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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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technology. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. This report.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. Pamela Fragomeli. Karen. will be available in early 2007. Grant Hamilton. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. The first report. Jennifer McDowell. Lise Bye. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. have supported this research from the beginning. editing. and support at all points of my career. None of this would have been possible if my wife. Operitel’s CEO. Amy Davey. Pierre Cahorn. A third report. Carlos Oliveira. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. I have provided links to online learning examples. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. along with an index. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. Thanks. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. lists of online resources. Karen Anderson. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. and services. the second in the series. and I thank them for their support and encouragement.

Learning became standardized and linear.just the ability to follow an example. or “reader. still used in many institutions of higher education. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. fire for warmth and cooking. A third way to learn is by seeing. detentions. The modern classroom. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. and language for communication. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. We tend to forget. There are. to quote Donald Norman (1993). Medieval universities followed the same practice. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . with rows. the classroom became industrialized. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. and recess. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Technologies are any technique. as books were scarce. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. They are. is a 2000 year old “technology. or device that extends human abilities. Schools were started to teach accounting. the raising of hands. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. With these reforms. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. that lecturing. in fact. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. even if the originator of the words is not present. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. for example. linear teaching techniques online. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. material. “things that make us smart.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. class periods. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word.” Starting in the first century AD. Do not reproduce 3 .Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. many different ways to learn. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. marks and other techniques for signaling direction.

and reciting. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. as this is a non-technical guide. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. in 1876 someone at Western Union. However. When a new technology first comes into use. When a new technology is introduced. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. Rather than pages. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. moving pictures (films). Like all new technologies. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Thomas Watson. 2006). there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Sadly.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages.” In 1970. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. frameworks. Eventually. memorizing. changing the practice of teaching. For example. chairman of IBM. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking.Students in these schools learned by reading. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. and standards.” Similarly. At the same time. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. 2006). It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. the early days of computer networking. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. it needs to adhere to architectures. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways.

There is authentication and authorization support at every level. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. January. Do not reproduce 5 . a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid.grid. presentation and interactive > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.accessgrid. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. Number has a number of published documents that. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing For example. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.imsglobal. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. php). They provide location independence. 2005. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. In particular. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. While packaged courses still have a place.adlnet. http://www. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. In business. http://www. Bollier says. research.taken together. http://ltsc. and makes extensive use of XML. At the same time. Instead of just providing courses. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) ( IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs).elframework.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. http://sourceforge. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.aicc. and education administration.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .” In late 2005. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. reinforces this theme. interactive learning components. They noted that “…in education. http://imsproject. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.oclc. In Europe. Rather. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. This is especially true for adult education. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. enabling the search for content.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. Instead. http://purl. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). “[a] pull economy .is based on open. Major specifications for e-learning.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.

19. 2006) has argued. http://www. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China.educause. Sept. 16. and a bibliography.bcs.wired. K. Bibliography ambient networks.. Weiss. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. For example. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.idi. Umer. and Conte. S. along with selected examples. The Long s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Chris (2006).. Odeh. Montreal. M. Lausanne. M. and Votis.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. is becoming commonplace.. New York: Hyperion. October. A.html Anderson. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. M. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). M.. As Anderson (2004. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and Bryan (2006). Thus. Chrysostalis. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. the reader can approach any topic in any ege/session1/paper1.1 0/tail. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Web 2.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.cscsi.pdf Bogonikolos. 2002. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Bertolazzi. (2005). Switzerland. 12(10).edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Zanichelli.. Cardiff. http://www. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. I hope you will find it useful. (2005).. 2004. mobile devices. 2005).DC/0502051 Alexander. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 .pdf Anderson. online resources. Likothanassis. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. F. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. From this. http://arxiv. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. http://www. (2002). and wearable computers. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.htm Bollier. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. June 2005.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. G. Wired Magazine.. 2004).” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. R. T. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. McClatchey. R. http://www... Ali. N. and McGinnis (2004). We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. http://www.. K. Five years ago. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Reggiani. M. David (2005).. In the last chapter. User-created content. Chris (2004). I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. 41(2). 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. F. March/April 2006. Z. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Nov. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.ntnu. 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. Ahmad. M. Giotopoulos. those learners are now keeping their own records. http://ewic.. Moreover. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. UK. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform.

Stefano (2005). What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . T.networking technology.virtual. http://www. Oct.gmu. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. E. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE Toc. J. 2003. (2002). (1996). 13-16. Hornig.pdf Norm (2006).org/celda2005/index. Green. http://www. Centre for Distance Ed. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Stephen (2004). Working paper. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Switzerland. Madison. L.bcs. N. R. http://ru6. 1026-1032. W.infoworld. 2004. 2001. (2005). J.devshed. 2005. C. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service http://www. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Chatarji.1109/CIT.pdf Erl. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. (2005).org. Erlanger.xml&DOI=10.pdf and Albert.. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05).ICALT 2001. 2. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. C. 6 Marshall.aspeninstitute.xml. Aug..pdf Friesen.pdf Cerri. D. 6-8. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based ergingtechnologies. A field guide to software as a service. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies .ascilite.html Hockemeyer..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. ThoughtWorks White paper. http://www. 30.. WI. G.. http://www. http://www.cancore. (2002).2005. J. I. for the Australian Dept. G. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Lausanne. and McGreal. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. Dec. http://csdl2. V.cti. of Distance Education 10. http://www.athabascau. (2005).htm Hohpe. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. http://www. Infoworld. and Borck. J. of Education and Training.Dev Shed. and Brown. American ege/session2/ . (2001).au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. 2002 http://ewic. http://www. and Zhang. (2005). Thomas (2004). International E-Learning Specifications. Tsiatsos. 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 /ec/product. Gregor (2005). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of m/docs/SOA_World. Web Services 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Porto. March 2002. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. April 18. Australia. Upper Saddle River. USA. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. Online. pdf Limited. http://www. 13. Jagadish (2004). Sept. Hao (2003). January 2005. Education. 0/soa.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. and Putland. Perth. J. http://cde. http://www. Portugal. Athabasca University. 8/16FEsasdirect_1. Triantafillou. Proceedings. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 14-16.act.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras..html Kong.html Hagel.

Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. V. M.pdf Urdan. s/ATLAS. http://www. G.. Germany. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. J. ICWL 2003. (2004).iis. Stuttgart. e-portfolios.pdf Pierre. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.. May 15. 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.rwthaachen. http://www. 193–205. http://www. J.bcs. Harvey. Donald (1993).aifb. April 26-27. Learning Solutions. http://www. Hambrecht and Co. ACTeN E-Content Report MA: Perseus. April 0509_06. http://www. C.alt. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. ege/session3/ /experience_machines.. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. S.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . W.R. R. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. http://www. 911-928. 2006. Rhonda (2006). Samuel (2006). http://www. 2006. and Geys.pdf white_paper_2005. http://www. future thinking: digital repositories. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. F. (Eds. and Vossen. V. W. 2005.alt. Mashups.unikarlsruhe. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.informatik. Lee. 9. Birmingham. and 27 .com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. http://www-i5..pdf Woodill. (2003). Peter (2004).): Proceedings. and Weggen. M.pdf Roberts. and Jarke. (2005).amazon. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. R. Cambridge. Klamma. (2003).astd. In W. M. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. and Ho. (2005). Library+information Show. Cook. G. (2000). Journal of Information Science and Engineering. http://ewic. C.sinica. Research report. Feijen.aspx Yang.pdf Werkhoven. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. 21..Neumann. Reflective learning.28 April 2004. -learninggrids. H. Berlin: 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Zhou et al. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Aalderink. UK. SCORM and the Learning Grid. and Dublin.pdf Spaniol. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.. Trinity (2006).ac. http://www.

Included are related terms. and a bibliography for each section. selected elearning related examples. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . online resources to learn more about each technology.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.

http://www. Affective Computing. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. UK. privacy. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. accuracy. For example. http://www. In online therapy. emotional design. speech patterns mainstream.myself-proj. and to respond to them effectively. Without the ability to understand /0-INDEX. emotions.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling.convo. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. and legality. keystroke patterns. confused.. gestures.. or sad.” (Anolli.bham. and react to human emotions. author of the 1997 groundbreaking Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. 2005).sricbi. SRI Consulting (http://www. et al. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. in Italy. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.” http://www. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret.html Do not reproduce 11 . it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. posture. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. facial recognition. heads the MIT lab on affective because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with 2005).

doc Hook. April 2-7. Realdon. Portland.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. Brave. (2005). Vescovo. J. (2005).bartneck. Oregon. Nass.. M. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research e_interfaces/Chateau. 2005. Pianesi. Portland.aisb. Sensual Evaluation al. Lee. http://emotion. 2005.. F. Joseph (2005). Portland.. M.. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Mantovani. and Confalonieri (2005)..pdf Goren-Bar. http://www. H. V.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. are available online: http://www. http://www. N. P. C. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. The Love Machine: building computers that care. I. Agliati. The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Rocchi.sics. David (2003). CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. O. e_interfaces/Kaye. University of Hertfordshire.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.pdf Interfaces. Iwamura.doc Chateau. S. September 13. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. including studies of emotions in computers.pdf Maldonado. CHI 2005.. Yamada.1 2/love... and The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.. April 2-7.pdf Cahour. C.nsma. April 2-7.. October 22-24. H. CHI 2005 conference. Bouraoui.sics. and Waterworth... Wired Magazine. B.sics. e_interfaces/Cahour. (2005). F. Stock.. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Oregon. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation.unitrier. April 2-7. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. I Like It .. Isbister. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. R. 2005. 2005. http://www. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. P. (2005).sics.. K. D. M. April 2-7. Vermersch. China. http://www. Issue 11/12.. CHI 2005 conference. Portland. Zurloni.informatik. http://www.dis.arizona.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Diamond. http://www. A. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. listing many links to interesting resources. (2005). with many resources. CHI 2005.pdf Kaye. e_interfaces/ J. D. Oregon.html In Germany. and Laaksolahti. http://emotion-research. http://www. UK. and Zouinar. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. Oregon. J..html Fallman. A. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. April 2-7.sics. C. Hatfield. Pachoud. K.unige. Portland.. Nakajima. Portland. December. O. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Dr. Graziola. Brassac. dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. M. Y. (2005).. Nortillaro.. J. 2005 http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Balestra. Oregon. Salembier. and Zancanaro. April 12-15. and e_interfaces/Hook.

NJ. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Portland. Berlin: Springer. Gerd (1998). Oregon. Portland. Rosalind (1997). Donald A.t.thesis.sics. Oregon. and Picard. Beijing. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. CHI 2005. CHI 2005.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. (2005). Cambridge. and Steele. 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. ACII 2005. China. R. Regan (2005). e_interfaces/Mentis. Picard.pdf Masum.bham. (2005). /Wright. Portland. 2005. J. Oregon.sics. http://www. http://www. 2005. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Portland.cs. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.pdf Norman. MA: MIT. Charlotte (2005). http://www. CHI 2005 conference. Journal of Research on Technology in Helena (2005). Tan. University of Birmingham. Emotional Agents. and Daily. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.pdf Mostafa_Japan_Final. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. October 22-24. http://www. 35(2). Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special ntent. M. Doctoral Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. New York: Basic. http://www.htm Tao. S. 2005. J. 2005.pdf e_interfaces/Picard. (2005). http://www.iste. April Ian (1997).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.sics. May 26. L. Miami. e_interfaces/Wiberg. http://www. http://www. (2004).org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. 2002. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Erlbaum. Affective Computing. 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.miv. April 2-7. Affective Computing vs.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . http://www. R. M. and Ishizuka.pdf Ruebenstrunk. CHI 2005 conference. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2002).utokyo. E-book http://www.. Dec.HTM Steele. April Wright. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. 2005. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. A second agent in the simulation. In such situations. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. 2004) and are. autonomous agents. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Second. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. avatars. For example. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Third. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. see the paper by Far et al. In this context. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Agents have beliefs. not only about environments. but Do not reproduce 15 . has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.informatik. veracity. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. She made mistakes. Dick Stenmark. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. and both may be found in the same http://w3. 1999). and many of them can actually learn. rationality. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. First. benevolence. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. proactive (goal directed). 2004).Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). 1999). Fourth. and the students had to continue to teach her. and.. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. therefore. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Viswanath. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. et al. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. 2005). Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. learning/adaptation. useful in educational simulations. However. intelligent agents program (for example. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. s.

liv.codebaby. gents.extempo. 2000).edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. Baldi.fsu. Therefore. uses seven different types of agents: Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. go to: http://ritl. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Student Assistant Agent 4. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. acting against other teams of agents.also about other Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. Skills Manager Agent 3. and expert guides.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. go to: http://ldt. expert role-players.editlib. User Profile Agent. Massaro et (2004): http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. CodeBaby Corp. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. They are available as adaptive coaches. For details see: www.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.old. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Even though each agent acts independently. See the article by Williams et al. (1998) developed a conversational agent. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision.netobjectdays.stanford. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing malceb/0623. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. Learning Paths Agent 5. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Content Agent 6. Amy Baylor and her http://www. http://www. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity.uka. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.

. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. In Richards. http://www. B. 1503-1506. J. & Kim. & Johnson. http://www. Large Complex Systems. www. (2005). (2003). E. Johnson. (2002). Hypermedia. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). Tennessee. Norfolk. Ali (2002). e-Learning 2005. W. Inter-active Learning Res. J. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Thomas (2005) Kao. and Ho. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. (2003). Nashville. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. & El-Khouly. Learning by Teaching Agents. http://www.educause. http://csdl. W. Do not reproduce 17 . Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Z. http://dl. Proceedings.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. atzlbergerDissertation. Y.aace. 2005. http://www. Doctoral 004/07/o7004. 11(3)..editlib.. 75-80. 28(2).aace. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.. 3.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems..pdf Clarebout. G. In Proceedings.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. S. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen..pdf Jafari. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. S. L. 267-286 http://www.editlib. (Ed. VA: AACE. Educause Quarterly.. E-Learning In Proceedings. 306-311). International Journal on E-Learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. http://www. 1353-1356. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. 21-38.pdf Kim. and Tsang. Bibliography Baylor. (1999).editlib.pdf Lin. Vanderbilt A.University of Southern California.editlib. Vanderbilt Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Y.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. C. S. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. (2000).editlib. 459-462.editlib. TN. Hershey.teachableagents. 1659-1666. and Palopoli. Zahia (2004). M.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2002).org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. Paper presented. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. 5(7). 275-285. Krittaya (2005). G.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A. Educause Quarterly.isi. & Lin. Sun. Hypermedia. & Bengu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. Nashville. Ng. L. (2005). IEEE Distributed Systems Online. m0235.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. www. G. and Shaw. http://www. 4(1). No. http://www. 10 (3). Y. Elan. & Ebbers. Erfurt. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. E-Learning 2003.editlib. G. and Telecommunications m0523. C. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. P. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. Fuhua Oscar (2005). (2005). July. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Doctoral Dissertation. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Koono. (2002). http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader...

org/index. and Winikoff. http://www. and Ferneley. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. G.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.aace. L. Doctoral Dissertation. M.editlib. G. Padgham.vt.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Ferat (2000).org/index. 1999. August. and Stucky. Richards (Eds.psu. http://www. Carnegie Mellon University. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. In P. 14(1). Biswas. In Richards. M. O. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. Journal of Interactive Learning (Ed. Cohen. In Proceedings. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Proceedings.. Peter (1998).org/index. France. 17(2). 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Daniel.editlib. Sahin. 61-65. J. ssaroCole_WECC98. Atreya. G. L. B. Finland. http://citeseer. Healthcare. D. J. http://www. and Cole.. V. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning.Media 2005.. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. V.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2004).editlib. 143-162..ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. Proceedings. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno.). Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. June 1-4.. PA.lib. http://cslu. & Booth.. ED. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . (2005). K.aace. of California. Sung. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. L. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning.ogi. and Solomon. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Russia.aifb. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.cs..uni-karlsruhe. 47-59. & Lim. (1999).ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. and Higher Education 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. http://www. E.). www. Doctoral Wesley. M.. D. St. 1415-1420. (2005). http://www. Doctoral dissertation. IFIP WG12. Beskow.cfm?fuse action=Reader.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.editlib. ED-MEDIA td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. R. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). R.cse. M. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. K. Adebiyi. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. 194-201. 1632. W.editlib.utexas. http://dl. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. (2004). (2006).pdf Menczer.indiana. U. ED-MEDIA. (2005).pdf Perez. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.. http://scholar. & Leelawong. http://www. and Núñeza. http://www. (1999).com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. S. S. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 10 (3). S. Sandel. (1999).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..informatics. Pittsburgh. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. Government. 1999. 87 Viswanath.html Shim. Kommers & G. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).

org/papers/15 8bis. In Proceedings.cfm?fuseactio oductCd-047149691X.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. Gilbert. New York: John Wiley & Sons. April Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. M. ED-MEDIA 2004.teachableagents..ppt Do not reproduce 19 . 3000-3002.upc. 2004. Paper at & Madsen. J. Chun.editlib. Agent Mediated Grid Services in http://research. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. http://www.pdf Williams.http://www. http://ca.. Chicago. (2004). N. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.wiley. Michael (2002). (2004).html Yan.

go to the Animation Factory: http://www. However. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. The results of many experiments have been mixed. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research .com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. a static diagram.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. producing animations can be very costly. coupled with imagining how something worked. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. animations may even prejudice pre-built animated GIFs.topshareware. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. (2003). Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. motion graphics depiction. 2003) Finally. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. Rather. al. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence.mindworkshop..” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al.topshareware.0 http://www. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today.05 http://www. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.htm For a selection of over 400. produced the best learning results. Given that. However.animationfactory. Also. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.” (Huk. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational fcon. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. like pictures in a flip book.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.Animation Software Related terms Flash. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning.

and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). For more information on Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. effects. See why it has won Academy Awards at: Enliven .Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). http://www.animationonline. x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.. go to: nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.html CAT . Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.html Falling Bodies . have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.Softimage Co. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.” http://www.utoronto.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. a subsidiary of Avid Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.swishzone. It animates fall stunts. It is part of Final Cut Studio.animats. http://www. Maya is a high-end modeling. A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is ts/ ersion.viewpoint. Version 9 is available: h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. go to: http://www. http://www.newtek. their 3-D character creation environment. animation. the built-in programming p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. For a free demo.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.eitechnologygroup. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. To use ActionScript. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.autodesk.massivesoftware. n/ SoftImage|XSI . go to: http://www.physics. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. For information on Flash. afaq. animating. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.. http://www.adobe.catoolkit.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming. and rendering tool.softimage. 2004).com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.

July 18.pdf Lowe. Animation – just enough. 14(1). Cognition and th04/procs/lowe-r. http://www. Jonas-Dwyer & R.html Malheiro.ascension-tech. Phillips ( 04/hess. and Hancock.htm Hegarty. G.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003.sjsu. Mayer.. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. (2004).html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. T. 325–360. http://dl. Hancock.rapidintake. http://www. Learning Circuits.unihannover. http://esub.. http://www. 20HKC.. and Cate. http://www. S..learningcircuits.) Beyond the comfort zone: C. March 2002. (2004).com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. and Hess.pdf Toth. M. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Flash Interactive Session.aace. C.htm Bibliography media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner 04/hess. (2004). 87-99. and Floto. (2003). Utah: Rapid Intake Press. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. G. (2003).edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.psych. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. Learning Circuits.htm Hess. http://www.pdf lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. D.ascilite. and Moreno.ucsb. Lehi. July 2004. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. T. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. .learninglab.K.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. ASCILITE Conference. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.freedownloadscenter. Educational Psychology (2003). C. 003/toth. http://www. (2002). Atkinson. S.. http://projekte. R. never too much. go to AllWorldSoft. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning Circuits.siggraph. 1046-1048. FreeDownloads Center. McBeath. R. R. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. S.learningcircuits. 21(4). July. /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. (2004). Thomas (2003).allworldsoft. and Hancock. Kriz.htm Huk. S. (1). Animation and learning: value for money? In R. Steinke.

machine learning. Nevertheless. agents. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. data mining. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. AI. So far. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. intelligent tutoring.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. expert systems. cognitive informatics. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. multiagent systems. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations.

one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. and Aist et al. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . for Johnson and Rizzo (2004).learning. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. including collaborative filtering. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. recommender systems. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. (2003). computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. and the teacher. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al.g. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. While many systems purport to be personalized. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. To seem humanlike. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. Moreover..seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. To achieve their goals.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. and data mining. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al.” On the other hand. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. The reality is that. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. possibly undeliberate manner. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. the subject matter expert.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand).

edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. gestures.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et JAIR. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.unito. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. rather than using a single type of found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. 2002). Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.. (2005a. etc) and how they are interrelated.uic.. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.iit. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. http://lsa. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.di.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et ation. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.” http://www.e. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.” http://www. concepts.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.cs. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. http://www. objects. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.colorado. Talking Head Tutor vs. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.

html Founded in 1988.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ations/ aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. and INFOMAP. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. intelligent conflict resolution. ers/LearningTheories. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning and engaging. http://bach.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.iis.gast.” http://ctat. Inc.infrature. http://www.” http://www.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. Infrature.library. http://www. so that these systems become more realistic.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. without Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on OguejioforIT-AEC2004. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.” http://www.leaonline.cmu. Task Tutor Toolkit .kicinger. see: http://lsa. Aurora .colorado. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. Stottler Henke “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. e-commerce.pact.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.sinica.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.pdf Oguejiofor et al.cs.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.uregina. and multiagents.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . including student monitoring. challenging. http://www.cs.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. http://ariic. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. question answering (QA) techniques.enel. As a Student Log Files – McLaren et Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .

ac.cs. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.enel.pact.virtuelage.cmu.wpi. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.teluq. http://pact. and an interactive intelligent tutor. China. The AIED conferences are held every two The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. http://www. http://www. and learning style.aaai.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group Taiwan. see: http://www. For more info: http://www2. an adaptive testing The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in preferred cadence.stottlerhenke.” x.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).ucalgary.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. http://www.htm Do not reproduce 27 .ed.uquebec. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. skill gaps.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group h/current_computer_science_education_re It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.learningcircuits. http://www. with the next one in 2007. http://www.its2006. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring 000/ong.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.inf. http://www.” Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.

http://www. Eshaa (Ed. http://www.. R. S. Lester. C. onsubmit. http://www. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions... Maceió. 22: 3– Hermann (2002). ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. B. In J. and Picard. http://www. C.iit.sbg. Paraguaçu (Eds. (2004). http://www2. C.cs. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED S. (1997). (2004). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Kort.eurodl. Paraguaçu ( McLaren. ITS 2004.html Brusilovsky. PA: Idea. P.pitt.di. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Hershey. Bibliography Aist.).pdf Barcena.82 Bhatt.. http://www.. K. J.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about g-ITS04. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. B. G. and F. (2004).cs. http://nth. 6(1)..pdf Brusilovsky. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. Ritter. (2005). and Maguire.pdf Chaffar. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Minsky.wpi. Salzburger Beiträge zur ml Aleven. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). E. (2004). JAIR. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. C. Argamon. Vicari.J. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). K.1109/ITCC.pdf Alkhalifa. 482-487. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.) (2006).Volume I. (2004). Kobe. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. E. M. http://www. M. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive riendly_article. and Penstein Rosé.ac. P. (2004). C.). and 004/Barcena_Read. Lester. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. M. & F. C. Artificial Intelligence Review.. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming.sis. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.technologyreview. Reilly.pdf Aleven. S. and Evens. Baroglio. Brazil.pdf Baldoni. S00inv. and Douglas. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. V. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions.ppt Butz. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.uregina. R. V. 159-165.. Roll. V. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . R. T. (2002). and Koedinger. Hua.pitt. R. S. and Read. (2004). Chicago. http://www. http://www. In Proceedings. and Frasson. and Patti. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. M. In J.cmu. R.doi. Peter (2000). http://imlab.B. http://lingcog.ri.html Barker.

J. Lu. In ACL05. C.metapress. C. 15(4). and Kloos. R. and VanLehn... Fossati.uic. Amsterdam.pdf Frize. and Hsu. ICEIS'2001. http://www. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005). and Frasson..library. and Sarmanova.findarticles. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013. http://www. and Jemni. 23(4). Proceedings. Fossati.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. Doctoral Dissertation.journal. 18-22 July. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day. G. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system. AutoTutor. M. ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. 433-447. Ong. http://ltodi. S. and iSTART.pdf Tainan. H. 225-234 http://www.unsw.1 27.. (2005). ITS 2004. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.5. Fall. 13(2) http://ariic. B.ips.html Gamboa. Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. C. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. http://springerlink. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). and Glass. S. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. http://www. M. http://www.pdf Freedman. Haller. http://www. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. W.niu. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. 163-183. of Technology. Taiwan.leaonline.iaalab. 40(4). Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology.cs.enel. bcdiss. Di Eugenio.. Pardo. (2005).uic. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. (2004).H. (2005).1 Cho. D.ncku. 1-5 March. (2004). M. Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. M (2005a). A.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez. A. 2005. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems.ucalgary.est. Driscoll. http://www. Haller. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process.cs.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. B. B. and Fred. Vicarious Learning.linkingpublicationresul ts. B. ink2000..Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Reva (2000).1:105633. C.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18900 Craig. (2000). http://www. Aleksandar (2001).cs. Byung-In (2000). S.iis. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. Yu. Educational Psychologist..) Fasuga. Illinois Inst.639. Aug.pdf Graesser.pdf Di Eugenio. (2004). D. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 .pdf _331. and Glass.uottawa. M (2005b).. DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Doctoral Dissertation. Chiou. Univ. and Gholson. D. and Pedagogical Agents. of South Australia.enel... -e/theme05.3296. D. K.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. 11(3). D.pdf Davidovic. (2001).tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www. http://www. (2006). A. J.cs. H.

(2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=7293 Khan. In J.. C. M.pdf Hatzilygeroudis.pdf Kinshuk and Patel. http://www.) Knowledge Transfer London. Doctoral Dissertation. J. and F..gast. D. 4NNV88MXQ49. tions/ITS2004-workshop-Jackson-paperformatted. Nikov A. Applications. Proceedings.). PA: Idea Group. P. http://www. /PAPERS/wbies-book-pub. P.pdf Khaled... http://home. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference.ceid. Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Systems. and Rizzo. Vicari. R.cs. Evens. Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent Assistants. In Z. W. In A. Maceió. Hershey. and F. Behrooz (Ed.iit. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. Chicago. Technologies. Paraguaçu (Eds. M. Illinois Institute of Technology. Ahmed. pp. That's What I'd Do". http://www. L. http://prints. M. Sewall. Looi et al. 30 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference. UK: Pace.. G. M. (1999). (2004). & Patel A.Hershey. E. Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue.. A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and Graesser. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. and Future Directions. Hardas. Lester. (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. Brazil.massey. Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation approach. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems..medianet.cs. and Trace. Michael.Hierarchical Graphs. I.L. Vicari. http://www.doc Jeschke. O. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. http://www.pdf Jackson.. Y. A.T. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System. and Prentzas. (2005). and F.springerlink. A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And Learning. (2005). M. August 5-10.pdf Kim.C..pact. kjhdiss. J.) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. (1997).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. Empirical Results. Vicari. MAICS-2002. International Conference on Web Intelligence. P. and Richter.kent. Amsterdam. http://www. New Orleans. J. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Makatchev.K. and Rizzo. Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor..pdf Johnson. K. That's What I'd Do". C.).com/index/2GRKL 4NNV88MXQ49. W. In J. C. http://mmlab. /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.).. rs/hcii2001. Walker. USA. Bollen. Laroussi. Ma (Ed.pdf Kinshuk. Chicago.uc3m. (ITS). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. R. N. tionAIED05. M.editlib. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and VanLehn.mulf. (ITS). (ITS). (2005).).es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. T. R. (2004). B. (2001). PA: IDEA Group. In C.cs. M. A.cmu.pdf F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. C. Person.tu-berlin. J. (2005). In J.Computer Interaction. McLaren.upatras. M. M. http://ctat.pitt. yckmai02.pdf Kim. & Pettenati. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (Eds. and Ma. Paraguaçu (Eds.-K. Johnson. Paraguaçu (Eds.springerlink.autotutor.L. http://bach.pdf Jordon.

