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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. the second in the series. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. technology. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. and support at all points of my career. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. lists of online resources. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Lise Bye. None of this would have been possible if my wife. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. Pamela Fragomeli. I have provided links to online learning examples. Thanks. Carlos Oliveira. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. Karen. editing. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. have supported this research from the beginning. This report. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. Operitel’s CEO. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Amy Davey. The first report. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. and services. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Grant Hamilton. Jennifer McDowell. A third report. Karen Anderson. along with an index. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. will be available in early 2007. Pierre Cahorn.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning.

We tend to forget. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. There are. Learning became standardized and linear. “things that make us smart. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool.” Starting in the first century AD. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. The modern classroom. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. Schools were started to teach accounting. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. with rows. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. in fact.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. many different ways to learn. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. detentions. that lecturing. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. still used in many institutions of higher education. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. and recess. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. for example. the raising of hands. They are. and language for communication. even if the originator of the words is not present. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. But learning technologies have a much longer history. linear teaching techniques online. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. With these reforms. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. or device that extends human abilities. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. is a 2000 year old “technology. as books were scarce. Medieval universities followed the same practice. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. material. fire for warmth and cooking. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. Do not reproduce 3 .just the ability to follow an example. to quote Donald Norman (1993). oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. A third way to learn is by seeing. class periods. Technologies are any technique. the classroom became industrialized. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. or “reader.

all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Like all new technologies. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Eventually. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Thomas Watson. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. in 1876 someone at Western Union. and reciting. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. as this is a non-technical guide. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. memorizing. changing the practice of teaching. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. Sadly. When a new technology is introduced.” In 1970. mashups can only be done using computer technology. 2006). and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. it needs to adhere to architectures. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. 2006). chairman of IBM. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages.Students in these schools learned by reading. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways.” Similarly. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. For example. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. and standards. When a new technology first comes into use. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. However. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Rather than pages. frameworks. At the same time. moving pictures (films). the early days of computer networking. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . Examples include the horseless carriage (cars).

see the call for papers in Learning Grid. They provide location independence. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. presentation and interactive environments. Do not reproduce 5 . and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. Number 3. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. In particular. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). php). decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. For has a number of published documents that. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid.accessgrid. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. With applications and content becoming both distributed and 2005. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.

“[a] pull economy .org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. Major specifications for e-learning. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).taken together.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.aicc.oclc.elframework. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. Instead of just providing courses. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. reinforces this theme. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). Instead. http://ltsc. could form the basis of a formal e-learning” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. This is especially true for adult education. ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. interactive learning components. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. While packaged courses still have a place.” In late 2005. and makes extensive use of XML. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. research. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. http://www. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://www. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. In business.Emerging Models for Mobilizing is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . Bollier says. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).is based on open. At the same time. http://sourceforge. They noted that “…in education. and education administration. http://purl. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. enabling the search for content. In Europe. Rather. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.

2005). often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al.wired. McClatchey. N. G. http://www. 19. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. 41(2). Moreover. Chris (2006).ntnu.. March/April 2006.1 0/tail.. Milan. UK. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. Umer. Bertolazzi. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. and McGinnis (2004). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Weiss. http://ewic. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. online resources.. K. Likothanassis. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then http://www. I hope you will find it useful.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.pdf Bogonikolos. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. M. K. Web 2. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. and a bibliography. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.. Sept.. 2002. and wearable computers. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments.pdf Anderson. http://www.DC/0502051 Alexander. 2004). 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. http://www. F. (2002). the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven..ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage.educause. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. User-created content. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. M. and Conte.htm Bollier. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online erm0621. Cardiff. Ali. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.html Anderson. Chris (2004). For example. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . October. Italy.. Ahmad. (2005).” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. Lausanne.cscsi. 2006) has argued. David (2005). Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. along with selected examples. As Anderson (2004. The Long Tail. http://www. T. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. Nov. Odeh. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. is becoming commonplace. Bibliography Abbas. R. June 2005. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Switzerland. http://arxiv. ege/session1/paper1.bcs. From this. (2005). Reggiani. Giotopoulos.. Bryan (2006). New York: Hyperion. 12(10). those learners are now keeping their own records.. R.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.. S. ambient networks. Wired Magazine. 2004. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. 16. mobile s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. M. In the last chapter. Chrysostalis. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. F. Thus... Z. A. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. and Votis. the reader can approach any topic in any order. M. Wales.idi. Five years ago.

asp Chatarji. D. /ec/product. and Zhang. 2003. A field guide to software as a service. Aug. 13.pdf Erl.Dev Shed. NJ: Prentice-Hall. J. Dede.. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.virtual. W. m/docs/SOA_World. Hao (2003). of Distance Education 10. J. and Albert. (1996). 14-16. (2005).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. and Borck. and McGreal. (2002). N.bcs. Gregor (2005). Dec..devshed. V. Infoworld. 2002 ege/session2/paper1. C.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research .asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Web Services . 13-16. J.1109/CIT. Thomas (2004).pdf Millea. American Limited.htm Hohpe. (2005). and Brown. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05).ca/protocols_en.cti. Tsiatsos. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). April 18. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). 8/16FEsasdirect_1. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. E. I. Switzerland. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented ergingtechnologies.. Oct.ICALT 2001. and Putland. http://www. http://www. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.. T.. C. http://www. th04/procs/pdf/ 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Green. http://www.5 6 Marshall. http://cde. http://www. G. Portugal. Hornig.ascilite. Porto.johnhagel. 6-8. Australia. International E-Learning Specifications. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.html Kong. J. Software Evaluation Report R11/ J.pdf Friesen. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. 2005. Centre for Distance Ed. http://csdl2. Lausanne. (2005).ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. WI. Toc. http://www. Erlanger.S..pdf Knorr. Online.html Hagel. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. G.act. 4-36.networking technology. Stephen (2004).xml.infoworld. http://www. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. of Education and Training. Jagadish (2004). pdf He. January 2005. Luo. Working paper. Proceedings. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. for the Australian Dept. Sept. USA. 2004. (2002).amazon. 1026-1032. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.xml& . http://www.cancore. (2001). http://ru6. http://www. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. March (2005). L. Education.html Hockemeyer.xml. 0/soa. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Upper Saddle River. 2001. Athabasca University. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . http://www.gmu. ThoughtWorks White paper.det. 2. http://www. Madison. Stefano (2005).athabascau.aspeninstitute. Norm (2006).

http://www. (2005).com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. 193–205. J. Cook. and 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. T.. V.. J.alt.aifb. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 21.operitel. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. http://www. Mashups. Hambrecht and Co. (2000).. R.acten. Zhou et al. http://www. M.pdf Werkhoven. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Trinity College. e-portfolios.Neumann. http://ewic. April 26-27.pdf Spaniol.sinica. H. M. Harvey. and Jarke.): Proceedings. http://www. 27 .tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.R. and Geys. ICWL 2003. -learninggrids.pdf Woodill.. MA: Perseus.pdf Urdan. G. R. s/ATLAS. Reflective white_paper_2005.bcs.informatik. http://www. F.aspx Yang. In W. W. 2006. Stuttgart. Peter (2004). An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture.pdf Pierre. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. future thinking: digital repositories. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. May 15. G. Berlin: Springer. and (2006). http://www. Donald (1993).net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines.rwthaachen. Klamma. Samuel (2006). and Oliveira. Birmingham. 2006.iis. and Wade. Library+information Show. UK. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning.alt. http://www-i5. Aalderink. (2003). Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.28 April 2004. April 1. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Feijen. (2003). SCORM and the Learning Grid. Learning Solutions.pdf Roberts.pdf Norman. and Vossen. 911-928. 2005.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . G. Research report. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. 9.. Germany. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. http://www. ACTeN E-Content Report No. (Eds. 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.. C. W. C. (2004). http://www. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning ege/session3/paper2. (2005). Rhonda (2006). ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. Dublin.astd.

10 © Brandon Hall Research . Included are related terms. and a bibliography for each section. selected elearning related examples. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. online resources to learn more about each technology. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth.

Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. http://www. and legality.bham.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. accuracy. For example.” (Anolli. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.html Do not reproduce 11 .ac. emotions. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. in including the ability to recognize and express emotions. speech patterns mainstream. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. posture. privacy. In online therapy. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective 2005). Selected Examples Rosalind /0-INDEX. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. too. security. and react to human emotions. Without the ability to understand emotions. Affective Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. et al. facial recognition.myself-proj. and to respond to them effectively. keystroke then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.. confused..” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. or sad.cs.sricbi. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. understand.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. gestures. The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. emotional design. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.convo. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. SRI Consulting (http://www. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning” http://www. 2005). UK.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.

sics. Pianesi.aisb. A. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal.. Agliati. J. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Hatfield.. and 2005..dis. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. L. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Cahour. http://emotion-research. Issue 11/12. Oregon. CHI 2005.sics.sics.. e_interfaces/Hook. Iwamura. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. e_interfaces/Kaye. M. R. O. Portland. Nass. C. University of Hertfordshire.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Z. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. (2005). K.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 2-7. China. C. and Morishima. including studies of emotions in computers. J. and Waterworth. October 22-24. (2005). http://www. Zurloni.. 2005. (2005). David (2003).unitrier.. Pachoud. Wired e_interfaces/Cahour.. http://emotion. al. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. Mantovani. J. K..html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. H. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Stock. M.wired. B.. http://www. 2005 http://www. (2005). html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Brave.sics. September 13. I Like It .. Portland. V. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. I. The Love Machine: building computers that care. J. Graziola. Portland. M.unige. Rocchi.pdf Kaye.1 2/love. Joseph (2005).doc Diamond. Vermersch. A. Oregon. Salembier. April 2-7. (2005).nsma. The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. Portland. April 2-7.bartneck.sics. Balestra. listing many links to interesting resources. 2005. Dr. Y.informatik.arizona. http://www.html Fallman.html In Germany. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. April 2-7.. Nortillaro.sics. CHI 2005. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. H. and Zouinar. http://www. Oregon. Yamada. CHI 2005 e_interfaces/Chateau.. Portland. D. Oregon.. are available online: http://www. Brassac. C.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.doc Chateau. April 12-15. 2005. and Confalonieri (2005). P. Realdon. F.. M. UK. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. K. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research .uniroma1. Oregon. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. CHI 2005 conference. CHI 2005 conference. D.pdf Interfaces. April 2-7. http://www. e_interfaces/Fallman. dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Nakajima. bibliographies.pdf Maldonado. The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. S. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. April 2-7. Isbister. December. with many resources. P.pdf Goren-Bar. http://www. and Laaksolahti. Portland. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. 2005.. (2005). and Zancanaro.

ACII 2005. e_interfaces/Wiberg.sics. CHI 2005.pdf Do not reproduce 13 .pdf Masum. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Emotional Agents. April 2-7.pdf Mandryk. and Picard. Oregon.bham. CHI 2005 Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. April 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. 2005. http://www. 35(2).edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. NJ. and Ishizuka.elearningreviews. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. and Daily.thesis. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users e_interfaces/Mandryk.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. L. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.pdf Ruebenstrunk. May 26. CHI 2005. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. and /Wright. R.cs. (2004). China. 22. Beijing. http://www. Gerd (1998). http://www. 2005. R. (2002). CHI 2005 conference. Oregon. Berlin: Springer. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. S.doc Wright. 2002. (2005). Portland. J. J. Charlotte (2005).jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. M. University of Birmingham.t. http://www. Oregon. Portland. Helena (2005). Journal of Research on Technology in Education. (2005).com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. MA: MIT. (2005) e_interfaces/Mentis.pdf Mentis.miv. S. M. http://www. http://www. Donald A.stanford. Regan (2005). Affective Computing. New York: Basic.utokyo. Erlbaum. Picard. Tan. Doctoral Dissertation. Dec. http://www. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Ian (1997). Steele. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Rosalind (1997). Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation October 22-24. E-book http://www. Cambridge. e_interfaces/Picard.pdf Norman. April 2-7.. Miami. 2005. http://www. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Affective Computing vs. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.htm Tao. Paper for WEBIST 2005. T. OR.sics.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Fourth. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Katzlberger. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). et al. She made mistakes. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. A second agent in the simulation. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. 2005). benevolence. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. intelligent agents program (for example. 2004). Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. and many of them can actually learn. However. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. autonomous agents. First. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. useful in educational simulations. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. In this context.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly.informatik. therefore. 1999).htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. proactive (goal directed). not only about environments. and both may be found in the same http://w3. 2005. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. but Do not reproduce 15 . Dick Stenmark. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. and the students had to continue to teach her. avatars. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Viswanath. Third. Agents have These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. rationality. learning/adaptation. For example. veracity. Mentor. In such situations. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept s. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. see the paper by Far et al. Second. and.. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. 1999). 2004) and are.

Student Assistant Agent 4. They are available as adaptive coaches. Learning Paths Agent 5. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. acting against other teams of agents. http://www. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.also about other agents.extempo.redwoodelearning. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. http://liinwww.fsu. Baldi. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.editlib. Therefore. Content Agent 6. (1998) developed a conversational agent.codebaby. For details see: www. go to: http://ritl.uka. uses seven different types of agents: 1. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. Even though each agent acts independently. http://www. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Massaro et al. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. and expert CodeBaby go to: http://ldt. 2.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by gents. http://www. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. 2000). (2004): See the article by Williams et Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.old. expert role-players. Skills Manager Agent Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin.netobjectdays.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.ira. User Profile malceb/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.

ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. 1353-1356. & El-Khouly. W. and Ho. Hershey. Inter-active Learning Res. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.). (2003). and Shaw. Educause Quarterly.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. S. Doctoral Dissertation.aace. A.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. In Proceedings. Clarebout. Y. S. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Ali (2002).org/index. Nashville. (1999). 11(3). International Symposium on Multi-Agent atzlbergerDissertation. Vanderbilt University. e-Learning 2005.. TN.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. E. G. Elan.. Zahia (2004). 75-80.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor.teachableagents.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. A. (2005).. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Learning by Teaching Agents. G.pdf Jafari. and Palopoli. Erfurt. 4(1). Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. and Tsang. Tennessee..ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. (2000). Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). & Johnson. Y. Proceedings. M. http://dl. P.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. and Telecommunications 2003. (2005). Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.pdf Lin. (2003). http://www. 5(7).edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. International Journal on E-Learning. 21-38. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. (2002). E-Learning 2003.isi.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Jrnl. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism.educause. 275-285. 306-311).University of Southern California.. July. C..ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.cfm?fuse action=Reader.editlib. W. Nashville. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. G. J. L.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Koono.pdf Kao.editlib. (2002).org/index.netobjectdays.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. www..old. No. Ng. VA: AACE. Large Complex Norfolk. E-Learning 2003. (2002). http://csdl. B. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. (2003). m0523. G.. In Richards. & Ebbers. Hypermedia. http://www. In Leelawong. J. A. Educause Quarterly. (2005). http://www.pdf Guessoum. G.editlib. Y.editlib. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. 459-462. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.pdf Kim. Thomas (2005).editlib. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Bibliography apers/malceb/0623. & 004/07/o7004. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. www. S.. Z. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. C. Paper presented. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. S.editlib. 1503-1506. Hypermedia. L. & Lin. 28(2). Do not reproduce 17 .. Germany. (Ed.educause. Sun. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. http://www. & Bengu.teachableagents. 267-286 http://www. Vanderbilt University.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www. Krittaya (2005). 10 (3). Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. http://www.pdf Clarebout.

M. St.aifb. ssaroCole_WECC98.utexas.pdf U. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. (1999).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. H. June 1-4. G.Media 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.. (2006). Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). 47-59. 61-65. Sahin. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. R. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. Ferat (2000). PA. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.pdf Perez.. 1632.). Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. http://cslu. 17(2). S.. Adebiyi. http://www.. http://scholar. M. (2005).uni-karlsruhe. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. (2004).editlib. G. M. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Ferneley.K. In Proceedings. (2004).org/index. In P. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. Government.cs. and Stucky. Richards (Eds. Pittsburgh. W.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. 1415-1420. L. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.editlib.). Massaro. V. Petersburg.editlib. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). and Higher Education 2004. L. ED-MEDIA. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. ED. Atreya.. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. 3169-3176. S.. Cohen. D. B. http://www. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. http://dl. (1999).cse. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Biswas. France. J. 194-201. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent M.vt. Doctoral Dissertation. O. (1999). August.editlib. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. A. D.http://www. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.indiana. & 18 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.ogi. http://www. http://www. 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). V. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Doctoral dissertation. R.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. 10 (3). Kommers & In Richards. 1999.psu. Sandel. and Solomon. http://www. and Núñeza.cfm?fuse action=Reader.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Virginia Poytechnic and State University. New York: John Wiley & K. & Leelawong.aace.. Healthcare. Daniel.informatics. G. ED-MEDIA 2005. 1999. (2004). Carnegie Mellon University. R. Doctoral Dissertation.. (2005). 143-162. www. http://citeseer.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. & Booth. IFIP WG12. Russia. Proceedings.html Shim. Beskow. of California. and Cole.lib. Peter (1998). Finland. (Ed. Wesley. and Winikoff. 14(1). J. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process..

org/papers/15 8bis. Paper at CLAG2004.teachableagents.html Yan.editlib.http://www. Wooldridge. 3000-3002. April 18-21.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. N.. In Proceedings. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Chun. http://ca. & Madsen. ED-MEDIA 2004. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. M. http://research. Michael (2002).pdf Williams. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. (2004). Chicago. J. (2004).wiley.ppt Do not reproduce 19 .org/index. oductCd-047149691X. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.

com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.topshareware.” (Huk.htm Ulead GIF Animator fcon. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.000 pre-built animated GIFs. However. produced the best learning results. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. 2003) Finally. producing animations can be very costly.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. like pictures in a flip book.05 http://www..0 http://www. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research .mindworkshop. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. Also.Animation Software Related terms Flash.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation.htm For a selection of over 400. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. a static diagram. coupled with imagining how something worked. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. al. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.animationfactory. However. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.topshareware. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Given that. animations may even prejudice learning. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. motion graphics depiction. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Rather. (2003).

For information on Flash. Inc.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . connected with its Director and Authorware content creation nliven. and rendering x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.html CAT .adobe. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.eitechnologygroup. It animates fall stunts.massivesoftware.” http://www. http://www.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. 2004).animationonline. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.physics. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. Enliven . go to: http://www. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias).html Falling Bodies . a subsidiary of Avid Technology. animation. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. go to: http://www.autodesk.catoolkit. http://www. using accurate dynamic simulation h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. Version 9 is available: http://www. http://www.macromedia.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling. To use ActionScript.newtek. the built-in programming ersion. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. It is part of Final Cut go to: Maya is a high-end modeling. their 3-D character creation environment.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. animating.animats. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. For more information on Shockwave. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. http://www.. http://www. For a free demo. http://faraday.Softimage Co. effects. http://www. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is ts/ n/ SoftImage|XSI .as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of afaq. http://www.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to

org/2004/jul20 04/ th04/procs/lowe-r.pdf Toth. T. G. 04/hess.htm Bibliography Castillo. 003/toth. and Cate. (2003). 87-99.. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. (2004). http://www. Phillips ( Atkinson. http://www.ascension-tech.htm media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. (2004). The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. (2003). S. M. Mayer. Learning Circuits. Cognition and Instruction. R. S. go to AllWorldSoft. G. and Moreno. http://www2. lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. Steinke. ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.allworldsoft. never too much. Lehi. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. M...ascilite.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves.aace.ucsb.unihannover. and Hess. 21(4).. McBeath. D.pdf Lowe. S.sjsu. http://www. http://www.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. and Floto.rapidintake. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. C. FreeDownloads Center. July. and Hancock. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. Jonas-Dwyer & R. July 18. http://www. Educational Psychology Review. C. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. Learning Circuits. July 2004.htm Hess..htm Hegarty. (2004). Beyond the comfort zone: . 2003. Flash Interactive Session. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. T. March 2002. 325–360.freedownloadscenter. and Hancock.learningcircuits.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. Thomas (2003). Utah: Rapid Intake Press. (2004).K.learningcircuits. ASCILITE Conference.pdf Hess. http://dl. (1). Animation – just enough. http://www. (2002). 20HKC. G. Kriz.html Malheiro. S. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. (2003).org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Learning Circuits. 14(1). http://www.

Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. machine learning. agents. AI. intelligent tutoring. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. cognitive informatics. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. data mining. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. So far. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. expert systems. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. Nevertheless. multiagent systems.

and data mining.” On the other hand. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed.g. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. To achieve their goals. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. To seem humanlike. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. including collaborative filtering. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. Moreover. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. and the teacher.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems.learning. recommender systems. the subject matter expert. While many systems purport to be personalized. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. and Aist et al. The reality is that. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. possibly undeliberate manner. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. (2003). a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.

pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . http://lsa. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.colorado.” http://www.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et fydiss. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. concepts. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Talking Head Tutor vs.cs. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.uic.di.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. etc) and how they are interrelated.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. 2002). Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.unito. http://www. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. objects.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. rather than using a single type of JAIR. (2005a.cs.” http://www. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.e.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.

com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004. They propose using an approach called hierarchical aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. question answering (QA) techniques. http://www. and multiagents.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.leaonline. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.sinica.iis. so that these systems become more realistic.ucalgary.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. Stottler Henke Associates.” http://ctat.” http://www.infrature.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. intelligent conflict resolution. and engaging. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. Inc.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. challenging. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.html Founded in 1988. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring http://quantumsimulations.” Student Log Files – McLaren et al.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.library.unsw. Task Tutor Toolkit . http://www.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. http://bach.cs. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.uc3m. and INFOMAP. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. ations/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.enel. Aurora .cmu.uregina. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the Oguejiofor et al. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring s/wi04. Infrature.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. e-commerce. including student monitoring. without programming.colorado. As a result. http://ariic. see: Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .gast. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. ers/LearningTheories.

gemini. The 2006 conference is in Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .wpi. Taiwan. skill The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and h/current_computer_science_education_re search. China.cmu. http://www. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. http://www. x.” http://www.” For more info: /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.aaai. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.masternewmedia.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. The AIED conferences are held every two years.ucalgary.usyd. preferred Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems. with the next one in 2007. For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. and an interactive intelligent tutor.learningcircuits.inf.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.cs. http://ctat. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.htm Do not reproduce 27 .htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.ed.cmu.virtuelage. http://aied.ed. see: http://www. Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.stottlerhenke.enel. an adaptive testing The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring http://www.For more information on Stottler Henke and learning 000/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. http://pact.

Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.Volume I. and 004/Barcena_Read. Chicago. Vicari. K. S.. (2004). http://www. and Picard.sbg.nccu. and Douglas. and Patti.ri.uregina. E.eurodl. R. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. Lester. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). http://www. Lester. Hershey.cmu. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .pitt.pitt.unito..pdf Brusilovsky.iit. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.Marvin s/wi04. Reilly. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive ml Aleven.2005. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. T. R. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research .html Brusilovsky. R. In J. C. C.. R. Baroglio. and R. C. P. Peter (2000).amazon.doi. Brazil.pdf Barcena. http://lingcog. (2004).edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. Bibliography Aist.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. S. Hua. Eshaa (Ed. g-ITS04. M. and Evens. Argamon. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://nth. 6(1). (2004). Artificial Intelligence Review. S. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. J. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. and Read.82 Bhatt. I. M. Paraguaçu (Eds.html Barker.. B. http://www. V. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education.sis.).1109/ITCC. In J. 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. (2002).cs. ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. (2004).. (2005). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.pdf Baldoni. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. http://www. E. http://www2. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. Hermann (2002). Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. C. Kort. V. (2004).com/printer_f riendly_article. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). (2004).B. McLaren. JAIR. http://www.. 159-165. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. and Schwarz. http://imlab.).ppt Butz.cs. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. ITS 2004. (1997). (2004). Mostow.technologyreview.J. and Penstein Rosé. Vicari.di. Paraguaçu (Eds. V.) (2006).wpi. K. http://dx. http://www. and Koedinger. & S00inv. Maceió. M. C. S. and Frasson. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. http://www. In Aleven.pdf Alkhalifa.pdf Chaffar. C.. Roll. http://www. PA: Idea. 22: 3–39.

Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 23(4). Lu. and Sarmanova. 15(4).com/doi/pdf/ ink2000. Taiwan.Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005).. 11(3). S. and Glass. (2004).enel. _331. Haller.uic.. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems.est. Yu..findarticles. http://www. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring Freedman. S. C. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system.library.linkingpublicationresul ts. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process. (2005). (2004) aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology.html ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. G. and Frasson. http://www. A. H.. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). of Technology.iit. 18-22 July. Tainan. B. http://www. Haller. Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational http://ariic..639. C. http://www. D. Di Eugenio. http://springerlink. (2006). DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education.1 Cho. J. Aleksandar (2001). Fossati.pdf Frize. ITS 2004. (2005).) hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day. (2005).leaonline.1 H..pdf Davidovic. AutoTutor.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vicarious R.iis. and Fred. http://ltodi. K. Fossati. Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.pdf Far. D. (2004). Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. Byung-In (2000). aperapril. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 . S. C.pdf Di Eugenio. Ong.. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. 15-16.3296. Chiou.niu. B. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. M. 40(4). Reva (2000).cs. and Gholson. Univ. and VanLehn. B. (2000). Yang.uottawa. McNamara..editlib. and Hsu. S. Illinois Inst..H. http://www. Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013.5. A. A.1:105633. and iSTART. C. 433-447. D. http://www. and Glass. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging. http://www. Driscoll. ICEIS'2001.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18900 Craig. and Kloos..asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems. http://www.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 and Jemni.ucalgary. In ACL05.cs. Amsterdam. Educational Psychologist. 13(2). Fall. 163-183. M (2005b). Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence.metapress. M. (2001). W. 2005.. D. Doctoral Dissertation. B. M.ips.unsw.cs. J. M (2005a).pdf Chorfi. Pardo. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.ucalgary. 225-234 http://www. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. 1-5 March.pdf Graesser. and Pedagogical -e/theme05. bcdiss. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning. of South Australia.

E.pdf Hatzilygeroudis. C. Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Systems. http://www.massey. M.upatras. Vicari.pdf Johnson. B.pdf Harrer. In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference. (2001).pdf Kinshuk and Patel.-K. A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In J. Hershey. (2004). Ahmed. Hardas.doc Jeschke. and F..C. (2004). Johnson. Nikov A. PA: Idea Group. (2005). (ITS).). Y. Lester. M. Looi et al. L. (ITS). J. UK: Pace. and VanLehn. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society 4NNV88MXQ49. & Patel A. T. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in kjhdiss. 2001. C. and Ma. D.). yckmai02. and Graesser. (1997). C. R. W. http://www.cs. Vanoirbeek. http://www. In J. http://home. In A. M.Hierarchical Graphs. USA. (Eds.Computer Interaction. Walker. Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. M.autotutor. Vicari.ceid.springerlink. Ma (Ed. P.. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory.. M. (ITS).T.. Applications. M.) Knowledge Transfer London. I. That's What I'd Do".pdf Kim. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts. August 5-10. M. McLaren. http://mmlab.tu-berlin. and Trace. A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And Learning. K. Michael.editlib. Bollen. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System. (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. and Future Directions. (2004). Sewall. MAICS-2002. http://prints. and F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. J. Evens. Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation A.mulf.uc3m. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. G. http://www. (2004).. and F. That's What I'd Do". Empirical Results. http://www. R. (2005).springerlink. O. Doctoral Dissertation. and Richter. Laroussi. /PAPERS/wbies-book-pub. http://ctat. & Pettenati. J.L. 61-64. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pitt. In /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.. Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor. Amsterdam.cs.. Y.pdf Kim. Maceió. and Prentzas. PA: IDEA Group. and Rizzo. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. pp.pdf Khaled. (2005). In C.) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. In Z.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7293 Khan.pact.pdf Jordon. Lester. J.pdf Jackson. C. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent Assistants. P. 4NNV88MXQ49..kent. International Conference on Web Intelligence. New Orleans. http://infosys. Chicago. M. Behrooz (Ed.Hershey.K. Chicago. A. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. tionAIED05. S.medianet.L. Paraguaçu ( rs/hcii2001. (1999) 30 © Brandon Hall Research . Person.gast. R.cs. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Kinshuk. (2005). http://www. Lester.. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration. http://www. and F. Makatchev. M. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human. Proceedings. N. tions/ITS2004-workshop-Jackson-paperformatted. Paraguaçu (Eds. Paraguaçu (Eds. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. Illinois Institute of Technology.) ations/Gutier04b.

