis. G. 42. L. August.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Luca (2003). NC: Duke University. Robert. Abbott. http://www. http://nivea. K. May/June. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. P.usilu. http://www. M.campustechnology. and Rusbridge. (Section on Visualization).DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. pp.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. Durham. S. Ruth (2003). Luca (2005). http://www.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.com/articles/abs tracts/index. http://www. 69-82. (2006). Campus Technology.K. Siggraph. K. http://www. http://www. 3. J.com/publications. A. Theresa (1998). http://www. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. 329-351. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. A.indiana. No.. 3(1). 45.org/dl/index.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones.aace.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. (2001). Reading.editlib. http://www. (1992). A.educause. http://www. 2.org/index. K. Vol.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.ac. http://www.html Rhyne. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory.digicult.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . Information Visualization. http://itdl. International Journal on E-Learning. Yvonne (1996). 46: 461-488.cfm/files/pape r_5994. http://createdrealities. and Pagalthivarthi.. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.agocg.pdf Goldfarb. Mike and Rogers. M. Donnelly.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi.html Ross. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Arns.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. (2005). More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..pdf Shneiderman. 16(4).asp Mittal.. S. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. B. McHugh. 2005. (2005).elearningguild.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Lugano. Switzerland: University of Lugano.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.psycho.

com/tufte/index Ware. http://www. http://www. Visualization. http://www.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. Edward (2001). Matt (2002).edwardtufte. http://www.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. David (2002). Digital Information Graphics. CT: Graphics Press. http://www. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Envisioning Information. Computers. M. (2004). CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire.org/threshold Tufte. Sharpe. Fall. Amsterdam: Elsevier. http://www. David (2005). Cheshire. Cheshire.E. 2nd Ed. From multimedia to multisensory education.com/tufte/index Tufte.edwardtufte. Colin. http://www. 2nd Edition.amazon.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Information Visualization: perception for design. evidence and narrative.ciconline. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.com/tufte/index Tufte.amazon. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.amazon.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley.edwardtufte. Edward (1990). Edward (1997). Threshold. CT: Graphics Press.

susx.spectrum. communications tools.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. headphones or speakers.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. Using VoIP. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.html Do not reproduce 203 . Steven (2005).VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. but it is rapidly improving. http://www. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. http://www. IEEE Spectrum Online. in remote communities.org Bibliography Cherry.avaya.elearningcentre.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. Internet telephony is relatively simple. March 2005. http://www. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.co. requiring an Internet hookup.voipreview. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.skype. and a microphone.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.weblogsinc. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.infoworld. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. http://www. Internet telephony. http://www.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. http://www.ieee. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.jajah.cogs. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning.envisioninc. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. Geraldine (2005). with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. In the near future.ac. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. http://www. 1996). Join the discussion at: http://voip. http://www.

http://ieeexplore. I. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Ottoson.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .nald. Stojanov. 9(3). http://www. Robert (2005). Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .org/xpl/freeabs_all. September. and O’Droma.msu. 9-12. Mobile distributed e-learning center.Ganchev. S. Meredith (1996). M. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. http://llt.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.ieee.. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. (2005).

including wearable computing.checkpointelearning. http://killer. 1998): 1. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. http://killer. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. It is observable by the user 4.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. The entire system. http://news. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. like a wristband or jewelry.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. ubiquitous computing > http://www.ac. Selected Examples In Europe. and other organizations involved in inspecting. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.cmu. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.cmu.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. For example. http://www. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.ices.ices. http://wearables.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. anytime. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.bris. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. 6. including batteries.cs. weighs less than three pounds. http://www.edu/design/Ion.sportbrain. training.pdf http://www. Do not reproduce 205 . training to do their jobs. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.com/Home/Home. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets.hubuska. In January 2006.co.learnexact.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.bbc. the automotive industry.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. It is controllable by the user 5.edu/design/VuMan. managing. especially for comercial airlines. or repairing complex machines.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.

M. http://www. ICWC98. C. 2004.uk/wear-it http://www.wired. http://about. Simson (2004).wearable.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Wired News.htm Mann. What you’ll wear in 10 years. 2006. Steve (1998).eee.edu/research/wear ables/index. March 24.704 81-0.wired. S. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.com/read_arti cle. and Lupisella. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. H.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ht ml http://www.bham.com/news/culture/0. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.jisc.gsfc.nasa.ac. http://www. and Levene.html Garfinkel. Wearable Computing for the Commons. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.mit.eyetap. See: > > > http://genesis. March 8. especially in the area of wearable cameras.uoregon.org is a rich source of references.businessweek. Wearable computers that you can slip into.ac.http://www. http://wearcam.ethz. 2005.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.704 81-0. Fairfax.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.eecg. 1.uk/index.media. Mmoma (2006). M. S. (2004). VA. http://www.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.technologyreview. http://isd. and Niedzviecki. http://www.pdf Kharif.org/index_graphical.eecg. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Business Week Online. (2003).toronto.amazon. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Evaluating the development of wearable devices. http://www.org/icwckeynote.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.toronto. Toronto: Anchor Books. May 12-13.cs.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. Technology Review (Online).com/news/culture/0.org/index.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. http://www. Dec.edu/ http://wearcam.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. Olga (2005). (2002).” including computers built into underwear.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.html The design of “smart clothing. http://www.

The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. and course offerings.attensa. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.com/productBlog Express. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).com 9. Brightcove http://www. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content.html 6. including cell phones. PDAs.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. basic text format for quick review. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. each with its own features. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. listings of the latest books. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. TV guides. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one.disobey. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. podcasts. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. photo collections. Aggie http://bitworking. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators.com/ 5. To read content from a Web feed.com/ 8. and electronics. job searches.0 format). Bloglet http://www.awasu.net/dl.com/ampheta desk 3. Attensa http://www. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. When changes are made to a Web site.brightcove. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. blogs. with all the potential for viruses and spam. BlogLines http://www. feeds. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. Amphetadesk http://www.bloglet. and Atom is the second. > For learners and teachers.com/ 7. Awasu http://www.” as its content is changed by the author.org/Aggie. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2.html 2. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited.com/ 4. CDs. and laptops.bloglines. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. Here is a list of 48: 1. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. social bookmarking.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . Really Simple Syndication (RSS).