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http://www.cmu.ed. C.uma.mgh. A Flexible Architecture for Constructing and Executing Tutoring Processes. Suraweera. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: the what and the how.unirostock.. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: an ontologybased approach. Koedinger. K. L. Hanover.. R. S. (2004a).harvard.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Koedinger. Walonoski. Walker. B.cs. (2000). E.pdf McLaren. Towards Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative.lcc. J.editlib. Cognitive Tutoring of Collaboration: Developmental and Empirical Steps Towards ub_4.cs. E.pdf OguejioforIT-AEC2004. L. 4/refs/moore_gaussbc12. A. and Ramachandran. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes. (2004b). K. A.informatik.iro. Web-based environment. A. (2004). http://ctat. 2000. A Flexible and Adaptive Tutoring Process for Case-Oriented and Web-Based Training in Medicine.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18899 Moore. A Framework for Constructing Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems.. http://lttf. and Bollen. T. and De Jong. Proceedings.. DB-Suite: experiences with three intelligent Webbased database tutors. A. http://www.htm 32 © Brandon Hall Research .Martens. Centralize the tutoring prozess [sic] in intelligent tutoring system.pact. http://www. T. Schneider. http://www. M. http://www. Sewall. Final Report. ICNEE. Heffernan. Schneider.. Paper presented at WASWBE R. B. Harrer. C.. GMDS conference. and Bernauer. In M. Learning Web Engineering. N. P. B. Matera. Bootstrapping Novice Data: SemiAutomated Tutor Authoring Using Student Log Files.umontreal. Bernauer. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. I. http://www. J.). A. and Seitz....pdf Ong. (2005). (2005).pdf Obitko. http://www. 409432. Paper presented at the AEC2004 Conference.. In the Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference (CSCL-05). Learning Gaussian Bayes Classifiers.pdf MYMIC LLC (2004). B.PDF Martens. Paper presented at ICALT. Simulation Technology Center. Comai (Eds. Engineering Advanced Web Applications: Proceedings of Workshops. US Army RDECCOM. (2000). J. Outstanding Research Issues in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www. Optimal Emotional Conditions for Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System. Paper presented at the AMIA 2000 Conference. (2004). M.pdf /pap-039-obi. A. Popovici. E. and Glucksmann. CWE2004. August.. M.cs. and Bollen. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on New Educational Environments. (2004). After the Internet: alien 000/ong. (2001)..cmu. Kicinger.. and tory/D200221. pers/nuzzo. R.. J. (ITS-2004). DC: Capitol ssoncr. James (2000).. (2000). M. The eXtensible Tutor Architecture: A New Foundation for A. K. 15(4). M. http://www. Kurz.. http://adams. Scheurer.doc 262800/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 McLaren.. http://ctat..learningcircuits. pdf Martens. Andrew (2001). Workshop on Emotional and Social Intelligence in Learning Environments.pdf Ochs. http://www. Alke (2003b). L.cogsci.pact. Paper. J. and Weerasinghe. G. Harrer. Harrer. Bollen....pdf Mitrovic. Martin.. and Frasson.pdf Martin. Wash. L.

Tutorial Dialog in an Equation Solving Intelligent Tutoring System.. E. htm Rosé... In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems. C..pdf Prentzas. Brazil. K. Torrey. http://godel.A. Kinshuk.. P. and Heffernan.usc.P. M. C. V.pdf web/IADAT-e2004_26... Hatzilygeroudis. Information and Communications Technologies in Education. Amsterdam.html Pon-Barry. http://godel. 2004_Workshop. Lane. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Trauma Management (Trauma-Teach): A Preliminary Report. Proceedings from the International Conference on Multimedia.ict.. Educational Technology & Society.pdf Read.formatex. Bárcena. W.stanford.. T. 34.. Paper presented at ITS 2002.wpi. Maceió. SemlabPublications/AI-ED-WorkshopFinal. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). (2004). Owen Bratt. and Yong. and Koutsojannis. S. Low. http://mmlab. (2004).Ong. In Proceedings.upatras..upatras. Maceió.C.S.) Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.PDF Razzaq. http://www.. E. W... A. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Using Hybrid Rules as Its Representational Basis. D. J. J. J. L.H.annals.. (2000). and Pancorbo. Owen Bratt.ceid. (2001).PDF Prentzas.F. E. http://www. Mesa González. L.. J. Wong. (2004b).wpi. and Aleven. In the Proceedings of the IEEE ICALT-2001. Reusable Spoken Conversational Tutor: SCoT. K. (2005). S. E. Loke.S.stanford. http://ifets. http://nth.pdf Pon-Barry. P. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004).iadat. 499-504. Vijayan. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. http://www. Koh. (2004). AIED Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems. H.. Owen Bratt. K. F. Evaluating the Effectiveness of SCoT -a Spoken Conversational Tutor. (2004). H. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. Ponbarry. Guided Exploratory Learning versus Directed Learning in a Simulation Environment for Thermodynamics: A Pilot SemlabPublications/ICALT_2004. Paper presented at the AI and Education 2005 Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments. Automated Story Direction and Intelligent Tutoring: Towards a Unifying /PAPERS/EPY01. Contextualizing Learning in a Reflective Conversational Tutor.pdf Riedl. Brazil. Hatzilygeroudis..C. S... Mesa González (Eds. B. Lim. I. and web/IADAT-e2004_26. (2002). H. H.. http://mmlab.. Novais. González-Pereira. 3(1). A. Lai.stanford. Mé C. and apers/ITS2004/Submitted(not%20final)/Le ena/etutor_workshop_final. and Garofalakis. N. B. Spain. Future challenges in intelligent tutoring systems – a I.doc Read. Clark. (2005). Schultz. Annals of Academic Medicine Singapore. Clark. (2005). R. C. J. B.Y. and Pancorbo. E. http://www. C.. (2004a). Bárcena.pdf Do not reproduce 33 . Schultz. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. B. and Peters... http://nth. Peters. Scalable. and Peters. 0509/V34N8p499. Intelligent Tutoring Tools for Cognitive Skill Acquisition in Life Long Learning. /patel. and Swartout.. http://wwwcsli.pdf Rodrigues. Clark. and Russell. (2003). P. K. J.L. In A. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research /PAPERS/ITS02.. T. Tang. A Web-Based ITS Controlled by a Hybrid Expert System.pdf Schultz. June..

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Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. and psychomotor. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. online assessment. samples. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. eassessment. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. We can expect that. making it hard to escape assess-ment. computer-based assessment tools. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. In a business situation. or performance samples. and output. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. are already available. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. computer mediated assessment (CMA). online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. For example. evaluation. quizzes. More sophisticated forms of automated. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. for example.learningandteaching. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. When combined into a “360° evaluation. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. and documents for assessors to use. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. affective. in the near future.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. aptitudes. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. quizzes. rubrics. the automated scoring of essays. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. Assessment software can generate templates.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. self-evaluation. 1956).info/learni ng/solo. computer based assessment (CBA). and (4) computer marking.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). once only done by a human assessor. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. However.

Find them at: http://nt.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. http://www. multilingual support. reporting. a completely customizable report and adminis-tration formance_analyzer2.flaguide.” Testcraft. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. from Resources Management Services in the U.” organized by academic discipline.redinq. For information on latent semantic Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.horizonwimba. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. skills.testcraft. institutional evaluation. see: http://lsa.fasfind. learning tools. and past work behaviors.. and /Entry. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. Review it at: Pedagogue Solutions has developed tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. and services useful for outcomes assessment. has recently won awards for its performance.respondus.rmsuk.colorado. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. Access the evaluation resources at: ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. See more at: http://www. http://www.operitel. Hurix Systems has developed Red The Evaluator. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. preview pages for all question types. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. http://www. Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. personality. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. on its Web site.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. a customizable look and feel. http://www. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. check out the Dialang web site. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).uc. http://www.ets. http://www. For details. surveys. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. http://www. and adaptive question branching. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. see: http://www. http://www.Glossary of Testing and Assessment The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.pedagogue. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or ETS. is available from: http://liinwww. Ortigosa. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning..Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.unt. Educational Technology & Society. Do not reproduce 37 .html Bibliography Alfonseca. with over 1. Learning and Teaching: SOLO with a list of 34 strategies. http://www. http://school. Obtain a copy at: http://www.ulster. http://www. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. James (2005).ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July including a useful listing of assessments and /arc/ sment. assess.htm Atkinson.3 Bateson..umuc. (2005).uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Gregory (1973). 5365. http://www. Pé ssme/online.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. http://www.000 different tests from its database. Online D.uiuc. Freire. London: Paladin. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text learning/03/online.nestafuturelab.ira. 8 (3).html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of views/10_01. E.tasainstitute. http://cba. P. (2004).html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.200 Information and Communications Technology for Language Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.heacademy. A. G. R. http://www..htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. http://www.” http://www. & Rodríguez.unimelb. M.discovery.tcet.htm#2.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. http://www.scit.thinkinggear.ict4lt.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.rmcdenver. and Davies. /cba. ng/ Explore the links at: http://www.oir.pdf A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.learnflex.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. M.

http://www. (2003).cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. (2003). J. August 2003.pdf Brown J.. Daniel. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. 2005. 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. and Marcu. New York: Academic Press. http://www. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. Robert (2005). Jill. In M. K. Burstein (Eds. New York: McKay. Harabagiu and RC23. (1956). CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student McNamara. Jill.htm. www. and O'Hagan. How to Assess Authentic Learning. S. http://www.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research .. NJ: Lawrence http://www. Acapulco. and Hirschman. A. Online paper.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. (2001) Bernstein. and Knight. B.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.pdf Biggs. Louis. & Olsen. Marcu. Ciravegna (Eds. Rethink testing for future success. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. (2003). Jill. Chodorow. and Collis. J. M. B.assess. In the R. New York. IEEE Intelligent Systems. (1989). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. V. (1982).com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. St. RC23. 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. Jill C.ets. (2002). Educational Measurement. C. and Chodorow. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium.assess. & Leacock. Inouye. http://www. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". Hillsdale. Kaplan (Ed. C. June 22. Mexico. Linn (Ed. Burstein.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Iwashita. 3rd Edition. J. K. 1.pdf. eSchool News. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Shermis and J. Langu-age Learning and Technology. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Missouri. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment.iltaonline.. Martin. Bloom. Arlington Heights. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.msu.htm Burstein. New York: Oxford. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.iltaonline. T. Kevin (2003). In R. L. IL: Skylight. In M. http://llt. L. J. Burstein (Eds. Shermis and J. In S.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Brown. (1997).edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. D. (2001). NY: Macmillan. Kay (1999).).

B. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. http://www. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. and Parry. London: Falmer.) (2005). http://mason.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).nmsu. (2001). S.msu.unimelb.msu.Carr. S.utas. Tests.htm. W. http://www. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. http://wwwpsych. T. Nathan. Foltz.html.Proceedings from a Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. category/write/107610. Board on Testing and Assessment. http://www. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. http://www. 2. Language Learning and Technology.ncte. EdMedia '99. National Research Council. http://www. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".) (1999). http://www.pdf Dunkel Loughborough. (1999). Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. and 0Fall%2002/Frase. RC23.Hershey. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Robert. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (2004). University of Tasmania. (2005). March 9. Micheline. 4. Online newsletter.soton. Howell. Language Learning and Technology. Micheline. Writing assessment: a position (1999). O’Reilly. n. Online paper. v. PA: Information Science. Y.hlc. & Landauer. Seven technologies for assessment. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational t. M.htm Cebrian. May. 2: 77-93.. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. http://eprints. 5. Dunn. velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. P. Howard (1993). (2002).pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004)..iltaonline. ault. College Composition and Communication Online. M. v. (Eds. N.ecs. In Proceedings.nap.. C. Language Learning & Technology 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Language testing and technology: past and future. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. (2001). http://llt. and Grellett.gmu. Morgan. Online newsletter. D. M. ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. New York: Basic Books. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into 9. 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. (2004).. Howard. No. K. (Ed. May. www. D. (1998). P. Millard.softwaresecure.html Frase.doc. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.html Davies. L. (2001). 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones.html Chalhoub-Deville. Chalhoub-Deville. E.msu. and Howell. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. W. html/1.pdf Hricko. Davis.

amazon. 25.msu.bc.html Khan. 403-416. http://escholarship. Learning. (Eds. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. S. and Skinner. D.) (2002). J. Fitzgerald. France. http://eric. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. J. Reports from the Institute of Education. Journal of Technol. 5(2). Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. (1999). (2001). R. and Watt.pdf Kenyon.. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. ( 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. and Malabonga. Patrick (2000). McArthur. and Hricko. (2005). and . W. G.pdf MacDonlad. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.S. M. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. 259284. University of and /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. (2006).gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. Mahwah... Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.. W. http://www. Problem Solving.) (2000). and Ward. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. M.Jones. DC: U. Weller. Government.medianet.. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. (2005). M.. Online Assessment. M. Language Learning and Technology. C. Tim (2006).kent. J. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Gifford. http://www. & 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. Self. N. (1979). National Center for Education Statistics. (Eds. Howard. 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.pd f Weiner. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. & Mason. http://www. K. Graham. Potenza. and Assessment. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. H. (2000).. Y. http://www. Burstein. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. http://www. & Laham. NY: Guilford Press. & http://www.. S.ed. Fremer.. K. J. Measurement and Evaluations.. PA: Information Science. 4(6).amazon. A. P. Discourse 851901 United States Department of Education.. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. Howell.proexam. Handbook of writing /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. New York.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. R (2002). B. M. (1998). Hershey. V. D. Compiegne.pdf Landauer. In C. C. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. D. http://nces. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Washington.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. International Journal on lt. pp. May. (2006). M. T.colorado.) (2005).org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.LSAintr o. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Information Science Publishing. http://llt. Hillsdale. Hardas.

com Do not reproduce 41 . Operitel white paper. http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.operitel.