Schaumburg. Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Amsterdam. C.. M. (2004). M.informatik.127 . D. V.71. and Testing Cognitive Models. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió. and Prentzas. T.aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma. C. 035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis. and Michael. /kinshuk. R. Zongmin (2005). and Evens. Klaus (2004). Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. R. (2004). Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED-2005. http://ctat.. V. G. Chicago. Artificial Intelligence in Education. Hatzilygeroudis.unirostock.aspx? PaperID=26738 Lulis. IL. Patel A. Freedman. J. 4th Edition. M. Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of matter. ICCM'03. and Heffernan. B. and Michael. http://nth.pdf Koedinger.pdf Looi. E.pdf Lee. A. Weitz. http://www. Proceedings. and mankind. Evelyn (2005). 3(4). Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system. M.. (2004).ac. http://www. Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring Sessions. R. Berlin: Springer. http://www..journal.1 Lulis. Looi. and Russell. and Evens. M. McCalla. M. and Rosenthal. E.. Evens.795. & Aleven. C. Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring system. 002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Martens.metapress. http://springerlink.. ts/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeContents . (2005).iospress. 1:105633. E. In C.). Proceedings of MAICS 2004. Proceedings. (2006). M. Web-based Education Conference. (2005). N. In rs/kt97_dmu. A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology. Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. Pain ( (2003).com/(pdvzlh5 5zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contribution . Hershey.cs.actapress. http://www.html Kodaganallur. Amsterdam: IOS 40729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Mainzer. Mccalla. (2004). Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003). df Do not reproduce 31 .edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.H. J.aspx? PaperID=16278 Lee. 2004. Doctoral Brazil. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. Alke (2003a). In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive Modelling. mind. (2000). http://www.. Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Design-ing.pact. Breuker. (2004). Illinois Institute of Technology. A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric Disciplines. Lulis.doc Koutsojannis. http://www2004.pdf Kinshuk. Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference.cmu. Building..http://infosys.H.asp?referrer=parent& 474.booksonline. PA: Information Science. J. 2000. Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical students.. K. http://ifets. D. http://www. J. Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system. Control and Applications conference. and H. and Glass.actapress.wpi. VersaTutor – Archi-tecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor Generator. Educational Technology & Society. C.

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I. (2001). In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems.. Mesa González (Eds. T. Ponbarry. González-Pereira. J. and Santos. E. Brazil. AIED Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems. and Heffernan. Lim. K. Bárcena.iadat. http://godel.W. Torrey.. Low. Hill. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. In Proceedings. H. and Swartout. Tutorial Dialog in an Equation Solving Intelligent Tutoring System. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. and Koutsojannis. and Peters. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. C.L.iadat. Clark. (2004a).pdf Do not reproduce 33 . A. Peters.. H. Kinshuk. Intelligent Tutoring Tools for Cognitive Skill Acquisition in Life Long Learning. Guided Exploratory Learning versus Directed Learning in a Simulation Environment for Thermodynamics: A Pilot Study.. (2004). C.. D. http://www. S. (2003) web/IADAT-e2004_26. 2004_Workshop. J.. K.pdf Riedl. http://ifets. A Web-Based ITS Controlled by a Hybrid Expert System. Contextualizing Learning in a Reflective Conversational /PAPERS/EPY01.usc. (2005). C. Amsterdam. http://mmlab. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). H. Information and Communications Technologies in Education. Future challenges in intelligent tutoring systems – a framework. P. C. Hatzilygeroudis. and Aleven.. Loke. apers/ITS2004/Submitted(not%20final)/Le ena/etutor_workshop_final. Owen N.F..L. (2004). Evaluating the Effectiveness of SCoT -a Spoken Conversational Tutor. S. B. K. Owen Bratt. (2004b). and Peters.stanford. 34. Scalable. /patel. B. Koh. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Using Hybrid Rules as Its Representational Basis.. Owen Bratt. J. http://nth.. Méndez-Vilas. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions..doc Read..pdf Read. and Treeratpituk. In A. Vijayan. E.S. Annals of Academic Medicine SemlabPublications/AI-ED-WorkshopFinal. Educational Technology & Society. 499-504.pdf Pon-Barry. Hatzilygeroudis.annals. B.ceid. Novais.. Paper presented at the AI and Education 2005 Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments. S.upatras.pdf Schultz. F. (2000).pdf Patel.. http://mmlab. C. Bárcena. Automated Story Direction and Intelligent Tutoring: Towards a Unifying Architecture.wpi. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. E.pdf Rodrigues. E.PDF Prentzas. Reusable Spoken Conversational Tutor: SCoT. Proceedings from the International Conference on Multimedia. Paper presented at ITS 2002..Ong.ceid. M. and Pancorbo.stanford. V. E.H. and Pancorbo. and Russell. Clark. L. June. Spain. H.. 3(1). (2004).. Schultz. P. K. S.formatex.. W.S.. Clark. (2005). J.. M. Mesa González...wpi.Y. (2002). and Garofalakis. (2004). P. J. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Trauma Management (Trauma-Teach): A Preliminary Report. http://godel. M. 0509/V34N8p499. (2005). and Yong. /PAPERS/ITS02. http://wwwcsli. B...stanford. Maceió. Maceió. W. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004).PDF Razzaq.C.C. Schultz.html Pon-Barry. J.pdf Prentzas. C. Wong. http://www. T.upatras. I. In the Proceedings of the IEEE ICALT-2001. http://www. htm Rosé. SemlabPublications/ICALT_2004. K.) Recent Research Developments in Learning web/IADAT-e2004_26.

http://www. http://www. P. W.cs. http://www. Truth from Trash: how learning makes Norfolk.editlib. J. Feng-Jen (2001). Innsbruck.. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied Informatics. yzdiss. Svacek.Simon. Sydney. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer.cs.pdf Yusko. http://www. Kinshuk. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Brazil. V.wpi. T. Illinois Institute of Technology. The Sciences of the Artificial. 3rd Ed. http://nth.. Brazil. Masters Thesis.pdf Thornton. MA: MIT Press. L.stanford. ation. and d-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski.pdf 34 © Brandon Hall Research . http://nth. http://www. jaydiss. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems.wpi. Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. pp. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Australia.. 299-318. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. Terrence (2005). Worchester Polytechnic Institute. fydiss.pdf Thomsen-Gray. Peter (2004). (2004). http://lttf. http://www. Chicago.colorado. The design and architecture of Research Methods _uno. (2003).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18895 Walonoski. Doctoral Dissertation. http://lsa. Jay A. S.pdf Yang.. and Pedrycz. Doctoral Dissertation. VA: AACE. Maceió.wpi. Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial. a second-generation dialog-based tutor. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003). Schultz. Maceió.cs. Cambridge.iit. Cambridge. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Yujian (2000).edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. David (2001). Jason (2005). Doctoral dissertation.pdf Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. 15 (4). Chicago. Herbert (1996). Owen Bratt. Devedzic. Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. and 691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Smid. Doctoral Dissertation.ppt Ureel.pdf Ueno.wpi. Chris (2000). http://www. http://www. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Illinois Institute of Technology.aspx? PaperID=27013 Steinhart. Palmerston North.pdf Vasilakos.pdf Zhou.actapress. Maomi (2000). Masters Thesis. (2005).edu/ITS2004WS/ d-011106-070108/unrestricted/turnert. (2002). University of SemlabPublications/ 700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning. Illinois Institute of Technology.. July 20-24. K. MA: MIT. Chicago. NZ. http://www. B. (2004). Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000). On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models.

and (4) computer marking. evaluation. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. making it hard to escape assess-ment. are already available. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. and documents for assessors to use. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. aptitudes. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. once only done by a human assessor. rubrics. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. When combined into a “360° evaluation. Assessment software can generate templates. the automated scoring of essays. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. More sophisticated forms of automated. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. However. self-evaluation. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. in the near future. In a business situation. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. online assessment. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. computer mediated assessment (CMA). While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. eassessment. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . and output. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. 1956).info/learni ng/solo. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. We can expect that. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. For example. samples. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. or performance samples. computer based assessment (CBA). quizzes. computer-based assessment tools.learningandteaching. quizzes. and psychomotor. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. affective. for example.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities.

institutional evaluation. a customizable look and feel. For details.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. see: http://lsa. reporting. /Entry. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.operitel. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. http://nt. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge.testcraft.dialang. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. and past work behaviors. and services useful for outcomes assessment.uc. tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. http://www. See more at: http://www. http://www.horizonwimba. Diploma. multilingual support.fasfind. http://www.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www. Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.xstreamsoftware. and adaptive question branching.epistema. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. http://www.rmsuk. from Resources Management Services in the U. http://www. see: http://www. on its Web site. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. Review it at: http://www.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. learning tools. Find them at: has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. has recently won awards for its formance_analyzer2.redinq.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). and self-study. check out the Dialang web Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.respondus. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research .vantagelearning.” organized by academic discipline. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. preview pages for all question types. a completely customizable report engine.colorado.” Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. based at the University of Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. For information on latent semantic Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring ETS.brainbench.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without The Evaluator. and adminis-tration features. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.pedagogue. For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. http://www.

umuc. ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. E. G.3 Bateson. London: Paladin..html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. http://www.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80. P.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.html Bibliography Alfonseca. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook Carro. Educational Technology & Society. with over 1.200 references. http://www. http://www.thinkinggear. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.000 different tests from its database. http://www. D. James (2005) assess. Obtain a copy at: http://www. (2004).info/learni ng/ & Rodríguez. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. (2005).html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. http://www. A.uka. Gregory (1973) http://www. http://www.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of ssme/online.ict4lt. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. /arc/6too.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. and Davies.learnflex. http://cba. Pérez. 5365. with a list of 34 strategies. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.cshe.htm /cba.htm#2.pdf Atherton. A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. http://school. http://www. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. Explore the links at: views/10_01. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. Do not reproduce 37 .ira. is available from: http://www. 8 (3).uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.quintcareers.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers. sment. Online” learning/03/ R. M. Ortigosa.

Jill. N. August 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Educational Measurement. 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Hillsdale. http://www. Martin. K. (1989). Burstein (Eds. Acapulco.eschoolnews. http://www. 2005. http://www. C. New York: Oxford. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. NY: Macmillan. & Bunderson. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. J.htm T. June 22. Brown. (1956). In R. (1997). Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. In M. RC23. Jill C.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing..pdf Biggs. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. www. and Collis. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. and Marcu. 1. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. V. Robert (2005). Marcu. and Chodorow. Inouye. K. Kevin (2003). Arlington http://www. Burstein (Eds.htm. NJ: Lawrence The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. D. toryts. Shermis and J. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Mexico. Rethink testing for future success. In M. Jill. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.pdf..pdf Brown J. and Knight. (2003). IEEE Intelligent Systems.http://www. (2001).ets..assess. S. Kay (1999). M. http://www. J.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Bloom. and O'Hagan. New York: Academic Press. Louis. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions".com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. McNamara. How to Assess Authentic Learning. New ursteinj. Daniel. Linn (Ed. Burstein. Chodorow.).msu. In the R. http://www. http://www. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. eSchool News. L. http://www. In S. Kaplan (Ed. (2003). (2003). Ciravegna ( B.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. L. Shermis and J.. IL: Skylight. http://www.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . and Hirschman. & Olsen. (2001). New York: McKay. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (1982). Online paper. 3rd Edition. Jill. St. B. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Daniel. Brumfield. C. Iwashita. Hillsdale. Harabagiu and F. (2002).

C.html Frase. S. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. London: Falmer. http://www. http://www. Language Learning & Technology Tests. (1999). M. Louis. 2: 77-93. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. v.. (Eds.pdf Hricko. www. K. L.htm Cebrian. Y. http://www. Chalhoub-Deville. Writing assessment: a position statement. (1999).nap. & Landauer. (2004).) (1999). May.unimelb. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. Language Learning and Technology.msu.. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. D. (2005).com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).msu. Micheline. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.html. 4. v. n. March 9. http://www. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".edu. http://www. (2002). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and No. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. University of Tasmania. Loughborough. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.. In Proceedings. (2001).softwaresecure. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.ecs. Millard. W. (2001). 5. (2001).ncte. EdMedia '99. Robert.html Davies. and Sclater. Laham. Dunn. and Howell. (Ed. PA: Information t.doc. New York: Basic Books.pdf Dunkel P. 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. http://llt. Foltz. http://llt. Seven technologies for assessment.. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Howell.. Lawrence. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Language Learning and Technology. O’Reilly. National Research Council. Language testing and technology: past and future.hlc. http://mason. Howard (1993). D. Board on Testing and Assessment. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.iltaonline.Hershey. M.Carr.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). W.msu. http://www. category/write/ 0Fall%2002/ html/1.) (2005). Davis.html Chalhoub-Deville. n. Online paper. Online newsletter. http://wwwpsych. and Grellett. ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. 5. St. B. 2. S. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. C. Howard. Morgan. 2.Proceedings from a Workshop. 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. http://eprints. (2004). and Parry. Online newsletter. T. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.soton. College Composition and Communication RC23. Nathan. E. (1998). http://www. May. velop/webct_tools/communications/assess 9.

Hershey. Foltz.ed. Howard. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses.kent. Washington. Language Learning and Technology. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.) (2000). Patrick (2000). Journal of Technol. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Measurement and Evaluations.. McArthur. /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.) (2002). Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Y. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (1999). (2006). A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. (2005). (1979).com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.S. http://nces. 25. pp. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. New York. 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. J. (2000). Discourse Processes. & J. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. M. Graham. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. (1998). P. /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. W. Fremer.html ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.pdf Kenyon. Problem 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö..pdf Reports from the Institute of Education. S. and Assessment. DC: 851901 United States Department of Education. T. http://www.colorado. (2006).gov/pubs2000/2000195. International Journal on E-Learning.bc. M. J. B. Government. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. K. (Eds. and Writing. 5(2). University of Howell. http://www. (Ed. & Laham. and Watt. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. D. H. http://escholarship. Tim (2006). (Eds. . V. and Malabonga. Hillsdale.) (2005). Mahwah.. Compiegne. Potenza. & Mason. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.pdf Landauer. J. A. 403-416. http://lsa. D.ed. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. http://www.. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. M. http://www. K. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. 259284. France. Handbook of writing research. and Gifford. and Ward. J.LSAintr o. R (2002). http://eric. and Hricko.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. (2001).edu/papers/dp1. 4(6). PA: Information Science. http://www. http://www. Hardas. (2005). NY: Guilford Press. http://llt. G. National Center for Education Statistics. and Ma. and Skinner..pd f Weiner. Online Assessment. & Leacock. M. In C. D.. R. Learning. Weller. D. May..msu. C. M.medianet. Information Science Publishing. Fitzgerald. http://www. Burstein. N.

Operitel white paper.operitel. http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation Do not reproduce 41 .

Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . According to Crofts et al. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. the rest of the file has time to arrive. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. while it is playing. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as .” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. (2005). The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising.5 megabytes.e. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. to personalized media). including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. such as those for iPods.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Assists non-native speakers. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Provides feedback to learners. Provides another channel for material review.. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. depending on the file size). including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. This frag-mentation is being fueled. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. (i. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. (i. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). in part. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. For example. or by “streaming.. You can’t add your own notes. One audio application of interest to educators. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. compared with even a few years ago. which is gaining in popularity. podcasting.e. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. is podcasting.

Audio and video including software to record and play podcasts. shareware. Microsoft Windows. Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in http://www. and utilities for conversion. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. http://www.htm For a list of podcasting tools. http://www.ibritt. and other operating systems. AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.elearningcentre. http://recap.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. recording.71. tools.rds. go to: http://www.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. phrases. sound editing. http://www.thepodcastnetwork.avsmedia.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. GNU/ including” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.audiotoolsdirect.envision. or sentences from audio Web sites. It is available to download for Mac OS X. and broadcasting are all found on this site. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.48.purdue. http://www. http://64. open source software for recording and editing sounds.masternewmedia. enhancing. x. http://sourceforge. DJ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. http://www.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. http://www.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. ex. Audacity is free. htm RECAP 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. CD audio extraction. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.

h tml Canali De Rossi. May 20. Dion Cory (1999). N. pdf Noakes. http://edmarketing. http://www. June 2005. and Higher Education 2003 ( s/AAI9929186 Sound Sense. 005/0506_trends Meng. M.aace.htm AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. (2003). Peter (2005). 2005. 417-419). Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). http://www. http://www.audiolink.cakewalk. Eva (2005).editlib. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. (2005).cfm?fuseactio Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Podcasts. Government. 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth.html Kaplan-Leiserson. http://dl.html Learning wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. July 2005. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. In e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Richards (Ed. Dave (2005).educause.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. http://www.scientificcomputing. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). http://www. http://digitalcommons. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Scientific Computing World. University of Nebraska. Healthcare.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Robin Good’s Blog. and Swenson. Luigi (2005). http://firstmonday. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. VA: AACE.learningcircuits. Brenda (2001). S. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. rofts/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio main. and Williams.masternewmedia.html Girvan. L. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Retsema. C. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Fox. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www.bias-inc. 44 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. 10(9).com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. and Lomas. September. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Doctoral Dissertation. Ray (2005).multitrackstudio. A. J. Dilley.. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). First Monday.. April

rapid elearning. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). please see http://www. There are other formal approaches to authoring great Since its acquisition of Macromedia. For details on each Microsoft product. and.brandonhall. simulations. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. Development. see: http://www. Design. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content Tools Related terms Assessments. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. In this vein. in the end. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. (For details. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. No authoring tool does everything. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Further. Implementation. 2005).s html). either directly or with third party tools. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. content development. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. As well. and Evaluation) processes.

info/ Allen Communications .com/ Business Performance Technology .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. Integrates various media. Builds quizzes. video.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.lersus.anark. http://www.Designer’s Edge.elearningpowertools. http://www. XML. and PowerPoint slides. music.Content Point . Webbased e-learning content quickly and For details on each Adobe Acroservices .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.0 – This device records and synchronizes Articulate .A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.turbodemo. http://www.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.composica. buttons.htm Bernard D&G . Anark .co.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. htm Composica .htm ActiveSlide.copycatsoftware. . and images and turn them into 3-D training. pop-up messages.Thinkcap Studio .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.accordent.htm Brainshark There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.thinkingcap.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.atlanticlink. visualization. hotspots. http://www.bridge-pt.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www. Enterprise . Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . and marketing applications. – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash oint-presentations-index.ilessons.acroservices.asp Bridge People and Technology . http://www. go to: http://www. http://www.allencomm. http://www. including the following: Drag-and-drop Counterpoint . pointers. video. http://www. Agile .com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. www.Capture Station 2.Media – Import 3-D video. rich

Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. ml E-Learning Consulting . Import rich media and customize graphics.experiencebuilders. http://www. Post the characters on any Web site. http://www. Information Transfer .com/ Hunter Stone . http://www. stand alone .Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.seminar. without programming Element K .asp Eedo Knowledgeware . and animation. or Macromedia Flash media presentations. http://www. http://www. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. Impatica .gen21.Digital Workshop .elementk. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different Eclipsys Corporation . creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. http://www. audio.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.lecturnity. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. HTML courses.shtml Dynamic Media .epistema. Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a imc AG .com/products/ Pro.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing Imaira Digital Media . http://www. http://www.hunterstone.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.e-learningconsulting. x_eng.php e2train .Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.eedo.exe files.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .eclipsys. and installation INTEC . http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .e2train. graphics. http://www. http://www.horizonwimba. DVD-video. Integrated Performance Systems .Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. CD Rom.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/products/forceten.digitalworkshop.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. such as the following: Web.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .com/ka.impatica.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. ng. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.

Word.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .knowledgepresenter. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. http://www.php MindOnSite .htm Kookaburra Studios .jsp Knowledge Planet . e.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.EasyProf .com/index. . http://www.ipsinc. Ready-made button and navigation aids.easyprof. http://www. http://www. graphics. Built-in testing – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.pdf Intuition .com/home/home.authoring tool based on Flash dex. Works with SAP Learning Solution. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.LEARNERLand – Text.knowledgeplanet.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. combining multimedia content like OPTX International KnowledgeXtensions . http://www. MyKnowledgeMap . shtml Itaca .mohive.htm MediaMaker .learnerland.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no NetPlay Software . http://www. with a built-in learning management system. and PowerPoint into a set of chure. centralized knowledge base.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest . McKinnon-Mulherin KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.elearninginabox.mindiq. PowerPoint slides. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. http://www. Learn.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management erv.maxit. http://www.Used to create presentations without programming skills. with no programming and no plugins. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning .mindonsite. audio. Has its own built-in learning management system.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.intuition. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia MindIQ .ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.

com/Products/elearnin g_objects. interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www.E-Learning Objects .com/ Savvica .p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .com/ Qarbon .Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. and course player all in one software package. http://nuvvo. PointeCast . When content is developed. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office Percepsys .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.shtml Reusable Objects . Do not reproduce 49 .cfm Serco (technical) . kiosks. http://www. matching games.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning m Techsmith .com/camtasia. a customizable. Audio.podiaOnDemand .techsmith.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. image hotspot activities.readygo. JPEGs.softchalk. http://www.asp TEDS .toolbook. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single mate.p hp?from=menu SumTotal Rapid Intake .com/sensasoluti on. image labeling. http://www.screenwatch. http://www. http://www. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. ateRefer.podia. http://www.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. French.In minutes. course ReadyGo . http://www.Nuvvo .or SCORMcompliant.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.htm podia . without knowing Scribe Studio .com/ SumTotal . http://www. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. http://www. and assessments. Courses can be posted.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www. http://www.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.students.qarbon. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.Publisher Professional . and er-web/sb_author. or Spanish.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.syberworks.rapidintake. Respondus .Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.respondus.htm Suddenly Smart . and highly interactive elearning content. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www. customizable flashcards.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.scribestudio.sensalearning.

win. McMullen.bloki.brandonhall. E.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. Blessing. http://workforceconnections. TrainVision .. Berlin: Springer. L.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . (2003). Government. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Melia. (2005).com/ US Government ..Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. or Network. S.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana interactive and intelligent educational software.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).com/products/products _xwb.lectora..oswego. and Brusilovsky. images.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.oswego. http://www. http://www. CD. De Bra. and rapid simulation. Healthcare.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . Montreal. and Riesbeck. Evanston. Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development Webex . (2005). T. Northwestern University. C. June 2005.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. Doctoral Dissertation.webex. content conversion. Illinois. Lin (2005). http://www. http://www. ime4you/ibt/en/start. http://www.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.trainvision. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. M. and Pahl. templates. (2005). SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.xstreamsoftware. Ramp. right in their browser with no additional software required. http://www.Presentation Studio . Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective Qiu. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. and host online inersoft/trainersoft8.pdf Murray.westcliffdata. www. 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. S. P.time4you. http://www. and text. http://www.2-conformant objects and assessments. publish blogs.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the www. http://www. and wizards.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. E.cs. http://www. and _rb40eval. C.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.htm Zapatec .uk/ s/edmedia2005. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.tue.dol.time4you GmbH .

htm Tozman. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems.cfm?fuseactio s.htm Woodill. http://www. Reuben (2004). Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. Another new paradigm for instructional 005/tozman. http://www.editlib. E. http://www. Learning Circuits. AACE. Canada. (2005).brandonhall. October 004/tozman. Sunnyvale. A. Masters Thesis. Reuben (2005). Technical June 2005..learningcircuits.sis. CA: Brandon Hall Research. NL. http://www. 2004. Vancouver. Eindhoven. Learning Circuits.s html Do not reproduce 51 .learningcircuits. The myth about tools.2005). BC.htm Tozman. W. 2005.pitt. http://www2. Nov. Gary (2005).

com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.sculptoris. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.Avatars Related terms Agents. In some situations. Similarly. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. Pick a character at: ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. and generally simulates human activity. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. http://blogoehlert. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.typepad. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. games. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. In the context of elearning. http://www. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. especially in gamebased learning activities. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. http://www.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online 2006/07/top_20_educatio. for example. the avatar may represent an actual human being. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.” Maldonado et al. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. but in e-learning. in the broadest sense.telsim. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.

co. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. http://www. New An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. http://isnm.exodus..Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.. In T. H. (2005).com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. K. 503DES-H. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . Chan (Eds.. http://www.. http://www. http://www. and Nodder.Training Education & Education International Conference.oddcast. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. In the toolkit.redwoodelearning. Inc. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. (2004). Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Lee. Ahad.vcom3d. and Morishima.” which are avatars that teach.knowledgeenvironments.stanford.pdf Jung.tmmy. C. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.W. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. 2003. Suthers. http://ww. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. http://www.pdf edings_03/pdf/255. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. 2005. A. H..pdf Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. Nass. S. and SI. (2005). Bibliography Deuchar. Aug. http://www. http://www. Yamada. J. and Weber. Koschmann.daden. Try them at: http://www.elearningguild. B. Iwamura.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. www.. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning New York-based Oddcast Inc. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. M.. offering a large number of supportive functions.. Raj (2003).pdf Online Resources In Europe. D. users are represent-ed as avatars.naccq. Nakajima. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. eLearning Developers’ Journal. R.html 2005 . Nexus Media. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. modular ado. C. Y.

Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the


However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the


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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > 26753.html ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs)

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at:

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs)

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique., July 14.,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. w.pdf

Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. m#feature


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Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. ( What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. ( The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >


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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. n/browsers_list.php3

Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/ m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch., July 30, 2006. 072900038.html?referrer=email


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2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. and military settings. costs can be an issue. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. The devices keep students alert and involved. the costs and headaches multiply. Beatty. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.” In spite of the costs. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. http://www. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. classroom communication systems.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. display. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . management. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. increasing their motivation to learn. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. training the faculty member to use the software. 2006. higher education. giving almost instant feedback. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. clickers.einstruction. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. integrated with other types of learning technologies. corporate. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. or clickers. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. The use of clickers has several advantages. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom.

http://www. 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. http://umperg.learnstar.ubc. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.smartroom.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.pearsoned. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting es/cps/ECARCRS. 7 things you should know about… o/labinstructions/ No.gtcocalcomp. Inside CUA.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view ce-response-systems/index. http://www. http://inside. http://www.pdf Burnstein. The Physics Teacher.aclearn.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.elearning. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. http://www.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).utexas. 41(5). http://www. Research Bulletin. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.cua. http://www.physics. July 7. http://www. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.qwizdom. 2004. 3. https://sharepoint. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications 7002. E-Learning Dialogue. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.campustechnology.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. Eric (1997). Tom (2004). Peer Instruction: a user’s textbook. http://www.pearsonncs.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. 3. Volume The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on (2003). http://www.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. Feb. R. and Lederman. Anne (2006). including material on the use of classroom response systems. http://www. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. Ian (2004). http://www. March 3.” http://www. Q. 272-275. Educause Learning Initiative. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. pdf Cassidy.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community erwrite. NJ: Prentice udienceResponseSystems/Home.h-itt.umass. http://www.pdf 60 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. Upper Saddle River.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.

pdf Do not reproduce 61 .itee. Melbourne.uq. 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.

many respond. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . evaluation.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. doing. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. and Advanced Reality – Jybe . and There are many different ways to collaborate..html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. through brainstorming). Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. reduction.teamspace. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. social networking building. http://www.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www. The Institute for the Future..g.html?ad-main Annotea . it requires skill and experience. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web ndex. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. e. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.advancedreality. organization. social bookmarking. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a organize. http://www..g. collaborate. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.zoho.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. clarification.

http://www. instant messaging. http://www. with templates and workflows for product development. version control. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. and instant access to the group ps5664/ps5669/ BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. document versioning. and Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of Digite – Digite Enterprise .com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.brightidea.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business. collaborative file management. markup of data. jot down notes. http://www. and individual users.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.citrix.w3. intellectual property management.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of Atinav – aveComm . and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . http://www. and meeting manager. and upload photos. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). search.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access.jsp Engineering. http://www.bookmarks. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. discussion forum.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . and communicate with others.Unified MeetingPlace .bluetie. Includes document organization and sharing.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. and communication. contacts. and instant messaging.Documentum eRoom . project planning and and information technology adoption. t/index. share information.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates . flexible workflow.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations Blenks – In-team . http://www. EMC² Central Desktop – Central Desktop . alerts.centraldesktop.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. Presence (see who’s online). share files. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration m/ Cisco . Web conferencing. voice and data collaboration. http://www. recordable Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). s/product.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently.inteam. expert location.avecomm. non-profit. robust document Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. http://www. and searchable discussion threads. Features include IM. http://www. http://www.digite. education. http://www. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.courseforum. http://software. calendar. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://www.