sharpreader.html 27. FeedPublish http://www.net/ 45.newsgator. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.com/ 15.rss-to-javascript.com 40.com/ 30. feedbeep http://feedbeep.feedreader. NewsIsFree http://www.com/ 17. Reader http://www. Feedster http://www. SharpReader http://www. RSSCalendar http://www.net/ 26. RSS Bandit http://www.com/ 34.projectdu. RSS Orbit http://www.puremis.protopage.hexamail. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.com 18. To have a blog aggregated. LearningFeeds http://www. Fuzzy Duck http://www. Pluck http://www.com/ 31.feedburner. Thunderbird http://www. EaZy RSS reader http://www.com/ 29.sh tml 41.bytescout. Feedroll . Rojo http://www.net/index. Protopage http://www.somee.10.mozilla.com/rss/ 39. Project D. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.newsisfree.ca/edurss02. Newsgator http://www.blogplanet. OnFolio http://www.rssreader. PubSub http://www.videora.shtml 11.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.com/ 16.com 32.com/ 21. Topix http://www.com/ For a list of more aggregators. Syndirella http://yole.ht ml 20.downes.co.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35.learningfeeds.com/ 22. see: http://www.org/ 44. Edu_RSS 0.feedster. FeedScout http://bytescout.http://www.com/myrssto olbar. FeedForAll http://www.2 http://www.com/ 13.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss. Feed-Directory http://www.U.feedzilla.com/ 25. My RSS Toolbar http://www.feed-directory.php. Sage http://sage.com/ 46.feedpublish.rojo.uk/rssreader / 23.rsscalendar.fuzzyd.h tm 12.com/ 42. including listings for various electronic devices.com/ 19.rssbandit.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.feedroll.com/feedscout.pluck. RSS2Exchange http://www. FeedReader http://www.net/ 24.topix.feedforall.com/v2 33.onfolio.org/ 37.com/ 43. StepNewz http://www. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .mozdev.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.com/thunderbir d/ 48. FeedBurner http://www.pubsub. RSS Software http://www.com/today/ 36.com 28.hebig. Videora http://www. Gregarius http://gregarius.com 14. RSSReader http://www.rssreader. Feedtier http://feedtier.

htm Harrsch. http://www. 31. D.ca/files/RSS_Educ.maricopa. Mary (2003).teachinghacks.masternewmedia.pdf Canali De Rossi. Bill (2003).learningcircuits.htm Levine.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.eschoolnews. and D’Arcy Norman. The Technology Source Archives. http://timyang. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.Possible Future Evolution. http://technologysource. Aug.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.php 2003. Aug.com/wiki/doku.mcli.teachinghacks. 3. http://www.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Vancouver. Read his article written specifically for educators. Learning Circuits. BC.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template.wcc. RSS: the next killer app for education.downes.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. http://www.1.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. Brian Lamb. July/August 2003. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. (2003).dist.downes.ubc. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.contentious. Dan (2004). eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. http://www. eSchool News.redjupiter. June 2004.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. Robin Good Blog. A. 2004. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Oct. B.learningcircuits.ca/cgibin/wiki. http://www.dist. 2004.vccs. Do not reproduce 209 .downes. and Norman.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. 2005.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). 1.elearning. Aug. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www.mcli. http://www.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. May 19. Luigi (2004). http://www.lo. Quentin (2006).com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. 2003.com/news/showS tory. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. May 2004.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.usatoday.maricopa.elearningguild.ca/files/RSS_Educ.. Online paper. Stephen (2004).htm D’Sousa. http://www. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. RSS: a learning technology. 5-8. Lamb.pdf Gannett. Stephen (2002). Version 1. Eva (2004).ca/edu_rss. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. USA Today (online).edu/services/rssify/rs sify. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . maintains a long list of RSS resources.htm Downes. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. Online paper. http://www. Brian Lamb. University of North Carolina. RSS Ideas for Educators. a blog by Alan Levine. Learning Circuits. RSS could transform online communications.htm David. Anh (2005).doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. http://careo.

Levine. June 18. http://www.html Powers.xml. and Webb.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Jenny (2005). 13.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Jon (2005).com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. Alexandra (2005). InfoWorld. T. O’Reilly Network. http://www.html Samuel. March 23. 2006. http://www. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. M. Otherwise Engaged. July 7. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. Using RSS for data integration. Sept.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.theshiftedlibrarian.html?page=1 Udell. http://www. 2006. 2005. RSS: the next big thing online. The Shifted Librarian. Namespaced extensions in feeds. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. http://www. http://googlereader.blogspot. Google Reader Blog.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. 3. (2006).com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. 2005. http://www. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).pdf Parparita. Shelly (2005).alexandrasamuel.infoworld.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research .oreilly. 2005.html MediaThink (2004).com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. MediaThink White Paper. Mihai (2006).mediathink.oreillynet.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. Aug.

http://www.sourceforge. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. My first report in this series. features.10. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.seedwiki. 2005). http://www. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. 2.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. can be used by a team for joint writing.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.sourcewatch. See the progress at: http://edu. Do not reproduce 211 . an image gallery.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. RSS.com/cgibin/mb. Content is ego-less. There are now over 1. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.usemod.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.” Essentially.com/cgibin/wiki.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format.gilbane.wikipedia.tikiwiki. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www. http://wikipedia.com/artpdf/GR12. custom permissions. and email notification. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.usemod.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. and never finished.schtuff. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. For wikis to work. http://www. Anyone can add to it. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. and projects. is available for other applications. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. http://www. it is important to have several contributors.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.org/tiki-index. http://www. approaches.net/features. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. 4.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. http://www. 3. the software used to run Wikipedia.org/index. time-less. With some basic instructions.300. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.

htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. R. http://radio. L. http://www.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. http://64.infoworld.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.elearning.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16. including a section on wiki tools. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.pbwiki.different.” http://writingwiki. Swiki.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. Australia.71. Perth.learningwiki. Phantom authority.ucalgary. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. http://www.elearningcentre. is provided by David Mattison. http://weblog.org has lots of resources on wikis. Teaching and learning online with wikis. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. Dec.shtml Brian Lamb. (2004). Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. http://www.48.jot.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.wikibooks..org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. http://kairosnews.ubc.com/ Jon Udell. http://aronsson.infotoday. http://en. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. “Quickiwiki.co. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. (2002).37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.html Ciffolilli.” http://tlc.com/wwwtools/m/25242. http://whiplash.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. His article. 8(12).html Augar.socialtext.nu’s first nine months in service.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.Weblogs. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. http://www.ascilite. A free trial is available. including wikis. that she updates regularly. 5-8. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. Dec.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. as well as an analysis of how they work. http://m. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis.dicole. N. Operation of a Large Scale.html Bibliography Aronsson.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. Andrea (2003).” is a rich source of information on wikis. and Zhou. First Monday.fasfind. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.org. http://flosse. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. of the University of British Columbia.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. W. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.se/wikipaper. Twiki.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.com/ WritingWiki.ikiw. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. http://www. http://careo. http://www. http://www. Raitman. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.