5 megabytes. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers.. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. depending on the file size). the rest of the file has time to arrive.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Provides feedback to learners. compared with even a few years ago. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. For example. (2005). (i.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. to personalized media). Assists non-native speakers. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. while it is playing. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. According to Crofts et al. Provides another channel for material review. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners.e. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. such as those for iPods. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. which is gaining in popularity. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. This frag-mentation is being fueled. or by “streaming.e. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. You can’t add your own notes. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. (i. is podcasting. podcasting. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. in part. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. One audio application of interest to educators. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.37/teresadeca/webheads/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a und. go to: http://www.purdue. http://www. http://www.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. shareware. and broadcasting are all found on this site. Audio and video software.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. http://sourceforge. and other operating systems. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a htm RECAP Ltd. enhancing. http://www. recording. CD audio extraction. http://recap. http://www. Microsoft Windows. http://64. http://epnweb.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. http://www.masternewmedia. GNU/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.71.ibritt. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting http://www. and utilities for conversion. http://www. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.podcasting-tools.48. sound editing. For a list of podcasting tools. tools. phrases. It is available to download for Mac OS X.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .edupodder.envision. http://www.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. or sentences from audio Web sites.scientificcomputing. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. open source software for recording and editing sounds.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. DJ mixing.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web Audacity is SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.avsmedia. including software to record and play podcasts.rds. including podcasting. http://www.

) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.html Girvan. http://www. http://recap. Chesapeake. Luigi (2005).uk/articles/podguide. Brenda (2001).html Bias Audio Peak Pro Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Peter (2005). Podcasts.. Podcasting and Vodcasting. (2003). (2005).educause. http://www. s/AAI9929186 Crofts.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Sonic Foundry Mediasite 44 © Brandon Hall Research . Sound Robin Good’s 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. rofts/index.aace.learningcircuits.sonicfoundry.html Curtis. Government. pdf Noakes. VA: AACE.. In G. http://edmarketing. Eva (2005). April 2005. University of Ray (2005).” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting.html Kaplan-Leiserson.adobe. http://www. http://www. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. Dave (2005). http://www. P. First Monday. 417-419). Fox. S. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. A. Dilley. L. B. July 2005. May 20. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. 10(9). Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. http://www. Scientific Computing World.cfm?fuseactio wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. http://digitalcommons. C.audiolink.scientificcomputing. and Swenson.h tml Canali De Rossi. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).org/ June 2005. Richards (Ed. J. and Lomas. Doctoral 005/0506_trends Meng. 2005. http://dl. M. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. and Williams. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. http://firstmonday. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Healthcare.unl.multitrackstudio. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Learning e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Cakewalk SONAR and Higher Education 2003 (pp.cakewalk. September. Dion Cory (1999)..htm Jobbings.editlib. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.

all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. For details on each Microsoft In this vein. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. either directly or with third party tools. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. in the end. As well. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Further. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Development.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments.brandonhall. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. 2005). Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model ( and Evaluation) processes. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications.s html). No authoring tool does everything. simulations. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). Design. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. please see http://www. Implementation. see: http://www. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Since its acquisition of Macromedia. (For details. content development. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. rapid elearning. Allen Communications .CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. www.composica.Designer’s Edge. http://www.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming. http://www. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. oint-presentations-index.brainshark.adobe. pop-up messages.activeslide.Capture Station 2.acroservices. Flash.htm Brainshark Inc.anark. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. and images and turn them into 3-D training.accordent. hotspots. and marketing For details on each Adobe product.htm products/acrotrain. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.lersus. Builds http://www.allencomm. http://www. and PowerPoint slides. buttons.copycatsoftware. There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. http://www. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. go to: http://www. music.articulateglobal. Agile . http://www.Composica Enterprise .Media – Import 3-D Models. http://presentation. http://www. video.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .turbodemo.Content Point .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. Acroservices .A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. htm Composica . video.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.asp Bridge People and Technology .com/presenter.Allows nonprogrammers to generate Anark . Integrates various CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. video. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. pointers. . visualization.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint Bernard D&G .ilessons.Thinkcap Studio . Articulate .com/ Business Performance Technology . rich text.thinkingcap. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .co.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash Counterpoint . XML.

eclipsys. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.gen21.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. CD Impatica .com/Solutions/Elearni ng.php e2train .Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content x_eng.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www.elementk. video.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.Opus Pro – Rapid development tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. imc AG .digitalworkshop.e-learningconsulting.sculptoris. DVD-video. http://www. http://www. HTML courses. http://www. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .Development Kits – Create Flash courses.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.Digital Workshop . Integrated Performance Systems . http://www.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . http://www. such as the following: Web.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. without programming knowledge.hunterstone. and installation files.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. http://www. http://www. audio. Eclipsys Corporation . and animation. Imaira Digital Media Hunter Stone .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. or Macromedia Flash media presentations. Post the characters on any Web site.shtml Dynamic Media .ht ml E-Learning Consulting . http://www.e2train. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Element K .Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. Information Transfer .co. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. graphics.seminar. http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .exe files.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing INTEC . stand alone .pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. Import rich media and customize graphics.

jsp Knowledge Planet .com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www. Works with SAP Learning Solution. MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.maxit. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin .php MindOnSite . with a built-in learning management KnowledgeXtensions .ch/eLearning/EN/in dex.asp Knowledge Quest .com/ OPTX International . http://www.mohive.mckinnonmulherin. and animations with tests and interactivity. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. tool based on Flash templates.LEARNERLand – Text.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.easyprof.EasyProf chure. combining multimedia content like video. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www. http://www.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. Learn. and PowerPoint into a set of McKinnon-Mulherin NetPlay Software . http://www. Ready-made button and navigation aids.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www.htm MediaMaker .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www. Word.maxit. http://www. http://www. shtml Itaca .htm Kookaburra Studios . centralized knowledge base. graphics.pdf Intuition .Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons. with no programming and no plugins.ScreenWatch Producer – Records – With the built-in software simulation MindIQ .elearninginabox.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.ipsinc.learnerland. Built-in testing engine. Has its own built-in learning management system. PowerPoint slides.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.knowledgeplanet. http://www.learn.knowledgextensions.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. http://www.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. .Used to create presentations without programming skills.knowledgepresenter. http://www.

com/ Qarbon .cfm Serco (technical) . JPEGs. http://www. http://www. http://www. customizable flashcards.asp TEDS .htm Do not reproduce 49 . and highly interactive elearning content. http://www. http://www. http://www. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.toolbook. GIFs.E-Learning Objects . interactive Flash presentations and online training.Publisher Professional . g_objects.scribestudio.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single ateRefer.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.podia.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. http://www.syberworks. http://www. popups.htm podia .rapidintake.pointecast. course publisher. http://www.podiaOnDemand . Microsoft PowerPoint. When content is Scribe Studio . http://www. without knowing code. http://www. http://www. French. Courses can be Rapid Intake .ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. http://www.reusableobjects.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . matching games.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. http://nuvvo.teknical. and m Techsmith .com/ Percepsys .students. crosswords. http://www. turn PowerPoint presentations into on.In er-web/sb_author.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .sensalearning. http://www. http://www. and course player all in one software package.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. or Savvica .screenwatch.shtml Reusable Objects .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.readygo.Nuvvo . Audio. a either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.qarbon. Respondus . and mate. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in ReadyGo .com/ SumTotal .softchalk. image hotspot activities.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.htm Suddenly Smart .net/ PointeCast . http://www.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.respondus.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's image labeling.or SCORMcompliant.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.

templates. and host online discussions. publish blogs. Melia. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. content conversion.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www.time4you GmbH .com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. Northwestern University.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. http://www. and rapid simulation.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.cs.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. (2005).time4you. or Network. Doctoral Dissertation.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. www. Berlin: Springer. June 2005. Government.cs. http://www. De Bra. audio.htm Zapatec .com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. http://www. Lin (2005).tue. http://www.lectora.bloki. T. (2003). S. Evanston.xstreamsoftware. http://www. www. M. and Ainsworth. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.xplana.2-conformant objects and assessments.oswego.brandonhall. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Qiu.pdf Murray. D. _rb40eval.oswego. E.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring Webex . inersoft/trainersoft8. (2005). SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. S. http://www.. Montreal. and Pahl.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.funeducation. and and text.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. s/edmedia2005.asp TrainVision .com/products/products _xwb. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).pdf ime4you/ibt/en/start.webex. (2005).com/ US Government .com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. right in their browser with no additional software required.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. and Riesbeck. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. C. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. L. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. Healthcare. and wizards. video. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research .XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. interactive and intelligent educational software.Presentation Studio .php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . Blessing. McMullen. http://www. P.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.. http://workforceconnections. http://www. http://www.dol..trainvision.westcliffdata. http://www.

June 2005. E.editlib. http://www2.2005). Reuben (2005). BC. Masters Thesis. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Canada. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia 004/tozman. Technical Univ.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Another new paradigm for instructional design.s html Do not reproduce 51 . Eindhoven. Learning Circuits. Nov. http://www. Gary (2005). October 2428. AACE. Reuben (2004).htm Tozman.htm Woodill.learningcircuits. 2005.htm Tozman. W.. CA: Brandon Hall Research. http://www.learningcircuits.sis. 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 005/ A. Sunnyvale. Vancouver. Learning Circuits. http://www. (2005). The myth about s. http://www.

com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.” Maldonado et al.telsim.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. for example. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. http://www.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. in the broadest sense.sculptoris. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.typepad. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another.codebaby. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. especially in gamebased learning activities. Similarly. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.Avatars Related terms Agents. In the context of elearning.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. In some situations. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. http://blogoehlert. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. and generally simulates human ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. http://www. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. the avatar may represent an actual human being. 2006/07/top_20_educatio. but in e-learning.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.

The system will be design-ed as a scalable.vcom3d. Koschmann. In T.naccq.W..pdf Maldonado. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. and Morishima. http://www. S. and T. J. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. Brave. 2005. C.knowledgeenvironments.html 2005 .) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.. (2005).com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning SI. C. offering a large number of supportive functions.exodus. users are represent-ed as avatars.. http://www. http://www. http://www. Lee. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. Ahad.elearningguild. R. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. Inc. Nakajima. Nass..redwoodelearning. http://isnm. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.. H. H. and Nodder. Iwamura. 25.Training Education & Education International Conference. http://www..oddcast. (2004).uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. D.pdf in cooper-ation with a number of groups.tmmy.pdf Seth. New Zealand. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Chan (Eds. In the toolkit.. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. edings_03/pdf/255. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars.” which are avatars that New York-based Oddcast Inc. Try them at: http://www. Bibliography Deuchar. 2003. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical ado. http://www. modular application.pdf Online Resources In Europe. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.. K. Yamada. www. (2005). In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . Aug. A. Nexus Media. Raj (2003). M. and Weber. B.

Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the


However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the


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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > 26753.html ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs)

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at:

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs)

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique., July 14.,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. w.pdf

Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. m#feature


© Brandon Hall Research

Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. ( What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. ( The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >


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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. n/browsers_list.php3

Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/ m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch., July 30, 2006. 072900038.html?referrer=email


© Brandon Hall Research

management. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. However. integrated with other types of learning technologies. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. Beatty. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. corporate. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation.einstruction. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. the costs and headaches multiply. or clickers. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. and military H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. http://www. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. classroom communication systems. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. giving almost instant feedback. 2006. display. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. training the faculty member to use the software. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. costs can be an issue. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. higher education. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. clickers. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. The use of clickers has several advantages.” In spite of the costs. increasing their motivation to learn. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. The devices keep students alert and involved.

com/news_issue.ubc. 2006. http://www.elearning. 2004.gtcocalcomp. es/cps/ECARCRS. http://www.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).com/audien ce-response-systems/index. http://www.pearsoned.pdf Burnstein. 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.cfm?fil e=/051103/ http://www. including material on the use of classroom response The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Educause Learning Initiative. LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY Tom (2004). http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.Publishing textbook. 41(5).edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/ R.educause. http://www. NJ: Prentice Hall. Anne (2006). http://www.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.learnstar. http://www. Upper Saddle River. Ian (2004).qwizdom. (2003). This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response 7002.aclearn. http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. Volume 2004. https://sharepoint.campustechnology. Research Bulletin. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique erwrite. July 7. http://www. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.smartroom. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.umass. Q. The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the udienceResponseSystems/Home. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Eric (1997). 272-275. 3. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response 60 © Brandon Hall Research ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Inside CUA. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.utexas. E-Learning Dialogue. and Lederman.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.utexas. Feb. The Physics Teacher. 7 things you should know about… CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.cua.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. March 3. No.optiontechnologies.pdf Mazur.” http://www.jmu. http://www. pdf Cassidy.

http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .itee.uq. 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.