Soon to be integrated with Microsoft and organizational process performance.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . resource information sharing. easy to use online collaboration system.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single ation. Features include the following: Accessing documents. http://groups. product quality assurance.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. http://www. The system streamlines project planning. categorizing. presentation Exact Software – e-Synergy . with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. http://www. project management.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. powerful. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.shtml Hewlett Packard . and team management. http://collaboration. allow members to update and edit EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .forumone. and images. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.gliffy. Web-based extranet tool. snapshots. conducting Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. software construction. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. search. and sending workflow tasks.exactamerica.gordano. tracking the status of assignments. invite workspace members. Features include interactive data collaboration. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over It provides working groups with simple.features a project navigator. http://www. share files and documents. secure. http://www. quantitative project management. data and process tracking. and creating action plans. http://www. universal file viewer for MS office Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration .htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. http://www. drawing tools. scheduling and using Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. http://www. eZmeeting . http://www.ezmeeting. voting. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. It has tools for managing multiple teams. /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web /GSII. http://www. require-ment and risk management. assign file editing rights and completion Flypaper – Teamspace – The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. meeting. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. and corporate instant messaging. Forum One – ProjectSpaces . cameras. desktop sharing and remote desktop control.facilitate. attach threaded discussions to files. recording and playback.Live meetings and Web Google – Google Groups – Create. 2001. including whiteboards. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.groove.epam-pmc.flypaper.Halo Collaboration Studio . and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.hp. interactive desktop sharing. and document management.groupsupport.

php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point . any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student Interwoven . and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. http://www. and shared iLinc Communications .com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. http://www.hotComm . customers. and file commenting. Outlook. folders. integrates with MS Office. http://www.jotlive. http://www. http://www.uwc. search archiving.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.Jotspot Live. Customizable Web directory.hyperoffice.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . Integrated suite of multiuser.jdhtech. http://www.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. video. Features include the following: Document management. online JotSpot . and customers on the Web.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with Apps.mspx Do not reproduce 65 .iceweb.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.webofficepoint. eting/default. Using Mayetic collaborative and secured fashion – up to 399 users.inquesttechnologies. http://www. peer-to-peer. Features include the following: Shared calendars.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. online contact management. Functions include the following: Share documents. security levels. podcasting. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. Features include the following: Business email.Lotus QuickPlace . http://kgroups. http://www03.interwoven. and photos.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. online calendar. http://www. and provides search. contacts.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration and Lotus Notes. a powerful. voice. blogs (Weblogs). online document management. structured. Web resources.kGroups provides a number of tools. discussion forums. an interface to a mailing list server. image libraries. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. and extensibility. ment_management/index. cts. http://www. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . realtime chat.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. instant messaging and presence indication. task manager.mayeticvillage. and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www. and http://www. versioning control. and secure peer networking Microsoft – Live Meeting . including file sharing. data. link sharing). including versioning. a Wiki. private interactive access or exchange of IBM .A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks

and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.Corporate quality communications center. http://www. http://www. file transfer.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. Workflow Automation. team events. task management.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. audio and Webcam. Enables Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . real-time application sharing. organize and discover content through categories and tags.performancesolutionstech. text chat. see each other in real time using – eStudio . and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. providing the best of both worlds.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management.mspx Near-Time – Flow .Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. resources. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. http://www. tasks. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. and systems both within and beyond the organizational ml Parlano – MindAlign . http://www. Within each area. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. Oracle .santacruznetworks.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages.Rallypoint . moderator functions. http://www. instant messaging. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.Community Zero . calendaring. share knowledge. http://www. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. and Same-Page.parlano. http://www. processes.A suite of persistent group messaging. http://www. information.novell. MyWorldChat Communicator .com/ Santa Cruz Networks . and share data or applications while they are online. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain Novell – Groupwise .Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Raissa Publishing – and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research . Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. called an online community. Allows people to talk to each other. author and review pages individually and across the group.Microsoft – SharePoint . instant messaging. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.communityzero. milestones. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www. http://myworldchat. and contact and document management functions. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. and presence management solutions. Document http://www. and MP3 audio Ramius . schedule and track events and activities. and communicate.html Rallypoint .

search.cyber-grad. Use it out of the box. project teams. collaboration. http://www. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. http://groups. documents. and business relationships. Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with ent/0. http://www. voice and Web ShareMethods – ShareMethods . live video. project.2097.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration .com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . or use it to build a Web application.sitescape. partners.WebAsyst enables users to implement view and edit documents or images together. and business partners. workflow and task management. desktop document folders. /stcollab. http://www.vignette. http://www. instant /2005. http://www.webasyst.html Trichys – WorkZone . shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.seldensystems. chat server. and use live audio. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. Designed specifically for the non-technical Includes VoIP.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . and calendaring tools.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. FTP server.viack.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.trichys. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.Processes email. calendar sharing. http://www. Web conferencing server (in-house). and real-time communications such as presence Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to and ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite.00.25.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. XML-RPC server. http://www.sharemethods. and other business communications.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients.Forum ZX .yahoo. SiteScape .Collaboration software that includes document Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . productivity applications. http://www. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. e-mail server. and instant messaging. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. http://www.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. and more.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. Webbased whiteboarding. expertise. SpiderWeb Communications . and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. Vignette . newsgroup server. store files.04.stalker. http://www. and breakout groups. and prospects – without leaving their desks. threaded discussions. application sharing. and information sharing. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .

assign tasks. and collaboration to timesheet management. custom HP .tomoye.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online onProject – myonProject .Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. form to submit questions.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.projectdox. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www.Projistics . http://www. and data into a single storage online management for projects of any size and scope. affordable. and save to disk icon. data.nagarro. review button. Access to the tool is also given to clients. discussions. project planning. invoicing.peoplecube.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . http://www. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.saba. giving all team members constant online access to needed Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. calendars. Share multiple projects with multiple users. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. video. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single software_development_project_manageme nt. Works with Microsoft feedback. PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .generation. Project/Open – Project/Consulting . http://www. applications.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.project-open. http://www. http://www. OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and Web pages.brevient. navigation. http://www. http://www. applaud and meter. and e-mails.hp. nProducts/Products.nexprise. project tracking.Web event calendaring.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. attendee 68 © Brandon Hall Research .Features include Hands up. annotation tools. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. http://www. scaleable.caucus.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.teamdynamix. scheduling solutions. http://www. and communicate with their project teams. exit and help. http://www. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. set user permissions.Instant Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.onproject. identify and resolve potential problems. http://education. print icon. connects Nagarro .A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. and payments.Intuitive project management software for work teams.0 .com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.elluminate." virtual collabor-ation.HP Virtual Classroom . and share documents.axista.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. content button.opmcreator. private/group chat. whiteboard pages.

com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. http://www. meeting management. Multilingual.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . For example.linktivity. hand raising.genesys. http://www.mixmeeting. application _imc. broadcasts files.Photon Infotech – SPARK . ew/16/108/ messaging. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .com/ Linktivity Division.batipi. sales presentations. including Web conferencing. breakout rooms. keyboard and voice mples.intralinks. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. and collaboration features. http://www. http://www. shared desktop.LiveOffice provides Web-based. pre-recorded broadcasts. private whiteboards for each participant. and content display. and real-time videoconferencing. and by whom. and Webconferencing specialists. and text Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. desktop sharing.elluminate. and meetings.communiqueconferencing.photoninfotech. e-mail invites. shared whiteboard and present-ation. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. instant Do not reproduce 69 . and more. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. live demos. remote control. Record classes or Webcasts. and phone use. transparency tools. video. and Web conferencing with internet_conferencing.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. notes. http://www.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. polling and quizzes. Webcasts.Synchronous Webconferencing software. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. annotations. online classes. http://www. http://www. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. visual.glance. record and playback. and a change presenter ability. Allows holding live.ivocalize. online seminars. session reports.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .interwise. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. guest lectures. URL sharing. virtual office hours.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. http://www. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time.0 . teleconferencing. and videoconferencing. video. attendee lists. http://www. Features include shared documents. and collaborative content-building Intralinks . learning. http://www. how often. http://www. synchronous online Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.Delivers unlimited iVocalize .asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www.A secure. http://www. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. instant messaging.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. toll-free conference calling.adobe. Web. integrated content management system.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple.liveoffice. e-learning classrooms.horizonwimba. http://www. office hours.

VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. show rich multimedia content and documents.meetingone. Webinars. share other applications. http://www. or meeting.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . http://www.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. http://www.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . http://carbon. and moderation of Webcasts. any application.vodium. and into the A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. present PowerPoint slideshows. http://www.telnetz. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. tour Web sites. and desktop videoconferencing services.cudenver.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. and instant messaging capabilities. http://www. text messaging. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.wave3software.Combining audio and Web conferencing the Internet. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.edufolio. Solutions include Web meetings. Web conferencing. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.webex. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. http://www. or an entire desktop.voxwire. e-learning. and system management. ing.Powers online WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. http://www. remote support. conference calling.netspoke. Requires only a browser and a phone.Meeting One – Click& ervices. audio. publishing. Present courseware in a synchronous online WebTrain – Communicator 4 . Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . set up labs and conduct quizzes.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual Radvision – Click to Meet . teleconferencing. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. send text messages. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. surveys. http://www. discussion forums. course.To support large deployments.raindance. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. and document collaboration.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . http://www. With the convenience of online access through an individual WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . The suite manages the creation.radvision. http://www.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.Web and audio conferencing Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).

http://cde. 2006. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Bill (2004). Collaborative Strategies. Fred (2002).html Do not reproduce 71 rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.globalschoolnet.htm Butler.collabtech.criticalmethods. Brazil. Creating an eCommunity. http://www. David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. September. Japan on July 13-14. http://collaboration. S. 2002. scientific. Q2Learning White Paper. 2003. Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.. http://www.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Curtis (2002).. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. K. Web The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. http://www.collaborationloop. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. J. http://www.mitre. also has a great list of collaboration gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. 2002.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE x.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.. Komzak.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. http://www. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).soton. and Coleman. Nov.htm Mitre Corporation. http://www. (2003).com/groupware/in dex. also known as “groupware. J. A.pdf Bonk. Bryan (2006) 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. and businesses to provide collaborative and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. T.thinkofit. D.ctcevents. Michaelides. Potter. S. M. N. http://eprints. http://www. http://www. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.. and Tate. Maceió.asp?bhcp=1 es/clo_feature.kolabora. Models of collaboration. Nov.1:100250. March/April 4. communities. Page.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer..diglib.usabilityfirst.” http://www. 41(2). http://www.. Shadbolt. Sign up for free at: http://www. M. http://www. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.. De Beshears. (2004).1 Bibliography Alexander. D.springerlink. J.. Dalton. http://www. Buckingham ces. http://www.writely. D. Chief Learning Officer.

Aavani. http://www. W. P. August 2002. J. Proceedings. CA. http://www. http://www. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. Kirschner. J. Educational Technology & Society. Elliot. (2002). (2005).. R.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. http://www. 5(1).learningcircuits.masternewmedia. M. and Forster. 827-829). 5(1).. January 2005. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Kirschner.htm Canali De Rossi. A.htm Canali De hnology_of_cooperation. D. and Thomas.Canali De Rossi. J. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. http://www. May 2. and Miller. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. Palo /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.athabascau. Carlsen. January 21. K. ( 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. P. Gibson. Soren (2002). and Sharifi. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Munkvold. Robin Good Blog. McFerrin.htm Canali De Rossi. and Jochems. A. http://www. June 5.. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. R. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. In Crawford. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. A.) (2004). http://wscg. http://cde. http://www. /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. 5/Poster/J03-full. J.. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Luigi (2005). Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. & Weber. 3. /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. (2002).masternewmedia. London: Springer-Verlag...pdf 002/kaplan. D. Sept.cfm/files/pape r_12386. Findlay. Chesapeake.cmswatch. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. http://www.N.editlib. Willis. (2004). R.htm # /ewing. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . and Martens. Educational Technology & Society. CMS Watch. Collaboration First. C.masternewmedia.) (2003). Institute for the Future White Paper.. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Technologies of Cooperation. Matthew (2004). VA: AACE. Bjorn (Ed. June 22.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. D. Robin Good Blog. (Eds. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. June 30. Learning Circuits. Luigi (2004b). ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports.pdf Kaplan. Luigi (2003b).pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Luigi (2004a). J. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education .editlib. Robin Good Blog.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. University of Athabasca.html Kreijns. (2004).. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi ( Robin Good Blog. Live I.. /kreijns. J.html Hurst.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing.). Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. 2004. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.masternewmedia. (2002). R.. Robin Good Blog. http://www. Price.html Institute for the Future (2005). Then Knowledge Management.rheingold. http://www. Luigi (2003a).

com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. & Purnell.. ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . 24.Norwell. K. http://www. Innovation and Development. Nov. 1(2). G. Callan. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. MA: Kluwer Academic http://sleid. J. Studies in (2004).

re-usable. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. including communications tools.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.conversate. whiteboards.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.jisc. http://www. blogs. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. chat.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. discussion discussion forums. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. telephony.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. It is being developed into a transportable. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and yet tailored and flexible. a process referred to as “text labs. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. For example.” http://goldenswamp. and videoconferencing in an educational context: Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. instant messaging. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the ml The Learning Place in Queensland. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . UK.janison. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning developed in Brazil. Find her work at: http://64.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of messaging. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. telepresence. For Laurillard. http://www. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. VoIP. Hegarty et al.

html Laurik. (2004).elearningcentre..htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. elegi/session1/paper6. http://www.charityvillage. e-Book. distance-learning course at Keele University.htm http://www. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. London: Routledge. http://hbswk.pdf LaCroix.pdf Kadirire.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . and telephony tools. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational rmed35. British Journal of Educational Technology.fasfind. E-Learning 1. 2005 http://www.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.html Laurillard. Hegarty. University of Birmingham. and Wales.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S. J. chat. Developing a successful e-mail Nick (2002). Pattie (2005). UK. 2002.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. http://cde. M. http://www2. http://www. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. .gov.learningcircuits.hbs. and Cerri. 31 (3). Diana (1993). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 2002.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. (Mlearn 2002). J. Working Knowledge /sb%20cf%20tool. R. 31. Bostock.. Sven (2002). > http://www. Komzak.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic .cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. S. International Journal on E-Learning. 2004. and Collins. Francis. (2005). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. University of Warwick.ngfl.warwick.. 19. I. (2002). and s. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. Aug.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. and s/im. Technologies of Online Learning. (2004). In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. 13-20. CAP Jan. Mark (2004). M.pdf s/ Learning Circuits. Garner. http://ewic. June.editlib. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. http://www. (2000). September esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. JulySept. http://www.html Morgan. University of CharityVillage.formatex.elearningcentre. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. James (2005). Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. Computer Mediated 002/ Library. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. http://safety.thinkofit.

J. and Briggs. 20-21. June. (2002). http://dircweb. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. 2002. A.king.Stone. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .ac.

For a large list of competencies for physicians. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 .itsc. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. diagnose symptoms.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. 2000). 2005). performance appraisal. and carry out proper procedures. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical Physicians need to be able to gather data.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source organizational and personal goals are tied together. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the dex. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Edwards Deming.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. In 1973. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. skills. W. https://launchpad. skills /Competencies. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. competency-based training. David McClelland. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Description According to Sanders (2001). go to: www. a Harvard psychologist. see below) and performance or talent management systems. entering defined competencies into a matrix.imsproject.” it started in 1950 with Dr. skills inventory. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries.

regardless of industry or sector. es/clo_article. Sudipta (2005).asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 and development interventions. Benjamin (1956).edu/paprog/ Oracle Learning Management System http://www. http://www. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. http://www. Chief Learning 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment Building a skills ethods/assment/as7scans. (1982).com/20 050425/ 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.desire2learn.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.expresscomputeronline. measurement. http://www.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional.cipd. http://www. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. objectives. April New York: David McKay. http://www. April. http://www. a Canadian has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most n_resources/learning. Josh (2006). http://www. Express Computer.learningcircuits.” IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. For 78 © Brandon Hall Research . Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.cpgvision. http://www. Ken (2000).com/ Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.learnflex. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.shtml Hogg.wmich. htm Many companies have their own competency 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.clomedia. Competency and competency frameworks. Clare (2005). New York: AMACOM.syberworks. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Read their white paper at: http://www.htm Online Resources HRSG.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. R. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: 001/competencies.ncrel. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. See the list of competencies at: http://www. London: Wiley.html The U..

A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. (2000). Fall 2000. Rankin. http://www. S. Cambridge. (1999). and 001/competencies. Competency Frameworks. The Psychology of Abilities. http://www. Creating a Culture of http://www. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . pp. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Whiddett. 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. E-Learning Competencies. Rankin. G. S. David. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. March 2001. Study 706.28. F. (2004).) (2003). University of Toronto. Gary (2004).amazon. UK: Cambridge University Press.blogspot.linezine. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. and Cahorn. (2003). and Ethan (2001).html Sternberg. 2005.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services.. Godfrey (2005).html Radsma. London: IRS. Miller. and Hollyforde.collectionscanada. (2001). http://parkinslot. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative /DispForm. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy.cipd. /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. Operitel Corporation. April 30. P. P. White paper from Operitel Corporation. (Eds. 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. http://www. and Neathy. London: and Epstein. N.1/features/ewet te. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley. v. (2001). Ellen (2000). Sanders. Competencies. Michael. N.pdf ompetency-based-learningmanagement. Competency based learning management. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland.htm Parkin. (1973). Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. London: IRS. Parkin’s Lot. E. http://www. http://www.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. American Psychologist. White paper. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. (2001). http://www. Master's t/competnces/comptfrmwk. 1-14. (2005). L. N.operitel. http://www.

Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Learning objects.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. displaying a course catalogue. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons.” http://drupal.atutor. such as registering users. the standardized railway system still works while private. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. First. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. in fact. and “topic maps. rather than complementary. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business 80 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. http://www.” He adds that “vendors such as Drupal is an open source content management system. and reporting. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Unfortunately. I feel that closed. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. launching courses.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. According to its official Web site. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. If you could afford it. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. They have designed competitive. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” As well. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. 2006).” such self-contained systems have been described as being. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. to date. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. you could hire a company to build a private. With the advent of learning objects. Today. manage. LCMS. functionality to an ECM. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Repositories. 2005.edtechpost.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 .. June 9. AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. http://plone. Ed. and Brantner. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. B. C. Scott (2005). > > http://www. 2003. C. 2005.topicmap. http://www. http://www.educause. Jafari. May/June. http://www. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. Van (2005). (2006). Cisco Corporation White Paper. George (2003). (2005). Chief Learning Officer Magazine.html McGee.clomedia. es/clo_article. http://sakaiproject. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. http://www. May 15. Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.topicmaps. Content Management: our organized future. Curtis (2005).co. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. March 2005.) (2005). http://www.e-learningcentre. Gerry (2003). (2003). Hershey. 18.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. http://www. January onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. Budapest.html Cisco Corp. elearnspace blog.gerrymcgovern.pdf Weigel. San Jose. New Thinking Blog. Why content management software hasn’t Bibliography Bonk.htm Siemens. http://travelinedman. and publish to multiple outputs. TravelinEdMan blog. reuse in many places. March erm0533. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Learning Solutions. S. 2005.pdf Cohen.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. G. and Carmean. ( Leslie. Strategies for managing scalable content. McGovern. P.htm t_2003_03_03_cms. EdTechPost blog. PA: Idea Group. ntmanagement. http://www. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. Dec. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. 2003. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. S. A. and Oliveira. (2004).. Educause Review. 40(3). Retalis. http://www.asp Woodill. “Monoliths.

Luan and Willett. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. 2001). This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). knowledge discovery.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. delivery models and infrastructure investment. personalization methods. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Consequently.

California. (2000). http://www. Do not reproduce 83 . (2004). K. What’s Not. Australia. x.kdnuggets. knowledge discovery. by applying fuzzy entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. http://imej.reeltwo. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. AAAI Press/MIT Press.convera.usyd. http://www. http://www. Long dex. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. http://www. Alex (2002). S. Samuel (Ed. Uthurusamy.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. and Kamel. Robert (2002). U. Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. Smyth. and Tschiedel.pdf -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. (1996). and Web mining. Data Mining: What’s New. Both products are from Convera. Grigoriev. (cited in Luan and Willett. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. New York: Springer. and Smyth. New York: Springer.pdf Iskander. Piatetsky-Shapiro. 1996. Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data hammouda-elearning. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. pp. G. B.. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. and R. http://pami. G.. 68(8).soul.. edited U. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. http://www. B.uwaterloo. In Pierre.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. P.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. (2006). Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.pdf Fayyad. P.. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.cs. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.html Hammouda.amstatonline. M. School Business Affairs. text roducts/product_profile/smart.pdf book-springer-ukc. ted/Deveaux. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.cs. G.html Bibliography De Veaux. Lange. Piatetsky. M Fayyad. http://pami. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. 1--34. 13-16 http://asbointl. Data Mining in e-Learning. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Feb. P.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical 2001) http://www.

pdf Merceron. Yacef (2004). 39-40. analyze for more adaptive teaching. 3(1).com/PaperInfo.compmech. May 17-22. Advances in Management Information. C. 52-59. 2006. Porto. http://www. 47-55.. and Minguillon. Innsbruck.pdf gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. http://www.cnrs. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. International Journal on ELearning. and K. RP Conference Presentation.ejel.informatik. Gord (2004). MA: WIT Press. S.unisb. (2004). Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). C. and Cheung. Romero. A. J. David (2005).pdf Mor. http://archiveedutice. A.. 7(1). A. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. http://www. http://www2004. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. Austria. C. http://www. 2004 (7).aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. B. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004) DF/Merceron_Yacef.cabrillo. Japan. K. T. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. http://www.ags. Hiroshima.. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.pdf Loo. Scholl. and Willett. 15(4). K.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.html Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. http://imej. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. 319-346. (2001).pdf Pahl. and Vol 4.actapress. 3(4). Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Oct. (2006).pdf Merceron. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. ports/dmkm. dex. (2004).unikiel. In Proceedings.-Dec. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Billerica.pdf McCalla. and Ventura. and Ullrich. Yacef (2005). (2006).editlib. 641523. Merceron. 13-16. Fuzzy logic and data mining for n=Reader. Feb. and K. 264. Maomi (2004). (2004). Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. Train. 41-54. http://wwwjime. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. J. store. 238-241. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Claus (2004). A.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . http://csdl2.wfu. Data Mining in e-Learning. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).

au/dss/grassgro/index sion_support_tool/index.hut.decisionarium. For The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. http://www. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.utoronto. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.tkk. http://www. 3) vote/prior-itize. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.sal. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. http://www.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. in their case study of medical education. 2) categorize. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . http://www. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such Facilitate. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. 4) develop an action plan. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). and 6) document results. http://www. http://www.bnhexpertsoft. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. 5) carry out a survey. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.une.

238-241. see: http://www. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. Hamalainen. In Proceedings. Porto. and Koskinen.pdf Frize. Hawaii.hut. Lange. Kankana (2005).fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. SIGGRAPH publication.unikiel.. Information Systems for a Connected Society.pdf Chakrabarty.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Rostanin. H.pdf Ounapuu.pdf Jantke. books. http://www. C. (2000).sal. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. http://www. B. http://www. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.pdf Ehtamo..are located in different places and have incompatible ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. and information on this area. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. 23(4).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. For newsletters. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. B. B. . R. Theresa (1998) ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/ SSpapers/ (2004). P. and (2003).meetingworks. 2005.uniserve. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Thalheim. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Enn (2005). Manchester. Grigoriev. http://www. 6-9. http://www. K. bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Gerhard (2003).html Scott. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis.2004.. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . Grieser.informatik.html Rhyne. Raimo (2003). K.sal. Dan (2003). M. Enn (2004).dssresources.hawaii.html Hamalainen. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Germany. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. http://www.hicss. G.actapress. Jim (2002).. Memmel. http://www. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects.bnhexpertsoft. and Tschiedel. June 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.hut. http://science. Portugal. 101-110..” http://dmoz.manchester. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. August 16-18.dfki. (2004). V.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Kauai.siggraph.pdf /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Aachen. http://www. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. 12(2-3). and Power. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. Thalheim. Jay (2004).html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. August. http://damit. M. http://www. http://www. Clinical and Investigative Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Online manuscript. Jan. http://dssresources. S.uottawa. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and E03DaMiT. White paper from BNH Expert Software. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf Jantke. 2004. 317-328.

http://www. T. http://science. Oct. (2006). PA: Idea Publishing. 2002. Vol. 9.. Hershey. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. CAL-laborate. de and M.the curriculum.ideagroup.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott. F.html Shimizu.

still/video camera. projectors.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. head mounted displays.theregister.” Selected Examples Samsung. intelligent overview NTERA. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. viewers see a floating midair image or video.io2technology. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. For air displays. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. In the near future. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.cmu. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. In regards to digital set/homeframeset. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. This can be a holographic image. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. digital paper. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.P rojector. http://www. /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.theregister. /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. in cooperation with Sony. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. monitors. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. big enough to be projected on large walls. lighting up theater size screens. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.Displays Related terms Digital ink. http://killer. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.ntera. Electronic paper could change that some day. By stacking a second projector.html Promera is a hand-held computer. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. electronic paper. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.siliconlight. > > http://www. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels.ices.

org/citation. (2005). Livingston.loaz.fogscreen. State. http://blog. Tim (2005).com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.unifreiburg. pages py/2005-eLearn. London: Springer. S.unifreiburg. 2005. Healthcare. and First Monday is a journal on new technologies.H.provisionentertainment... G.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.informatik. K.E. For a list of his publications.).php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Hirota. Richards (Ed.. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. http://thejournal. See a demo at: http://www. Vancouver. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Government. Germany. http://www..thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.firstmonday. E. ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the paper?start=0 T. see: http://ad.technorati. 3. 2005. it published a special issue on “Urban s.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.pdf Wang. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).acm. Dec. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in T. M. Whitton. M. Canada. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. (1996).jisc.. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . Largest LCD and video projection. Garrett.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. H.informatik. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Hamburg.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. To access the articles. http://www. Pisano. JISC Technology Watch White 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Oct. W. see: http://www. A. and In G. In 2005.

htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a s.foliotek. LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed 90 © Brandon Hall Research .pebblelearning. http://www.chalkandwire. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. open source electronic portfolio. 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this dex. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management ortfolio/default.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. http://www. maximum Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. thus. http://www.htm IMS. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www.livetext. My first report in this series. http://www.educause. evaluation. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www2.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.iwebfolio. and simple usability.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. http://isle.pupilpages. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. helping to transform education and training.elearnspace. http://www.htm p_bestv1p0.educa. http://www.paisley.osportfolio. http://www.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.elearningcentre. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents ortfolios. 2005). has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.

J. Gary (2004). http://www. Trent (2002). e-portfolios. 4. Feijen. 2004 http://www. July/ August 2004. white_paper_2005. (2004). D. W. Dublin. 28–37.criticalmethods. G.. and Wade. 16. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. J. Bibliography Achrazoglou. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. FD Learning White Paper. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. (2002). Online paper. and Werdmuller. Harvey. S.educause.campustechnology. Trinity College. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. (2004).pdf Batson. with many links. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. (2005) http://elgg. http://www. future thinking: digital repositories. Bob (2004). and esources/organisations/fd%20learning/ m0224. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. G. An Overview of e-Portfolios. vol. Business Communication Quarterly. M.. D. B. ePortfolios. Online. K. (2005).com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 .htm Tosh. http://www.becta. http://www.cfm Dubinsky. V. (2002)... University of /A5260. 3001. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. e-Portfolios: their use and J.pdf Greenberg.educause. and Hibbitts. Reflective learning.educause. Cook. 31(3). Creating new views on learning: erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. Dec. Light. 2005. Educause Quarterly.pdf Conway. 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. M0441. Lee.educause.. Fleming. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Dec.educause. elearnspace. an online resource on collaboration.. Bryde. no.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Fall. (Focus on Teaching). A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. (2003). On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. http://www.. College of Education http://www. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. B. T. April 1. http://www. Online Paper.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens.pdf Lorenzo.. 39. (2005). and Haywood. has a section on e-portfolios.. Educause Review.elearnspace. Educause Quarterly. http://www. Frederick (2005). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of m0441. http://www. Love. J. G. http://ferl. George (2004). B. Vol 27 No 4. dscape.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. THE Journal Online.doc olios. 37(2).com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. and Ittelson. http://www. Graham (2005).