usemod. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. 12(10). The wiki way. J.asp Schmitt. Sept. Online paper. Online article at: http://www. Jon (2004). Brian (2004). Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Renée (2005). M. July 7. Lauren (2005).. 19. http://www. Educause Review.. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. L.pdf Leuf.zkm.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Searcher.uk/issue42/ Udell. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.com/udell/2004/1 0/19.10. 2005.com/artpdf/GR12. Neil (2003).pdf Kulisz. Online article. 2.html Stafford.14 02872.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).html Tomkin. David (2004). Online article. Oct.amazon. Twiki. O’Reilly Network. W.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. (2001).org/content/v5. July. Nov. http://www. Quickiwiki. Richard (2003). T. Wiki pedagogy.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. April 2003. http://www. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).shtml Rubenking.. Making the case for a wiki.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004.ariadne. David (2003).Oct. UniversityWiki. Clark.. http://www.com/cgibin/mb.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. 36-48.com/article2/0.infoworld. 2006.http://firstmonday. http://container. Online article at PCMag. http://gilbane. 2004. Emma (2005). M.ac. International Journal of Information Ethics. and Rudolph.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. Ariadne. http://www. January. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.educause. InfoWorld.1/technot e_xxvii. Cossarin. (2004). http://www. Why Wikis Work Not. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. http://c2. http://Weblog.pdf Fountain.infotoday.4149.pcmag. Anja (2004).oreillynet.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Wiki Tools.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Swiki. S.00. http://www. April 2004.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.profetic. http://www.irrodl.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Bo & Cunnin.educause. and Webb.html Wood. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. Issue 42.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. (2006).com.

Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. After a product has been successfully launched. which can then lead to inventions. floppy disks. which. in turn. CD-ROMS. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. However. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago.

video games. This is due. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. and computers. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. In any field. and decline. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. in both formal and informal settings.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. both in classrooms and online. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. Further. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . mature. However. in part. But not all technologies will travel this road. peak. The experience of younger learners with television. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. 2003). The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. some will never leave the development stage. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. while others will last for decades. means that they actually think differently. this approach is now rapidly changing. For a variety of reasons. or may never become commercially viable. change itself seems to be inevitable. Some will die quickly. The technology of e-learning. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. Ontologies. to the complex. ascend the curve.

mobile phones. Within the next five years. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. sex. To keep our attention. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. Once we master the art of reading. the baby boomers. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. The speed of change increases with each passing year. huge data wall displays. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. For example. designers of Sesame Street. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. But they are usually disap-pointed. in a back-and-forth exchange. gaming consoles. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. we will see the restructuring of education and training. touch and taste.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . born in the 1970s. results in an action by the other participant. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. the learner. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. terrorism. The children of the baby boomers. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. Their children. With feedback.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. ecological disasters. 28). digitization of smell. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. Then even more movement. It works for a time. surprise. However. In contrast. television. global warming. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. In approaching electronic educational media. the computer. libraries. p. video games.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. In North America. movie theaters. For the older generation. 2002. the civil rights movement. that is all about to change. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. and personal digital assistants. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. until we become habituated. Generally. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. 1994). Because of this. and digital ink and electronic paper. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. generally went to work earlier. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. whereby the action of one participant. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. or violence is needed to keep our attention. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. mind-altering drugs.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. wearable computers. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. commercials. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. the space race. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history.

networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. or can be more bound up by the technologies.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. May 2006. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.amazon.com Bibliography Christensen. Rushkoff. technologies and services for the next 5 years.amazon. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www. Two hundred years ago. Clayton (1997). FutureHype: the myths of technology change. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. it will be a giant collaborative workspace.operitel. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.amazon. http://www. Digital Game-based Learning. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. http://www. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. In the next wave.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Marc. Guides are optional. Likewise. (2001). At the individual level. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail.amazon. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Bob (2006). The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. James (1994). Gary (2006). With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. creative products. http://www. http://www. New York: Collins.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Dallas. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. portfolios. and the mapping of everything. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. shortly.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 .amazon. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. http://www. Texas. Douglas (2005).

nngroup. New York. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.mit.net/ Auburn University Auburn.de/link/affective_port al. Marc Schröder. Box 513.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. 2910-595 Setúbal .media. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.org/ AiLive Inc. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.bartneck.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. 27A 2º esq. Building 5.myself-proj.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. 1515 Broadway.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. CA 94304 USA http://www.unige. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.webist.informatik.bham.umu. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.51. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. D. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. Palo Alto. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.Portugal Tel.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.ailive.com/ WEBIST Av.agentlink. Den Dolech 2 P.se/~muse/hom e.cs. UK http://www. L69 7ZF. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . Manuel I. 3400 Hillview Avenue.O. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.auburn. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.ac. 17th Floor.

O. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Huntsville.animats. Edmonton. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Washington. Suite 206 Boulder.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. P.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.indiana.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.isi. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.edu Extempo Systems. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Inc.org. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. #1910.csc. W Toronto.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.computer. Bloomington. O.au/index. L69 7ZF. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.redwoodelearning. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.extempo. N. Burlington. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.com Alchemy Mindworks P.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.W. Inc.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.com/ Apple Computer.O. Box 2124 Menlo Park.ascilite. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.liv. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.animationfactory. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.rit. 10004-104 Avenue. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.codebaby.informatics.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.educause.ac.mindworkshop. Secretariat. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 .edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. Box 527.apple. Box 5200.ascension-tech.adobe.

autotutor. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.cmu. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.818. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Avid Technology Park.massivesoftware. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.viewpoint.psych. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .swishzone.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.org/ SWiSHzone.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.eitechnologygroup.com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/pub/index. Wellington.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.S.macromedia.html Ulead Systems 970 W. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.htm Macromedia.com/ NewTek.ucsb.autodesk. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. Suite #480 Torrance.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. San Antonio. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. Inc.newtek.org/home. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. PO Box 24478. Inc.asp EI Technology Group.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. Santa Barbara. TN 38152 USA http://www.cognitivesciencesociety. Inc.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. 190th Street.com/ Avid Technology.aaai.cs. One Park West Tewksbury.avid.6450 http://www.catoolkit.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. Tel: +1. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/home. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.San Rafael. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research .460.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.pact.A.com/index.siggraph.aclweb.

licef. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cmu.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. Suite 1500 Montreal. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.cs.teluq.umuc. Suite K.edu.ucalgary. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. 1. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.iit.com/index.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.com Do not reproduce 221 .com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.enel.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.usyd. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu.. Inc.eden-online. 100 Sherbrooke St. East Adelphi.unisa.ca/eng/inde x.W. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. u.org/eden.edu Quantum Simulations. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.gemini. H-1111 Budapest. Egry J.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.cs.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .uquebec.ke-corp.virtuelage.W. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.10th Street S. CA . T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.brainbench.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.it. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.wpi. Suite 360 San Mateo. Alberta.cs. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.cis.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. Calgary. Chantilly.stottlerhenke. West Montreal. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. Calgary. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.

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suddenlysmart.time4you.sensalearning. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.4259 Fax: (760) 635.syberworks.com/products/study mate.com/coursegen. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. +49(0)721.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.com DA Group The Lighthouse..com Trainersoft FunEducation. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Gandy Blvd. Germany Tel. Suite 200 Tampa. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. Edmonton. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.respondus.turbodemo.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. 323 Newbury Street Boston..83 01 616 http://www.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.5709 http://www.co.maxit. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.toolbook.qarbon.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. SC. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas. 55 South Market St.funeducation.xplana. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .codebaby. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. #1910. Suite 1550 San Jose.seminar. 76133 Karlsruhe. 250 The Esplanade Toronto. 10004-104 Avenue. Inc.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.percepsys. Inc.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 4.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.hunterstone.thinkingcap. Redmond. CA 92101 USA http://www.