These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. http://www. http://www.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications.g. doing.g. and There are many different ways to collaborate. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. organize.teamspace. reduction.html?ad-main Annotea . through brainstorming).. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research .html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. evaluation. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. The Institute for the Future. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). many respond. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the ndex. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. and collaborating.. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . social networking building. it requires skill and experience. social Advanced Reality – Jybe . http://www.advancedreality. e. collaborate. clarification.

markup of data. Includes document organization and sharing. discussion forum. search. intellectual property m/index.comotivsystems.Unified MeetingPlace .w3. http://www. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Documentum eRoom . http://www. contacts.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.opencroquet. version control. share t/index. http://www. http://www. jot down Blenks – In-team . A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. and instant access to the group Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. http://www. http://www.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). Presence (see who’s online).Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. flexible workflow. Web conferencing.bantu. with templates and workflows for product Cisco .bluetie. non-profit.backpackit. http://www. recordable conferencing. Central Desktop – Central Desktop . and instant messaging. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. Features include IM. instant messaging. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. http://www.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. expert location.Offers real-time collaboration through Web s/product. voice and data collaboration.emc. document versioning.citrix. and individual users. and upload photos.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates .com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . http://www. Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . share EMC² . http://software.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based ps5664/ps5669/index. and searchable discussion threads.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. collaborative file management. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.jsp Engineering. http://www. robust document management. http://www.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . project planning and Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .globalchat. alerts. office. and communicate with others.gotomeeting. calendar. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. and meeting manager.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more Atinav – aveComm . http://www. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). and information technology adoption.centraldesktop. and communication. and collaboration.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.Web conferencing software to address the needs of BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.bookmarks. Digite – Digite Enterprise . http://www. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.

com/halo/index.gordano. snapshots. Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. meeting. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. easy to use online collaboration system.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange.Halo Collaboration Studio .com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.Live meetings and Web conferencing. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. including eZmeeting . data and process tracking. desktop sharing. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. http://www. allow members to update and edit files. and corporate instant messaging.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. drawing Google – Google Groups – Create. Web-based extranet tool. and document management.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . software construction.hp. recording and /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser.A system of carefully placed plasma and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://groups. and sending workflow tasks.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . The system streamlines project planning. attach threaded discussions to quantitative project management. http://www. http://www. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.exactamerica. 2001. project management.groupsupport. universal file viewer for MS office EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . presentation tools. Features include interactive data collaboration. powerful. share files and documents. It has tools for managing multiple teams. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. and images.gliffy. http://www.features a project navigator. http://www. It provides working groups with simple. http://www. http://collaboration. and organizational process performance. interactive whiteboard. http://www. Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. voting. product quality assurance. search. and team management. assign file editing rights and completion dates.ProjectSpaces is a /GSII. secure. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. tracking the status of assignments.shtml Hewlett Packard .facilitate. require-ment and risk Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. categorizing. cameras. invite workspace members.groove. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www. http://www. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. scheduling and using calendars. http://www. and creating action plans. Features include the following: Accessing documents.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share conducting surveys. resource information sharing.

peer-to-peer. Using Mayetic collaborative kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . customers.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .ilinc. private interactive access or exchange of ment_management/index. instant messaging and presence IBM .iceweb. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. Integrated suite of multiuser. http://www. http://www. an interface to a mailing list http://www.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. http://www03. including versioning. including file sharing. http://www. data.hotComm . link sharing). and file http://www. search Microsoft – Live Meeting . online document management. voice. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.jotlive. and more. Web lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.Jotspot Live.hotcomm. structured. http://www. http://www.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Functions include the following: Share documents.webofficepoint.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related eting/default. podcasting.jdhtech. Features include the following: Document management. a Wiki. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. and Microsoft Outlook JotSpot . folders.hyperoffice. and Lotus iLinc Communications . Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. online editor.Lotus QuickPlace .ibm. contacts.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. blogs (Weblogs). versioning control.interwoven. Features include the following: Business email.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast.uwc. security levels.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. video. and provides search. and shared documents. realtime chat. http://www. Features include the following: Shared calendars. and extensibility. calendars. online contact management. efficient. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. integrates with MS Office. http://www.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. image Interwoven . and secure peer networking architecture. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a Apps. http://kgroups. Outlook.kGroups provides a number of tools. and customers on the Web. online calendar.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. http://www. a powerful. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. task manager. http://www.mspx Do not reproduce 65 .aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . and photos. and secured fashion – up to 399 cts. scalable.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. Customizable Web directory. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. discussion forums.

CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. http://www. Novell – Groupwise . eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. calendaring.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.html Rallypoint .com/ Santa Cruz Networks .Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. ml Parlano – MindAlign . and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. team events. information. task management. see each other in real time using cameras.A suite of persistent group messaging. organize and discover content through categories and tags. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard.communityzero. Workflow Automation.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. http://www.same-page. milestones. and files. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate Same-Page. instant messaging. http://www. http://www. moderator / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. Allows people to talk to each other. Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.Community Zero .microsoft. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .rallypointhq. share knowledge.Corporate quality communications center.near-time. http://www. and communicate. Enables http://myworldchat. text schedule and track events and activities.mspx Near-Time – Flow . and MP3 audio recording. and share data or applications while they are online. and contact and document management functions. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. instant messaging.santacruznetworks. author and review pages individually and across the group. MyWorldChat Communicator . http://www. http://www.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. tasks. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. providing the best of both worlds. Ramius . called an online community. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. and presence management solutions.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted – eStudio .performancesolutionstech.Microsoft – SharePoint . 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.parlano.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages.Rallypoint . Document Management. http://www. file Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . http://www. real-time application sharing. audio and Oracle .Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. Within each Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management.

2097. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. collaboration. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference.tacit.sitescape. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or ent/ expertise. instant XML-RPC server. http://www. http://groups. voice and Web conferencing.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . application sharing.trichys. http://www.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. FTP server. calendar sharing.00. http://www.04. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . http://www.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. http://www. http://www. and breakout groups.html Trichys – WorkZone . http://www. productivity applications. http://www.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. workflow and task management. search.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. Web conferencing server (in-house). project VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. and instant messaging. threaded discussions.sumtotalsystems. Use it out of the Webbased whiteboarding. collaboration.seldensystems. live video. and prospects – without leaving their WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .com SpiderWeb Communications . view and edit documents or images SiteScape . and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and other business communications.webasyst. Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. and calendaring Vignette . http://www.Forum ZX . e-mail ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and share. Includes VoIP. and more. documents. desktop document delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. project. interact.viack. and business relationships. and real-time communications such as presence Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. http://www.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.cyber-grad. newsgroup server. or use it to build a Web application. and business partners.Collaboration software that includes document management. /2005. /stcollab. http://www. store files. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.stalker.Processes email.sharemethods. chat server. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. and use live audio.vignette. and information sharing.

Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. and e-mails. content OPM Creator – OPMCreator . http://www. http://www.generation.Features include Hands up.nagarro. feedback.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/index.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. http://www.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .hp. review button. affordable.axista.0 . Works with Microsoft Project. project tracking. scheduling solutions. private/group exit and help. assign HP .opmcreator.tomoye. and save to disk icon.peoplecube. http://www. video. http://www.brevient. print icon. and collaboration to timesheet management. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. Share multiple projects with multiple users.Instant set-up." virtual collabor-ation. online management for projects of any size and scope. and share documents. http://education.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. custom PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . files. data. whiteboard pages.In-house tool developed to assist in project Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. http://www.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. calendars.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more applications. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. identify and resolve potential problems. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .com/ onProject – myonProject .Projistics . Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic Nagarro . set user permissions. simple.nexprise. http://www. applaud and meter. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. and Web pages. form to submit 68 © Brandon Hall Research . and communicate with their project nProducts/Products.HP Virtual Classroom .saba. attendee list. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. http://www. project planning. invoicing.onproject. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. scaleable. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. http://www. connects peers. http://www.teamdynamix.Web event calendaring.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . http://www.elluminate.Intuitive project management software for work teams. navigation.projectdox. discussions. annotation NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. Access to the tool is also given to clients. content. and data into a single storage area. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software.project-open. and software_development_project_manageme nt.

learning. and collaboration ew/16/108/ messaging.elluminate. live demos.convenos. polling and quizzes. office LiveOffice – IMConferencing . and Webconferencing specialists. Features include shared documents. e-learning classrooms. session reports. http://www. pre-recorded broadcasts. e-mail invites. shared Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.Delivers unlimited voice.photoninfotech. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction.communiqueconferencing. annotations. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. meeting management.Synchronous Webconferencing software.A Linktivity Division. and meetings.horizonwimba. http://www. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. http://www. sales presentations. teleconferencing. http://www. http://www.genesys. synchronous online lectures. http://www.ivocalize. Multilingual. http://www. and collaborative content-building sessions.0 . Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. integrated content management system.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. and real-time videoconferencing. how often.Photon Infotech – SPARK . and text chat. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative Intralinks .Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. guest lectures. http://www. shared whiteboard and present-ation. URL sharing. For example. attendee lists. Web.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . http://www. Batipi – Batipi . Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. Record classes or Webcasts. notes.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. online iVocalize . desktop sharing. private whiteboards for each participant.LiveOffice provides Web-based. and by eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . application sharing. Allows holding live. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. http://www.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. http://www.intralinks. breakout rooms.batipi. toll-free conference calling. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. transparency tools. Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. _imc. and Web conferencing with WebEx. virtual office hours. and content Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. broadcasts files.interwise. record and playback. and a change presenter ability. video. remote control. and more. Webcasts.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. keyboard and voice chat. instant Do not reproduce 69 . and videoconferencing. online seminars. and phone use. instant mples. hand raising. video.mixmeeting.linktivity. including Web conferencing.

conference calling. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. the Internet.voxwire. send text messages. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this With the convenience of online access through an individual Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . Radvision – Click to Meet . e-learning. text messaging.webtrain.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. or an entire desktop.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .Web and audio conferencing services.To support large Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . http://www. any application.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . Web conferencing. Webinars. Requires only a browser and a phone. Solutions include Web meetings. share other applications. http://carbon. http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.raindance.radvision. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. and document collaboration.wave3software. set up labs and conduct quizzes. editing. a graduate school of the University of WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center .com/bridgepoint.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . and into the enterprise.meetingone.Powers online meetings. show rich multimedia content and ing.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. http://www. http://www.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. The suite manages the creation.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. http://www. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world.Meeting One – Click&Share. http://www. http://www. and moderation of Webcasts. discussion forums.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . teleconferencing. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). and desktop videoconferencing services. audio. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room.telnetz. http://www. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their ervices. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. and instant messaging capabilities.edufolio. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. surveys.cudenver.netspoke. and system WebTrain – Communicator 4 . publishing. present PowerPoint slideshows. http://www. http://www. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. remote support. tour Web sites.vodium. or meeting.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.

edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. J..asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. and businesses to provide collaborative The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. http://www.. http://www. 4. N. http://eprints. Fred (2002).1:100250.springerlink. Q2Learning White Paper. 2006.clomedia. http://collaboration.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE 41(2).com/content/templat es/clo_feature.. http://www. communities. Models of collaboration. Nov. http://www.collabtech. x.. T.soton.globalschoolnet. (2003). E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. S. also has a great list of collaboration J. 2002.. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. http://www. A. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful.. Dalton. http://www. 2002.pdf Bonk. http://cde. Michaelides. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). Potter.” http://www. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. J.1 Bibliography Alexander. Eisenstadt. Maceió.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration dex. scientific. 2003.writely. http://www.. Chief Learning The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in ces. Page.. De http://www. and The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://www. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Bryan (2006). Curtis (2002). Shadbolt. Creating an wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. ChenBurger. David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.educause. http://www.athabascau. Komzak.collaborate.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. M.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. March/April 2006. Nov. Web 2. http://www.htm Butler.. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. (2004).org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. Japan on July 13-14. and Coleman. Collaborative Strategies. Bill (2004). Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. M.diglib.htm Mitre Corporation. Sign up for free at: http://www..htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. K. D. http://www.thinkofit. Buckingham Shum. Beshears.collaborationloop. also known as “ gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. September.criticalmethods.html Do not reproduce 71 .ecs.

World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www.masternewmedia.htm Canali De Rossi. Aavani. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. (Eds.. & Weber. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. CA.pdf Kaplan. and Jochems. and Forster. R. http://www. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Then Knowledge Management.rheingold.htm # Clapp. D.N. June 30. 5(1).ca/online_book/ch8 . Luigi (2004a). VA: AACE. Robin Good Blog. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education.masternewmedia. Institute for the Future White Paper.. January 2005. May 2. (2002). A. http://www.) (2004).com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation.cmswatch. (2002).html Institute for the Future (2005). Matthew (2004). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Technologies of W.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.html Munkvold. K. August 2002. http://www.html Hurst.pdf Strijbos. 827-829). Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. R. http://ifets. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. June 5/Poster/J03-full. P. Gibson. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.... J. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. and Sharifi. Bjorn (Ed. I. Learning Circuits. Luigi (2005). Willis. http://wscg. Chesapeake.athabascau. Price. Carlsen.. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. CMS Elliot. Palo /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Robin Good Blog. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 002/kaplan. http://cde.masternewmedia. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. and Thomas. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. J. http://www. Live ELearning. Sept.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.zcu. http://www.html Kreijns. e-Book. In Crawford. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Robin Good Blog. Fitzgerald.cfm/files/pape r_12386. 3. Collaboration /kreijns.editlib. K. http://www. June 5. University of http://www.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. (2004). http://www. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. (2002).htm Canali De Rossi. Kirschner. 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Proceedings. A. D.. A. A.learningcircuits.. http://www. M. McFerrin.Canali De Rossi. C. (2004). Findlay.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2004b).editlib. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. 2565-2569. Luigi (2003a). January 21.. 2003.). Educational Technology & Society. http://www. 5(1).org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es... J. and Martens.. ( /ewing. http://ifets. and Miller. Soren (2002). J. R. London: Springer-Verlag. R. Luigi (2003b).org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. Educational Technology & Society.) (2003). Kirschner. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.htm Canali De Rossi.