C.http://www. research.3/tosh. http://www. and portfolios. & h/ Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.A. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of ml Young..cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .citejournal. 2(2). 144-169. (2002).cjlt.A. M.

jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. from the University of Wisconsin. identity work. There is a free 30-day trial version. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . edit.thinkingworlds. writing about “first person shooter games. allows members of a game development team to work together. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. This game allows users to play. The toolset. simulations. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.secondlife. Constance Steinkuehler. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. complex problem solving. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in http://us. Try them out at: > > > > > serious games.freescale. and learning (Amory. as such.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. Dr. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.facebook. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. Cyworld. games. dubbed XNA Studio. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.” says that “in the mod world. Examples include / Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. and Second Life. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game http://www. 2003). For a brief review of these Softimage. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. Marc Prensky (2003). has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). create. http://www. play.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. http://www. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. MySpace.hive7. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. helping speed up the game creation http://www. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.clickteam. http://www. see: http://news. 2005). http://www. In 2005.

com/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. http://www. along with their Web sites. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at:” Read her research at: http://website. http://www. http://www.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. Many of their learning games resources are free.seriousgamessummit. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.uga.aspx urces.wisc. ames/default.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video implementation. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.digiplay. The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). Sign up at: The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the 94 © Brandon Hall Research .it-c. See the selection of games at: http://www. Canada. You can read about them at Pluginz. Started in North The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. researchers.gdconf.seriousgames.mpjgaBKQ Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.for the Xbox.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games or go directly to the Softimage Web site.siggraph.softimage. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.coe.htm Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.programmersheaven. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games. http://it. For They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. http://www. > > 8/ Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development” http://www. produces educational games for training. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.htm Dr. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games. Review them at: Inc.nasaga.pluginz.

http://www. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.itc.iicm. New York: Cambridge University Press. /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. 2006. Oct. Clifton Park. and Chen. Hawaii. Bob (2005).amazon. January 2.php Rieber.teachableagents. 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. R. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Xplanazine. http://www. Beers. C. ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Bryan (2006). Language Learning and Technology. 17-22. 9(1). Technology Trends for the Year. 2003.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.cambridge. Mayer (Ed. 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Simon (2005).msu.pdf Bergeron. http://www..pdf Michael. Lloyd (2005).) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Multimedia learning in games. D. N. C. http://www. 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. 2006. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. and 19. Rob (2006b). Emerging Technologies: Messaging. N.ukzn.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.pdf sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. (2005).. (2005). In Richard E. Dreher. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. . H.pdf Prensky..wisc. S. (2006). and Swamy. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.xplanazine. June. 2005. Gupta. Fourth Quarter. Rob (2006a). Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. and Biswas. and Michael. June 25-28. http://www.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Train. Doctoral dissertation. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Xplanazine. Marc (2003). (2005).org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. March 10. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Chapter 33. University of Wisconsin Madison. Honolulu. Serious Games: Games That a2003. and Inform.. IT-University Copenhagen. http://www. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.pdf Godwin-Jones. Jan. (2005). G. http://website. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://www. Learning on Demand Bulletin. http://www. http://www. 2003. simulations and 2005. pdf /01/technology_tren. ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Constance (2005). NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. see: http://www. http://www.php Reynolds. Games and Education = Oil and Water. http://jason. Alan (2003). http://llt. Developing Serious Games.xplanazine. Clifton Park. Williams.marcprensky. Gaming. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.Bibliography Amory.uwf.pdf /03/games_and_educa. D.

Tye.msu. http://woz. Jason (2004). Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Masters theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004.commtechlab.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .

com/~ccohen/gesture . such as Markov models. FG2008. 2003. FG2006. and robotics in elearning. Aug. looking for particular sequences.cybernet. 3. (2005). Michael (2003).tudelft.ecs.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. Nicole (2001). is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. affective computing. http://www.fg2008.soton..” http://mplab. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . was held in Southampton. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. Porta. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. http://www.fg2006. Artificial intelligence techniques. April 10-12 2006. For a list of papers: http://www. 18. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. L. London. F. play an important role in gesture and facial expression Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition 803DES. http://www. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. Lombardi.html Research by Dr.smartkom. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Bibliography Allen. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Munich.elearningguild. M.pdf Borghi. Ludwig-Maximilians University. at the University of Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. http://www. Report No. 2008. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.pdf Beringer. including identifying commercial products. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. artificial intelligence. March. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. UK.

aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. X. http://www. Shi-Kuo (2000). http://www. paper/1997/ ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou.1109/ICALT. T.pdf Daugman. M. 21(9). A. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.pdf Ebert. Setlock. S.. A.. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).xml&DOI=10.aspx? PaperID=21655 27-30. P. Deller.ercim.. and Koike.F (1999). A. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. (1997). http://www. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. Park. Y. S. Vancouver... In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. and Chang. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. 2004. Sato.1 50 Nakanishi. C. (2005). Lai. 675 .ucsb.D..clayton. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. P. J. http://csdl2. (2003).recveb. http://doi. Lee. Gao.. Y.acm. Visualization. 47(1). ws/enw63/ Lee.cse. Y. http://www.ieeecomputersociety. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Wong. J.html 0/paper/or03/027.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. and Yang. J. and Bobick. Chen. http://www.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.2000. and Bender. PA. (2005).fsu. Geiger. and Carreira. http://www.pdf Corradini. Proceedings.. Canada W. (2002).iscslp2006. 884 – 900. J.110 9/CMPSAC. http://www. Y. Fussell.. September 2002. G. M. and Poggio. 1999. H.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. (2002). Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . Korea. A. British Columbia.. (2004). http://cbcl. L. C. R.pdf Ou.. and Cohen.pdf /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. ns/ps/siggraph02. IEEE Transactions. D. 2000. 242-245.actapress. Michael (2004). (1997). M. IEEE Transactions. January. http://interact. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. In Proceedings. l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.676 encedwall. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Toc. October 14-16. (2000). In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. July 22-27. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. C.rutgers. In Proceedings.884693 Chen. (2004).. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). J. 19(7). Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. 442-446. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. http://portal.pdf Wilson.actapress. Face and gesture recognition: overview. J. and Wong.pdf Peixoto. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. C.2005. L. July 1997.Computer Communication. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. and Kim. Las Vegas. and Ma. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. Computer vision in the interface. (2005)..ogi. Communications of the ACM.

2533–2543. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.illumination 2004:16.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .hindawi. http://www. Designing Web-Based Training. Download a copy: http://www.corel.Graphics Tools Related terms p.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. rendering.acdamerica. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. and playback.adobe.html Blender .html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. interactive creation. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.broderbund. e-Learning By Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. Nevertheless. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. In acquiring Canvas Professional http://www. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.autodesk.blender3d. animation. the same principles apply to user interface 100 © Brandon Hall Research .2.0.avs. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. and in his recent 2006 book. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.techillustrator.

Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).carto. http://www. The most listings are for 3-D San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.smartdraw. Japan · Sept 7-10. http://www. Proceedings. http://www.pdf Qiu.IBM CATIA Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the Tools and Techniques for ELearning. aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 http://www. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture. atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration (2004). New York: John Wiley.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. ED-Media Conference.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 Germany.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. http://esub. William (2006).itedo. X.xaraxtreme. Richards (Eds.). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).co. William (2000).cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D Kommers & G. Tokyo. hics. http://www. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. NY: John Wiley.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. SmartDraw Gloria (2004). Do not reproduce 101 .com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. A. In P.3dlinks. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.stcphoenix. June 1-3. Potsdam. (2005). Designing WebBased Training. e-Learning by Design. http://www. and Uyar.pdf McConnell. Fu-Kwan (2004).com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books William (1991). Tools Usage Survey

Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Frances (2004). CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire. http://www. CT: Graphics. Edward (2001). Envisioning Information. Evidence and Narrative . CT: Graphics Press. al/ Carolina Chapter. Cheshire. Edward (1997).com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.pdf Tufte. Cheshire. 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . The Visual Display of Quantitative http://www.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess 2nd 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Edward (1990). http://www. When used approp-riately.html http://www. Finally. m_ghost/phantom. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.” http://www. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.handshakeinteractive.sssup.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. especially when training motor skills and physical me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.mpbtechnologies. including allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. Do not reproduce 103 .it/projects/ on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). gloves. and force-feedback mice. Read the press release at: http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves. http://www. Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. http://www. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. http://haptex.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.immersion.sensegraphics.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. Haptic devices come in many forms.miralab. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. joysticks/ joypads. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.forcedimension. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. > > http://wwwpercro. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. http://www.

. R. http://www. Haptics Laboratory. M. 22.phptr. J.S. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. Wired Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. McHugh.” http://www. and Jaskowiak. M. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. (2004). M. Shahabi.pdf Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.xml&DOI=10.informatik. M.. (2005). Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). NJ: Prentice-Hall. N. http://web. and Ichitsubo.cim..pdf EX-D4. Chapter on Haptics. Matsubara.1109/ICALT..S. Dobreva. Donnelly. (2005). G.. Upper Saddle River. Prentice Hall online article.html Ross.html O’Malley. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it.haptics-e. 917-921.isfh. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. L. 3-5 June 30/1059480393138. April.roblesdelatorre.. Daithí (2003). (1997). Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Y. (2003). not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Italy in March. http://www. A. Centre for Intelligent Machines. New York Times (Online).edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.html Levesque. Abbott. Medioni.pdf O’Modhrain. D.2005. and Hughes. G. The Haptic Museum. Report delivered January 15. 2003. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). M. http://www.. and Essl. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference Toc. Oct.unipi. (2002). Reality bytes. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. http://haptex. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis..unige. http://www.piaggio.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. McGill s/haptics/2003/1890/00/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.matr. Nakamura.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.ra.B. Blindness. 2004. Sukhatme. Research Proceedings. 2005. Laurie (2004). Deliverable D4. M.pdf Rowell.1_release-public.pdf Ó hAnluain. http://csdl. CA.. (2000).com/title/0130650978 Inoue. ml Kushner. and Rusbridge. Proceedings. ss/ACC239. http://www.mcgill.” http://www. M.miralab.ethz. http://www. professional.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .smh.1. July 3. Technology and Haptics. Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. J. Santa Clara. M. M.pdf O’Modhrain. and Sukhatume.. Vincent (2005). G. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. 2003.digicult. Reaching through the net to touch.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. July 31. http://csdl2. David (2003). S. and Gillespie. 2005.

(2001).. http://www. Kaneko. H. K. 250a. 1(3).com/articles/printerfrie ndly.http://www.journalofvision.asp?p=345621 Sakano. Journal of Vision.. & Do not reproduce 105 . Y. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.

and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).ices. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. and link.Interface Devices Related terms Digital s. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. Called Librié.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.html 2571.ices.cmu. electronic paper.dottocomu. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and monitors. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function." http://web. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. input devices. For a review. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. wearable computing. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. In 2005.” http://www.html / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . experience computing.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. Writing will require special digital pens. human-computer interaction. see: http://www. Now in the research and development phase. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices.buffalo. digital paper. projectors. head mounted displays. bleDisplay. handwriting http://www. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. display technologies. they must interact with it through an interface device. see: http://www. Philips. tangible computing. > > hives/month/2005/20050713-01. like digital ink and paper. gesture recognition. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.html Description For humans to use a computer. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. textures. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon 35n17/articles/Accuscript.

becta.wired.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and http://www. 4) afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. http://www.05/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. and graphic. 2) and 5) build.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.elearningcentre. has developed the io2 Digital Writing whiteboards. http://www. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. human computer interaction. http://www. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.channelnewsasia.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive . http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and hiteboards. Although this technology has been around for a few years. These methods are 1) Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a 3/ iteboards. 3) On their “Experience Computing” Web ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.edna. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. See their advice and resources at: 1 Over the years. http://www.cs.edfacilities. Following are three such articles: > http://www.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://www.swan. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper. http://www.devx. consisting of a pen and a charger. http://www.lifehacker.thegrid. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. http://www.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .thewirelessdirectory.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer aging/resources/whiteboards. it is constantly being improved and updated.

6.unifreiburg. (2005). Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. Michael (2005). Nicole (2006). Y. http://education. F. King’s College. 2006. J.mercurynews.1116483. pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. 2004. Guardian M. Fri. http://www..pdf Mohamed. Whiteboards are doing the . Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Kato. The most flexible paper yet story/ Read.). Haag. Springer.html Wong.html http://www.aace. http://ad. (2005). December 22. H. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. story/0. http://dl. (2003).de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/ 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. Oct. S.00. py/2005-eLearn.. Richards (Ed. and Nakagawa. res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. January 6. 2003.pdf Revell. Alan (2004).pdf Microsoft’s Tablet PC. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer> > http://www. Phil (2004). Bandoh.newscientist. news/business/technology/14286388.. with its use of digital ink. N. T. 2005. HCI2005. Chalk one up to the ory. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. J.wired. Indurkhya. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing.mspx Bibliography Cogill. April 7. eSchool News Online. K. http://education.unifreiburg. http://www.html eSchool News.eschoolnews. Julie (2002).ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. http://www. Peltason. 26. http://ad. and Ottmann.1585516.htm Zeichick. Will (2004). University of London. The Mercury http://www.08/epapers. 2006.devx. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. B. (2004). Guardian Unlimited.anoto. . (2006).pdf Otsuki. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. 2004. June 1.04/anoto. and Ottmann. NewScientist Magazine (Online). Journal of Interactive Learning Research.uclan. Edinburgh. Jan. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. http://www. 2004.wired.. http://www. Tablet PC Developer. Jan. Vancouver.. 257-269.html In G. Scotland. is described in a 2002 press release. 15(3).informatik.

while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. conversation. elearning portals.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals.. Whenever possible. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. Course Management Systems (CMS). and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. 2005). the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Content management. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made.e. as this category of software has been around for about ten years.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.

instructors and resources creating communities of learning.WebMentor LMS Gyrus . .com/ GeoLearning Inc.g. content-driven forums run by Avilar Technologies Inc.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. .Training Partner http://www.” http://elgg. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). http://opensourceschools. The LMS companies. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. http://www. To quote the developers. a leading open source learning management system. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning Element K .pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.fldata. roles. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. and other academic oodle_Sample_e-book.elementk. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e. .com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. a contact management p103.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. a search engine.compendiumcorp. more control over their own data For faculty. one of the LMS vendors listed below.geolearning.gyrus. .com/ IBM . the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events)..KnowledgeHub http://www.TrainingMine Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. in alphabetical order.GeoMaestro http://www.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. more integration with their other campus IT systems For is available as a free download. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www. The roles.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation. a communic-ation Compendium Corporation . more control over the learning environment For institutions.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).php EVE. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer Frontline Data Solutions. Inc.academici. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. groups. .net/index.cornerstoneondemand. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.allencomm.

sselearn.mgen.vuepoint.risc-inc.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.Intellinex LMS LearnSomething Inc.TotalLMS http://www.teralearn. .Net Strategia .SSElearn Portal http://www.iPerform http://www.Vuepoint Learning System Meridian Knowledge Solutions Operitel Corporation .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.SSA Learning Management http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/ KnowledgePlanet Inc. . .KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.epx SSA Global Technologies .TopClass LMS SumTotal Systems Inc.Ed Training Platform http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www. .html IntraLearn Software SSE .jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .com/products/saba/learni ng/index.TM SIGAL Do not reproduce 111 .LearnFlex LMS http://www. – KnowledgeBridge WBT Systems .com/ Syntrio Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. .com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.htm SAP .novasys-corp.http://www.cfm TEDS mGen Inc.DOTS . MaxIT .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .Plateau Learning Management System – TEDS NetDimensions .oracle.operitel.html OutStart Inc.isnewmedia. .OnTracker LMS Saba .aspx Oracle USA Inc.SAP Learning Solution Integrated Performance Systems.Isoph Blue Websoft Systems _01_01. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. .com/isnm2005/in dex.redbooks. . .CourseMill LMS http://www. .LMSLive http://www.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.plateau.html Trivantis Corporation .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.strategia.PeopleSoft Learning Management Wizdom Systems TeraLearn.mGen Enterprise http://www. .com/2004/ Enterprise LMS http://www.maxit.html Plateau Systems Technomedia Training Inc. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.html?Open InfoSource Inc.Oracle Learning http://www.sumtotalsystems.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.aspx RISC .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/ .com/flashhom e.LearnerWeb http://www.asp Learn.InfoSource Vuepoint . Tracker.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) n_resources/learning.netdimensions.IntraLearn XE Intellinex LLC.

http://www.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: Xtention Inc. http://www. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. June 20-21.” and open source course and learning content management For a review of leading open source learning management systems.cetis.edutools. August. (Online edition). and Tsiatsos. (2002). A.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/ _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features. (2002). (2006) The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s James (2005). Pierre (2000). .jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Cohen. 21. http://www.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.. James (2003).org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .eun. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .brandonhall. M. Jan." http://www. Incorporated Subversion. Chief Learning Officer. L. http://www. http://www. University of Birmingham. XStream Software Inc.htm Bouras. . . 2006. Wake-Up Call: open source Dillenbourg.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. by Sam 005/adkins. Molinari.jisc. and Learning Circuits.building new education strategies for schools. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). October. Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.Xtention Learning Management System Teresa A.. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. possible future for online T. 2005. Building educational virtual environments. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Sam (2005).org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. http://lttf.learningcircuits.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . http://www. ICALT2002 Conference. http://www.48. Workshop on virtual learning environments.xstreamsoftware. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.learningcircuits.pdf Dalziel.unitn.PDF Farmer. Proceedings. Virtual Learning from the JISC in the c/clo0806/ Colazzo. A.71. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.The Learning Manager http://www.xtention.

. R. Aavani. L. and Higher Education 2005. October 2005. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. 4.pdf Morrison. Avgoustos (2004).manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .pdf Tsinakos. Report for the 5/Poster/ The puzzle: virtual learning environments .. Vancouver. and Walker. Maomi (2005).unimelb. http://www. J. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. 2005. http://www. Government. (2006). 31-Feb. Healthcare.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. T. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.pdf Wise.pdf Sadeghi. J.bath. http://www.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE) survey_2005. 40(3). M (2005). A. Exeter. Jan. almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. and Sharifi. Report published by UCISA. m0533. April. WSCG Conference 2005. May 2006 http://www. Proceedings of ALT-C. http://www. LMS Governance Project Report. Browne. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system.cfm?fuse March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.educause. Van (2005).infodiv. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.pdf Ueno. Proceedings. May-June. Derek (2004). November 2004. Plzen. Educause Review. (2005).aace. 5(2).edu..ucisa. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual 2005. Czech Republic. and Quealy.

as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. rapid learning. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. learning object model (LOM). the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Rather. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. Wiley. curriculum. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. SCORM. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). However.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. As online educational materials are produced. Beyond that. Learning objects have several uses. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. At the simplest level.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). reusable learning objects (RLOs). of learning objects. intelligent tutoring.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. This idea is based on older.” such as a graph.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. computer-use practices. culture. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. The acronym SCORM. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. sharable content objects (SCOs). a well-known standard for learning objects. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning.” This use has been more successful. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. They are emulations of “software objects. 2006). 2004. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. learning object repository (LOR). Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all O/cloe_stories. resources for grades K-12. http://learnware.downes. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. with almost goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object http://www. http://www. http://www. preserves. IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.000 items. o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .llearn.maricopa. http://www. with a focus on information literacy. http://ideas. http://lester.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://dlist.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.oise.goenc. http://www.fedora.mcli. Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.merlot. stores. http://nsdl. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://www. LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.wisconsin. The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. and they can be general or subject specific. and distributes digital research material.educanext.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.koha.utoronto. http://www. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.arizona. LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.profetic.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.sir. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in http://mlor. http://www. indexes.

Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.edtechpost.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. 2(4).” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. A. Online paper.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.L. & Strijker.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning cts.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. Online document. etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 http://portal.doc m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. M. UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software J.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.html http://www. March.unesco.html Edusource (2003). And Longo.nmc. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. 1(3). (2004). authored by Rachel Smith. http://www. http://www. see Teemu Leinonen’s International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 116 © Brandon Hall Research .aace. (2004).org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. CANCORE. and Alderman. and Anderson. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance 002089. (2003).dicole. llections.” also known as LORs – learning object Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. F.1/downes ..htm Collis.. http://www.lornet. International Journal on E-Learning. Software Architecture 02. 681.uniroma1. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. EdTechPost. http://www. (2004). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.dis. M. 5-16.uwm. http://www. C.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.cancore. is available at: http://www. http://www.itdl. 2(1).elearnspace.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. Stephen. Downes. http://dl. http://www. Version . (2000). T. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. Bibliography b.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.

. and Mohammed. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. Lori (2002). M. Online paper. Hatala. A Primer on Learning Objects.html McGreal. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. http://proceedings. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher e/morriblog_comments. e/ 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. and Freisen. Rossano.Rafts or Battleships? .p df PADLR-final-report. 2004. R. Learning Circuits. 1(3).. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning usability. G. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Warren (2000). etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 cts. rimer. http://www.informingscience. G. 7(1). (2005)..learninglab. http://ideas. Elizabeth (2004). Paquette. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Aug.kth.html Friesen. http://www. Learning Material Repositories .eduserv. Downes. March. M. Paper presented. Derek (2004b).ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. http://www. T. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. Anderson. T.Part 1. London: Falmer. July 14. S.htm 002/mortimer. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Norm (2006).amazon. (2004)..pdf Richards. Online. Friesen. and Pragnell.) (2004). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Rory (Ed. Harrigan. http://www. (2004). and Schafer. MacLeod.Rafts or Battleships? .org/index.. Fredinand (2004)..html Murphy.learningcircuits. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.bath. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Online Education Using Learning Objects. J.cancore. Roberts..9%2015-11-03. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. 2004. Final Project Report. 14. Do not reproduce 117 . http://www. D.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. S. Babin.htm Morrison. G. Rachel (2006). March.. 12. Derek (2004a) N. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. G.edusource. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.doc Fiaidhi. V. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. (2002). Richards. Research Report. INTERACT 2005. Learning Material Repositories . K.html Heery... McGreal. http://www. and Morales. (2004).Part 2.. M. N. Learning Circuits.cancore.cfm/files/pape r_11841.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. R.htm Nejdl.itdl. Jan.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. InSITE conference. Norm (2005). March.html Leeder.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. T. Wolfgang (2004).pdf Krauss.itdl. http://www. 1 (3) 03. April 2002. June. http://www.learningcircuits. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. http://www.editlib. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. http://www. S.

.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.p df Wiley. David A.pdf http://www. A.dis. (2006).org/docs/dissertation.uniroma1. (2002). Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.). Online.fastrakconsulting. Doctoral dissertation.uniroma1. (2000). http://www. Objects of Interest. Iterating Toward Openness. M. Govinda. http://opencontent. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (Ed. (2004). http://opencontent. and : http://reusability. David A. Brigham Young University.pdf Santally. David A.> > 2. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.htm Shepherd. no-pres. (2000). Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.htm Wiley.itdl. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. 9. no-paper. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.. 1(7). Clive. Jan.

frappr. more demands for a person’s MapInfo .http://www. gaming consoles. PDAs. galleries.http://www. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. location-based systems are found in museums.S. Do not reproduce 119 . including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. However. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. including privacy concerns. galleries. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the Intergraph . proximity tools. Department of Defense.cadcorp. users will be able to use a variety of devices. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. Clark Labs . http://www. findability. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. including cell phones.clarklabs. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. geocaching. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.http://www. laptops.esri. navigation. and security issues.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. personal media players. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). and wearable computers. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.intergraph. as with any new technology.http://www. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.mapinfo.

http://platial. at: PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars. http://www.bham. http://www. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.smm. See their complete range of Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.asp?path= 500. Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.esri. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor cations/Attachments/1/ The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. http://www. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. http://earth.000 archaeological sites in the At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Platial enables anyone to find. http://www. http://www. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of as well as papers on trends in ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in While not very useful for most people. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.” http://www. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the from a database. http://local.biogeomancer. http://www. similar to what a GIS system http://www.geog. it is a great tool for teaching science.leeds. Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.

A. http://www. enthusiasts. Arnaoutoglou. S. January. Online article.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.. manipulate.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. and C.” Conference abstracts are available at: 84/spohrer. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. http://www. Learning Circuits. Future LocationBased Experiences. 2005.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information 004/kaplan2. http://www. We learning: social software and e-learning. Heather (2005). Jan 2004. (1999). Earth. story/ Geotags. 2003. McHugh. Abbott.pdf Spohrer. (2001). J. http://www. Eva (2004).com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. Steve (2005).digicult. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.geocomm. (2003).cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. Issue 6.http://www. and Borriello. http://www. Nov.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . and Location-Based industry professionals. and visualize spatial e/education/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.opensourcegis. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the http://geotags. CAD.geography. N. Koutsoudis. 38(4). IEEE Report. J. Guardian Unlimited. http://pngis. M. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. _issue6_december_20031. http://www. A. Information in 021154_45.digicult. http://www. http://education.gees. http://www. and students. D.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. > > http://geotags.learningcircuits. (2005). Dec.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Part II.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).uk/uploaded_documents / The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects.htm Dobreva. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. Fabrizio (2005).info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. see: http://www. and Chamzas.wisc. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Bibliography Benford.research..html Ross. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Mapping.. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. 2005.intergraph. 1999. G. DigiCULT Tsirliganis. Donnelly. /gis05.jisc. Chapter on Location Based Devices. http://www. IBM Systems Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.

Similarly. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. run all by themselves. tag clouds.” Using SOAP. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. in schools and universities. Many of these objects are software programs. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data.” that is. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . integration. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet..Mashups. composite applications. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. the rules for sending files across the Internet. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and.” then. For example. or protocol. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. or through “Web services.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. 2004). Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. all expressed in binary code. hybrid applications. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. to a lesser extent. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. document management. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. providing an informal collaborative environment. of how to communicate with each other. Mashups are constructed in several ways. etc. For two or more programs to talk to each other. A “mashup. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. Programs can be “stand alone. also called “object interoperability. API clouds. personalized. such as those for collaboration. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. at the same time. communications. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.

Web Services.0 APIs. Galen (2006). George (undated) ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. Vol.operitel.pdf Stacey. Mix. Vol. Dec.html Hof.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. E-Learning for the BC Tech Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. Paul (2002). (2004).infoworld.htm Torres. Learning Technology newsletter. May 15. Learning Technology newsletter. G.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Many have educational ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.deitel. July 25. 2006. Issue web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . C. Bibliography Gruman. 2006. Dodero. (2006). Issue 1. SOAP. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes.” It has many examples of mashups. trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. online curriculum is more and more becoming a /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. http://blogs. and Oliveira. March 6. and http://www. January 2004 http://lttf. http://www. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. 6. http://www.programmableweb.html iendly. http://en. http://www. ey-dec0602. 6. Robert (2005). has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.pdf Seimens.. Curriculum as Mashup.wikipedia.html Warlick. and mutate. 2005. http://www. techLEARNING. January 2004 http://lttf. > > http://www. July 28.techlearning. E-Learning Interoperability & Web shup_1.htm gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. Douglas (2004).html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Business Week Online. a writer for Business Week. J. 6. services. As Warlick (2006) has noted. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. http://www. Infoworld.html Rob chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. http://del.emilychang. C. http://www.programmableweb. http://ww6.mashupfeed. David (2006). as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed Learning Solutions. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. match.*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Enterprise mashups. 2002.

edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . http://simile. Benayache. and artificial intelligence are being developed. (2004). A. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive =O4E.educause. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. http://metadata. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. T. June 2004. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. C.. repositories. A.. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. (2004).xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). and Chaput. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. to develop metadata standards. and Joshi. http://www.. M. 98-111.pdf Delphi Group (2004). in the context of information technology. http://iiscs. The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.imsglobal.cancore.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. community. search engines. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. Ohio. Barry. F. H. http://dublincore. Finin.php?id=25 Chen.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.. 7(4).. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. metadata. http://libraries.Metadata. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Moulin. http://ebiquity. Delphi Group report. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.html Description At the same time that learning objects. B. http://www. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. /105. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.cetis. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Bibliography Abel..umbc. C. The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. In Proceedings.ifets. and services. D. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. An ontology. tadata/ pervasive computing.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. and institutional http://www.