O.co.mozilla. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.cramersweeney.. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Ste.html Knowledge Environments. Inc...com GTCO CalComp. Suite 900 Austin. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. Suite 260 Orlando. Mary Apts.daden.co.uk/chatbots. INDIA.telsim. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Inc. Nesbit Rd.blogburst.vcom3d.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Moseley. USA http://www.knowledgeenvironments.tmmy. Inc. P.oddcast. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.active-learning-site.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.com/v2/index.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com OmniWeb Omni Development. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . Mazgaon.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.flock. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.redwoodelearning.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. W Toronto. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. 11th Floor New York. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.omnigroup. B13 9SG. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.com WaveMarket.. 6th Flr.wavemarket.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Dale Mabry Hwy. 219 Tampa.opera.com Moorestown. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. Mumbai 10. Inc.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.O.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.qelix. CA 94608 USA http://www. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Birmingham.

6th Floor New York.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. Puyallup.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.caucus. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.telnetz.saba. SW. Amherst. Suite 103 Toronto. Inc. Jospeh Street. Draper.bluetie. Suite# 401. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Suite 101E Falls Church.com BlueTie.smartroom. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. #205 Pasadena.umass. Suite 522. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.bantu.944. Inc.backpackit. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com 404 Fifth Avenue. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.avecomm.gtcocalcomp.inteam. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.adobe. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. 1192 East Draper Parkway.pearsoned.com Centra c/o Saba. Somerset. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.edu Batipi 11 St.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research . Pleasant St.com.qwizdom. 12617 Meridian E.physics. Ontario.0162 http://www. Pittsford. Inc.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.aspx Qwizdom. Orlando.Columbia. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Inc. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.brightidea.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.optiontechnologies. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.brevient.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. NJ . Inc.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.batipi.com Brightidea. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue.

MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com Digi-Net Technologies. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.citrix. Suite 630 McLean.engineering.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.collaborationloop. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.elluminate.centraldesktop. Sanibel FL. Lauderdale.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. 6th Floor San Francisco.com LLP PO Box 325.html Citrix Systems.emc.courseforum.edufolio.com Engineering.cisco. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. Inc. 170 West Tasman Dr.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.com Digité. 57th Street Gainesville. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. Suite 600 Ottawa.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.convenos.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. 82 Pioneer Way. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. 232 http://www.com Cisco Systems. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.epam-pmc.. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 795 Folsom Street. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. Inc. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. 1034 N. Suite 950 Portland. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. Inc.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St.comotivsystems.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. San Jose.communityzero.communiqueconferencing. Inc.digi-net.same-page. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.W. Ontario.digite.

Inc. Suite 500 Markham. Clevedon. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.facilitate.net Global School Net 132 N. El Camino Real.4517 http://www. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.groupsupport. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.globalschoolnet.hp.forumone. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com Groupwise c/o Novell.glance.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.net GroupSupport.V. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.com c/o Citrix Systems. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.hyperoffice.flypaper.com Glance Networks.net Groove Networks. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. 395 Encinitas.horizonwimba.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.com GoToMeeting.groove.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.exactamerica.hotcomm.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. Suite 2300 New York.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.grapevinesoftware.genesys. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. ON. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.ezmeeting.novell. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. Ste. Inc.com B. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.gordano.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. Inc. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. #115 Rockville.gotomeeting.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.

WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.org/tools. 11th floor New York.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.near-time. Sunnyvale.mspx LiveOffice.linktivity. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.liveoffice. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.inquesttechnologies. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. Suite 100 Tucson.com Near-Time.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.http://www03. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. Suite 1401 Denver. Phoenix. Suite #150 Herndon.microsoft.com onProject. Inc. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.interwise. Inc.mitre. Suite 412 Cambridge. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www.com iLinc Communications 2999 N.jdhtech. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.intralinks.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.interwoven. Suite 300 Torrance.ibm. 44th St.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive..mayeticvillage.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. Inc.iceweb. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. 1289 N. Suite 6500 Woburn. 25 First Street. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.ivocalize. 3 Wing Drive. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.com Do not reproduce 233 . Fordham Blvd.meetingone.ilinc.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.com Interwise.onproject. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.netspoke.

New No. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. Box 3325 York.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.raindance. 17-17 State Highway 208.com Photon Infotech Inc.sharemethods.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. Inc.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.seldensystems.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Inc.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway.Adyar Chennai. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.O.nagarro. Ste 275 Mill Valley. 1175 58th Avenue.photoninfotech. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. 3679 Concord Road. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Suite 200 Greeley.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.radvision.cyber-grad.com Raindance Communications.sitescape. Suite 210 Maynard. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Suite 1450 Chicago.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .com/collabsuite/index.project-open.performancesolutionstech. P. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.microsoft. 35.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Riverside Plaza. Inc.com SpiderWeb Communications.com Selden Integrated Systems.peoplecube. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Harbor.com RADVISION Inc.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.q2learning.parlano. 51. Suite B.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.opentext. Cactus Rd. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.ht ml Parlano 10 S.oracle. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.projectdox.opmcreator. Suite 440 San Jose.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.

com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. Canada http://www.tacit. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. Ontario M2N 6H8. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. Kierland Blvd.viack. P.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.webasyst.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.stalker.teamspace.net WebEx Communications.teamware. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.trichys.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www. Inc.Box 2900 Alameda.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.webofficepoint.webcrossing.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.txl Viack 14811 N. Suite 810 Toronto. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.sumtotalsystems.. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.webex.axista.wave3software. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.com/groupware/in dex.vignette.vodium. Suite 100 Austin. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.usabilityfirst.com Do not reproduce 235 .com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.teamdynamix.com Web Crossing.tomoye. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Suite 100 Scottsdale.O. Inc.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.com Teamware P. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.backpackit. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Suite 950 Washington.com/content/default. Suite 1050 Vancouver. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.O.webtrain.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

Do not reproduce

239

Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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St. 550 Queen St. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. Suite 1280 San Francisco. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.ssaglobal. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com TEDS Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.mgen. Inc.com. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Glebe Road. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.outstart. Suite 700 Arlington.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www. Louis.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. Suite 260 Foxborough.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.maxit. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.teds.ca Do not reproduce 241 . CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Inc.teralearn.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.technomedia. Inc.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.isnewmedia. LTD 671 N. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.wizdom. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. Chantilly. West. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.sap.com mGen Enterprise mGen.syntrio.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. 100 Foxborough Blvd.saba.sselearn. Fifth Floor Montreal.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.oracle.meridianksi. Suite 2200 Chicago.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.oracle.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. East . 500 West Madison.plateau.