. http://sleid. Nov. K. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Innovation and Development. Studies in Learning.cqu. 1(2).php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. Callan. http://www. 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. & Purnell. Evaluation. (2004).

including communications re-usable. discussion forums. ml The Learning Place in Queensland. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/ See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. blogs. labs. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.71. For Laurillard.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. developed in Brazil.” http://goldenswamp. a process referred to as “text mentoring.conversate. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. telepresence. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. VoIP. whiteboards. discussion groups. instant messaging.48. chat.jisc. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. It is being developed into a transportable. Hegarty et al. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. For example.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. telephony. Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.janison. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student.editlib. http://www. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. Find her work at: http://64. and yet tailored and The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. pedagogical approaches to dialogical

199-212.editlib. I.bcs.formatex. (2002).co. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.htm Garner.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. CAP e-Guide. http://safety. September 23. > m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. distance-learning course at Keele University.elearningcentre.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. CharityVillage. http://www. June.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.pdf Hegarty. http://www. D. and Collins.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . (2004) rmed35.jisc. S. S.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. E-Learning 1. (2005). 2002. and Wales. J. 2005 http://www. http://cde. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. Technologies of Online Learning.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.html Laurillard. R. JulySept. http://hbswk. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. J.pdf 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal.ngfl. (2004).jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. http://ewic. M. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. Pattie (2005). and Bortolozzi. chat.htm http://www. s/usingoutlook.pdf Eleuterio. Nick (2002). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. and Cerri. 31. Mark (2004) s/im. London: Routledge. University of Athabasca.. 19. 13-20.. Diana (1993). Computer Mediated Communication. Developing a successful e-mail An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.html Laurik. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. Working Knowledge Newsletter. (Mlearn 2002). The short message service (SMS) for schools/ AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi ( University of Library. http://m. and Elliott. http://www.elearningcentre. (2000). Learning Circuits.fasfind. and telephony tools. F. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. J. 2004. British Journal of Educational Technology. James (2005). Sven (2002).org/micte2005/4. 31 (3).html Morgan. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. International Journal on E-Learning. e-Book. . Bostock. / elegi/session1/paper6. UK.charityvillage. 2002. http://www.elearningcentre.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. http://www. 002/ . University of Warwick. M.

king. A.Stone. http://dircweb. June. 20-21. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002).ac. J. and Briggs. 2002. (2002). 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .

sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 / Physicians need to be able to gather data. skills. organizational and personal goals are tied together.itsc. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. performance appraisal.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. In 1973.imsproject. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . 2000). Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. go to: www. diagnose symptoms. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. competency-based training. dex. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. a Harvard psychologist. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. W. 2005). who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. entering defined competencies into a matrix. David McClelland. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. and carry out proper procedures.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. skills verification. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. Edwards Deming. For a large list of competencies for physicians. skills inventory. Description According to Sanders (2001).org. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer.

com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www.expresscomputeronline. http://www. http://www. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. a Canadian company.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography 001/competencies. http://www. http://www. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. For example.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 measurement.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Express Computer.wmich. April. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. htm Many companies have their own competency 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books n_resources/learning. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management Ken (2000).hrsg. (1982). and development interventions. http://www. Clare (2005).oracle. http://www..E. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. April” http://www. Josh (2006). the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. New York: 050425/technologylife01. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Benjamin (1956).com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. See the list of competencies at: http://www. Competency and competency frameworks. Building a skills inventory.htm Online Resources HRSG. 2005. Sudipta (2005).htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module Oracle Learning Management System http://www. regardless of industry or sector. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. Read their white paper at: http://www. ethods/assment/as7scans.learningcircuits.learnflex. London: Wiley.html The U. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research . has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. New York: David Hogg.

. Sanders. (2000).28. 001/competencies.cipd. UK: Cambridge University Press. S. http://www. Michael. N. and Cahorn. and Neathy.linezine. http://www. American ompetency-based-learningmanagement. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. and Grigorenko.html Radsma. http://www. Parkin’s Lot. and Hollyforde. N. G. Learning Emerging technology trends in e-learning. Johanna. New York: John Wiley. Master's thesis. Creating a Culture of Competence. (Eds. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. Ellen (2000). (1999). http://www. London: IRS. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. (2004).htm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. http://www. S. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell.blogspot.htm Whiddett.html 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . April 30. (2001).com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland.) (2003). 2nd ed. 2005. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™.collectionscanada. and Epstein. 1-14. Rankin. (2005).t/competnces/ Godfrey (2005).pdf Rankin. Gary (2004). Fall 2000. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. P. http://www.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. Competencies. Miller. (2001).com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. and Expertise. P. The Psychology of Abilities. Ethan (2001). Cambridge. London: IRS. Rankin. E. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. (2003).com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. http://www. E-Learning Competencies. London: IDS. (1973). Competency based learning management. R. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Woodill.operitel. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. pp. Study 706. L. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Competency Frameworks. (2001).learningcircuits. /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. White paper from Operitel Corporation. David.1/features/ewet te. Operitel Corporation. v. White paper. University of Toronto.operitel. March 2001. http://www.

rather than complementary. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. and “topic maps. Today. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. manage. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. 2006). “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. launching courses. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. I feel that closed. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. such as registering users.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge.atutor. in fact. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “ Drupal is an open source content management system. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. functionality to an ECM. the standardized railway system still works while private. displaying a course catalogue. First. and reporting.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.” As well. Learning objects. Repositories. http://www. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. With the advent of learning objects. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. to date. you could hire a company to build a private.” http://drupal.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an 80 © Brandon Hall Research . simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. They have designed competitive. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. According to its official Web site. LCMS. If you could afford it. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Unfortunately.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads.

edtechpost. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. > > http://www. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. S.. Budapest. (2003).) (2005). June 9.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. and Brantner.clomedia. May The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. January 23. Curtis (2005). McGovern. March 3. elearnspace blog. Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of ntmanagement. t_2003_03_03_cms. and Carmean. New Thinking 689. The So Sad and Silly State of the erm0533. (Eds. George (2003) Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. http://www.educause.operitel.pdf Weigel. and publish to multiple outputs. Van (2005). http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. March 2005. 2003. http://www. http://www. http://sakaiproject. C.htm Simon. http://www. 2005.pdf atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. May/June. EdTechPost blog. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. Mashups. (2006).htm Siemens.softlab.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Scott (2005). Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. Content Management: our organized future. Strategies for managing scalable content. Educause Bibliography Bonk.html McGee. AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. 2003.e-learningcentre. A.asp Woodill. “Monoliths. C. http://www. 2005. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.cmsmatrix. P. http://travelinedman. PA: Idea Group. http://www. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Retalis. S. 2006.gerrymcgovern. G. (2004).topicmap. Gerry (2003). reuse in many places. http://www.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual es/clo_article. Learning Solutions. Ed. Cisco Corporation White Paper. 40(3)..” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. TravelinEdMan blog. and Oliveira. 2005. (2005). San Jose. Why content management software hasn’t worked.html Cisco Corp.

knowledge discovery. 2001). Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Luan and Willett. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Consequently. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. personalization methods.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. 2000. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . delivery models and infrastructure investment.

convera. Samuel (Ed. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. What’s Not. Grieser.. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format hammouda-elearning. and Web mining.pdf Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. (1996). and Smyth.amstatonline. (2004).html Bibliography De Veaux. M Fayyad. Data Mining: What’s New. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. Do not reproduce 83 . Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. 1996. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.. Australia. (cited in Luan and Willett.usyd. http://imej. B. U.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. S. K.pdf Fayyad. (2006). G. (2000). One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is dex. roducts/product_profile/ book-springer-ukc. AAAI Press/MIT Press. http://www.cs. Data Mining in e-Learning.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. http://www. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. knowledge discovery. P. Feb. 1--34.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. 13-16 http://asbointl.reeltwo..pdf Freitas. New York: Springer. Uthurusamy.kdnuggets..uwaterloo.html Hammouda. Both products are from entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages.hkuspace. and Kamel. R. Thalheim.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. text mining. G. Long Beach. http://www. and R. x. hammouda-elearning. Piatetsky-Shapiro. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. California.kdnuggets. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.kent.. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. and ted/Deveaux. B. Robert (2002).soul. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. School Business Affairs. Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. by applying fuzzy logic. New York: Springer.icosystem. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. Piatetsky. http://www. Lange. Alex (2002). http://www. edited U. Smyth. K. P. http://pami. 68(8). 2001) http://www. G. Grigoriev.pdf In Pierre.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.. Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.

David (2005).computer. http://csdl2. NYC. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. E. International Journal on ELearning. (2001). Journal of Interactive Media in Education. 15(4). MA: WIT Press. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). (2006). Advances in Management Information.ags.pdf Pahl.actapress. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.ccsd. http://www. Hiroshima.cabrillo. 13-16. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.cnrs. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. C. http://dl. (2006). Feb. and E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. K. and 641523. Portugal. and Minguillon. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. http://archiveedutice. Gord (2004). Billerica. A. http://www. RP Conference Presentation.unikiel. Porto.cfm?fuseactio dex. Yacef (2005). Yacef (2004). 7(1). Vol 4. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. http://wwwjime.html Ueno.-Dec.editlib.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. A. Japan. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. (2004). The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . Journal of Interactive Learning Research.informatik. 2004 (7). ports/dmkm.unisb.compmech. http://www.2004. 3(4). and K. T. Romero. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.pdf Mor. Loo.wfu. (2004).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.pdf Merceron. C. Austria. J. (2004).is. http://www. and Cheung. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning.ejel. B. 264. http://www2004. 47-55.. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).pdf McCalla.. and Ullrich. A. 41-54. http://www.asp Merceron. and Yacef. 52-59. http://imej. Claus (2004). http://www. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). 319-346. analyze for more adaptive teaching.pdf Monk. Maomi (2004). In Proceedings. May Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. 39-40. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. 238-241. 3(1).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef.aace. Train. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining.pdf Merceron. and K. C. M. Scholl.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. Data Mining in e-Learning. A.

facilitate.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). http://www.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . and 6) document results.sal. 4) develop an action plan. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. http://www. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.hut. 3) vote/prior-itize. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. http://www.une. 2) The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. For example. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given . http://www. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. http://www. in their case study of medical education.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision sion_support_tool/index. 5) carry out a survey. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.

uniserve. 6-9. Aachen. In Proceedings. Hamalainen. http://www. 2005. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.pdf Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.. http://dssresources. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site.html Hamalainen. B..uottawa. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. 101-110. http://science. White paper from BNH Expert Software. Enn (2004).pdf Power. and Tschiedel. books. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.manchester. http://www. . K. Hawaii.pdf Chakrabarty.bnhexpertsoft.” http://dmoz. H.sal. aperapril. K. 12(2-3). Lange. Hawaii. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. http://www. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. Manchester. V. (2004).com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. http://www.html Scott. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Jim (2002). Dan (2003). Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research ..aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. http://www. For newsletters. http://www. Jan. 238-241. http://www. (2003).dssresources. USA. http://www. Thalheim. Information Systems for a Connected Society. June 20-24.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Kankana (2005). Kauai. P. (2000). R.dfki. ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/ see: http://www. and Tschiedel.meetingworks. Germany. Enn (2005).au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. Gerhard (2003).. and information on this area. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.unikiel. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. August. 23(4). Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis.pdf Knolmayer. O.pdf Frize. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Porto. C.. S. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. Jay (2004).is. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Online manuscript.. 2004.hicss. G.pdf Jantke. B.. http://damit.siggraph. bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. August 16-18. Raimo (2003). Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Grigoriev.html Rhyne. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Theresa (1998).. 317-328. 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118.pdf Ounapuu. and Frasson. and Koskinen. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. (2004). International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://www.2004.pdf Ehtamo. B.sal. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. SIGGRAPH Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support M. SSpapers/CLNGL03.

uniserve. 9.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . Oct. and Laurindo. http://science. Hershey. T.the curriculum. (2006).ideagroup. F.html Shimizu. Vol. CAL-laborate. /vol9/scott. PA: Idea Publishing. http://www. de Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.

New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. http://killer.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. For air displays. head mounted displays. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. still/video camera. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. Electronic paper could change that some /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices.io2technology.cmu. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.theregister. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. in cooperation with Sony. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. In regards to digital paper. viewers see a floating midair image or /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. intelligent interfaces. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. In the near future. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. digital paper.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.html Promera is a hand-held computer.Displays Related terms Digital ink. > > http://www. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 By stacking a second overview NTERA. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. http://www. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). http://www. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . projectors. Inc. Finally.” Selected Examples Samsung.P rojector. electronic paper. saving schools on the cost of textbook set/homeframeset. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. big enough to be projected on large walls.siliconlight. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural monitors. lighting up theater size screens. This can be a holographic paper?start=0 T. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. http://www. London: Springer.. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. In G.acm. see: s.. M. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).informatik. http://ad. py/2005-eLearn. Government. S. Tim (2005).fogscreen. Richards (Ed.loaz..thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! First Monday is a journal on new technologies. (1996). http://blog.H.unifreiburg.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Vancouver. Largest LCD and video projection.firstmonday. see: http://ad. K.unifreiburg. pages 3053-3068. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen.). Livingston. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. Hamburg. http://www.technorati. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.E. 2005. State. Dec. See a demo at: http://www. 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Germany. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . In Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. and Pizer. and Ottmann. Pisano.jisc. Hirota. Whitton. H. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. (2005).php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. G.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. For a list of his publications. T.. Garrett.informatik. 2005.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. 3. To access the articles. E. W.pdf Wang. A. ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.

This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any helping to transform education and training.pupilpages.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management My first report in this dex. LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students 90 © Brandon Hall Research .org/Articles/eportf olios. thus. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www. maximum PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.educause. http://www2. http://www. ortfolios.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.imsglobal. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. and simple usability. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this ortfolio/default. http://isle. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.htm Educause. 2005).htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.iwebfolio. http://www.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. s. http://www. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.livetext. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://www.htm IMS. Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www. p_bestv1p0.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.osportfolio.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. open source electronic portfolio.paisley.pebblelearning. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. http://www.nottingham.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.

with many links.cfm Dubinsky.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Canadian Journal of Learning and Tosh. D.educause. March. J. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Feijen.. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. University of Iowa. /A5260. http://www. Fleming. E.. 16. Educause Review. 31(3). J. Fall. Vol 27 No 4. and Haywood.alt. Online. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.campustechnology. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Business Communication Quarterly. 2004 http://www. Educause Quarterly. (Focus on Teaching).educause. Gary (2004). 37(2).org/Articles/eportf olios. ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal... FD Learning White Paper. ePortfolios. Dublin. Lee. July/ August 2004. (2005)..eradc. e-portfolios. erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. (2003). J. Trent (2002).. Dec. Educause Quarterly. (2002). W. 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. http://www. Online 3001. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. m0224. Cook. and McKean. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.. G. V.pdf Greenberg. http://www. 39. T. G. and Wade..educause.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. and Werdmuller. G. Trinity dscape. 2005. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. M. S. April 1. Frederick (2005). http://connect.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. 4. Harvey. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. http://www. D. (2005). M0441. an online resource on ortfoliopaper. esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. D. 28–37. has a section on e-portfolios.educause.pdf Conway. and and Ittelson. http://www. George (2004). K. Do not reproduce 91 . Reflective learning.pdf Lorenzo.thejournal. no. College of Education http://www. J. http://www. (2002). future thinking: digital repositories.. An Overview of e-Portfolios. http://www. (2004). Light. On implementing Webbased electronic vol. http://www. Graham (2005). Online paper. Batson. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. B. Bob (2004).elearnspace. THE Journal Online.doc Banks. (2005).. http://ferl. white_paper_2005.asp?id=6984 Cohn. B. B. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Bibliography Achrazoglou. (2004). Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.