BoxesAndArrows. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. Thomas (2005a). 7(4).com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. http://www. 2004. Another new paradigm for instructional design.pdf Henze. W. Mathes. Learning Circuits.pdf Friesen.http://www. and Poulymenakou. 7. October 29. http://www. October-December. UnderstandingMetadata. 2003.adammathes. Norm (2005). (2002). mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. 2002. University of Illinois graduate aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.. April 9.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).ca/editors. and Shao. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.. July/August. International Journal on E-Learning... M. Dolog. Defining “taxonomy”.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. and Godby. (2004). A. D-Lib Magazine. M. April PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Trondheim. G. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. April 21. Chen. (2003).boxesandarrows. Do not reproduce 125 . 004/tozman. 2005. I. TagOntology . (2004). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. and Mosoiu. 11(7/8). Adam (2004).php?id=25 Tozman. May 22.boxesandarrows. Patrick (2006). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. 2005. http://tomgruber.niso. 2004. B. S.learningcircuits. BoxesAndArrows. Dec. Presentation to Tag Camp. Pouloudi. (2004).org/. Stuart (2005). Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. N.aace. Online article. J. 7(4). and Nejdl. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).ifets. P. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.pdf Oin. http://dl. 82-97. and Diaz.. http://www. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies.delphigroup..php?id=25 Kroski. 26-28. N.boxesandarrows.html Gruber. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Christina (2002). Understanding Metadata. eibel. http://www. Building a Metadata-Based Website. P. Green Chameleon. NISO Press. (2003). Wagner. A. http://www. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. 2006. http://www. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community.greenchameleon. Nov.cancore.tagcamp. http://infotangle.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. Thomas (2005b). http://www. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. http://www. http://www. Ricci. Lytras. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. http://tomgruber.ecdl2003. Reuben (2004). http://www.html Wodtke.htm Weibel. Christian (2004).htm Gruber. Ellyssa (2005).

php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research .info/issues.ifets. 7(4). 70-81.Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www.

pervasive computing.” Two years ago. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. location-dependence. (2004). such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). 2003). and wearable computers in teaching and learning. collaborative learning. tablet PCs. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). there were estimated to be 1. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. podcasting. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. laptops. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. multimedia. MP3 players. personal digital assistants (PDA). including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. location based technologies.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. conversational learning. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. 2004). personalization. wearable computing. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing.6 billion units in operation by that year. cell phones. Cited in Prensky. rich interaction. instant messaging (text. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. brokerage. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. personalization. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. such as increased computer literacy. mLearning. using ambient intelligence. and mentoring. in Japan. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. it is predicted that there will be 2. cellular telephones. tablets. Do not reproduce 127 . However. communicative skills and community building. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. strong search capabilities. powerful support for effective learning. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. improved identity creation. Essentially. time and space. video) and distributed databases. delivery and tracking of learning and information content.

uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning.fasfind.cs.” > > > http://www.cs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.pdf” a “butterflywatching learning system. 25255. activities.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.knowledgepulse.beta80group. http://news. 128 © Brandon Hall Research .co.htm Jari Laru.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. 7. technologies.pdf location-specific text. and pre-service teachers. http://csdl2.ccu. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. applications. US.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor 7. http://www. of the University of Oulu in papers/ This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.stockholmchallenge.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. http://www.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.harvard. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. Australia.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. and a g/index.pdf http://www.telus. audio.” and a “bird watching learning papers/bird. including issues.cs. Learn more at: http://www.mobilearn. resources.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. links. http://urbantapestries. http://urbantapestries.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.” > > >” They have a “firefly watching system. or a combination of media. http://www.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer papers/JECR-2005. http://www.

au /edition06/download/geddes.pdf Attewell. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. Bob (2005).jisc. of Birmingham http://www. 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: ault.pdf Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. No. Bryan (2004).formatex. Learning and Skills Development Vol.. 2006 in Dublin. http://www.msu. ault. (2002) Kadirire. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Gaming..flexiblelearning. Knowledge Tree Jasola. Ronchetti.cs.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. (2005). For 39. L. 5. M. (2005). http://llt. and wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.pdf Geddes. http://www. (2004). Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. P. Language Learning and Technology. E. and Trifonova. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous ect%20summary.jisc. (2003). Paul (2005). ations.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. http://mobile. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. JISC Guide.itdl. Y.ntnu.msu. http://www. Kao.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the 04. Gaming. T.eee.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . Ireland. James (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. Jill (2005) ndex. http://www. J. A. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.pdf /jisctsw_05_04pdf. Report. http://www. September 2005. R. http://www.html Chen.educause. EDUCAUSE Review. and Sharma. S. B.htm JISC (2005).135/ipodined/news.. January 2005. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.pdf Bibliography M0451. and Pagani. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. 19.html Bob Godwin-Jones.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.m-learning. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.pdf Colazzo. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Univ. Molinari. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. http://www. 9(1). European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. http://www. http://knowledgetree. http://213. Emerging technologies: rs/JCAL-2003. 2(9).unitn. 17-22 http://llt. http://www.

and Nischelwitzer. http://www.2002. and Yang. http://www. 2005. 2004_final_low.clomedia.doc Meisenberger. M. Ann (2005).au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. L. Enabling Mobile Learning.htm#Implications Prensky. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment.. Sweden.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. (2005). Glyfada. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.1490476. http://www. multimediabased learning application. Växjö University. (2002) es/clo_article. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. April 2005. http://kn.. Ellen (2005). al. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Peter (2005)..html von Koschembahr. 40(3). M. Brisbane. M.phil-inst. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.century.asp http://21st. (2004).asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Galasso. Proceedings.pdf Thomas. 2490. 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri.. Marc (2004). Kristóf (2002). Teleborg Campus. 1(5). J. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). EDUCAUSE Review. http://drei. Conference on Virtual reality.pdf Sharples. A. Roffia... Mike (2005). E. (2001). M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. A theory of learning for the mobile age. G. T. Australia. UsabilityNews. Wang. Archeology.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. Taylor. J.oucs.ox. Neil (2003). Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and Sforza.. http://www. June/July 2005. Amherst.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. D. Christopher (2005). Understanding. Budapest. Draft paper submitted for publication. E. Donnelly. June 27. David (2006).uk/ltg/reports/mlear and Cultural Heritage. http://www.ieeecomputersociety.eee. Hungary. Romagnoli. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report http://www. http://www. Michael (2005).cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. 2002.bham.. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Feb. Malavasi. Växjö. T. J. May/June 2005. T. and Vavoula. http://portal. Guardian Unlimited. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.innovateonline. Learning in the Mobile Age. Liang.digicult. F.ascilite. M. MA: HRD Press. ASCILITE2005 Conference. H.pdf Mellow. A..fhjoanneum.pdf Metcalf.fil. 2005. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.00. Coralini. August 29-30. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a May 23. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.educause. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. http://doi.110 9/WMTE. ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. S. (2005). E-Learning on the move. and. http://www. Chan. Presented at WMTE 2002. and Dobreva.pdf Scagliarini. M. comment/0. Vecchietti. S..

Di gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. http://tcc.aaai. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). http://dmoz. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.” See also Jordan et al. (2004).org/softwaremap/trove_list . ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. http://eduforge.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. Do not reproduce 131 .org/aitopics/html/natlang. speech recognition. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.elsnet.upenn.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Description According to Coxhead (2001)...html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. natural language understanding. http://wwwusers. rather than just returning Web pages. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. speech The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. and standards. (2004). tools. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. Kim (2000). http://www. natural language generation. http://www.translating one natural language into another. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. (2005a. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. http://www. Lee et al. i. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.e. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. et al. machine translation. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.

this activity.

Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8


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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft



Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing


© Brandon Hall Research

Corporation. Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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135 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.

Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. 002/hofmann.html


© Brandon Hall Research

there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. social environments. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. http://portal. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. amongst institutions. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. but these are only available to members of the course. there can be no electronic interaction. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. etc. Secondly. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. and social bookmarking sites.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. Individualization in an LMS is weak. without an offline client to the LMS. work places. and through a variety of technologies. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. To practice real-world situations.bham. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. manage. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution.cetadl. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. In many cases. libraries. and. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. e-portfolios. blogs. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). A PLE must support lifelong learning. This requires support over time. track. wikis. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. often only for the purposes of the course. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. learners need to be in real-world situations. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. whiteboard). Running on the learner's PC.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. and review his or her learning activity. it helps the user plan. for the learner. discussion forums. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. efault. learning management systems. A PLE is structured by the learner.). (Cortlett et al. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. as learners move between institutions. Technology needs to be situated. such as search engines.

J.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). http://www. Edinburgh.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. PLE Reference Model. Incorporated Subversion. D. January 9.. and tt. Online case study paper. Colin (2005).doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. http://terrya. rces/ T.pdf Farmer. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. M. http://www. Terry (2006)..jisc.cetis. Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. Chan. Proceedings of HCI International e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. http://www. e/morriblog_more. O. /birmingham. UK.jisc.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. 22-27 July Sharples. Nevada. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.edublogs. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. http://www. http://incsub. (2005). Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . Las Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. James (2006).org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Bibliography Anderson. Jan.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his Milligan.

Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. navigation. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.g.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. These techniques include content-based filtering. or it can be an implicit model. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. through a questionnaire). we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . collaborative filtering. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. and/or presentation of describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. etc. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work..g.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational the personalization can be applied to content.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs.ed.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. artificial intelligence. PDAs).hcrc. http://www. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. http://www.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. etc. Keenoy et al. learning environments. However. Furthermore. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour.. 2005). Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. Often. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. (Filippini-Fantoni. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.g. rule-based filtering. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. picture. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.).

pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.CY/0409055 Boyle materials/ s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal Bibliography Abbott. J.virtualmuseum. with a particular focus on the museum sector. wireless Borda. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. > > http://www. The Future of Access ( Online paper. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. A. and Kuflik. William Niu. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . and HATII.(2001).au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. Daisy (2002). http://smart.pdf Cavalluzzi.gla. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.pdf Callaway.umuai.pdf m/ onal/index. http://www. S. A demo is available at: http://www. http://www. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. (2005). 20PDF/Personalisation. Kay.arts.pdf Bright. (2004).org/default. tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.cs. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. http://adiret. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. and Cook J.unibo. A.firstmonday. http://www. http://www. http://www. PowerPoint presentation. http://www. University of Glasgow. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.emarcon. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Bowen. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. T.metmuseum. A. G. A.pdf Calimera Project (2005). W.directa.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. S.pdf A. K..calimera.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. http://www. B. and Nuguid. dynamic user profiling The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!)..beta80group.. C.html http://www.. D. Online paper.hatii. De Carolis. http://www.cognitive traits. (2005). Cozzolongo. Ngo. http://arxiv. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty 140 © Brandon Hall Research .de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. Melbourne.. Pizzutilo. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.unimagdeburg. dynamic scheduling and planning /museomarmo.ecdc.. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. J. (2004).

com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. onalisation/report_01. D. P. W. R. 1–27. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. May 2002.. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. (2002). (2003). (2005).itc.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . Online s/2p170. Dillon. http://www.. (Eds.Information Access. X.. Stock.p df Green. September 2002. and nloads/futurelab_review_09. https://www. May 25. http://www.dimi. (2004).cs. Paris.semanticweb. C. http://www. science centres and galleries. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. Rudd. P. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. l4RESULTS2004V2. Comparison of museum/city tour guides.. University of Sydney (2004).futurelab. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. Silvia (2003). Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. and Paddeu. FutureLab report. and Boavida. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. O.tcd.. Ecole du Louvre. Subramaniam (Ed. Kuflik. George (2005).ie/Owen. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Personalization through IT in Fuschi. Bowen. M. Málaga. interactive services in home automation. (AVI 2004). Dominik (2003).uniba. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.. May s/informal/resources/File.nestafuturelab.. 2004. 2005 www. Facer. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. http://iswc2002. and Zancanaro.pdf Dolog.ppt Correia. Web mining for web /aims04. Roy (2004).uniud.pdf Eirinaki. S. Hershey. Gallipoli.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. (AVI 2004).edu.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. In Proceedings of WWW2004 .com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Pianesi. In Goren-Bar. Moulin. Nejdl. Wade.2004-1213. F. (2002). 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Issue 7. Online paper.p df Filippini-Fantoni. and Numerico. N.edfac. and Vazirgiannis. http://tmtfactory. PA: Idea Group Publishing. J. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. moulin. A..1145/643477.di..htm Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Soro. P.24_Conlan. February. http://www. In R. DigiCULT . http://www. Graziola. M. April 2004.designshare. S. Italy. Italy. and Humphreys. http://www. C. D. 2005. T. P. B.. J. http://eprints.. Lum. (2005).p df Iwazaki. M. V.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). J. October P. /waswbe05. S. L.pdf Keenoy. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Educational Technology & scrutable_pums. Levene. and Zancanaro. (2004). Online paper. Personis: A Server for User Models.uni-sb.unihannover. M. In: De Bra. (eds. S. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www. Jaroslav. (2005). Yasuda..pdf Kay. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. (2002).cs.ed. PIA Conference.. W. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). and Conejo. and Nejdl. (2001). Brusilovsky. (2004). A.pdf Johnson. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies)..usyd. P. pums.inf. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.Self E-Learning Networks. O. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.cs.. Seničar. and Lauder. 7(4):70-81. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. Online paper. 23-30 July 2005. K. http://www. A. May 25. J. de gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. 2004 http://www.. /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. LSC. (2004). D.bbk. and Okamoto.. Online pers/PeachUM2005.l3s. http://www. UM 2005.kbs. Yokoi.pdf 9/01/keenoy1. UK http://homepages. C. Goren-Bar.usyd.4. and Niu..pdf Kuflik. W.1.bbk. (2002). N. Kaszas. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . Levene. Del22. Final Version..pdf Kay. Busetta.pdf Henze.pdf Henze. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. Niu . In Mária Bieliková. R. pages 249-256. A. Kummerfeld.ijs.. http://w5.. http://peach.. M.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www... Kummerfeld. Penserini. P.pdf Kuruc. Gallipoli. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. Callaway.. Edinburgh. (2004). T. (2004).. SeLeNe .. Stock. and Zancanaro.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies... yNiu05. (2005). (2005).fiit. T. 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What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal. C. Lejeune.pdf Reeves. A. Trails of digital and non-digital learning sonalization/ Mor.. URL: /01/01-01.428-431. http://www. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.. May 25. C.fraunhofer.. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. Kaszás. B. David. http://www. (2004b). and Modritscher...pdf Ng M. Blake. http://www. M. V.utokyo.. Paper presented at EDEN 2004. Julia (2004). Y. A Multi-Dimensional.www2004. Gallipoli. (2002). January 2004. M.. New York.H. Goita.dcs.. Stuart.depaul. May 2002.. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. 2004 http://www2.pdf Niederee. Online paper. J.pdf Martinez.pdf Pivec. http://www. (2000).learninginprocess.) (2002).de/~mehta/uuc m. J.bbk. A.. Keenoy. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).2. (2004). (2005).. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. Enric and Minguillon. available from www. May 2004.sts. J-P. (2004).2. Jones. http://www. May C. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. F. Winterhalter. Ken (2000). In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS)..ipsi. 702dss-h. H. Flypad Report. Malaga. 2002. Stewart.pdf J-P. Z. C. A. Turcsányi-Szabó.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub. S. and Levene. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. 43(8):142–151. Montandon. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version).pdf Do not reproduce 143 . Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. H. Schoonenboom.html Schmidt. Bossung. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century... Margaret (2002). Gutl. Maier P.cs. David. ACM Press. http://www.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). and Sehring.mrl.. Hungary. C. _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final. http://www. B. K. 2004. C. Armstrong R. Málaga. (2005). Communications of the ACM. K. /ldr12-supplement..soton. L. Pluhar. S. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. A. Spain.. August. http://www. 0605. J.. Turcsányi-Szabó. R.. Muller.pdf Sakamura. (2004).ac..iicm. Spain.dimi.2. Faure. Keenoy. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. Montandon.. Kaszás.uniud. L.. and ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery.bbk. A.. Hall W.. Trummer. A. and Tasso.lsc. available from www. P.pdf Mobascher. Italy. Preis. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Mehta. P.. Lejeune.http://senet. Online paper. (Eds. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. s/2p264.dcs. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.pdf Schoonenboom..ecs.. and Hemmje. (2004a).1.ncsl.. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. nalise/ 02. M.. A. http://eprints. http://www.

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2001). There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. As of early 2006. instructorled. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. vendors. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. content management. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. learning management systems. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 .Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. which form a dynamic user profile. http://www. In the business world.elearningeuropa. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . Knowledge Management. and real-time training and documents in a supportive.Portals Related terms Collaboration. collaborative environment. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. the portal offered information on more than 20. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . and other roles outside an organization (Collins.

.trainingregistry.000 publishers worldwide http://www. http://www.000 online courses http://www. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .org/2000/may 2000/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. (2003). (Eds. document management information. including educational uses. calendars. go to: http://www. school administrators. Campus Technology Magazine.fathom. and Teach-nology – Access to over M.tamtam. R. ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. Bray (2001). http://knowledgemanagement.Education.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft Training Registry – Large online training directory m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. http://h20219.students. PA: Information Science Publishing.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. instructors.hp. Campbell. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.proquest. K.learningcircuits.executrain. http://www. and universities. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. http://www.700 online courses t/prodinfo/demo. Learning Circuits.ittoolbox. http://www.www2.htm 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. audio and/or video. and shared lists for tasks.mspx For a demo of 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. category. A.elementk. A Portrait of Learning Portals.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.teach-nology. baby! E-learning portals.300 online courses http://www. news and announcements.asp Element K – Access to over 2.worldwidelearn. May he/259662-0-0-225-121. interactive discussion groups. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. e-mail distribution instant messaging. museums. March 1. online meetings with text.asp?id=9028 Barron. http://blogs. http://www. New York: World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. http://www. Tom (2000).com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. and schedules. and Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings You’ve come a long way. Heidi (2001).microsoft. wledge_center/index. Ron (2004).amazon.000 lesson plans http://www. In Jafari.campustechnology.

and Gordon. and Sheehan. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.asp Terra.educause.) (2003). A. Heidi (2003). Hershey.learningcircuits. New York: AMACOM. http://www. http://www. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. September 2000. M. http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing.htm Do not reproduce 147 . Reviewed at: 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. http://www. Cornelia (2000).. (2003).Collins. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. /eqm04113. Designing Portals: Opportunities and ub5006. (Eds.asp 000/ Richard & Associates (2002).educause. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.

Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote c_home. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. While it is expensive. Online presentations can be very boring. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Hewlett-Packard.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. It is clear that in this age of Experience them at: http://www. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. However.elluminate. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. virtual classrooms. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. the word “lecturing” means “to read. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. http://www. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. webinars Consequently.” In the Middle Ages. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. http://www. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.masternewmedia. web conferencing. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey although many are trying to change this practice. in partnership with Dreamworks.macromedia. http://www. Skypecasting. when experts are not readily available. webcasting. In fact.replayhq. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. 148 © Brandon Hall Research .lsc. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. See the TEAL Project at MIT. ferencesolution. http://www. and http://www.kolabora. s/live.380 0005416.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.eweek. videoconferencing.elearningcentre.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. Captivate. presentation and streaming presentation tools. http://www.elearningcentre. and Web presentations.htm http://www.39155030.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. although it does not have to be. brain. > > http://www. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. independent listing of Webinars. http://www. forums and message boards. 5/02/25. http://buyersguide. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.thinkofit. and TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.brandonhall. and e-learning. Do not reproduce 149 .edu. Breeze.elearningcentre. virtual classrooms. virtual meetings. A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.elearningcentre. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.infoworld. Webcasts. It covers “real-time” Web /web_conferencing. social software for online collaboration. a columnist at InfoWorld. 5/01/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. Web conferencing.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. online communities. > > m Human Resource Webinars is a” > http://www. and kidneys.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using http://www.acue. videoconferencing. instant partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.adelaide. Web> > online meetings.htm http://www. Coursebuilder.hp. virtual teams.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. press/2005/ conferencing.html#a1185 http://weblog. Authorware. and seminars relating to the field of human http://www. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.kolabora. / ngadobe.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.lsc.

http://www. and Furr. http://www. April 30. Belinda (2003). May 15. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.pdf http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.fasfind.masterviews. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www.pdf Bibliography Agarwal. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. http://www. http://www. (in two parts) > > http://www.asp McNally.pdf Scott. 2003.htm Hofman. 2003.html Canali De Rossi. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Live and Online!: ch.learningcircuits.filesland. Luigi (2003b). Christine (2001). P. 2003.masternewmedia. http://m. July. Sept. http://www.timelyweb. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. and There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program /software/795/index. 7(3). Digital /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Robin Good 3008_148. P. http://www. http://www. 2005.htm Canali De Rossi. 150 © Brandon Hall Research Robin Good Blog. July Part1. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. July 26. Armit (2005).jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.htm v7n3_lazarus. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Learning Circuits. Luigi (2003c).com/software/present /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://labnol. Russ (2004).html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.apreso. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. 2004. (2002). (2004). Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.russellmcnally. K. Jennifer (2004).. http://www.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.html Using Apreso essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. 3.http://www.downloadjunction.blogspot.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003a).russellmcnally. etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Sept. Live ns/index. K. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN) 01/duckworth.

infoworld. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. ns/delivery/article_display. Choices are great. 1/07OPstrategic_1. (2003). 11.http://kmi. Choose your presentation tools -05-1. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the but… Presentations Magazine. 2005. Choose the Right Vendors.pdf Spielman. Dave (2002). AMACOM.. Feb. L. http://www.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . http://www. etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.html Zielinski. Start Saving Time and Money Today. and Equipment.presentations. and Winfield. S.

automatically assures that all navigation works. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. It is best suited to text-based materials. Instructional design built in. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Reduce the number of development vendors.versus high-interaction). Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. tests. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. Advanced features. Tools for rapid e-learning are. such as creating links. glossary. learning objects. simple. For example. by necessity. extreme e-learning. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. virtual classroom. just-intime e-learning. or HTML knowledge. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. a demand to produce online content very quickly. In the first case. and clip art is straight forward and supported . and communicate deliverable expectations. microlearning > down pages. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. It can refer to learning something quickly. According to Ready Go!.does not require any plug-ins. Does not require any advanced skills. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. 2003). > > > > > > > > > > To be effective.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i.e. Assign SMEs who are committed. Standardize approaches. but not always good for you.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. graphics. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Deploys easily . deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. manage the content and the users. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. In the second sense of the term. including tools and templates. or where the online information frequently changes. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. easy to use. FAQ. low.. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. 2003). Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. Navigation built in . programming. are built in.

http://www. Bill (2005). centrally located files. Dianne (2005). Penny (2004). J. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.raptivity. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. 005/archibald.pdf Aldrich. Lane (2002).bersin.microlearning.meetingone. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Kendrick (2006). Larstan Business Reports. August 2004. Learning Solutions. Mark (2003). Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. July 2004.scate.pdf Crosman. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. es/clo_article. Edit. LTI Newsline.elearningmag.transformmag. http://www. http://www. Jay (2005). computer games. Jennifer (2004).com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. Tips and Techniques. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www.elearningcentre.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. July 2. http://www. schedule and due dates. January 23. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. and competent subject matter experts ( /US/English/ Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.articulate. _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.clomedia. http://www. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. LTI Newsline. and other good stuff.masie. June http://www. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Paper. which contains information on resources.asp version control protocols. 2004. and Publish. Web pid. 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.access to a clear project plan.pdf Brodsky. See a demo at: http://www.elearningguild. San Francisco: Pfieffer. January. Chief Learning Officer. Enhance. Clark (2005).jsp?id=102399 DeVries. See sample templates at: http://www. ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. Josh (2005). Do not reproduce 153 . Josh (2004). When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. http://www. http://www. http://www.htm Bibliography Abell. Extreme Learning: Decision es/ ticle/articleDetail. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened article/articleDetail. (2004). Making rapid e-learning work.” Find out more: http://www.htm Bersin.readygo. Chief Learning Officer. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. conferences. 2004). Transform http://www. and Bersin. Learning Circuits. Templates.

http://download.macromedia. Rapid Intake White pid_vft_v1. http://www. The Training Foundation online article. Garin (2004).pdf Mayberry. Learning Circuits. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Nick (2005).pdf 004/mayberry.pdf Shepherd. Chief Learning Officer. http://vftraining.pdf Macromedia Inc. 9.clomedia. 10. http://www.pdf Gustafson. Press es/clo_article. 2006. June 2004.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.elearningguru. April 20. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. http://www. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.trainingpressreleases. Stephanie (2006). Learning arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. LTI Newsline. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.trainingfoundation. Ray (2006). January es/clo_col_elearning.pdf Jimenez.jsp?id=150619 Hess. Jan. Macromedia White Paper. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning ticle/ es/clo_lettertoeditor. Nov. 2006. 2002. http://www. http://www. 2006.clomedia. Mar.clomedia. http://download.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Joe (2005). Vignettes for Training White Paper.learningcircuits.ltimagazine. Learning Solutions. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Clive (2006).com/new sstory. http://www. (2004b).macromedia. e-Learning Crop Circles. http://www.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. 2005. Macromedia White arning/virtual_classrooms. http://www. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.adobe. Kevin (2002). Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.e-learning programs in tracts/index.elearningguild. January 2003. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Ray (2005). Simulation.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. Ed (2004). Eric (2003).htm Masie Center (2005).com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e /default.elearningguild. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Bersin and Associates White Paper.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www. (2004a). February 2005. The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol Do not reproduce 155 Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. and math. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. for underwater exploration. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. simulation > http://www. General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.rec.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. http://robotics.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://www.botball.evolution. engineering. one child at a time.whmsi. Inc. http://www. > http://www. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.euron. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. and mathematics. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. engineering.nasa.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.ife. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.

cuny. Mr.php Bibliography Blank.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. http://dangermouse. I. By donning motion sensors. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. H.pdf Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. (2005) P. lip movements. J.brooklyn.. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference..pdf Papert..andrew.cs. particularly robotics.. /edu. D. Lathan. http://www. http://www. exrobotics.pdf Gerecke.profetic.atr. and other information on robotics. Find out more about this group at: http://www. D. Keating. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. http://www. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Heinsohn. D. Kumar. June. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Miller. Meeden. > > 156 © Brandon Hall Research Blank. and Wagner. Building Robots with Lego and Mataric. (2001).org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.cmu. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. (2004). http://robothaven.ed. and Powerful /June22/educational-robotics. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Yanco. k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Harwin.l3s. http://www.. http://zeus. Artificial Intelligence Conf.pdf Cooper. Düsseldorf. See also: http://www. Run by NASA. W.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. Computers.. Robots in the classroom . New York: Syngress Publishing. G. and Yanco. go to: http://www. (2004). and robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.. (1980). Kumar. links.irc. and Dautenhahn. It features news. Mindstorms: Children. (2004).de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education.nasa. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. D. AAATE Conference 1999.pdf Ferrari.ams. http://robotics. Basic Books. New York. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. H.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. R.l3s.sci.pdf Boersch. lmenau2004F. M. K. Paper at the American Assoc. (1999). for accessible education.. I. http://www. H. k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. November. B. U. Proceedings. and Loose. (2004).eng. http://www. http://www. and vocal tics.wtec. http://www. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. and Meeden. L. Hohmann.

pdf Do not reproduce 157 . 001-Robots_Education.. (2001). Sept. http://www. 28-30. http://rob. D. Ottawa. McHugh. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. R.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. Ontario. (2005). and Rusbridge. S. Abbott. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. T.ccmlab.pdf Stewart. A. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. M. Donnelly. Dobreva..digicult. and West..