Inc.arizona. NY.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . Ontario. 122 West Way. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.O. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.edutools. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.info/index. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.vbtrain.vuepoint.. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.trainingpartner. 4th Floor Oakland. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .wbtsystems.avilar.sumtotalsystems. Box 9752 Boulder. Inc. Suite 101 Houston.com Tracker. 2280 St. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.cdlib. 240 Bay Street. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.xtention.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 17041 El Camino Real. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc.gyrus. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.ttg-inc.xstreamsoftware.uwm.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.fldata. Suite # 105 Columbia.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. Victoria.sir. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.risc-inc. Laurent Blvd.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. 4 Expressway Plaza.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. Inc.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.

CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.dist.O. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. ETRAC.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. SG1 2JY.lolaexchange.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.geocomm. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.unsw.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.netera. MS 44.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.goenc.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. Hertfordshire.llearn. Rice University.clarklabs.com Do not reproduce 243 .University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.maricopa. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.esri.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. Norton Road. AZ 85250 USA http://www. P. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.plos.merlot. Fondren Library. Box 1892.lrc3. Box 3000 Boulder. CT 06459 USA http://www. 5151 East Broadway.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.cf m ESRI Suite 300. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. Suite 1600 Tucson.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.org/eng/scientifiques. Sterling Court.rice.mcli.cadcorp.4464 Markham Street Victoria.com/gis4mt/index. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. Stevenage.eoscenter.lornet.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.thegateway. AZ.edu/DesktopDefault. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.O. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. Houston.edu.ca ENC Learning Inc. Suite 3100 San Francisco.

Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.mapinfo. Electrical and Computer Engineering. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.ac. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. 959 Concord Street.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.uk/handler/defaul t. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. of Geography.smm. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . Suite 100 Framingham.edu. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.asp?path= 500. html ELSNET Trans 10. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.edu PanGo Networks. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Suite 501 Portland.fi/english/page.org/ Spotlight Mobile.org/aitopics/html/natlang.O.cancore. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Suite 100 Menlo Park.aaai. Dept.mobilearn. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. Inc. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley.imsglobal. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.stockholmchallenge. Inc.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.berkeley. Austria http://www. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .5372.ac.pangonetworks.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.com Metadata.intergraph.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.eee.knowledgepulse.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.cetis. PMB #112 Lake Mary.bham.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.O. P.

internet2. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.com Groove Networks.groove. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Suite 300.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.ldc. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.com MoveDigital.org/site/pp.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.asianart.net internet2. NY. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.Project Coordinator CSI .1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.seti.elsnet. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Inc. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.advancedreality. 1st Floor A .lexxe.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.llearn.ac. PA.elena-project. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 19104-2653.lockss.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. Inc.it Victoria. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. Whisman Road Mountain View.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.cetis.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.movedigital. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. Deane Rd. Inc.itc. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.sun.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. Italy http://tcc. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 10010 USA http://www. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.stockholmchallenge.upenn.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .overnet.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.

CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.elearningeuropa. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.saba. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Alberta. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.com Presentations.teach-nology. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.com Portals CyberU. 15-4-A Gatineau.com 50 S.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. 3016 5th Ave.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.rmv.6526 http://www.lsc.com ProQuest 789 E. New York 10973 USA http://www.org Macromedia.ca Slate Hill.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Alberta.virtualmuseum. Suite 225 Santa Monica. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.apreso. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.saba.333.macromedia.O. Ninth St.cyberu. 3333 http://www. Suite 600 Alpharetta.com/presentatio ns/index. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.trainingregistry.proquest. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Inc. Eisenhower Parkway P. Inc.worldwidelearn.mit.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.elementk.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Box 172 1039 .com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.17th Avenue SW Calgary.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.presentations. Minneapolis.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Teachnology.microsoft. NE Calgary. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.genesys. 3º 08021 Barcelona.elluminate.executrain.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .

generalrobotics.irc. Inc. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Pasadena.hp.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. SWEDEN. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. Inc.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Lindsey Bldg. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.gov. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.org Evolution Robotics. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.active-robots. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .botball.readygo. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.nasa..com ReadyGo Inc.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.eng. Suite B Orion. Box 2827.scate. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.ife. O. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.aad.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.rec.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Michigan.ed. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. SE-100 44 Stockholm.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. 130 W. Centre for Autonmous Systems.html Norman.euron. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.articulate.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.raptivity.cmu.evolution.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Radstock Somerset.atr. Chilcompton.com/halo/index.osaka-u. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.whmsi. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. D.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.ac.org Euron c/o Prof.ams. Ste.ri.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Redmond.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. CA 94040. Union St. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.com Raptivity P. Henrik I Christensen.

dogpile.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.net/ Healthfinder P. Google.healthfinder. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue. 42nd Floor New York.google.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.gigablast. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.copernic. Box 1133 Washington.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. Inc. Box 29141 San Francisco. DC 20013-1133 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. Suite 500 Oakland.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.com Headquarters 555 12th Street. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.O.com Gnod. Suite 60 Quebec. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.intute.ask.com excite. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.gnod.com Google (including Froogle.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.Search Engines About.kartoo. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.ac.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.net Koders Inc.6100 http://www.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.about.icerocket.convera. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .com Info. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Chicago.com Ask.koders. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.findlaw.info.com Gada.excite. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.ixquick.O.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.alexa.

htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Mary Apts. Inc.truveo. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 2400 N. 360 22nd Street.pubsub.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway.searchking. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.mooter. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.netscape. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.. 17th Floor New York.technorati. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.cfm?doid=10 56808. Mazgaon.com Technorati 665 3rd Street.qelix.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .seekport. 6th Flr.1057022 LookSmart. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.com Pandora Media. Nesbit Rd. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search. 23rd Floor San Francisco. Inc.edu/ PubSub Concepts. New York. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.almaden.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 1200 Bellevue. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.W.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.82152 Martinsried http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.biz Truveo.com/v2/index. Inc.org/citation. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. Seventh Floor New York. Suite 207 San Francisco.cs.krugle. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. NY 10003. Mumbai 10.acm.metacrawler. Ltd.ibm. 23rd Oklahoma City.com SearchKing.convera. 64 Fulton Street.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. INDIA.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.nyu. Suite 211 Palo Alto .pandora.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.lalisio..com/ Netscape AOL LLC. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.W.msn.rawsugar. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. 601 108th Avenue NE. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 . Inc.lexxe.com LitLinker c/o ACM.http://www.looksmart. 7th floor.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.

Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Inc. EC4M 7NG London. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.New York.htm Yahoo! Inc.biographix.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.zoominfo. 10 Old Bailey.com Flash c/o Macromedia. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. Inc.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.macromedia.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.O.com Zoom Information Inc.yahoo.atghome.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Ontario. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. Yahoo http://www. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.alphaworks.ee.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.forio.columbia. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.seco.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.experiencebuilders. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.personal-reader. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.tkk.macromedia.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.assima.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.stt-global.intermezzon.elena-project.knowledgequest.ibm.Project Coordinator CSI . New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. Box 1558 New Canaan. 1st Floor A . GreenPark Reading.com Assima Ltd.