M. 144-169. ml 92 © Brandon Hall Research . 2(2). h/article1.A. and portfolios. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. http://www.cjlt.3/tosh. (2002). Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.citejournal.http://www. & Figgins..

multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking In 2005. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.secondlife. Dr. Facebook. play. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. games. allows members of a game development team to work together. simulations. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Examples include +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082.” says that “in the mod world. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. MySpace. There is a free 30-day trial version. http://www. writing about “first person shooter games. http://www. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Softimage. helping speed up the game creation process. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. dubbed XNA Studio. as such.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. Cyworld. For a brief review of these tools. 2005). One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. and Second Life. edit. see: http://news. The toolset. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. This game allows users to play. http://www. identity work.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.facebook. create. complex problem / http://www. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. serious games. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. 2003). virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to http://www. from the University of Wisconsin.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. and learning ( has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .cyworld. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). Marc Prensky (2003).com http://us.

Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing 94 © Brandon Hall Research . Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. and speakers on all aspects of gaming.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the urces.” http://www. http://www.htm Dr. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development. You can read about them at Pluginz.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).softimage. along with their Web sites. http://www. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. See the selection of games at: http://www. Started in North The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. produces educational games for ames/ or go directly to the Softimage Web Canada.mpjgaBKQ dAe.htm Dr. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development” Find his list of publications at: http://www.programmersheaven.wisc.for the Xbox. > > http://www.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming.seriousgamessummit.futureplay.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in ools.” Read her research at: http://website.ucalgary. http://www.uga.coe. http://www. 8/ NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.nasaga. Inc. Many of their learning games resources are free. Sign up at: http://www. implementation. Review them at: Thiagi. researchers. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://www. For example.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.magnetargames. http://it. http://www.muzzylane. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.

Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. Language Learning and Technology. and Michael. Gupta. Dreher. Jan. H. C. (2005).php Reynolds. simulations and microworlds. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.xplanazine. (2006). http://llt. http://www. 2006. Beers.xplanazine. http://www. New York: Cambridge University Press.Bibliography /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. 549-567. (2005). NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. R. Serious Games: Games That Educate. 19. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. and Swamy. University of Wisconsin Madison. Rob (2006a). http://www. 9(1). Xplanazine.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Rob (2006b). Multimedia learning in games. and Chen. Bob (2005).org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. and Biswas. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Train. 17-22.cambridge.pdf Prensky. pdf and Maurer.pdf Guetl. hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. R.pdf Bergeron..marcprensky. Bryan (2006). Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt.. Doctoral dissertation. Fourth Quarter. Emerging Technologies: 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. /03/games_and_educa. Simon (2005). Montreal. N. 2005. Gaming. Games and Education = Oil and Water. Hawaii. Alan (2003). Marc (2003). http://www.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. http://www. SRI-BI. Learning on Demand Bulletin. Do not reproduce 95 . http://www. Technology Trends for the Year. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. D..pdf Michael. S. ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. see: /01/technology_tren. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.wisc. G.uwf. In Richard E.pdf Godwin-Jones. June. 2003. http://www. March 10. (2005). Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. C.php Rieber. Developing Serious Games. Oct. 2003. Gamasutra. IT-University Copenhagen. H. Lloyd (2005). “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Clifton .edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. Constance (2005).com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Clifton Park. http://www. 2006. and Inform.uwf. /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. January 2..teachableagents. S. Williams. Mayer ( Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem a2003. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. http://jason.pdf Swamy. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. (2005).ukzn. June 25-28. Honolulu. D. http://www. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Chapter 33.

pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . 2004. Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. http://woz.msu.commtechlab. Masters Thesis. Jason (2004) theses/mudcraft/thesis.

http://www. http://www.pdf Borghi. Porta. 18.ucsd.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. was held in Southampton. For a list of papers: http://www. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial .cybernet. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.elearningguild.smartkom. such as Markov models. Report No. (2005). A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. London. April 10-12 2006.soton. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. FG2008. Artificial intelligence The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. looking for particular Bibliography Allen. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.pdf http://www. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. http://www. Aug. Munich. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Nicole (2001).edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. Ludwig-Maximilians University.ecs. haptics. 2008. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. artificial intelligence.fg2006. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition 803DES. including identifying commercial products.fg2008. at the University of California.” http://mplab. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. Lombardi. March.html Research by Dr. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. FG2006.. 2003. L. and robotics in elearning. eLearning Developers’ Journal. affective computing.. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. F. 3. Michael (2003). UK.

and Chang.pdf Lee. 47(1) /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. S.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. J. D. J. Wong. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. M. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. Visualization.676 http://lcv. J. British Columbia. Computer vision in the interface. and Kim. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.pdf Ebert.. In Proceedings. (2004). Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .. (1997). Sato. Vancouver.. Deller. H.. January. Y. and Cohen. http://cbcl. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. and (2004). In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. September and paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. T. Lee. IEEE Transactions. W.2005. Nevada. 2000.. Shi-Kuo (2000). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. A.ucsb. 242-245. http://csdl2. 2004.Computer Communication.rutgers. X. July 22-27. PA.. October 14-16. P. http://www. (2000). http://doi. and Bender. Proceedings.. C. M. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. July 1997.pdf Peixoto.clayton. (2003). http://www. 442-446. (2002). Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.2000. 202004. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.pdf 0/paper/or03/027. and Poggio. M. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.ieeecomputersociety. G. ws/enw63/hci.F (1999). Geiger.1 50 Nakanishi. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).. Y. Korea.html Chang.pdf ns/ps/ R. http://www. J. Chen. 21(9).Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference.cse. 27-30. (2005). and Yang. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).1109/ICALT. Wesson. and Carreira.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition.. (1997). C.. http://www. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Toc.. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 57-64.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. http://portal. (2005). S. J.110 9/CMPSAC. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. http://www. Michael (2004). (2005). and Koike. Communications of the ACM. Park. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. IEEE Transactions. A. 884 – 900. L. Canada http://cims.ercim. Las Vegas. Gao.xml&DOI=10.actapress. Y. Setlock. 191-196.fsu. Y.pdf Corradini. 675 . Lai.. P.pdf Wilson. Pittsburg. http://www.iscslp2006. C. encedwall. In Proceedings. 19(7). (2002).edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Chen.pdf Ou. http://www. Fussell. 1999. and Wong. T.D. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. variations. http://www. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2004:16. 2533–2543.

animation. e-Learning By x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.Blender is the open source software for 3-D Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.blender3d. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.techillustrator. Designing Web-Based p.html Blender .0. Nevertheless.broderbund. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. the same principles apply to user interface design.acdamerica.avs.autodesk. interactive creation. rendering. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. and playback.html Autodesk AutoSketch Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.adobe. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.Graphics Tools Related terms 100 © Brandon Hall Research . post-production. Horton applied these in his 2000 Canvas Professional http://www. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. In acquiring Macromedia. Download a copy: and in his recent 2006 book.

com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Japan · Sept 7-10. (2004). William (2000). http://www. ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and and Uyar. In P. http://www. http://www. X. June 1-3. The most listings are for 3-D software. ED-Media Conference. http://grids. San Francisco: http://www. Fu-Kwan (2004). The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). hics. http://www. Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > Designing WebBased SmartDraw aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Tokyo. S. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. (2005)..pdf McConnell. Potsdam. A.itedo. Gloria (2004).htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Tools Usage Survey Results. Pallickara. Tools and Techniques for 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). http://esub.xaraxtreme.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Proceedings. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. Richards (Eds. New York: John Wiley.).indiana. Do not reproduce 101 .microsoft. e-Learning by Kommers & G.ucs.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.editlib. NY: John Wiley.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. Germany.smartdraw. William (2006).com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning CATIA http://www306.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton.pdf Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. William (1991).

CT: Edward (1990). The Tech Writer’s Essential 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Edward (2001).com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Frances (2004). Cheshire. Cheshire. 2nd Ed. CT: Graphics 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Carolina Chapter. http://www. Evidence and Narrative . Tufte. Edward (1997).amazon. Cheshire. Visual Explanations : Images and http://www.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Envisioning al/dataShow. CT: Graphics Press. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. http://www.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. STC.

in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.html http://www. Haptic devices come in many forms. There are distinct subcategories in the field of m_ghost/phantom. http://www. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. http://www. Read the press release at: http://www. me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. suits. and force-feedback mice.immersion. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.miralab. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. Do not reproduce 103 . haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.pureform. http://haptex.sensegraphics.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.handshakeinteractive.sensable. http://www. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. Finally.asp Body-based devices include gloves.” http://www. When used Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. including pens. joysticks/ > > SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. gloves. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.mpbtechnologies. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment.unige. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology

2005. Medioni. July 31.. D. http://web.pdf O’Modhrain. M. M. (2004). (2005). McGill /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.html O’Malley.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.S.usc..1109/ICALT. 2005. 0. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Proceedings.miralab. Vincent (2005). Italy in Y. Laurie (2004) s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428..unitrier.. CA. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.ccii. M.smh. http://haptex.unipi.html Ross. N.2005. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Report delivered January 15. L. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.” http://www.ra. http://www. M. Nakamura. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. http://www. G.. 2004.mcgill. and Ichitsubo. G. (1997). Reality http://www. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Japan. Daithí (2003). 22. Sukhatme. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Iwane. Blindness. The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. M. 2003. Technology and Haptics. S. Oct. http://csdl.informatik.pdf Ó IME04-grain-revised2.digicult. http://www. http://csdl2.. professional. J. (2000). Research report. http://www.S. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). J. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in 917-921.1. ss/ACC239. Centre for Intelligent Machines. R.” http://www. S. Upper Saddle River. A. McHugh. M. Deliverable D4. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about EX-D4.. Reaching through the net to touch.1_release-public. (2005).unige. New York Times (Online). McLaughlin. (2002). 3-5 June pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). ml Kushner. Santa Clara. G. The Haptic Museum..isfh. July 3.pdf McLaughlin. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. and Rusbridge.B. http://www.pdf Hespanha. Prentice Hall online article. M.xml&DOI=10. and Hughes. 30/ Toc. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005)...Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and Sukhatume.html Levesque.pdf Rowell.. http://www. NJ: Prentice-Hall. C. Shahabi. and Jaskowiak. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.matr. (2003).com/title/0130650978 Inoue. Wired News. Chapter on Haptics.pdf O’Modhrain. and Essl. A. Haptics Laboratory. and Gillespie. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.. Dobreva. G. Proceedings.roblesdelatorre. David (2003).

250a.http://www. & Uchikawa. http://www. H. (2001).asp?p=345621 Sakano. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.informit. Do not reproduce 105 .journalofvision. Journal of Vision. K.. ndly.. 1(3).

dottocomu. 35n17/articles/Accuscript.ices. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.html http://killer. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience." http://web. input devices. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with hives/month/2005/20050713-01. projectors. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. head mounted displays.eink. Writing will require special digital pens. handwriting Now in the research and development phase.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. Called Librié. tangible computing.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. Philips. In 2005. textures. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few bleDisplay. monitors. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface link. and some. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. like digital ink and paper. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.” / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .html Description For humans to use a computer. electronic paper. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.html Sony. display technologies. human-computer interaction.html MIT Media Lab's I/O 2571. see: http://www. they must interact with it through an interface device. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).cmu. see: http://www. For a review. digital paper.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. > > http://killer.cmu. gesture recognition. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. experience computing. http://www. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. wearable computing.

The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive aging/resources/whiteboards.elearningcentre. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive . consisting of a pen and a Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic http://www.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .05/ff_digitalink_pr. 3) Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.thewirelessdirectory. http://whiteboards.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. 4) iteboards.smarttech. http://www. http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.wacom.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. http://www. and graphic. http://www.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. Following are three such articles: > http://www. 1 Over the ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. Although this technology has been around for a few The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and whiteboards. http://www.swan.lifehacker.aclearn. See their advice and resources at: http://www. ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.devx.wired. human computer interaction. http://www.logitech. http://www. it is constantly being improved and updated. These methods are 1) touch. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive http://www.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.usask. http://www. 2) roll. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your On their “Experience Computing” Web 3/ and 5)

Julie (2002).org/16321 Read. HCI2005.newscientist. eSchool News Online.eschoolnews.. http://education. The most flexible paper yet . Michael (2005). Haag. story/0. Will (2004).com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . Dal-RI. http://www. April 7. Scotland. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. 6. (2005) Microsoft’s Tablet PC. http://ad. December 22. C. Bandoh. B. Guardian Unlimited. 2004. Springer. http://www.html In 15(3).10577.. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.10577. 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. http://www.pdf Cross.pdf Mohamed.00. Guardian Unlimited. http://www. June 1.04/anoto. M.htm Zeichick. (2005). http://www. K. NewScientist Magazine (Online).anoto.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. F.html eSchool News. H.pdf story/0.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. Adelaide. . is described in a 2002 press release. Jan. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. J. Y. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. January 6. http://ad. Tablet PC Developer. K. Edinburgh. and Nakagawa. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. 257-269. T. 2006. T.html http://www. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.. (2003). (2006).uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. Vancouver. J.informatik. 2004.00.1116483.> > http://www.wired. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. N. Fri. S. Richards (Ed.08/epapers.wired.mspx Bibliography Cogill.unifreiburg. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. res/2002/oct02/ 26. 2003. Indurkhya. Alan (2004). Nicole (2006). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. with its use of digital ink. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. http://www. pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink.).unifreiburg. Phil (2004).1585516.html Wong. (2004). The Mercury News. King’s College. and Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. py/2005-eLearn.pdf py/2006-tabletop. http://education. University of London. http://www. and Ottmann.