” The first type searches the Web as it exists. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . 2004).Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. collaboration. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . One is the problem of finding relevant. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. which submit they take the structure of the Web into account. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Ezzy (2006a. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. such as Google and Altavista. Web directories. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Meta–search engines. each with their own defining feature sets. a rich user experience. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Examples are Google and Overture. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful and Alta Vista. collective intelligence. such as Yahoo. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. federated search. dependable information. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. as this section of the report shows. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. One new approach is called “federated searching. information retrieval.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. search engine optimization. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. data mining. in parallel. resource discovery. But.examples are early yahoo. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. for a variety of reasons. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. meta-search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. They bring into the equation user preferences. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers.

com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. http://www.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.altavista. blogs. http://www. AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.mooter. http://www. Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://www. video.alltheweb. http://search.answers. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. http://www. Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” IceRocket – Searches PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .netscape. AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://www.umdl.otavo. http://getoutfoxed.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. Gnod – A self-adapting discovery Grokker – Clusters results by subject. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.aeiwi. http://www. – Narrow a search to specific categories for better Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. ult. Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information Gravee . get answers http://www.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. and MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www.grokker. Octavo – A collaborative search Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. rather than just returning Web pages.’s search service Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. – Features hundreds of searchable topics.gada. Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.jookster. Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. then fill in the search box. http://www.faganfinder. and the AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all Answers. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.ask. http://search.

net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for Wink – Using social networking.ujiko.wink.psu.ithaki. TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. & KidsClick!. StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://scholar. Google Book Search – Search just for FASTUS – Extracting information from real world IceRocket – Searches blogs only. users tag their favorite results and block HealthFinder — A medical search Internet Movie Database – search within plot Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only.gpoaccess. 160 © Brandon Hall Research Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.govmine. FactMonster. Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www. > > Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www. Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.Clusters results. http://www. http://qube. Gnoosic – A search engine for Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.sri.gnoosic. http://www. Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given reviews. Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms Wink then diplays the Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of http://www.pubsub. Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://www. http://www. Much of this information is hidden from view.qelix.blinkx. http://swicki. http://kids. http://www.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted Clicking a cluster further refines a search.topic appears. cast lists and theatre schedules. Ujiko – Clusters results. AolKIDS.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . and movies.acronymfinder.ucr.

” Content-based search engines for pictures. Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio legal search engine.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.omgili. ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.soundspotter. http://www.last. VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.krugle.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.scirus.convera. RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).pandora.technorati. search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. http://www. LawCrawler .rrzn.4 billion links.columbia. Last. http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and LitLinker . http://www. http://www. http://www. http://techsearch. as of this chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk / MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta. – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.f cgi QBIC . Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine. http://wang16.seekport.nlm.cmp. http://www. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ PubMed – Search engine for medical Omgili .com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.psu.htm Do not reproduce 161 .com/ MediaFinder .gov/entrez/query. http://www.searchking.acm. http://smealsearch1.columbia.cfm?doid=10 56808.Krugle – A search engine for developers. Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.merl.

classifieds.ithaki. http://a9. maps/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. flights. news sources.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.bolton. and their Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 tickets. http://www. Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. http://searchenginewatch. health information sources. Unlike other search engines. Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken Info – Searches reference works. weather. hotels. http://www. http://www-rocq. Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.ixquick.intute. white http://www. http://www. games. or federated Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. and tracks a user's search Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. and ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. http://www. http://clusty. video. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. apartment rentals. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the http://www. is a valuable resource for researchers. shopping Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. Known as “meta-search” engines.copernic. focused searches on topics they care about. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . pictures. the user's community has total control over the results.kartoo. and Web mail for the topic provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. eBay. audio. Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://www. and links the clusters. http://www.trovando.xcavator. companies. http://www.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. greeting cards. city guides. http://vivisimo. dating and personals.inria. http://www. including a set of international telephone directories.nyu. yellow pages. lottery results. ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.dogpile. A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep.

http://www.netmasters. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. is against the idea of federated searches. Users can also browse by subject category. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Exchanging. http://www.gpoaccess. A. http://infomine. http://www. or swicki. Ebrahim (2006). 2006. Do not reproduce 163 . Find out why in this presentation: http://www.pdf Ensor. DigiCULT Thematic Traditional Search.. Part 2.php Geser.html Battelle. Guntram (2004). June 2004. June. http://www. > > http://firstgov. This search engine.0 vs.elearning. International Journal on e-Learning..just as a search engine is used for text. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. Search 2. Read/Write Web. and Shoham.ucr. http://www.citysearch.htm Ezzy.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 10(12).ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. and Searching in eLearning Systems. http://www. July-Sept. http://www.0 vs. arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Y. http://swicki. Read/Write _12/aharoni/index. or topic . Stephen Downes. July arch_20_vs_tr_1. First Monday. Pat (2005). and Apprato. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Resource Discovery .org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. can be published on the user's site. New York: Portfolio. 7-12. S. 2004.php Ezzy. Ebrahim (2006). Search 2. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).gov/ http://www.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://www. 6. DigiCULT Thematic Report. http://www. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.tveyes. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web hprojects Bibliography arch_20_vs_tr.readwriteweb.. John (2005). July 25.digicult. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. No. F. For example. Frank. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.downes.editlib. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. TVEyes provides the technology and the FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. phrase. Part Paper: Putting the Users 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. (2004). See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.readwriteweb.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Traditional Search. (2005). http://www. 6. 2006.

Major Search Engines and Directories. Richard (2004).isnoldenburg. International Journal on E-Learning. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think….cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . Doctoral dissertation. B. eSchool News.18 toryts. Part I: http://www.eschoolnews.pdf Schlenker. http://www. http://dl. Oct.asp Wyman.prescientdigital. (2005).infoworld. Oct.http://www. (2004).edu/iMed/P ublications/ 05/ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Oct. http://www.html Heck. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.washington. J. 2004. Mike (2004). S.htm Part II: http://www. Corey (2005).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. Bob (2005).org/16955 Low.00. S. April 28. Lisa (2005). Mimkes. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. http://homepages.prescientdigital. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference.pubsub. 15. eWeek. 2005. Simple advice for complex search n/ 5. html Porco. and MacColl. Prescient Digital Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. . http://www.ed. and Gupta. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials.digicult. A.php/2156221 Vaas. J.pdf Murray. M. they’re just limited. m Oct. Jakob (2003).Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. (2005).aace. Danny (2004).. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . 149-166. June 30. Carmine (2006). Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. http://www. It’s Gada. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter 5/42FEsearchcase_1. May 8. Search engines don’t suck. 2005.useit. 2003. 2004. P. http://www. 2004. 3.pdf Sullivan. Refining enterprise search. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. W. 4(1). _thematic_issue_6_lores. http://bobwyman. http://www. E. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload.pdf Gincel. 15. Stanford University. Mittal. White paper. Parts I and II. (2000). InfoWorld.html Kumar. Kashyap. and Hilf. http://www.eweek. http://searchenginewatch.

the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. semantic grid. taxonomies. http://www.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. It has both its advocates and its critics. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). microformats. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary.elenaproject. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. near Boston. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). http://www. http://www. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. but it will not be in general use for some time. Abbas et al. (2005) note that “historically. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic search.alphaworks. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. such Do not reproduce 165 . Selected Examples In anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. ontologies. 2003). metadata. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). are now falling short of earlier promises. Like it or not. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. founder of the World Wide Web. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development.aktors. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT.

de/html/ Aguirre. semantic portals for end-users. J.pdf Anderson. (2003) The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. and Ahmed. Odeh. ons/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. Tim (2003).com/article. Hendler.. and Knowledge Management. Ali. http://www. http://edutella.. http://www-jime. O. and Smith. Salvachua. May 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. J. In Fensel.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. and Hendler. http://www.pdf Daconta. W.ideagroup. F. D..ifets. (1) the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing.. D. http://www. The semantic web.. (2004). http://www-jime.tkk. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.hpl. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. implementing. M. T. and van Harmelen (2004). T. http://arxiv. Web Services. A. Mozo. semantic infrastructural services. G. Miklos. and Whitelock. http://www.. MA: MIT. R. Scientific American. Lieberman. S. Cambridge. Forward. http://www. http://www. B. Umer.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. New York: Wiley. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased McClatchey.seco. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. G. Wahlster. Markus.) (2003). http://jungla. H. May 29 June 1.ifets. (Eds. AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. A Semantic Web MA: MIT Press. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. and J. M. (2005). K. S. Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. Bibliography Abbas.php?http://www . (2001).php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004.sciam. 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. http://www. S. M.dit. xi. 2005. Sobernig.. http://www. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). and Zillinger. http://kaon.upm. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. Mark (2005). Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Obrst. A...hp. Huber. Greece.jxta. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. The first issue is (2005). Simon. May Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.. S. /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. D.semanticgrid. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Online article.Some Architectural Guidelines.scipub. CETIS Online article. http://www. and Naeve. http://www. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. D. Rutledge. J.) (2005). http://www2002.pdf Henze.unihannover. Phil (2006). http://www.pdf Henze. Wilbert (2005).cgi?post=31624 Fensel. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning .189 5. (2002). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web.html Haack. DevSource. http://www. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 .com/ /ie_aied05. H. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. Cambridge. 2006. Juan-les-Pins.well. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. (2004). Amsterdam.downes. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. and Worldview”. Journal of Computer Science.. L.devsource.cwi. The Netherlands. http://www. Paper presented at the GLS ns/nack-acm-panel-2002.9/semgrid. http://www. Hershey. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Jennings. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. 2001. PA: Information Science Publishing. and Gouarderes. http://www. T.cetis. 1(4).org/v1. N. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. Stephen’s Web.kbs. Greenwich. Ramadan.jisc. Online article. Nicola (2005b). Nack.pdf 4/ Passin.) (2003). (2001). Stephen (2005). Lund.00. and Naeve. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on -504. 18-22 July 2005. (Eds. Sikora. (2005). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research 1195933/printArticle Lytras. H. Sweden. 500-504. CT: Manning. Nicola (2005a). (2001).ca/cgibin/page. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. 10. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. May 27. pdf Doctorow.. G. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). C. http://www.pdf Kraan. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning M. and 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. N.De Roure. W. Thomas (2004).. http://www. and Neagu. http://www. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. http://www. and Shadbolt. A.. Oct. D. http://homepages. A.. Syllogism. Semantic Web Technologies. M.. Mauthe. H. M. F.unihannover. Paul (2003).. Brian (2005). 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html Van Dijck. http://poorbuthappy.pdf Samaras. Wagner. Weinberger.. G.html Wilson. Darwin.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. H.pdf Tane. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. http://education. Scott’s Workblog. Peter (2003). 2004. Syllogism.pdf elegi/session2/paper12.asp Udell. August 2. Semantic Web. Networks.html Stojanovic.unikarlsruhe. D. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.cetis. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. 7 (4). 2003..bbk. Woukeu. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. Scott (2002).00. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. 7. WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. June 21. Who said that? Metadata. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. David (2002).ac. F. (2003). http://www. June 14. The Semantic Web. http://www. (2003). Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. New 3/49OPstrategic_1..ifets. C. January yllogism.. trust. May 17–22.981948. (2005). InfoWorld. Clay (2003).. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. Nov. J. (2001). and Studer. http://www. http://www. A. / 2003. Online article..w3. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Scott (2005). Journal of Educational Technology & Society. L. http://eprints.soton. E. and Woukeu. and the Semantic Web. and Davis.10577. 2628. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. December 3. CETIS Online article. http://www.. http://www. John (2004). (2004).Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. and Diaz.infoworld. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. http://ewic. Staab. A. and Stumme. G. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. (2005). R.darwinmag. Lytras. Schmitz. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. and Christodoulou. Economics and Culture. G. http://www. and Worldview. S. New 1. Marketing Profs. Del3. Millard. 2004. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.pdf Updegrove. and Miller.ecs.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Karenos. 168 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. K. http://www2004. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. USA.pdf Sampson. 2002.p df story/ gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).shirky.. http://www.pdf Tao. CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. (2004).marketingprofs. Online article. 2005. M. D. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. http://www. Andy (2005).info/journals/7_4/ 171444/printArticle Wilson.

a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).insead. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.calt.calt. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.e. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. http://sos.insead. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. but information about it remains on the Web. participants will be motivated to evaluate. reviewed simulations as an online content Winters et al.insead.calt. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. learn. i. microworlds. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 .ncsa. Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.” My first report in this Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. http://www. According to High (2004).icherubini. especially ones set by themselves.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. role-playing. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.calt. http://www. It was decommissioned in 2005. http://cave.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. 2005). ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.calt. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.

It runs on > > http://geowall.umich.http://www.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. For example.fsl. pulse rate. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. http://www.sdsu.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. m Intermezzon .noaa.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. Forio . go to: http://www. eoWall/index. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. http://www.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. and Mac OS X. Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different they are only available for Macintosh computers.. http://thinkertools.dc.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work. http://www. http://www.virtualfishtank. Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. breathing.assima. http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . A guide’s voice prompts the employee. html Muzzy Lane Software of ex.adobe.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.biographix. heart sounds. Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.experiencebuilders. http://www.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.intermezzon.geo.html weather forecasting. http://crme.calt. to play in a virtual Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . However. with many examples to try. Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language." http://www. without programming Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other At the Earth System Research Laboratory. Kaplan IT Learning .edcenter. Biographix hpro/ Assisma .ISLE . and murmurs.stt-global.

com/products/sim.maxit.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www. http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple pe. http://www. http://www. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? click of a mulation. http://coe.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.teds. create courses specifically on using computer is/ Elliot Masie.elearningcentre. / MaxIT . which can then be used to build simulations. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest . Integrates with many media tion/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. http://www. NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario MaxIT . http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a d/Links/Simulation_Training.qarbon.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.reusableobjects.nexlearn.” http://www.percepsys. Do not reproduce 171 .knowledgepresenter.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.icherubini.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.learning2005. Kookaburra Studios .DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.knowledgequest.bc. TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring Reusable Objects . Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming. http://www. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. including Knowledge Planet

Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . J. http://itdl. In Interaction Design and Children. A. P... Gash.html Sobeih.. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Shannon (2004). Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). Jennifer (2004). computer games.. 1(10). http://www.blikstein. September. Rasmussen. R. The promise of online simulations. Financial /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/ July. L.ft.htm ts/poplog/packages/simagent. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. eSchool News. A. J. M.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.html Learning Circuits. and Sund Martin. Implementation and Evaluation. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Feb. Sept. June. and Ip. Clark (2004).learningcircuits. 2004. http://www. http://www.htm Aldrich. October 2004. Clark (2005). Six criteria of an educational simulation.bham.. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Learning Circuits.htm eSchool News (2004). http://www. 2004.pdf DeVries. San Francisco: Pfieffer. A. Montréal.uva.learningcircuits. T. (2002). Aug. (2002).PDF Blikstein. & de http://www.eschoolnews. Aaron (2005). Chief Learning Online report.ncassr.bbk. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. Utrecht. Laser.projects. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.. Holland. (2001).pdf Cherubini. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography tory.medialabeurope. A.. Department of Computer Science. October 15-19. B. U. es/clo_feature. A. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. and Hou. http://www. AACE conference.clomedia. October. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . 12. T.. A. International Workshop. J. 4. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. Simulation levels in software (2001). http://www.for Philosophers and Engineers.html Linser. and Wilensky. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. 8. (2004) apers/sobeihTR04. http://www. September. Computer simulations in distance education. http://www. and Bostan. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. 2002.simplay. http://www. Taghiyareh. 004/aldrich. studies.html Lunce.http://www. Simjour. M.html 004/estabrook. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue 004/bersin.cs. and McCloughlin. Billhardt. 2004. Paper presented at Robocup brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. http://www. Learning Circuits.pdf m Sloman.learningcircuits. How playing power drives lessons s. A. http://www. (2005). (2004). Bjorn (2004).com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Mazloumian. Making the most of software simulations. Les (2004). Learning Circuits. Kamau (2004). Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. The American Prospect. N.protonmedia. Online paper at: http://lsm.. and Strohecker. April. 284-294.. http://www. Cherubini. Gary (2003). 17. Sherry (1997).knowledge. C. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Fort Lauderdale.pdf Turkle. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.pdf Tjaden.dei. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of In Association for Computing Machinery. http://www. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. http://www. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.icherubini. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Florida. (2003).uc. 8(31).pdf Do not reproduce 173 _white_paper. Mar.prospect. USA.html Winters. 1997.-Apr.

While controversial. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. 2005).edu/ . http://uitspress. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. especially in museums and for outdoor education. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .” optical tags. especially for tagging retail items in stores.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.ala..shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for obiles/m02. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. They are programmable and. http://cnm. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. For a full discussion of this issue. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be http://www. RFID technology is developing rapidly. which transmits over short distances. easily changed. or water. therefore. grease. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.iu.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.checkpointsystems. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.iu. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. infrared (IR) tags.

2005. January 1. Michigan State University. TD Monthly. Y.2005 . M. RFID: frequency. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. K. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).. April /TSW0602... http://csdl2. Tsukagoshi. T. Shibuya. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. in a 2005 online 7s01-legn..pdf Osawa et 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. James (2006).html?s=feature e. http://www.rfidnews.jisc.toydirectory. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. http://www. 2004. March. Donnelly. http://www. Noma. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.asp?id=1222 Ross. http://www.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. (2003). DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.html Osawa. S. P. R. http://www. http://www.digicult.66 Bibliography Borck.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. & Kondo. & Richards. (2004). (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. 276-283.eschoolnews. In Kommers.. infrared tags x.msu. Andrew (2005). and Dobreva.cfm? Salcedo.pdf Murray. A. (Eds. June 27.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Y..pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. and Yano.cfm?fuse action=Reader. and e.csmonitor. Proceedings. N.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.1109/WMTE.. H.). Infoworld.toydirectory. (2005). (2006). R. Aparna (2004). K.msu.infoworld.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. Ando. http://www. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www.. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. and Backhouse. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: 3_01_low. ry.asp?id=1222 Ross et 4(3). Corey (2004). http://www. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). M. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. 5. http://www. Oct. G. (2005).ac. M. http://www. C. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. http://www. G. eSchool News Online.. Masters Thesis. S. Noda... adoption and 3_01_low.aace. standards. 261-263. 2004.pdf Robinton. van Kranenburg. Ogata. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning..

they act as an “outboard memory. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. printouts. and organize the academic papers they are reading. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. and to share them. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. music. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.First. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.Social Bookmarking Related terms Web site (http://del.icio. store.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. get 176 © Brandon Hall Research . ontologies.connotea.43things. users can see what others are Blinking.citeulike. while users of the del. http://ask.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. Flickr held over 100 million images. Fourth.metafilter. As of April 2006. For example. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. http://blogmarks. Fifth. share references with colleagues. http://www. or check out what everyone wants to do. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. and Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and post their favorite Web sites. faculty. Blink also provides tools to sort. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Students. http://www. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. tagging. and Web links. and search for a specific user's Blinks. The result is something called a tag cloud. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. For instance. Second. search. metadata. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. describe. share their BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. CiteULike . Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. connect with others. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) Blinklist . They can save references. as each member can upload resources discovered.A free service to help academics share. Third.blinklist. in turn. search others’ references.” However. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. researchers at all levels (students. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. or distributed in e-mails. no matter their location or timing. Also. http://www.

Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.netscape. date/index. http://del. music.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have Flickr – Store. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://flickr. Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social Project Pad . http://blog. updated in near real time.netvouz.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. share.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. sort. http://www.icio.feedmarker. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. and discover relevant links. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www. http://www. similar to Digg.digg.Consumating .com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. Tags can be shared or kept private. and non-hierarchical editorial control.shadows. http://www. http://www.kaboodle. http://www. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's Simpy – Search but.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. k_menus.A free. Do not reproduce 177 .us . search.html Linkroll .com Clipmarks index.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a Jookster . RSS.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each Furl . With digg.northwestern. or enter new items and tag them. the users Digg . http://projectpad.eventful. http://www.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly Jots .html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. and share photos with others. Kaboodle . http://jots.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.networkltd.furl. Also retrieve it Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. and/or books and find them again. based on what is happening in the news media. http://www. http://myweb2.pageflakes. Magnolia . users submit stories for Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.

com Wists – A social shopping Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. http://www. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. If a city is not 558. 41(2). http://unalog. a technology columnist for es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. and social bookmarking. http://www.peterme.html http://tagsonomy.yelp.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://www. Online Resources Jon s/m/ es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . Flickr.icio.veotag.html Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.” Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.zvents.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://www. http://upcoming. and share it with others. http://www. Web 2.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://www. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. http://tabblo.suprglu. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. anyone can start a directory of events for their own Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with with contributions from Suprglu .edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.educause.html http://atomiq.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.” > > http://magazines. es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “ s/m/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by ntology_is_overrated_followup.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. http://weblog. tags.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital about how tagging works with del. March/April 2006.fasfind. http://www.fasfind. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. http://www.wink.smugmug. > Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.wists. and Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.quickonlinetips. SWiK . Bryan (2006).com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.

Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.adammathes.html Mote. J. Social consequences of social tagging. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. August 20. 11(4).html Udell. B. ammond/04hammond. Andy (2006).ejournal. Tom. B. Shamus (2006). Tom (2005). Aug.html Lawley. Collaborative knowledge gardening. http://www. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. T. http://searchcio.html Coates. mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.00. (2005).hpl.plasticbag. http://www.html Do not reproduce 179 . 2006. 2005.pdf Richardson. erm0621.sid19_gci1195182. 2005. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. s/tags/tags. Trusted 0/30OPstrategic_1. Ulises (2004). http://www. Ulises (2005).infoworld. Webblogg-ed. May 20. The New School of Ontologies. http://www. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. S.typepad. 11(4).org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi Mejias. June 21. Flack. and ias_dtd.289142.hp. B. Keynote . Jan. http://www. 2005. (2005).corante. Jon (2004).ascc.. Adam (2004). Jon (2005). T. Plasticbag. http://dlib. and Scott. InfoWorld. Online Paper.educause.infoworld. April 2005. 2005. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online 0/34OPstrategic_1. (2005). T.htm Hammond. 2. Many2Many. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://ideant. http://many. http://tomgruber.php 5/ ml Mejias. 2005.html Mathes.shtml Golder.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. April 2005. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. HP Labs Report. http://www. July 20. D-Lib Magazine.. Hannay.techtarget. 2004.pbs. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Udell. 20. my. Will (2005).http://www.. http://www. and Hannay. Online paper.isi. (2005).pdf Gurber. ntent/0. M. Hammond.html Nicholas (2004). Liz (2005).com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. May 5.. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Lund. D-Lib Magazine. Ideant. nd..dlib.. Tags vs. http://ideant.

reviewed social networking as an online content format. and the military. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. photo sharing sites. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. Friendster. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. dating sites. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend tagging.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. etc. e-mail.icio. online personals such as Match. shared link libraries such as del. My first report in this series. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social photo albums. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration.) Experience Sharing ( 180 © Brandon Hall Research .classmates. etc. SMS. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. work.) Relationship Management (Orkut. shared links.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. social software. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. 2005). Web feeds > Sharing software: teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. http://www. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. etc.” that is. family. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. e-mail. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. communities of practice. social networking sites such as Friendster.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. etc.

or as a social ks. audio.intronetworks.friendster. http://www.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. http://www. video. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.spartasocialnetworks.faceparty. Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.myspace.xanga. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.freeopendiary. http://www. as a” http://www. It costs several thousand dollars.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. List who a person knows and find out who others know.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. and within “communities of interest. and files and then make them available to others. Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. in LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age For an example of the use of social networking Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. https://www. http://www. and geographic regions. http://www. documents.orkut. high Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. Share it with others if http://www.livejournal. http://360.html Last. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends Platial – A site to create social – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.stumbleupon. Users share their writings and meet each other.netminer. http://platial. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at photos. Orkut .com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. which is then open to other readers. https://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through http://www. upload photos. http://www.codeville. http://www. http://www. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. http://www. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network Live Journal . Facebook has networks for colleges. ESnips – Add Web snippets and MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at and the list of related articles using social network analysis. licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.

links to similar sites. Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-


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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > ec2003/kaplan.htm an2004/kaplan2.htm /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.


© Brandon Hall Research e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005.,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005.

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is


© Brandon Hall Research

) (2000). and Handberg. J. Nils (2000). http://www. (2002).html http://www. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. MacOS Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.percro. http://www2.networkworld. http://laimuz.advanced. Naeve. Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd. http://www.txt Knudsen.aim. Online memo. Bibliography Dreyfus. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. Presence applications poised for n2. Hubert (2001). Jabber – An L. http://messenger. Network Working Group (2000).ebuddy. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. 090604specialfocus. Cambridge." http://www.html Goldberg.. A. and Windows. John (2004).com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. http://www. /tele/ Internet Society. In Soldek. http://www. The driver sits in a Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging Do not reproduce 187 .ieor.) ACS 2000 Online Resources Virtual-Presence.acs. MA: MIT n. (2001). plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.berkeley. C.pd f Fontana. http://www-142.“Simultaneous Presence.kth.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for http://gaim. (Eds. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual http://www.fakespace. history.pdf Knudsen. http://kmr. Network World. BSD. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. On the Internet. A. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. the CAVE. J. Ken (Ed. and Naeve. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. http://www. Telepresence and Virtual eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. > > http://www. as well as news. secure. London: Routledge. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. and Pejas. is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.sourceforge.nada.

DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. G.digicult. A.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. (2005). H.Learning. Knudsen. M. Abbott.. A. F. InfoWorld. In Hoyer. C.Banff..infoworld.wired. Ins and outs of teledildonics. (Eds. Regina (2004). New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for 8/ nts/Sponberg. (2001). http://cid. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. et al. 2002. Jan. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Amsterdam: IOS Press. and Rusbridge. http://www. http://www. Wired M.650 64-0. L. Calgary.kth.swedishlearninglab. and Handberg. 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. http://www. W.html Riva.) (2003).. January 2005. June Jon (2005). Being There: Concepts.. September 24. H. Germany: Hagen.pdf Sponberg.pdf Udell. D.nada.modes. 28. Davide.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. S. (Eds.pdf Lynn. McHugh. Alberta. Donnelly. and IJsselsteijn..

amateur and professional video cameras. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. 2002). It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. A new version of television. My first report in this series. in all its formats. Do not reproduce 189 . Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. videocasting. Video blogging has become common. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. Further. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. BT. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. reviewed video as an online content format. the largest Internet telephone service. video blogging. PDAs. telepresence. screencasting. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. streaming video. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. However. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Britain's largest telecom firm. vodcasting. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. bandwidth becomes an issue. 2005). television. In spite of the limitations. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. Once video goes on the Internet. tlearning. according to Foroohar (2006). vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. cell phones. As the following examples show. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. IPTV. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). even a video plug-in for Skype.

xstreamengine. ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. http://www. is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. http://www.concord. See examples at: http://www. It is still going strong at: Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. with IPTV. and maintains ses. http://www. and data services increases the profits by and multimedia content to customers. BitTorrent.rocketboom. low bandwidth video 190 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ veotag allows users to upload Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. http://www.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www. the Internet telephone service. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. http://www. In 1999. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. http://www.medialogic.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://www. see Rocketboom.html Dialcom Networks. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. See the current selection at: voice.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.ourmedia.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. partners. or set-top box.addictingclips. See samples at: http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. and divide them into chapters or segments. whether dial-up. http://www. cellular. the “triple play” of Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer For an example of a video Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. a three-minute At Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. desktop.veotag.on2. plus see thousands of video clips posted by The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.dfilm.” Users can upload video clips for free. The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. video. or students through a high quality. improves the satisfaction of the client. tag them. http://www.bittorrent. http://vpb.

by alphabet.” http://knowledge. Peter (2003). Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Beyond Wireless Broadband. For example.masternewmedia. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. Luigi (2005b).pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. or http://dvguru. but business models are The site already contains nearly 6.” http://www. http://www. 2005.pdf http://www. and by tags.” The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.htm Canali De Rossi. Robin Good 7005. http://eduscapes.500 vlogs organized by Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is m Canali De Rossi. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. Luigi (2005a).wharton. termed “mobile television. P.veoh.dvguru. https://www.” 05/03/26/ 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. and eaminglearning. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. read “Ten video sharing services compared.masternewmedia. http://www. and visual resources.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about… David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. Wi-Fi.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.mefeedia. Online article at: t-learning Study .h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .uk/tlearning/contents. Pradeep (2004).educause.spider.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www. www. http://www.iptv-industry. http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. Interactive TV: a learning platform with http://www. 1. allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.” Bibliography p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. which users can submit. D. http://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.thinkofit. m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “ (2003).html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.masternewmedia.upenn.

and Young.. Video Streaming: a guide for educational 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). Robin Good Blog. Tom (2005). Matthew (2005). http://www. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. http://www. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. IAT Services White Paper. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.htm 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. Peter (2005) P. The IPTV Revolution. (2005).networkingpipeline. University of Missouri. 2.umist. L.php Taplin. http://www. C.).bcr. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.masternewmedia. Campus Technology.usc. http://www2. Feb.XMax Goes The Distance. and Swenson. ticle. http://www.) (2002). Brian (2002). Newsweek (International Ed. 2005. http://www.pdf Thornhill. Online paper. (Eds. Nov.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Rana (2005).pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . 7.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. (Ed. June 6. S. Mon. NC: Duke University. 2005. site/newsweek/ Friedman. Durham. 417-419). Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. http://www. Changing Channels. .asp?id=7769 Meng. IBM Institute for Business Value study. Brian (2005). Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. pdf Nolle. 2005. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. discussions and wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. http://www1.pdf Klass. In Richards. Podcasting and VODcasting: Dec.msn. (2003). 8-9. Networking Pipeline. April Jonathan.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. G. http://www.

skin color. exchange enabling. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. By using aspects of game There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time.ubc.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. Exploration and discovery are enabled. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.arts. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. Creed. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.netofpeers. designers. Shape has developed the augurscope. inventors. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. To do this. http://solipsis. augmented ects/arc/arc. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.cs. Videoconferencing is not required. mixed reality.kahootz. http://www. distributed virtual environments.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. Near Eastern.futurelab. Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. http://www1. annah/savannah.shapedc.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).ca/index. http://www. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Depending on the level of realism achieved. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. http://www. and Religious Studies department.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. and the aim of the virtual experience. and storytellers. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. desktop virtual reality.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.columbia. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.

ch/About/about_index.activeworlds.cti.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. East Carolina University. A.informationinplace.html The U. V. Triantafillou.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.campustechnology. Campus Technology. http://vrlab. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). http://www. 175-199. including education. 24. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual http://www.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. http://ru6. http://www. Technology Area .cfm ?PostID=19660 > .as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. T. > > http://www. T.cti. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and (2006).intuition-eunetwork. C.html Bibliography C. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. http://www.ecu. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in uide/sect34.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. Hornig. Research report. (2001). and Tsiatsos. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).pdf Bouras. (2001).com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual For example. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. C. Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.ahds. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. http://ru6.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of . Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. August 9.healthdatamanagement. > Luigi (2004).ahds.coe.ergonetz. https://www. and Tsiatsos.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. T. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good http://www.pdf Bouras. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.epfl. and Tsiatsos. http://ru6.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to e/ http://vr. G.