B15 2TT.outstart.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.learning2005. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. Schaumburg. Suite 300 Wichita. LLC 100 South Main Street.com Softsim Outstart Studio.assima. CA . CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. 2280 St.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.com MASIE Center.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.xstreamsoftware.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Light & Acoustics.com Stagecast Software.com/English/t 6essai. Ontario. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.maxit.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Suite 200 Ottawa.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.noaa. 1821 Walden Office Square.. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Inc.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.knowledgeplanet.stottlerhenke. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.bham.com NexLearn.. Suite 400. Inc. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.net Do not reproduce 251 .nexlearn.teds. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Newburyport.eduperformance. Québec. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.stt-global.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.. Inc.fsl. Taschereau Ouest.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.ac. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.cs. England http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.stagecast.muzzylane.virtualcontrolroom. 55 South Market St. Laurent Blvd.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.knowledge-director.knowledgepresenter.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. Suite 240 Atlanta. Suite 1550 San Jose. Suite A-207 Brossard.qarbon. Suite 360 San Mateo.

net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .com Social Bookmarking del. WA 98055 USA http://www.rojo.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Suite 500 Renton.edu/index.us Eventful c/o EVDB.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Ltd. Box 920089 Needham.com FURL c/o LookSmart. 2001 Lind Ave. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 795 Folsom St. Inc. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.tagzania. Inc. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.socialtext. Suite 900 Austin. Thorofare.iu. Morton Street. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.com/ mag.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.analytictech. CA 94105 USA http://www. Suite 224 Bloomington. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.gnolia.classmates.. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.shadows.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.zvents.com Classmates Online.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco. CA.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. CA 94089 USA http://del.com Friendster.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. Menlo Park. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.icio. 655 High Street Palo Alto.. Inc.icio. 625 Second Street San Francisco. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. Suite 125 San Diego. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.furl. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.netscape.checkpointsystems. Inc.com Spurl ehf. SW.networkltd.friendster.eu Rojo Networks..O.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.spurl.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. Inc. 101 Wolf Drive. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.

O.org. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. CA 90028 USA http://www.apple.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.percro. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. New York.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. Suite 115 San Diego. 4th Floor Marshalltown.ergonetz.spider. CA 94105 USA http://www.org Veoh Networks.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .html Jabber Software Foundation P. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.net Sparta Social Networks.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.brightcove. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.spartasocialnetworks.1011 CM Amsterdam.O. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. 7220 Trade Street.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.bittorrent. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.veoh.xstreamengine.org Fakespace 11 E.jabber.sociosite. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Inc. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.jabber. CA 92121 USA http://www.fakespace.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Church Street.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com/halo/index.dfilm. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Box 1641 Denver. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.navy. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.advanced. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com iTunes Apple Computer. Inc.percro. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. Box 1641 Denver.futurelab.com Do not reproduce 253 .hpc. Cupertino.com Brightcove. VA 23461-1924 https://www.activeworlds.hp.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.

O. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.O.com/ MapInfo One Global View.V.idashboards.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions.com ESRI Suite 300. Columbus.cs. Danvers. Cambridge. Suite 3 Brooklyn. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego.intuition-eunetwork. Troy. IC ISIM VRLAB. Box 884.edu/vrel.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. 809 14th Street. 1333 Butterfield Rd. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.ecu. Golden.com Golden Software.daz3d. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.golden.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Inc. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Williams Building College Park.bham. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.esri.formz.feedtank.umd. Draper. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.vista.ac.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.xcelsius.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.mapinfo. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Suite 110 Troy.coe. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Suite 206 Bloomington. Tracy.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.informationinplace. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.advizorsolutions.accurender. Suite 100 Lindon. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.corda. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.. 350 South 400 West.intergraph.ambientdevices. Inc.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.epfl.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. Inc.501 North Morton Street.com Intuition 9.

Suite 3A New York. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.visualthesaurus.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.vicodi.jajah.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.topozone.inxight.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. Unit A2 Naples. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 2513 Charleston Road. Inc. Inc. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. 9th floor New York. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. CA 94712 USA http://www. MA 01863 USA http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville. Riga.ontopia. Inc. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Unified Field. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.com Spotfire. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.sportbrain. Inc. 73 Princeton Street.nlm.S.unifiedfield. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com JAJAH Inc. A-1220 Vienna.microsoft. 155 Spring Street. Inc.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Suite 102 Mountain View.pixologic. FL 34108 USA http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. Ltd.mccrackendesign.nih.net Pixologic.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.skype.spotfire. California.softill. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. 3 East 28th St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. 212 Elm Street Somerville.com Vicodi Edvins Snore.org Visual Analytics Inc. 869 97th Ave N. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. 94043 USA http://www.vrvis. U. Donau-City-Strasse 1.okino.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www.visualanalytics. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .musanim. Unit # 1 Mississauga.

3rd Floor Cambridge. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Seventh Floor New York.. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Switzerland http://www.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. 200 2nd Ave. Inc.bloglines..pluck. 64 Fulton Street. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Petersburg. Inc.feedburner. 11211.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.feedreader..com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.feedster.feedzilla.rojo.715135858 http://www.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.mozilla. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Suite 2260 Portland.jot. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.com PubSub Concepts. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Coldbrook Business Corp. Suite 900 Austin. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com Feedster. P. 167 Hamilton Ave.1001 W.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. South #358 St. 116 New Montgomery Street. Inc.ch Web Feeds Attensa. Inc. CA 95008 USA http://www. Tallinn. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. San Francisco. Estonia http://www.org JotSpot. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Suite 100 Campbell.onfolio. Hanover.V. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.microsoft. Nederland Tel: +31. Valdeku 100. Broadway.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.brightcove. First Floor.ethz. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.wearable.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.pubsub. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.attensa. Building K Mountain View.feedforall.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. 795 Folsom St.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.com Brightcove. Inc. Pacific Business Centre #101 .com Rojo Networks.rssreader.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Suite 381 Vancouver. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.