. Learning Circuits.pdf Hoare.00. Gerard (2002). Bertolotto. 2005. O. Dec. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Sept. C.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . (2002).aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.1314022.ikg.elearning. & Sester.pdf 004/0412_trends. Ekaterina (2005).com/ DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. and Hicks.actapress. 2004. Donnelly. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. (2005).uk/elearning/ story/0.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. ISPRS. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. and White.p df Prasolova-Fø Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.pdf Ross. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. (Section on Virtual Reality). 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. 28. http://www. G. No. M. (2005).org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. July 9-16. 2004. A. Dobreva. 1(2). Istanbul. 2004. http://www. 1. 2004. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Conlan. (2004). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. rs/Queen. 35. La Coruna/Spain. Monahan. P. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. http://www. Michelle (2003). Eva (2004). Guardian Unlimited. Proceedings. M.actapress.eng. Stephen (2004).guardian. McHugh. T.unt. 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. http://education. F.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. D. Dickey. R.. M.. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. s_elearn04. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. http://www. http://www. Petridis. Trend: augmented reality check. 27. and Seyedarabi. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. and Rusbridge. (2005).com/Reference.. Web-based Education 2005 conference.oln.learningcircuits.unihannover.html Jones.pdf McArdle. E... Lister.html P.. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.tcd. Proceedings. Vol. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. J.masternewmedia.Good Blog.actapress. M. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.unibo.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. F. http://courseweb. http://www. and dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. and Sester. Abbott. http://www.htm Katterfeld. January 2005. Sept. A. (2005).icc2005. Web Based Education 2005 conference. (2004).

et al.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.zoomclouds.ucar. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. mapping. allowing for innovation or new understandings. images. Finally. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall 196 © Brandon Hall Research .” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. 2005). Flash. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. reviewed visualization as an online content format. See some amazing demos at: http://www. and data rendering. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of data mapping. http://www. geographical information systems. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. dynamic displays. 2003). cybercartography. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. Humans analyze visual information better than written Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. pattern recognition. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. For an example. http://www.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. which showcases their potential. GIS. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. On the other hand. My first report in this series. graphics. location based systems. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross.dpc. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. http://www. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. http://www.inxight. see ZoomClouds.semagix. The educational advantages of visualization are many.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. cognitive collage.unifiedfield. As complexity theory develops as an approach to Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. such as a blog. data filtering. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. visualization can represent alternative points of view.

and visualization applications.skyscraper. http://news.ddd. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.ubc.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of intro. a young graphic Web site in Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. VR. Museum Edition. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually View_68. and display (without glasses!).ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. http://www. http://esapub.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. It has images of space and the earth from Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. Be sure to explore the “zoo.cs.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.nlm.” http://richie.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. / Paul Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. http://www. http://www. See: English or AutoStitch can be used for panoramic formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.”’ BBC News. http://www.medibolt. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.nixlog. Sample the collection at: http://svs. delivery.medtropolis. http://www. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. http://www. April AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. http://chatcircles.nasa.0 authoring system. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.html For a practical application of visualization. Free demo at: A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . See his list of resources at: http://www.html The Texas Memorial Museum in A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.” http://www. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.

html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. http://www. http://www.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. http://research.S. http://www.gfdl.vicodi. http://www. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of CenterView http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. retrieval.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . sible_human.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard Using time as an added dimension.html Top Tier http://www. OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a http://www. one million The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.cs.html XCelsius http://www.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map index. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the on. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.amnh. http://www. anatomically detailed. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric for example.semagix.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. oard/index. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human Digital Dashboard http://msdn.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions. http://makingmaps. and information presentation.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.owu. in the U.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.arcscience. See this technology in action.nlm.corda.mccrackendesign. See their tool set and examples of their work.nih. TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.feedtank.xcelsius. WorkPlace http://www.

for 3-D Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.musanim. http://www. MapViewer. for thematic and analytical Okino makes visual simulation data translation. and anomalies in data.visualthesaurus. for digitizing and coordinate http://www. http://www. http://research. including the following: Bryce.advizorsolutions. links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www. Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. Grapher.intergraph. They have worked with the U. Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. for 3-D data visualization. modeling. for well log and borehole plotting. http://tangible. http://www. http://www. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. Pixologic is 2.mapinfo.goes far beyond static JPG map images.okino. OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. and rendering. many of which are unique. and rendering software. http://www. Clicking a related term extends the process. including the following: Voxler. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. trends.S.accurender. VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.visualanalytics. TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www. for 3-D landscaping and animation.esri. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of Over 30 are “knowledge networks. Strater. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.softill. http://www. http://www. http://www. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.timemap.5-D modeling and rendering software.” http://www. Try a demo at: ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.

complexityandeducation. (Eds.ualbert a. http://www. both visualization companies.pdf Bergmann.) (1999). to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. J. together with their estimated depth of influence.infovis. Sherman (2003). http://www. and The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.ubc. on_design_and_data_visualization. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological J.fakespace.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.. M. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. G. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. ey/ 2_AndersonWoodill. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. > http://www.gatech. http://acg. (2003).pdf Bertin.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. Jacques (1967).pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. http://www.editlib. EXYSTENCE network. K. > > /thesis-0522d.topicmap. 31-49 http://www. Working Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data http://benfry.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Paris: La Haye. bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique esearch. is available http://www. 14(1). Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Bibliography Alpert. B. He finished his PhD. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. Following are two: > > Card.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . Proceedings.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.cs.iu.complexityscience. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. Jacques (1983).gvu. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. and nfovis/ > San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each Ell.topicmaps. les cartes. Mackinlay.sdsu. as part of his doctoral work at P.. > > Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and s448b-04-winter/” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. les réseaux. http://coe. The Semiology of Graphics.agocg.liveplasma.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. and Shneiderman.vrco. http://www. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.” Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.edwardtufte. Paier.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.

cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language.. (2005).com/ 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. http://www. http://www. 69-82. and m O'Regan. Ruth (2003). August 11. (2005). Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory.usilu. Lugano. 2005.asp Mittal.. McHugh. Brent (2006). Luca (2005). and Bertoline.. Siggraph. 2.html Madhavan.agocg. June 1. ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/ Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction.K. http://itdl.istituti.pdf Scaife. 3. http://www. 42. A. Robert. Information Visualization. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. http://createdrealities. Harlow. (1992). available online at http://www. D. Spence. Educational Media International.educause. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark.psycho. 46: 461-488. http://www.indiana. Reading. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.. 185–213 http://www. 41(3). J. P.pdf Goldfarb. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. August. S.. G. Brian (2002). S. 329-351. and 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning erm0638. May/June. International Journal on E-Learning. M. (1998).Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. pp. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. No. 4th (Section on Visualization). C.. Campus Technology. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. K. Vol. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. A. 1-34. http://www. 2ml/ Botturi.html Ross.siggraph. K. (2005). 16(4) ey/visurvey.univparis5. (2006). http://www. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. Donnelly.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. NC: Duke University. Arns. Yvonne (1996). Switzerland: University of Lugano. K. and Pagalthivarthi. (2005). M. Vol.cfm/files/pape England: AddisonWesley. EDUCAUSE Review. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Luca (2003). 3(1). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. http://www. No. http://www. 4(1). Theresa (1998). G. Canadian Journal of Psychology. http://www.html Rhyne. tracts/ /papers/ Do not reproduce 201 . Mike and Rogers. Dobreva. B.slis. 17-30. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. (2001). and Woolsey. September.asp?id=11222 Metros. 45. http://www. pp.digicult. January Morales. (2004).pdf?fuseaction=Reader.pdf Shneiderman. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

Matt (2002).amazon.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. David (2005).com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. From multimedia to multisensory education.edwardtufte. Threshold. http://www. evidence and narrative. http://www. 2nd Edition. Digital Information Graphics. Edward (1990). Tufte. M. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Edward (1997). http://www. Cheshire. CT: Graphics 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. 2nd Ed. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Cheshire. http://www. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.edwardtufte. CT: Graphics Press. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Envisioning Information.E. Computers. (2004).com/tufte/index Ware. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. CT: Graphics Press. 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Information Visualization: perception for Tufte. David (2002). Sharpe. Visualization. http://www. Edward (2001). Colin.

co.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to Skype is the best known VoIP service. http://www.infoworld. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.weblogsinc. http://www.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.jajah. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. Geraldine (2005).org/mar05/253 8 Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. but it is rapidly improving. http://www.elearningcentre. http://www.voipreview. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. Steven (2005). IEEE Spectrum Online. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. Join the discussion at: http://voip. In the near future. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. headphones or Bibliography Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. communications tools. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/ Internet telephony is relatively simple. Using VoIP.avaya. requiring an Internet Do not reproduce 203 .spectrum. http://www. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.envisioninc. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. March 2005. in remote communities. http://www. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. Internet 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. http://www. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. 1996). and a microphone. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.

A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Mobile distributed e-learning center. M. Language Learning and Technology. 9-12.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://www. Meredith (1996) (2005).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . http://llt. September. http://ieeexplore. Stojanov. 9(3). Robert (2005). and O’Droma. I.nald. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.pdf Ottoson.. S. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language gfx.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .

bbc.checkpointelearning. weighs less than three pounds. Selected Examples In Europe.bris. In January 2006. or repairing complex machines. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. including wearable computing. ubiquitous computing > r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. http://www.learnexact. http://news. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.pdf http://www.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. For example. It is observable by the user 4. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2.cmu. Do not reproduce 205 .uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. especially for comercial airlines. http://killer.hubuska. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. This can extend professional training in to remote and other organizations involved in inspecting.cs. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. anytime. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. like a wristband or jewelry.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. including batteries. http://killer. 1998): 1. The entire op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. It is controllable by the user 5. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. the automotive industry. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. http://www. training to do their 6. training. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://wearables.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. 690. It is attentive to the surrounding environment.ices.

M. http://www. What you’ll wear in 10 is a rich source of http://wearcam.businessweek. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.ethz. (2004).eecg. http://www. http://isd. Bibliography de Freitas.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. VA.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. H. http://about. Wearable computers that you can slip into. (2003). March 24. 2005. 1. ICWC98. Toronto: Anchor Books. Wearable Computing for the Commons. Wired News. http://www. Technology Review (Online). and Niedzviecki. Olga (2005). Steve (1998).html The design of “smart ellaWVAC.eecg.704 81-0. Dec. See: > > > ml http://www. Simson (2004).com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 il/index. http://wearcam.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.704 81-0. 2006. and Lupisella. especially in the area of wearable cameras.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable cle.htm hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.eyetap. March 8.jisc. Mmoma (2006).ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 C.pdf Kharif.cs. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.gsfc. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.html Garfinkel. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.” including computers built into underwear. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. http://www. http://www.toronto. Business Week http://www. M. (2002).com/news/culture/ http://www. S. May 12-13. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. ables/ http://www. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). and Levene.

com/productBlog Express. CDs.” as its content is changed by the author. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices.0 format). blogs. Both RSS and Atom are written in 8. When changes are made to a Web site. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). and Atom is the second. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.html 6. basic text format for quick review.html 2. To read content from a Web feed. Here is a list of 48: 1. Brightcove http://www. Aggie http://bitworking. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed.awasu. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. PDAs. Attensa http://www. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web 5.attensa. Bloglet http://www. enabling it to find the Web feed in the 4. podcasts. > For learners and teachers.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. including cell phones. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. and 7. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). BlogLines http://www. feeds. and laptops. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. TV guides.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 .com listings of the latest books. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. social bookmarking. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been desk 3.brightcove. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. Awasu http://www. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an and course offerings. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. each with its own features. Amphetadesk http://www.disobey. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. this method of finding out what is new is spam free.bloglet. photo collections. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. with all the potential for viruses and spam.bloglines. job searches.

RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. OnFolio http://www.mozdev. Reader m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. RSS Bandit 13. RSS2Exchange http://www. Feedroll . To have a blog 28. Fuzzy Duck http://www.protopage.2 http://www. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .learningfeeds. Syndirella 45. FeedReader http://www. Feedster http://www. FeedPublish 25. Newsgator 24.puremis.rssreader. Topix ml 20. Protopage 30. including listings for various electronic devices.h tm olbar.rojo. My RSS Toolbar http://www.rss-to-javascript. Project D. Feedtier http://feedtier.pubsub. RSS-to-Javascript 37.hebig. Sage 46. see: http://www. RSSReader / 23.feedforall.rssreader.topix. FeedScout 15.onfolio.10.downes. Videora 14. Gregarius 33. FeedForAll 18.newsgator. SharpReader http://www. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.feedreader. Pluck 22. FeedBurner hange/ 31. StepNewz d/ Thunderbird 36. Edu_RSS For a list of more aggregators. feedbeep tml 43.php. RSS Software http://www.blogplanet. LearningFeeds http://www. Feed-Directory http://www. PubSub http://www.rsscalendar. RSS Orbit http://www.sharpreader.hexamail.html / NewsIsFree http://www. Rojo http://www.shtml 11. RSSCalendar http://www. EaZy RSS reader http://www.

mcli.teachinghacks. http://www. RSS: the next killer app for education. A. 2004. May -08-01-rss-research_x.pdf Gannett. Do not reproduce 209 . BC.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. http://www. Luigi (2004). 5-8. http://www. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.lo. http://www. The Technology Source Archives. http://technologysource.htm David. Bill (2003).cfm?ArticleID=5211 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.redjupiter. Brian Lamb. University of North Carolina. Aug.contentious.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Read his article written specifically for educators.htm 1.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Robin Good Blog. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass Future Evolution. Vancouver. 2004/0405_Trends. Stephen (2002). 20for%20Educators111.learningcircuits. RSS: a learning technology.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.downes. USA Today (online).php 2003. 3. 2005. Anh (2005).maricopa. RSS Ideas for Educators.wcc. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.vccs. http://www. http://careo. July/August 903DEV-L. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. sify. Eva (2004).pdf Canali De Rossi. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. Dan (2004). Oct. http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. and Norman. Learning mc1003/ The Fuss. May 2004.maricopa. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://www. Online paper. http://www.1. Aug.htm D’Sousa. Version 1.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. Stephen (2004). 004/ An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).mcli. eLearning Developers’ tory.dist. Mary (2003). 2003.elearningguild. and D’Arcy Norman.downes. to add the appropriate information to your blog template. Aug.eschoolnews. Brian Lamb. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . http://timyang. Quentin (2006). Presentation to the MERLOT International Online paper. RSS could transform online communications. Lamb. maintains a long list of RSS resources. eSchool News. D. http://www. ged/RSSFAQ2. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in Kaplan-Leiserson.elearning. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. a blog by Alan Levine.htm Levine. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.masternewmedia. erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. June 2004.usatoday.teachinghacks. Learning Circuits.ubc. (2003).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.htm 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject.

http://www.pdf eeds/index. /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.html Samuel. 2005. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). 2005. Otherwise Engaged. June 18. Using RSS for data integration.xml. (2006).oreilly.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. M. Jenny (2005).com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1.alexandrasamuel.blogspot. RSS: the next big thing 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. http://www. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. http://www. March 23. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. O’Reilly Network. 2006. s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. Shelly (2005). 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Namespaced extensions in feeds. Jon (2005). 13. and Webb.html MediaThink (2004).Levine. Aug. http://www. T. 2006. http://www. The Shifted 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Google Reader Blog. Alexandra (2005). July 7.html?page=1 Udell. Sept.html Powers. Mihai (2006).html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. MediaThink White Paper. http://www.mediathink.infoworld. 2005. 3.

There are now over 1. can be used by a team for joint writing. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything.seedwiki. http://www. it is important to have several contributors. 3.sourcewatch. For wikis to work. is available for other applications. and email notification. 2.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. Anyone can add to an image gallery. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. Do not reproduce 211 . and projects.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. it is a platform for open collaborative software Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Wiki Tools: anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.sourceforge. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. With some basic instructions. http://www.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.10.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. and never finished. 4. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. the software used to run Wikipedia. http://www. My first report in this series.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. RSS. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. There are hundred of “wiki engines.” Essentially. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. Description Wikis are fully editable Web wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. 2005). http://www. http://www.tikiwiki. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. features.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. See the progress at: http://edu. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. http://www. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. Content is ego-less. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.usemod. approaches.gilbane. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. custom permissions.

http://whiplash.” is a rich source of information on wikis. that she updates mlaut. Dec. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. is provided by David Mattison.48. :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. Perth. (2002).html Augar.html Bibliography Aronsson. First Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki WritingWiki.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. including a section on wiki tools. A free trial is available. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. L. http://www. His mattison.’s first nine months in th04/procs/augar.infotoday. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. 8(12). http://flosse. http://64.ubc.dicole. Twiki.socialtext. http://kairosnews.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. Phantom Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. R.” http://writingwiki. and has lots of resources on wikis.shtml Brian Lamb. Raitman. as well as an analysis of how they work. Operation of a Large Scale. http://www. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. (2004).jot.wikibooks. The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki Jon Udell. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . 5-8.37/teresadeca/webheads/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives.. Not all uses of wikis in education work adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.ikiw. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. Swiki. http://radio. W.infoworld.html Ciffolilli. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. http://aronsson.” http://tlc.pbwiki.htm#Wikis Stewart Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Teaching and learning online with WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.fasfind. Australia.different. http://weblog. “ ries/wikis/2004/02/16. Dec. http://www. including Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. Andrea (2003). http://careo. of the University of British Columbia. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.elearning. N.ucalgary. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://www.

Lauren (2005).irrodl.educause. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. W. http://www. O’Reilly Network. 2.Oct. 2006. April 2004. January. and Rudolph.. http://www. July. Cossarin. http://Weblog. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.profetic. and ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).com/artpdf/GR12. Educational wikis: features and selection Online article. ssier_imprimer. http://www. David (2004).com/udell/2004/1 0/19.oreillynet. Online paper. http://www. Swiki. 2004. Wiki Tools. M.pdf Kulisz. (2006). Oct. Quickiwiki. Bo & Cunnin. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.pdf Fountain. S.html Wood. 12(10). Richard (2003). Why Wikis Work Not. International Journal of Information Lamb. UniversityWiki. Ariadne.pdf Leuf. InfoWorld. http://c2. T. (2001). The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.10. http://www. Emma (2005). Making the case for a wiki. Clark. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. M.. July 7. Wiki pedagogy. Educause Review.14 02872. Renée (2005).. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . Searcher. Anja (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. April 2003.html Tomkin. http://gilbane. http://container. Online article at 7004.1/technot e_xxvii.asp Schmitt. Nov.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content _002_09_ebersbach.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.usemod. Online article at: http://www. Twiki. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects)..shtml Rubenking. Udell. David (2003). (2004). Issue 42. http://www. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.infotoday. The wiki L. Brian (2004). Sept.ariadne.html 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. Neil (2003). J. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. http://www. Jon (2004). 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Online Schwartz.

However. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. which can then lead to inventions. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. After a product has been successfully launched. in turn. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. floppy disks. CD-ROMS. which. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies.

some will never leave the development stage. in both formal and informal settings. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. peak. ascend the curve. while others will last for decades. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. The technology of e-learning. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. means that they actually think differently. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. and computers. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. or may never become commercially viable. In any field. However. this approach is now rapidly changing. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. change itself seems to be inevitable. The experience of younger learners with television. For a variety of reasons. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and decline. Some will die quickly. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. video games. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. This is due. mature. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. both in classrooms and online. 2003). demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. But not all technologies will travel this road. in part. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. to the complex. Further. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . Ontologies. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires.

True interactivity is based on feedback loops. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. and digital ink and electronic paper. commercials. Within the next five years. To keep our attention. touch and taste. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. Then even more movement. Generally. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. whereby the action of one participant. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. The children of the baby boomers. the learner. terrorism. we will see the restructuring of education and training. in a back-and-forth exchange. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. Their children. designers of Sesame Street. 1994). learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. sex. and personal digital assistants. that is all about to change. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. the space race. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. born in the 1970s. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. Once we master the art of reading.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. 2002. the baby boomers. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. The speed of change increases with each passing year. the computer. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. global warming. Because of this. wearable computers. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. libraries. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. However. mind-altering drugs. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. generally went to work earlier. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. In approaching electronic educational media. But they are usually disap-pointed. ecological disasters. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. the civil rights movement. In North America. results in an action by the other participant. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. For example. video games. It works for a time. huge data wall displays.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. movie theaters. surprise. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. until we become habituated. In contrast.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. television. gaming consoles. With feedback. digitization of smell. 28). p. or violence is needed to keep our attention. mobile phones. For the older generation.

San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. New York: McGraw-Hill. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Seidensticker. At the individual level. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of In the next wave.operitel. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. technologies and services for the next 5 years. (2001). http://www. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. It will also be the ultimate library of Woodill. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. portfolios. May 2006. Dallas. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. http://www. shortly.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Clayton (1997). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside Bibliography 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. http://www. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). http://www. Douglas (2005).com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. http://www. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. It is already a place for massively multiple player games. and the mapping of everything. James (1994). Bob (2006). Two hundred years ago. Marc. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. Guides are optional. Rushkoff. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to Do not reproduce 217 .amazon. Digital Game-based Learning. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. creative products. http://www.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get Texas. New York: Collins. Gary (2006). Likewise.

CA 94304 USA Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . 2910-595 Setúbal .mit. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . 27A 2º esq. UK http://www. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor e. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.51.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.bartneck. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.umu. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. CA 94539-7498 USA Humaine Project c/o AiLive Inc. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. L69 7ZF.nngroup. Building 5. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 WEBIST Av. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva al. 3400 Hillview Avenue.unige.ailive.O. 17th Floor. Den Dolech 2 Palo Auburn University Auburn. Via San Senatore 6/1 Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. Manuel Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. New York. Box Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.Portugal Tel.auburn. Marc Schröder. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.agentlink. 1515 Broadway. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Box Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Alchemy Mindworks P. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Educause 4772 Walnut Street.php/Main_ Page Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Box 5200. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.O. Inc.educause.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Box 2124 Menlo Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Apple Edmonton. O. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.ascilite. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 Suite 206 Boulder. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.codebaby. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.W. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.rit.redwoodelearning. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. W Toronto.isi. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. Huntsville.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St. Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o CodeBaby Burlington.animats. Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Extempo Systems.extempo. IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. #1910. L69 s/index. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. Secretariat. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Ascension Technology Corporation P. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.animationfactory.

org/home. Inc. PO Box 24478. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. Suite #480 Torrance. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.cmu. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.autotutor.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.psych. San Wellington.6450 http://www.460. Tel: +1.818. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. TN 38152 USA Avid Technology. 190th Street.ucsb. Santa Barbara. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.html Ulead Systems 970 W. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 AutoTutor c/o Dr.pact. One Park West Pty Ltd The Basement. Character Animation Technologies Ltd.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. 220 © Brandon Hall Research tylab.viewpoint. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.asp EI Technology Group. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess NewTek. Suite 108-414 San SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media Cognitive Science Society Department of Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.htm SWiSHzone. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.autodesk. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . Avid Technology Park.San Rafael.eitechnologygroup. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.S.aaai.macromedia. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.

eden-online. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.ucalgary. East University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.cs.cs. H-1111 Budapest. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 h/current_computer_science_education_re search.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. Suite Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.umuc. West Montreal.. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Chantilly. Suite 360 San Suite 1500 Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cis.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .com Do not reproduce 221 . Calgary.W. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.licef.usyd.W. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.stottlerhenke. Calgary.brainbench. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.enel.virtuelage.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.10th Street S. Egry J.iit.cmu.cs. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.wpi. Inc.gemini. 100 Sherbrooke Quantum Simulations. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. CA . of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. 1. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.

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com GTCO CalComp. Mary Apts. Suite 260 Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.. USA http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.knowledgeenvironments.oddcast. 11th Floor New Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. INDIA. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 .com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. P.opera. Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain mniweb Opera Software ASA OmniWeb Omni Development. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. 219 Tampa. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.daden.redwoodelearning.O. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.. Ste. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. B13 9SG.wavemarket.cramersweeney. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Browsers Flock 100 View WaveMarket. Inc. W Toronto. Moseley.html Knowledge Environments. CA 94043-0801 USA Oddcast 589 8th Ave. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.mozilla.blogburst. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.telsim. Inc. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.qelix. Dale Mabry Inc. Mumbai Nesbit Rd.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.flock. 6th NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www. Suite 900 Austin. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.tmmy.vcom3d.

pearsoned. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Brevient Tel: 414. #205 Pasadena.bluetie. Draper. Pleasant St.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.adobe. Jospeh Street. Pittsford. Ontario.aspx BlueTie.Columbia.umass. Inc.physics. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. NJ . 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. SW.gtcocalcomp.telnetz.bantu.optiontechnologies.batipi. Inc. Breeze c/o Macromedia. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.avecomm. Puyallup. Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Smartroom Learning Bridgepoint c/o Inc. 12617 Meridian E. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Suite 101E Falls Church. Suite 103 230 © Brandon Hall Research . Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. Suite# 401. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.qwizdom. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 Brightidea. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. 1192 East Draper Parkway. Suite 522. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Central Desktop. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 Centra c/o Saba.0162 udienceResponseSystems/ Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th 404 Fifth Avenue. Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.brightidea. Chicago IL 60622 USA Batipi 11 St. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. 6th Floor New York. Inc. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.saba. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.caucus.944. 100 North Lake Avenue.

Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 Digité. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. Suite 950 Portland. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .courseforum.edufolio.same-page. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.emc. 232 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.digite. Inc. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 Edufolio c/o Terra Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. Lauderdale. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.communiqueconferencing. 170 West Tasman Dr. 57th Street ps5664/ps5669/index. 1034 N. 82 Pioneer Way. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 eStudio c/o Same-Page. 6th Floor San Francisco. San Jose.convenos. Ontario.elluminate.epam-pmc. Suite 630 McLean. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. 795 Folsom Street. Sanibel Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Cisco Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 Digi-Net Technologies. LLC 501 West Franklin Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.citrix. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. LLP PO Box Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Suite 105 Chapel Engineering.W.html Citrix Systems. Suite 600

net Groove Networks. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.novell.hotcomm.hyperoffice.forumone. Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Glance c/o Citrix Systems. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . El Camino Real. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.genesys. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.groupsupport. Clevedon.V. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 Global School Net 132 N. Inc. #115 Rockville. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.hp.exactamerica. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.ezmeeting. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.glance.gotomeeting. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. 395 GoToMeeting. Suite 2300 New York.gordano. Inc. Suite 500 GroupSupport.4517 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole HyperOffice 6101 Executive Groupwise c/o Novell. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. Ste. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) Gordano 18 Kenn Road. 3100 Steeles Avenue B.

org/ MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Suite A-410 Chapel iLinc Communications 2999 N. 25 First Netspoke 600 West Cummings lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren Interwise.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. 3 Wing default.mayeticvillage. 44th St.onproject. Suite #150 Herndon. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Sunnyvale. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. Inc. 1289 N. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. Phoenix.ivocalize.. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.interwise. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.netspoke. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 Interwoven 803 11th Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.inquesttechnologies. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. 11th floor New Near-Time. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.interwoven. Suite 300 Do not reproduce 233 .near-time. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. Fordham Blvd. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.jdhtech.http://www03. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Inc.intralinks. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. Suite 100 Suite 6500 Woburn.liveoffice. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.iceweb. Suite 412 Cambridge. Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Suite 1401 Denver.mspx LiveOffice.

MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. Suite 440 San Jose.raindance.cyber-grad.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower RADVISION Inc. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 Chennai. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Suite 1450 project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.com Photon Infotech Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Selden Integrated Systems. Suite 200 Greeley.performancesolutionstech.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Inc. Suite B.project-open. 17-17 State Highway 208. Suite 445 Scottsdale. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Riverside SpiderWeb Communications. Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. Inc. New Raindance ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Box 3325 Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.opentext. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 ml Parlano 10 S.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Cactus SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.photoninfotech. Suite 210 Maynard. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. P. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 1157 Century Drive Louisville. 1175 58th Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . 3679 Concord ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 51.q2learning.sitescape. Ste 275 Mill Valley. 35. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.radvision. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Web Crossing. Suite 100 Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.teamware. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.teamdynamix. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.tomoye. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 WebEx WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.usabilityfirst. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.axista.tacit.webofficepoint. Ontario M2N 6H8. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Inc. Suite 950 WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.sumtotalsystems.O. Suite 100 Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. Suite 810 Toronto. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. 1100 Lovering Avenue Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Suite 1050 Vancouver. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 WebAsyst PO Box 25331. Inc. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain Vignette 1301 South MoPac Viack 14811 N.Tel: (415) 383-7164 Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. Kierland Do not reproduce 235 ..Box 2900 Alameda. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.O.vignette. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Vodium 1629 K Street NW. Canada Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.webtrain. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 Teamware P.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7


© Brandon Hall Research

Tel: (514) 745-4010 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK

Fax: (781) 890-828 Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300


© Brandon Hall Research

Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4)

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071

Do not reproduce


Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 LearnCenter c/o, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915


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syntrio. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown 100 Foxborough Blvd. LTD 671 N. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. 500 West Madison.outstart.teralearn. Suite 2200 Chicago.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. 77 West Port Plaza Suite mGen Enterprise Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood ng/index. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. 550 Queen St. PO Box 100 Fair n_resources/ Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.plateau.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite Do not reproduce 241 On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Glebe Road. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. West.wizdom. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 1300 Iroquois Avenue CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 SSElearn Portal c/o soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.Suite 350 Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. St. Suite 700 Arlington. Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 TEDS Inc. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. East . CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. Inc. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.technomedia. Fifth Floor TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. 1001 De Maisonneuve TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.mgen. Suite 260 PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Chantilly. Inc. Suite 1280 San Francisco. Louis. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.

edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Laurent Blvd. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. 122 West Way. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Suite 200 Ottawa.wbtsystems. Suite # 105 Columbia. Inc. 240 Bay Street. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc.edutools.vbtrain. Suite 101 Houston. Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.uwm. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.risc-inc.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Tracker. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. 2280 St. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.. Victoria. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.avilar. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.arizona. 17041 El Camino Real.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Box 9752 Boulder. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.trainingpartner. Ontario. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Suite 401A Lake Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.ttg-inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. 4 Expressway Plaza. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Inc. 4th Floor Oakland.gyrus.

UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.netera. 1275 Kinnear Road m ESRI Suite 300. Rice Suite 3100 San Francisco. 5151 East Broadway. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Do not reproduce 243 . AZ 85250 USA http://www.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. P. Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.unsw. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.lornet.maricopa.plos. SG1 2JY.clarklabs. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.merlot. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. Norton Road. AZ. Houston. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. Box 1892. Suite 1600 Tucson. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 ENC Learning Inc. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.dist.O. CT 06459 USA http://www. Fondren Library. MS Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.lrc3. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.mcli.llearn.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke Public Library of Science 185 Berry MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. Sterling Court.lolaexchange. Box 3000 Boulder.O.4464 Markham Street Victoria. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.

asp?path= MapInfo One Global View t. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. Inc. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. html ELSNET Trans 10.eee.berkeley.aaai.bham. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. Suite 501 Portland.stockholmchallenge. of Geography. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. Tino Johansson University of Austria http://www. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. 959 Concord Street.O.cetis. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . PanGo Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. Suite 100 Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Metadata. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. Electrical and Computer Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. PMB #112 Lake Mary. Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.O. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.pangonetworks. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.mapinfo. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.imsglobal. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o MOBILearn c/o Dr.knowledgepulse. CA 94720-3160 USA IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Inc. Box 240000 Huntsville. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Spotlight Mobile.

com ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 internet2. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. 4150 Network Circle Santa Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.internet2. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.asianart. NY. Inc. Whisman Road Mountain View. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Groove TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.stockholmchallenge. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.llearn.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Suite 300.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. LOCKSS c/o Victoria jxta c/o Sun Victoria. 1000 Oakbrook Drive. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.seti. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.sun.lexxe. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Italy http://tcc.Project Coordinator CSI .org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Deane Rd.lockss. Oleg Liber University of KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 . 1st Floor A . 19104-2653. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.elsnet. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. 10010 USA Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.

com 50 S. NE Calgary. World Wide Learn Suite 100.worldwidelearn. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 Teachnology. Box 172 1039 .17th Avenue SW Calgary. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.trainingregistry.6526 http://www. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.elluminate. 3333 http://www.lsc. 2850 Ocean Park ns/index. Eisenhower Parkway Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. Ninth St. Minneapolis. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 Slate Elluminate Canada Suite 304.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .apreso. 601 Townsend Street San CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona. 3016 5th Ave. Suite 600 Alpharetta. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.cyberu. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 Macromedia. New York 10973 USA Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Alberta. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 ProQuest 789 E. Portals CyberU. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Inc. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Presentations.presentations. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Suite 225 Santa Monica. Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. CA ReadyGo Inc. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. Lindsey Bldg.raptivity. SWEDEN. Woods Hole Marine NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.readygo. Radstock Somerset. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.euron. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Centre for Autonmous Evolution Robotics. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.evolution. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. Box 2827. Henrik I Union Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.nasa.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Raptivity P. Pasadena. 100 Do not reproduce 247 Euron c/o Prof. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.ife.whmsi.. Suite B Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.html General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. D.articulate. 130 W.aad. Redmond.botball. SE-100 44 Stockholm. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www.hp. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.irc. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.cmu. Michigan.ams. Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. Box 29141 San dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Suite 60 Google (including Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 229 West 43rd Street New York.Search Engines Headquarters 555 12th 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.findlaw. Chicago. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 Healthfinder P.icerocket.kartoo. DC 20013-1133 http://www. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 Dogpile c/o Gada.alexa. Box 1133 Washington. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Gnod. Google. Gnoosic c/o Marek IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.intute. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.convera. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. 42nd Floor New Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.koders.copernic. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. QC G1P 4N3 Canada 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Copernic 360 Franquet Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .6100 http://www. Suite 500 Oakland. Inc.ixquick. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.dogpile. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.O. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 Koders Inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Ask. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.

netscape. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.lalisio. 64 Fulton Street. Mary Apts. INDIA.searchking. 17th Floor New York. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 . CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.pubsub.msn. An AOL Company 333 Bush RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.rawsugar.1057022 LookSmart.qelix.W.krugle. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 PubSub Concepts. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.cs. 360 22nd Seventh Floor New York. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Mumbai Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.http://www.lexxe.truveo. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. Suite 1200 LitLinker c/o ACM. 23rd Floor San Francisco. Inc. Inc. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.seekport. Suite 207 San Francisco. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. 625 Second Street San Metacrawler c/o NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. New York.pandora. Suite 211 Palo Alto . 6th Flr. NY 10003. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.cfm?doid=10 56808. 7th floor. Proteus Project 715 Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. 601 108th Avenue NE. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. 2400 N. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 Netscape AOL LLC. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 MSN Search One Microsoft Way Pandora Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.. Nesbit Rd. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.82152 Martinsried http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 Technorati 665 3rd Street. 23rd Oklahoma City.metacrawler. Inc. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. Inc.acm.

Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 Captivate c/o Macromedia. Ontario. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.personal-reader.elena-project. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 Assima Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.macromedia.columbia.assima.zoominfo. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.tkk. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. Suite 112 Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Zoom Information Inc. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Inc.atghome.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. EC4M 7NG London. GreenPark Reading.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. 701 First Avenue Yahoo http://www.experiencebuilders.Project Coordinator CSI . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San 10 Old Bailey.forio.alphaworks. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.knowledgequest.stt-global. Box 1558 New anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .htm Yahoo! Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Flash c/o Macromedia. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.intermezzon. 307 Waverley Oaks Road 250 © Brandon Hall Research .yahoo.New York. 1st Floor A . KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.knowledge-director.nexlearn. Suite 300 Softsim Outstart NexLearn. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. Newburyport. LLC 100 South Main Street. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 RapidBuilder c/o XStream ts/poplog/packages/ Do not reproduce 251 . NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.xstreamsoftware. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. 1821 Walden Office Square.outstart.bham. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.knowledgepresenter. Schaumburg. Laurent Blvd. Suite A-207 Brossard. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. Suite 200 MASIE Center. 55 South Market St.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. CA NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. Tel: (276) 783-6991 Suite 240 Atlanta.qarbon. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.teds.. B15 2TT. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.Tel: (717) 790-0400 Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.assima. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Taschereau Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.stagecast. Suite 360 San Mateo. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.. Inc. Suite 400. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. Suite 1550 San Jose. Québec. England Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bø Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. Inc. 2280 Stagecast Software. Light & Acoustics.fsl. Inc. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 Wizard Training Suite c/o SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.virtualcontrolroom.. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.

MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. 655 High Street Palo Spurl ehf.socialtext. Suite 900 Austin. Social Bookmarking del.icio. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. SW. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.icio.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. Suite 224 Friendster. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 Social Software Alliance c/o Social Eventful c/o EVDB.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.analytictech. 101 Wolf Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Suite 500 Rojo Networks. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.iu. 795 Folsom St. Inc.spurl. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.classmates. Thorofare. Suite 125 San Diego.tagzania. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. Inc. Box 920089 Needham. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. CA.networkltd.checkpointsystems. Morton SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .com FURL c/o LookSmart. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. mag. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. CA 94089 USA http://del. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.rojo. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 2001 Lind Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Inc. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 Classmates Online.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CA 94105 USA http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. WA 98055 USA c/o Yahoo! Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.O. Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. Menlo Park.

CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Cupertino. LLC 15 Skehan Street Virtual Reality Activeworlds XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CA 90028 USA Futurelab 1 Canons Road BitTorrent 201 Mission PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.ergonetz. New York.fakespace.html Jabber Software Foundation P. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 Jabber Software Foundation P. CA 92121 USA Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. 4th Floor Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.O. Inc. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Veoh Brightcove. Box 1641 Denver.sociosite. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .apple. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.hpc. Inc. Box 1641 PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.spider.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. CA 94105 USA http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.hp. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.advanced.1011 CM Do not reproduce 253 . MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.spartasocialnetworks. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. VA 23461-1924 https://www.jabber.O. 7220 Trade Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse iTunes Apple Computer. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 Sparta Social Networks.futurelab. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. Church Fakespace 11 E. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.bittorrent.

com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Suite 317 San Diego.golden. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 Virtual Reality Lab Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Golden Software.V.501 North Morton MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.O. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .advizorsolutions. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 ADVIZOR Solutions. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Intuition 9. Cambridge. 809 14th Street.esri. Golden. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Intergraph Corporation iDashboards 5750 New King HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Inc. Suite 110 Troy. Williams Building College Park. Suite 206 Bloomington. Box CenterView c/o CORDA Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.idashboards.formz. Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www.ambientdevices.daz3d.. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. IC ISIM VRLAB. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. Draper. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 FeedTank 590 Grand St. 1333 Butterfield Rd.feedtank.informationinplace.xcelsius. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www.accurender. Troy.cs.epfl. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 Tracy. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Columbus. Box 240000 DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.bham. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. 350 South 400 West. MapInfo One Global View. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 ESRI Suite 300. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. Suite 100 Lindon.intuition-eunetwork.

73 Princeton Street. Inc.vicodi. A-1220 Vienna. Ontario L4V Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 212 Elm Street Somerville. FL 34108 USA http://www. Unit # 1 Mississauga. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.topozone.spotfire. 869 97th Ave N.S. 2nd Floor Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.jajah. 3 East 28th St. 94043 USA http://www. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.Tel: (209) 832-7353 Visual Analytics Inc. U. Inc. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. 2513 Charleston Road. Suite 102 Mountain View.mccrackendesign. 155 Spring JAJAH Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.unifiedfield. Donau-City-Strasse W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. CA 94712 USA VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.nih. Inc. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. 9th floor New York. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab.visualthesaurus. Unit A2 Naples. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.ontopia.okino.vrvis. Suite 3A New Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. Vicodi Edvins Snore. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Riga.softill. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Vizserver c/o Inxight Spotfire. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 Unified Field. MA 01863 USA http://www.visualanalytics. 20010 Fisher Avenue.musanim. Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.sportbrain. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 sible_human.inxight. NY 10012 USA http://www.

feedzilla. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Inc. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.onfolio.. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. Estonia http://www. CA 95008 USA http://www. JotSpot. Suite 381 Vancouver. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. Nederland Tel: +31. Suite 2260 Portland. First Floor. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.feedforall. CA 94043-0801 USA FeedForAll PO Box 296. Inc.bloglines. 795 Folsom Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.wearable. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 116 New Montgomery http://www.rojo. 111 SW Fifth StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Seventh Floor New Brightcove.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. Inc.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Inc.brightcove. Broadway. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. 11211.1001 W. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. P. 200 2nd Ave. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.feedster. Inc.ethz.mozilla.attensa.V.. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. San Francisco. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Petersburg. Switzerland http://www.feedreader. 64 Fulton Street. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Building K Mountain Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.pubsub. Coldbrook Business Corp.rssreader. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco. 167 Hamilton Rojo Networks. 3rd Floor Cambridge. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Valdeku Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 Web Feeds Attensa. Suite 100 Campbell. South #358 St. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. Suite 900 PubSub Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

4. 196. 97. 67. 100. 74. 90 Assessment. 170. 121. 45. 24. 171. 57. 145 Conversational learning. 49 AJAX. 116. 110. 50. 160. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 189. 211. 88 cybercartography. 197. 112. 39. 153. 84 Adobe. 145. 93. 191. 170. 211. 42. 121. 69. 63. 72. 196. 33. 138. 140. 209 Augmented reality. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 4. 117. 113. 46. 91. 174 Bayesian probability. 77. 45. 176. 46. 180 Competency Tracking. 72. 199. 42. 81. 165 Air display. 174. 52. 196 cognitive maps. 29. 71. 159. 80. 97. 74. 211. 112. 64. 215 Communities of practice. 29. 49. 55. 20. 201 Adaptive systems. 21. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 5. 25. 35. 28. 160. 109. 194. 196 collaboration. 2. 91. 51. 69. 208. 43. 16. 7. 15. 46. 29. 69. 80. 8. 219. 47. 64. 48. 26. 27. 74. 171. 70. 41. 50. 75. 109. 65. 226 Authorware. 181. 23. 139. 122. 39. 193. 137. 47. 27. 23. 67. 65. 36. 70. 209. 109. 22. 196. 27. 93. 209. 47. 27. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 125. 119. 216 Affective computing. 177. 122. 34. 63. 190. 196 Dashboards. 127. 44. 15. 18. 211 Broadband. 45 Avatars. 169. 28. 36. 203. 127. 48. 45. 66. 161. 141. 35. 194. 48. 16. 176. 23. 146. 128. 84. 23. 127. 198 Data mining. 50. 93. 21. 118. 89. 18. 86. 18. 123. 59. 23. 165. 56. 60 Cognition. 95. 94. 146. 17. 83. 178. 66. 74. 24. 158. 65. 50. 5. 150. 195 Authoring tools. educational. 165. 180. 110. 193. 193. 174. 20. 46. 190. 82. 122 Ambient computing. 196. 189. 24. 159. 184. 15. 63. 216 Computer based assessment. 128. 39. 21. 197. 159. 180. 66. 66. 231. 68. 94. 191. 176 Cell phones. 145. 67. 69. 211 Communications Tools. 28. 60 Clickers. 4. 196. 207. 144. 46. 180. 12. 100. 84. 103. 198. 165. 199 Architectures. 91. 83. 122.Index 3-D graphics. 135. 116. 24. 70. 218 Agents. 184. 136. 137. 62. 101. 54. 177. 16. 40. 70. 149. 200. 11. 74. 137. 26. 170. 35 Content management. 169. 212 Boolean searches. 203. 79 Complexity theory. 209. 179. 69. 148. 74. 57. 26. 58. 35. 162. 192 Browsers. 89. 156. 46. 85. 67. 114. 207 Classroom response systems. 52. 53 barcodes. 160. 193. 190. 80. 36. 78. 27. 31. 37. 100. 47. 217 Collaboration. 85 Blogs. 71. 139 assessment. 125. 93. 6. 146. 85. 30. 203. 65. 181. 130. 65. 81. 189. 101. 170. 171. 201 cognitive collage. 170. 194. 35. 180. 223. 52. 149. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 127. 21. 57. 140. 50. 127. 205 Animation. 44. 90. 66. 22. 191. 13. 93. 59. 172 Audio. 85. 63. 78. 72. 48. 25. 193. 127 Cooperation. 18. 21. 203. 132. 59. 15. 50. 43. 129. 177. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 145. 112. 128.

75. 137. 193. 124. 57. 214 Human-centered computing. 169 Expert systems. 22. 204 Dreamweaver. 217 images. 174. 146. 194. 30. 26. 197. 134. 35. 79. 166. 17. 5. 158 Informatics. 97. 7. 89. 26 Emotional design. 108. 197. 27. 65. 199 Gesture recogntion. 152. 250 Folksonomies. 122. 16. 13. 80. 86. 107. 74. 155. 100. 81. 201 Grid computing. 104. 201 FrontPage. 164. 9. 85. 180. 15. 141. 170. 215. 74. 134. 59. 11. 176. 153. 216 Director. 172. 3. 165 Handwriting recognition. 60. 127. 70. 9. 103. 37. 25. 64. 35 Frameworks. 6. 63. 158. 238 Geocaching. 146. 239 Individualization. 31. 100. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 5. 89. 193. 180. 110. 196. 90 Experiential learning. 93. 25. 80. 94. 26. 54. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 16. 200. 69. 106. 37. 84. 248 graphics. 20. 210. 205 Hybrid systems. 196. 11. 123 Hype in e-learning. 88. 125. 24 e-Portfolios. 106. 16. 4. 20. 176. 169. 109. 139. 106. 184 e-Science. 163. 170. 5. 158. 196. 32. 49. 70. 169. 63. 72. 193. 90. 42. 8. 64. 101. 178. 23. 88. 33. 51. 210 formative assessment. 162. 47. 109. 45 Displays. 98 GIF graphic format. 28. 156. 18. 200. 100. 106. 93. 107. 59. 45 dynamic displays. 20. 35. 80. 125. 106 Head mounted displays. 13. 215 Informal learning. 196. 198. 161. 27. 52. 49 Google. 178. 154. 183. 19. 149. 193. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 106 Haptics. 137. 67. 11. 68. 114. 201. 120. 160. 123. 46. 184. 119. 196 Graphics. 66. 163 Findability. 24. e-learning. 60. 217. 191 Games. 89. 199. 25. 9. 29. 215. 58. 85 Extreme learning. 45. 71. 97. 91. 216. 11. 152. 53. 3. 162 History. 162. 63. 8. 132. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 15. 9. 152. 187. 134. 219 Infrared tags. 114. 23. 154. 70. 83. 162. 26. 225. 4. 25. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 189. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 121. 12. 86 Deep Web. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 193. 174. 7. 34. 217 Instant messaging. 33. 78. 11. 94. 26. 116. 131. 69. 84. 166. 57. 88. 66. 133. 94. 119. 109. 119. 197. 57 Flash. 103. 30. 196 Immersive environments. 216 Distributed systems. 134. 52. 122. 152. 45. 120. 101. 169. 158 Design. 27. 85. 190. 86. 4. 16. 25. 122. 21. 110. 119 FireFox. 170. 34. 196. 47. 153 Facial recognition. 119. 47. 49. 196 e-Commerce. 55. 106 Healthcare applications. 189.Decision support systems. 199. 175. 107. 202. 48. 88. 91. 48. 197. 151. 80. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 23. 186. 26. 121. 198. 173. 203. 88. 149. 88. 124. 170 Federated searches. 205. 103. 167 evaluation. 74. 95. 120. 127. 49. 13. 159. 187. 97. 158. 179. 134. 93. 5. 75.

21. 134. 169. 53. 80. 128. 42. 166 PowerPoint. 176. 137. 114. 196 Pedagogy. 220. 165 pattern recognition. 165. 62. 189. 43. 64. 7. 89. 139 Personalization. 42. 183. 140. 244 Motion Graphics. 124. 113. 138. 192. 193. 26. 152 Libraries. 129. 120. 145. 250 mapping. 114 Learning Objects. 134. 171. 187. 122. 116. 82. 35. 103. 4. 119. 125 Lab book wiki. 242 learning object model. 135. 80. 32. 91. 48. 18. 129. 65. 42. 114. 152 Networks. 124 iPod. 152 Lecturing. 241 Learning Management Systems. 90. 216. 205 Macromedia. 127. 205. 136. 142. 34. 153 Microsoft. 125. 85. 68. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 160. 60. 6. 192. 4. 107. 80. 79. 161. 114. 249.Interface devices. 59. 22. 66. 20 Museums. 17. 146. 63. 5. 97 Ontologies. 81. 211 latent semantic analysis. 137. 106. 162. 148. 124. 140. 80. 93. 174. 191. 176. 137. 150. 63. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 178. 116. 135. 180. 111. 97. 26. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 80. 171 Metacognition. 42. 45. 123 Medical applications. 174. 191. 35. 36. 194. 119. 23. 114. 90. 26. 6. 141. 45. 40. 48. 101. 149. 45. 122. 148. 81. 21. 127. 137. 110. 139. 58. 23. 246. 141. 186. 129. 122. 166. 160. 204. 119. 255. 128. 109. 230. 74. 31. 86. 122. 123. 146. 54. 145. 147. 4. 69. 148. 131. 111. 47. 115. 176. 54. 77. 54. 181. 156. 145. 143. 130. 174. 7. 2. 116. 114 learning object repository. 125. 145. 65. 238. 171 M-learning. 190. 47. 135. 143. 213. 124. 244 Meta-search engines. 49. 165. 166 Pervasive computing. 62. 15. 120. 114. 190. 27. 226. 17. 183. 98. 196 Mashups. 108. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 109. 149. 234. 45. 16. 85. 146. 144 Navigation. 6. 77. 11. 127 Podcasting. 153. 241. 191. 196. 193. 57. 65. 146. 154. 25. 246. 150. 246 Location based tools. 215. 130. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 135. 124. 93. 139. 109. 139. 49. 127. 163 Microformats. 107. 68. 139. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 120. 66. 6. 121. 206. 95. 180. 240. 29. 26 Metadata. 112. 113. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 134. 179 Optical tags. 144. 100. 121. 100. 125. 46. 119. 239. 127. 140. 223 Portals. 25. 256 Microworlds. 6. 215 Interoperability. 65. 48. 110. 143. 43. 172. 65. 139. 149. 26. 199. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 34. 199 Neural networks. 46. 199. 180. 145. 233. 30. 47. 158. 20. 189. 170. 36. 161. 127. 130 Mobile computing. 237. 115. 152. 172. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 8. 47. 7. 189. 155. 191. 182. 134. 159. 138. 128. 165 Microlearning. 180. 127. 26. 190. 43. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 112. 78. 76. 156 Legacy materials. 189. 165. 175. 69. 44. 109. 128. 60. 42. 70. 15. 24. 124. 7. 174. 140. 23. 80. 211 Knowledge management. 45. 107. 119. 178. 134. 78. 216. 178. 26.

174 Social bookmarking. 191 Tangible computing. 114. 36. 125. 169. 211 Skypecasting. 52. 179. 36. 109. 55. 35 Semantic Web. 139. 88. 189 Search engines. 75.Presentation tools. 26. 93. 59. 221 SCORM. 54. 169. 47. 11. 150. 114. 155. 179. 207 Social networking. 165. 66. 189. 27. 216 Tests. 106. 35. 133. 156. 46. 74. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 176. 114 Repositories. 181. 178. 110. 8. 199 Taxonomies. 47. 189. 174. 161. 135. 45. 65. 48. 34. 153. 48. 91. 134. 159. 82. 170. 72. 4. 115. 163. 9. 94. 110. 181 Speech recognition. 174. 117. 119. 141. 215. 106 Proximity tools. 160. 167 reusable learning objects. 114 Robotics. 9. 57. 173. 131. 174. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 124. 154. 174 self-evaluation. 37. 69. 70 Radio. 196 Serious games. 168 résumés. 199 Turing Test. 116. 91. 119. 89. 141. 160. 125. 190. 87. 166. 189 Security. 131. 156. 138. 141. 174 Project management. 119. 48. 179. 150. 49. 40. 35 Symbology tags. 191 Tours (online). 209. 20. 225. 175 Tag clouds. 172. 158. 154. 165. 122 Tagging. 64 Telephony. 116. 38. 84. 80. 39. 47. 144. 93. 71. 189. 153. 122. 175. 178. 50. 35. 81. 6. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 132 Streaming video. 54. 114. 47. 141. 125. 26. 50. 9. 22. 38. 54. 5. 124. 177. 16. 180. 86. 205 Shockwave. 185. 191 summative assessment. 155. 9. 203 Telepresence. 227. 171 Science. 93. 247 rapid learning. 35. 35 Quizzes. 49. 62. 170. 137. 95. 47. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 182. 36. 4. 54. 97. 42. 175. 193. 131. 40. 26. 112. 217 Translation. 123 Simulations. 163. 11. 203. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 188. 46. 169. 177. 46. 77. 155. 197. 124. 158. 149. 26. 48. 90 Reusability. 37. 174. 118. 115. 15. 150. 184. 134. 247 Role-playing. 178. 148. 176. 50. 215. 35. 83. 148. 183. 137. 162. 94. 119. 48. 124. 114 Screencasting. 211 Tags. 159. 49. 186. 175 Rapid e-learning. 177. 246 Privacy. 171 Scenarios. 152 Thin clients. 170. 52. 47. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 215. 30. 57. 129. 109. 176. 171. 167. 191. 148 Smart labels and tags. 199 Single-user wiki. 74. 176 Team management. 168. 172. 152. 165. 21. 64. 122. 74. 125. 39. 180. 122 sharable content objects. 134. 161. 116. 180. 62. 152 Projectors. 177. 119 quizzes. 68. 35. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 57 T-Learning. 174. 189 Television. 11. 46. 83. 27. 36. 189. 120. 166. 88. 5. 7.

205 Usability. 199. 211. 66. 148. 148 Virtual classrooms. 9. 189 Vodcasting. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 44. 67. 200. 106. 74. 191. 187. 148. 192. 197. 11. 49. 74. 62. 182. 89. 119. 150 Webinars. 113. 211. 190. 127. 107. 154 Virtual learning environments. 123. 43. 164. 123. 212. 216 Vlogs. 193 Visualization. 189. 211. 4. 207. 106. 214. 74. 150. 80. 108. 239 Wikipedia. 9. 187. 137. 112. 216. 3. 210. 79. 100. 98. 174. 196. 106. 212 Wikis. 60. 108. 131.Ubiquitous computing. 206. 160. 56. 40. 88. 165. 215. 200. 208. 236. 194 Video. 64. 51. 189 virtual classroom. 124. 182. 256 Webcasting. 193. 130. 121. 22. 149. 256 Woodill. 57. 13. 253 Videocasting. 91. 7. 159. 68. 176. 109. 46. 148. 148 Whiteboards. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 255 Web conferencing. 209. 215. 69. 205. 145. 255 Wearable computing. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 177. 5. 177. 65. 203. Gary. 45. 137 Virtual reality. 209. 81. 90. 217 Word. 213. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 210. 57. 198.

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