com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

121. 48. 196 cognitive maps. 101. 27. 191. 23. 144. 127. 162. 125. 160. 211. 42. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 59. 59. 21. 231. 93. 196. 34. 174 Bayesian probability. 93. 28. 117. 122. 196. 194. 39. 15. 130. 93. 161. 193. 129. 45. 46. 74. 58. 85. 69. 71. 27. 203. 65. 63. 145. 70. 71. 85. 136. 50. 20. 116. 200. 67. 42. 47. 24. 100. 69. 140. 122 Ambient computing. 50. 190. 137. 127. 193. 79 Complexity theory. 153. 203. 169. 80. 180. 170. 18. 18. 23. 21. 45 Avatars. 132. 150. 113. 52. 165 Air display. 171. 57. 48. 189. 110. 11. 6. 216 Computer based assessment. 100. 180. 35 Content management. 86. 8. 159. 41. 52. 50. 51. 176. 127. 193. 23. 43. 145 Conversational learning. 174. 46. 170. 26. 197. 189. 198. 72. 39. 36. 211. 48. 30. 59. 84. 211 Communications Tools. 66. 145. 47. 174. 22. 127. 46. 16. 83. 109. 49. 97. 33. 52. 203. 54. 116. 81. 179. 216 Affective computing. 178. 82. 137. 112. 184. 127 Cooperation. 176. 196. 40. 176 Cell phones. 4. 68. 23. 165. 137. 149. 112. 156. 146. 63. 90. 4. 70. 66. 24. 122. 80. 122. 21. 189. 26. 194. 37. 180 Competency Tracking. 159. 101. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 46. 43. 18. 128. 91. 91. 28. 199 Architectures. 7. 66. 121. 74. 70. 209. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 39. 159. 21. 141. 45. 15. 219. 67. 223. 89. 17. 26. 24. 60 Cognition. 207. 47. 119. 74. 63. 123. 69. 36. 160. 21. 44. 109. 85. 84. 94. 67. 190. 165. 57. 65. 209 Augmented reality. 196 Dashboards. 47. 57. 25. 193.Index 3-D graphics. 50. 209. 65. 85 Blogs. 28. 138. 78. 35. 18. 170. 75. 63. 203. 27. 94. 35. 69. 46. 196 collaboration. 118. 74. 55. 27. 15. 112. 29. 35. 171. 22. 181. 207 Classroom response systems. 201 Adaptive systems. 64. 50. 93. 196. 65. 66. 160. 72. 56. 114. 16. 170. 27. 77. 158. 65. 62. 4. 74. 24. 148. 46. 211 Broadband. 16. 218 Agents. 146. 140. 205 Animation. 211. 180. 194. 50. 197. 12. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 2. 49 AJAX. 128. 44. educational. 169. 29. 195 Authoring tools. 177. 193. 84 Adobe. 177. 145. 192 Browsers. 91. 80. 53 barcodes. 89. 15. 127. 90 Assessment. 191. 128. 78. 88 cybercartography. 64. 13. 60 Clickers. 125. 196. 66. 184. 172 Audio. 201 cognitive collage. 209. 199. 191. 217 Collaboration. 36. 74. 226 Authorware. 100. 146. 97. 69. 95. 208. 181. 93. 35. 180. 29. 20. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 25. 31. 72. 171. 215 Communities of practice. 67. 109. 170. 103. 165. 212 Boolean searches. 23. 5. 83. 177. 190. 135. 70. 198 Data mining. 45. 149. 110. 81. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 48. 139 assessment. 139. 5.

25. 169. 201 FrontPage. 27. 85. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 169 Expert systems. 196. 75. e-learning. 196. 69. 26. 72. 194. 103. 149. 47. 80. 54. 139. 153 Facial recognition. 23. 89. 163 Findability. 158 Informatics. 149. 11. 193. 25. 16. 162. 23. 193. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 190. 4. 19. 180. 85. 100. 8. 47. 34. 196. 80. 166. 11. 152. 210. 196 e-Commerce. 199. 85 Extreme learning. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 127. 3. 119. 70. 170. 71. 49. 198. 94. 158. 84. 109. 8. 180. 68. 46. 107. 216. 158 Design. 219 Infrared tags. 107. 202. 197. 90. 217. 74. 141. 205. 158. 95. 11. 106. 106 Healthcare applications. 34. 199 Gesture recogntion. 16. 166. 178. 9. 120. 67. 187. 122. 200. 196 Graphics. 63. 89. 20. 55. 29. 153. 49. 25. 21. 215. 11. 84. 106 Haptics. 7. 203. 152. 93. 106. 42. 119. 81. 196. 196 Immersive environments. 13. 170 Federated searches. 238 Geocaching. 154. 119. 15. 20. 197. 7. 214 Human-centered computing. 52. 25. 93. 12. 158. 175. 88. 91. 225. 28. 16. 26. 201. 100. 160. 131. 217 images. 16. 186. 193. 133. 125. 58. 100. 120. 106. 173. 108. 155. 48. 250 Folksonomies. 184. 80. 86. 66. 33. 88. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 86 Deep Web. 162 History. 170. 91. 187. 164. 57 Flash. 9. 163. 119. 86. 172. 93. 124. 97. 205 Hybrid systems. 74. 184 e-Science. 79. 52. 110. 49. 215. 174. 106 Head mounted displays. 90 Experiential learning. 217 Instant messaging. 110. 189. 134. 179. 30. 239 Individualization. 97. 60. 53. 11. 37. 88. 183. 169. 89. 48. 101. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 63. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 106. 9. 159. 170. 5. 176. 80. 156. 98 GIF graphic format. 70. 167 evaluation. 174. 193. 120. 24. 18. 83. 165 Handwriting recognition. 193. 26. 146. 216 Director. 4. 88. 103. 13. 45 Displays. 59. 152. 162. 37. 35. 5. 94. 248 graphics. 65. 216 Distributed systems. 88. 134. 9. 114. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 197. 33. 134. 17. 25. 146. 27.Decision support systems. 123 Hype in e-learning. 66. 137. 116. 134. 109. 107. 75. 114. 127. 122. 45 dynamic displays. 24 e-Portfolios. 124. 97. 69. 13. 215 Informal learning. 23. 137. 125. 197. 59. 64. 204 Dreamweaver. 119 FireFox. 64. 31. 121. 5. 51. 49 Google. 26. 27. 45. 6. 22. 70. 176. 210 formative assessment. 26. 88. 45. 32. 134. 57. 94. 47. 5. 26 Emotional design. 57. 63. 162. 122. 35. 35 Frameworks. 121. 191 Games. 15. 123. 161. 103. 109. 196. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 30. 132. 154. 104. 200. 201 Grid computing. 20. 189. 152. 198. 151. 4. 178. 169. 60. 3. 199. 78. 74. 101.

119. 62. 62. 127. 60.Interface devices. 183. 159. 25. 17. 189. 127. 246 Location based tools. 100. 45. 139. 49. 166. 48. 129. 127. 137. 152. 48. 93. 165. 4. 34. 154. 122. 135. 246. 7. 124. 134. 91. 90. 130. 35. 119. 109. 186. 46. 255. 171 Metacognition. 23. 246. 21. 163 Microformats. 129. 156 Legacy materials. 205 Macromedia. 109. 120. 106. 43. 49. 152 Lecturing. 139. 152 Libraries. 124 iPod. 121. 191. 90. 190. 180. 116. 136. 141. 109. 176. 25. 123. 160. 178. 35. 65. 166 PowerPoint. 135. 175. 140. 109. 54. 135. 48. 5. 80. 128. 32. 150. 15. 100. 20 Museums. 145. 144 Navigation. 189. 6. 130 Mobile computing. 53. 58. 31. 36. 149. 70. 137. 213. 78. 145. 206. 196. 181. 80. 65. 121. 127. 138. 122. 115. 143. 192. 7. 30. 110. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 140. 47. 45. 107. 66. 23. 124. 134. 135. 190. 215 Interoperability. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 134. 145. 114. 63. 107. 122. 256 Microworlds. 241 Learning Management Systems. 211 Knowledge management. 143. 250 mapping. 81. 234. 80. 60. 143. 178. 116. 26. 155. 40. 146. 137. 101. 80. 68. 36. 156. 226. 43. 150. 127 Podcasting. 165. 42. 119. 80. 233. 6. 196 Mashups. 24. 174. 148. 145. 21. 144. 6. 162. 128. 29. 139. 165 pattern recognition. 172. 108. 146. 125. 216. 171. 230. 6. 190. 176. 182. 187. 65. 2. 63. 46. 146. 26. 97. 179 Optical tags. 193. 194. 160. 204. 26. 215. 240. 127. 238. 138. 139. 26. 192. 148. 47. 148. 42. 114. 146. 65. 7. 205. 119. 43. 199 Neural networks. 11. 26. 191. 69. 189. 199. 152 Networks. 120. 45. 47. 116. 119. 69. 149. 120. 114. 15. 114. 18. 161. 241. 34. 95. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 191. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 134. 82. 77. 216. 81. 124. 112. 193. 22. 113. 166 Pervasive computing. 42. 165 Microlearning. 16. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 78. 189. 149. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 26. 244 Motion Graphics. 131. 191. 169. 174. 180. 85. 76. 125. 85. 20. 7. 139. 158. 174. 114. 45. 110. 196 Pedagogy. 220. 180. 129. 130. 42. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 93. 111. 79. 242 learning object model. 244 Meta-search engines. 80. 171 M-learning. 65. 239. 176. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 123 Medical applications. 42. 23. 45. 44. 115. 6. 57. 127. 86. 17. 4. 113. 59. 114 learning object repository. 103. 128. 114 Learning Objects. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 112. 211 latent semantic analysis. 68. 111. 134. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 66. 172. 128. 4. 89. 142. 170. 124. 249. 125. 140. 183. 77. 153. 140. 161. 199. 47. 178. 139 Personalization. 27. 165. 54. 141. 26 Metadata. 125 Lab book wiki. 64. 8. 107. 237. 147. 180. 174. 137. 145. 74. 54. 153 Microsoft. 98. 223 Portals. 97 Ontologies. 124. 122.

48. 120. 114 Robotics. 197. 50. 119. 81. 158. 119. 116. 15. 112. 119 quizzes. 37. 86. 54. 5. 117. 227. 189. 9. 35. 174 Social bookmarking. 155. 129. 134. 52. 167. 133. 48. 155. 26. 180. 36. 40. 176 Team management. 8. 22. 215. 59. 211 Tags. 106 Proximity tools. 156. 176. 193. 247 rapid learning. 179. 246 Privacy. 185. 94. 181 Speech recognition. 82. 74. 115. 215. 114. 189 Television. 196 Serious games. 152 Thin clients. 62. 48. 134. 215. 161. 35. 110. 88. 46. 131. 109. 160. 177. 152 Projectors. 183. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 216 Tests. 199 Taxonomies. 170. 83. 6. 47. 54. 199 Turing Test. 169. 34. 148 Smart labels and tags. 46. 163. 152. 225. 211 Skypecasting. 190. 84. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 139. 122. 11. 159. 189. 45. 54. 174. 118. 165. 91. 171. 26. 203. 26. 174. 186. 189. 205 Shockwave. 144. 26. 174. 179. 39. 90 Reusability. 167 reusable learning objects. 191 summative assessment. 116. 116. 172. 153. 36. 75. 137. 156. 141. 176. 191. 122. 131. 124. 11. 180. 55. 89. 62. 9. 149. 119. 91. 179. 123 Simulations. 106. 114 Repositories. 125. 168. 175 Rapid e-learning. 37. 38. 54. 71. 138. 109. 4. 182. 174. 114. 36. 171 Science. 49. 160. 158. 159. 47. 150. 174 Project management. 166. 124. 169. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 178. 38. 48. 46. 48. 189 Security. 189. 141. 169. 70 Radio. 184. 27. 161. 180. 7. 74. 64 Telephony. 57. 175. 97. 47. 174 self-evaluation. 49. 131. 122 Tagging. 35. 166. 141. 72. 124. 50. 148. 30. 177. 35 Symbology tags. 114. 171 Scenarios. 93. 87. 35 Quizzes. 178. 150. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 209. 57 T-Learning. 191 Tours (online). 57.Presentation tools. 64. 36. 122 sharable content objects. 125. 20. 207 Social networking. 125. 174. 172. 9. 153. 47. 49. 83. 170. 155. 134. 95. 188. 177. 9. 162. 69. 21. 176. 88. 199 Single-user wiki. 35 Semantic Web. 189 Search engines. 119. 4. 68. 148. 5. 168 résumés. 47. 50. 35. 42. 247 Role-playing. 77. 115. 165. 154. 125. 170. 46. 191 Tangible computing. 173. 141. 74. 80. 163. 16. 110. 35. 175. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 66. 217 Translation. 175 Tag clouds. 40. 124. 132 Streaming video. 93. 203 Telepresence. 27. 150. 93. 177. 221 SCORM. 39. 11. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 94. 65. 165. 47. 135. 178. 181. 114 Screencasting. 52. 154. 137.

7.Ubiquitous computing. 69. 148 Whiteboards. 211. 209. 3. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 256 Woodill. 255 Wearable computing. 67. 108. 98. 215. 189 Vodcasting. 211. 182. 212 Wikis. 57. 113. 193 Visualization. 214. 189 virtual classroom. 177. 190. 40. Gary. 44. 119. 123. 109. 148. 46. 49. 208. 66. 199. 187. 210. 68. 177. 159. 198. 189. 239 Wikipedia. 210. 150. 64. 112. 174. 43. 176. 57. 11. 209. 100. 205. 213. 256 Webcasting. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 197. 74. 124. 106. 106. 216. 89. 127. 182. 200. 90. 191. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 106. 108. 212. 236. 51. 193. 62. 148. 203. 88. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 107. 154 Virtual learning environments. 22. 160. 217 Word. 79. 148 Virtual classrooms. 9. 149. 45. 9. 131. 60. 145. 207. 253 Videocasting. 91. 150 Webinars. 137. 192. 4. 56. 164. 123. 216 Vlogs. 137 Virtual reality. 65. 187. 74. 74. 81. 165. 121. 13. 215. 255 Web conferencing. 200. 80. 148. 206. 196. 205 Usability. 5. 194 Video. 130. 211.