There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Content management. Whenever possible. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Course Management Systems (CMS). Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS).. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes.e. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. 2005).” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . elearning portals. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. conversation. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer.

org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. instructors and resources creating communities of learning. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. a communic-ation platform.” Compendium Corporation .IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).GeoMaestro http://www. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. Gyrus . roles. . > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > Avilar Technologies Inc. which has the following aims: > > > > For students.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. more control over the learning environment For institutions.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.TrainingMine http://www. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting Frontline Data GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).. more control over their own data For faculty.fldata.WebMentor LMS http://www. is available as a free download. a leading open source learning management Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. . and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.allencomm. http://opensourceschools.compendiumcorp. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).gen21. To quote the developers.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. The roles. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal Cornerstone OnDemand oodle_Sample_e-book. Inc.avilar.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. content-driven forums run by experts.elementk.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible IBM .gyrus. groups.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.geolearning. a contact management system.KnowledgeHub http://www. a search engine. in alphabetical Element K . has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . one of the LMS vendors listed GeoLearning Inc. . The LMS companies.php EVE. and other academic services.Training Partner http://www. . http://www.

epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.websoft.teds.operitel.htm SAP .asp SumTotal Systems Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.html IntraLearn Software TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS Learning Saba .html OutStart Inc.LearnFlex LMS http://www.howtomaster.cfm TEDS Intellinex MaxIT . .plateau.InfoSource http://www.strategia.html Plateau Systems .com/ WBT Systems .jsp Operitel Corporation .mgen. Tracker.TopClass LMS Wizdom Systems SSE .com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.mGen Enterprise Vuepoint .Net http://www.OutStart Evolution LMS Syntrio .intellinex. .ca/en/default.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.TotalLMS soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.iPerform LearnSomething Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.SSElearn Portal http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/ Strategia . – TEDS Websoft Systems .webraven. .com/flashhom . TrainingOffice Audit http://www. .oracle.Virtual Training Assistant http://www. n_resources/ mGen ng/index.learnsomething.netdimensions.trivantis.outstart. .Intellinex LMS http://www. .com/2004/ Inc.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .Ed Training Platform http://www.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.OnTracker LMS http://www.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.learn.html Trivantis Corporation .net/trackerinfo. .SSA Learning Management Do not reproduce 111 .meridianksi.novasys-corp. .teralearn.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.ips-inc. – KnowledgeBridge Enterprise Learning Suite http://www. .com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.Syntrio Enterprise LMS NetDimensions .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.aspx Oracle USA Integrated Performance Systems. .IntraLearn XE http://www.LMSLive http://www.Isoph Blue http://www.SAP Learning Solution http://www.TM SIGAL http://www.LearnerWeb http://www.aspx RISC .asp Learn. Technomedia Training Inc.CourseMill LMS http://www.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.html?Open InfoSource Inc. .sap. .LearnCenter http://www.

. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .. (2002).pdf Dalziel. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.learningcircuits. http://www. ICALT2002 Conference.pdf Dillenbourg.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . October.PDF wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).ac. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. . by Sam Adkins..building new education strategies for schools.htm Virtual Learning Environments. C. http://www. and c/clo0806/ Colazzo. Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.brandonhall. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Building educational virtual environments. 2006. A. James (2005). Learning Circuits. James (2003).ieee. and p103.unitn. A. http://www. Molinari. Ed. UK. T.xstreamsoftware.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. For a review of leading open source learning management systems.” and open source course and learning content management systems.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.jisc. http://www. L.The Learning Manager http://www. Workshop on virtual learning Xtention Inc.eun. June age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/ Teresa A. (2002) Jan.nxtbook. Proceedings. see the recent article in Learning Circuits." http://www. Chief Learning Officer. Incorporated Subversion.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. (2006). Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 from the JISC in the UK. http://www.xtention. http://www. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . XStream Software Inc. http://www. (Online edition).Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. 005/adkins. 005/ http://www. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.pdf Cohen. Sam (2005).A possible future for online learning. University of Birmingham. . Pierre (2000). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. 2005. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. http://incsub.cetis.

pdf Tsinakos.. Czech Republic. (2006). Jan. A. and Quealy. (2005). http://tojde. and Higher Education Sadeghi. nakos.. J.infodiv.. Plzen.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.anadolu. and March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United m0533.cfm?fuse 5/Poster/J03-full. and Walker. M. Browne.bath. Avgoustos (2004). Exeter.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). J. 31-Feb. http://www.educause. L. Maomi (2005). Derek (2004).uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.pdf Morrison. LMS Governance Project Report. Proceedings of 40(3).Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. April. October 2005.unimelb. 5(2). http://www. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. November 2004. Report published by almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. 2005.ucisa.pdf Ueno.zcu. 4. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.pdf Do not reproduce 113 . WSCG Conference 2005. Healthcare. M (2005). 2005. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . Report for the Melbourne.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. May 2006 http://www. Educause Review. http://wscg. T.pdf Wise.aace. Van (2005). May-June. Proceedings. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. R. http://www.

Rather. This idea is based on older. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. sharable content objects (SCOs). This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. Wiley. Learning objects have several uses. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors.” This use has been more successful.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. 2006). usually referred to as “learning object repositories. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. learning object model (LOM). of learning objects. rapid learning. culture. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. However. At the simplest level. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. curriculum.” such as a graph. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). reusable learning objects (RLOs). this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. They are emulations of “software objects. The acronym SCORM. 2004. intelligent tutoring. SCORM.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. Beyond that. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. As online educational materials are produced. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. learning object repository (LOR). a well-known standard for learning objects. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. computer-use practices.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code.

lolaexchange. stores. http://web.fedora. http://dspace. o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions. http://ideas. resources for grades K-12. http://www. preserves.uwaterloo. which profiles innovative research projects and The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://www. with a focus on information literacy.rice. http://www.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.educanext. http://www.oise. and they can be general or subject specific. and distributes digital research material. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.thegateway. goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://dlist.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. http://learnware. http://www.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).koha. Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.unsw. Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. http://www. http://www.wisconsin.profetic.lrc3. LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. O/cloe_stories. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.000 LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). It is open to any member of the academic or research Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all http://www. The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. with almost FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object

(2004). Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. http://www. A.html http://www. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . CANCORE. And Longo. http://www.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.irrodl. Version . Online Downes. San Francisco: A primer on how to design and author learning objects. http://www. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.uniroma1. (2003).ca/mt/archive/000 681. The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.L. A.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian b. M. http://www. T. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. (2000).org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal. llections. and Anderson.9.doc Christiansen.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.elearnspace. http://www.aace.dis. Bibliography Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.unesco.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 and Alderman.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. Online cts.html Edusource (2003). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. & Strijker.uwm.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object (2004) dex.cancore.1/downes .phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.jcdl. B. http://www. http://dl. authored by Rachel Smith. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge is available at: etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. The Need for and Nature of Learning 002089.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. 2(1). http://www. 2(4).html For a highly critical view of learning objects. 1(3). Software Architecture Document. http://www. EdTechPost. (2004).html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.htm Collis. http://www.uwm. 5-16. M. C. International Journal on E-Learning. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.. http://portal. Celentano. Stephen.

(2004). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.htm Nejdl. Aug. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object K. A Primer on Learning Objects.html Leeder.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.html Murphy. 14. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Learning Derek (2004b).itdl.doc e/morriblog_comments. McGreal. Learning Circuits. INTERACT 2005. Rachel (2006). Warren (2000). CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. (2004). Paquette. M. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.learninglab. E-Journal of Instructional Science and PADLR-final-report.. July 14. Richards... Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. April 2002. (2002). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. MacLeod.. 1(3).. Lori (2002).ac. and Morales. S. June.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.edusource.usq.itdl. http://www. Anderson. London: Falmer. G. and 002/mortimer. http://www. Jan. 12. http://www. (2004) 01. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. Learning Material Repositories .blogs.bath. Online Education Using Learning Objects. Downes. 2004. and Pragnell.learningcircuits. M. G. http://www. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://proceedings.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.cancore.html McGreal. N. (2005).org/index. March.9%2015-11-03. http://www. Wolfgang (2004). 2004. 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. Online. Hatala. rimer. Babin.informingscience. G. R. N. Norm (2005). http://www... March. Final Project Report. S. T.Rafts or Battleships? . March. G. http://www. T. Rory ( cts. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200.bath. http://www. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Mattson. http://ideas. Friesen..) (2004). D. Harrigan. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.pdf Krauss.. J...html Friesen. Rossano. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. http://www. 1 (3).uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 http://www. T. and Schafer. http://www.. etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 e/morriblog_more.. Do not reproduce 117 .cancore.eduserv. Elizabeth (2004). Online paper. R. Norm (2006). 7(1). http://www. 2004. InSITE conference.Part 1.Rafts or Battleships? .kth. Fredinand (2004).cfm/files/pape r_11841.learningcircuits.http://www.htm Morrison. and Freisen.pdf Richards. Paper presented. V.htm Friesen. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).html Heery. Derek (2004a). Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.p df Roselli.Part 2. Research Report. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Learning Material Repositories .

Iterating Toward Openness.uniroma1. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.fastrakconsulting.> > http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf http://www.).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. (2006). Jan. 9. ( 118 © Brandon Hall Research . RIP-ing on Learning Objects.pdf : http://reusability.. David jects. http://www.uniroma1. M. Online. Objects of Wiley. and Senteni. http://www. (2000). Doctoral dissertation. (2004). Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.itdl.dis. Brigham Young University. White paper for Fastrak 2. Govinda. Clive. David df Wiley. http://opencontent. no-pres. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. http://opencontent.htm Shepherd. (2002). 1(7). David A.. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.htm Wiley. A.dis. (2000).

com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. http://www. gaming consoles. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.S.intergraph. Intergraph . Department of Clark Labs . and security issues. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ESRI.http://www. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . and wearable computers. as with any new technology. navigation.mapinfo. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.http://www. more demands for a person’s attention. location-based systems are found in museums. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. including cell phones. findability. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map.frappr. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams.clarklabs. geocaching. Do not reproduce 119 . Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. laptops. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.http://www. proximity tools. personal media players. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.esri.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content.http://www. MapInfo . including privacy concerns.cadcorp. galleries. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. users will be able to use a variety of devices. PDAs. Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.cetadl.pangonetworks. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. While not very useful for most At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any similar to what a GIS system 500. create. http://platial.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. http://www. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.greatestplaces.chimer. it is a great tool for teaching science.geog.smm.esri.” http://www. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. Platial enables anyone to GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools. http://www.bham. http://mvz. http://www. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. http://www. See their complete range of as well as papers on trends in GIS. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . http://local. http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state. http://earth.searchable from a PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. at: http://www. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.

G.pdf Do not reproduce 121 .C. We learning: social software and 15. IEEE Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial 2005. http://pngis. IBM Systems Journal. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.geography. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. see: http://www.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). http://www. and e/education/index. M. 38(4).net/Publications/Seattle/062120 http://geotags.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. Arnaoutoglou. Jan Chapter on Location Based Bibliography Benford. A. Donnelly. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.research.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.. (2005). N. Koutsoudis.. (2003). http://www.digicult..http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch http://elearningeuropa.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. / tory. Steve (2005). J. Pavlidis. 2003. Geotags. C.. and visualize spatial information.1642288.. http://www.digicult. and Rusbridge. manipulate.intelresearch. Kaplan-Leiserson.ordnancesurvey.pdf Spohrer. Learning Circuits.pdf 004/kaplan2. http://www. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Abbott.. Information in places. A. Part II. M.wisc. Future LocationBased Experiences.opensourcegis. and Location-Based industry professionals.00. Nov. CAD. Online m The theme of the 2005 Geography. A. Heather (2005).. Cardinali. > > http://geotags. and Borriello. Guardian Unlimited. J. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. January. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia 84/ Mapping. / (1999). Eva (2004).htm McLean. F. D.. http://www.jisc. http://www. and Chamzas. DigiCULT Newsletter. Issue 6.learningcircuits. (2001) The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. Fabrizio (2005). Earth. http://www.html Ross. story/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. enthusiasts.bc. McHugh. 1999. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. http://www. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. 2005. http://education.

including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. A “mashup. hybrid applications. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic.” Using SOAP. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. Many of these objects are software programs. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server.” then. the rules for sending files across the Internet. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code.. Programs can be “stand alone. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. also called “object interoperability.” that is. providing an informal collaborative environment. such as those for collaboration.Mashups. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. communications. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. tag clouds. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. API clouds. personalized. document management. all expressed in binary code. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. at the same time. run all by themselves. of how to communicate with each other. or through “Web services. integration.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. Mashups are constructed in several ways. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. composite applications. or protocol. Similarly. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. etc. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. to a lesser extent. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. For example. For two or more programs to talk to each other. 2004). in schools and universities. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

infoworld. http://www. Elearnspace. trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. July 25.0 APIs. C. techLEARNING. http://www. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning 6. Issue 1. http://www.techlearning. http://www. gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. 2002. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.pdf ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. Curriculum as Mashup.icio. May ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. Many have educational value.html Warlick. George (undated). and Oliveira.html Woodill. Infoworld.mashupfeed. 2006.htm Siviter. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup.” It has many examples of mashups. Vol. http://www. Torres. chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.programmableweb. http://blogs.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Bibliography Gruman. C. J. Dodero. David (2006). January 2004 http://lttf. Dec. and ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. 6. 2005.deitel. Web Services. Mashups. July 28.icio. (2006).com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web http://www. J. Learning Technology newsletter. a writer for Business Week.html Rob Hof. services. and mutate. Learning iendly.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www.businessweek. Business Week Online. SOAP. March 6. Paul (2002). January 2004 http://lttf.emilychang.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. > > http://www.operitel. Vol. Robert (2005). Issue 1. http://www. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. Galen (2006). including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. As Warlick (2006) has noted. Enterprise mashups.elearnspace.. E-Learning for the BC Tech ey-dec0602. 2006. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. Douglas (2004).com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.businessweek.*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063.html Learning Technology ResourceCenter. (2004).html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. 2006. http://ww6. G.

. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. and The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning tadata/ /105. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.pdf Delphi Group (2004). SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. community. Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). to develop metadata standards. B. Perich. http://dublincore. metadata. in the context of information technology. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. http://metadata. An The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. http://libraries. repositories. 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. D. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. http://simile. In Proceedings. Lenne. M.. and institutional stores. Bibliography This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. http://www. search engines. June 2004. (2004). so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. Boston. Ohio. http://iiscs. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.wssu. Barry.. Finin.educause. C. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. Delphi Group 124 © Brandon Hall Research .php?id=25 Chen. http://ebiquity.cetis. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Benayache. pervasive computing.umbc. and Joshi. C. A. and artificial intelligence are being developed. 7(4).html Description At the same time that learning objects..Metadata. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. and Chaput. F. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.html Educause lists resources on “ http://www. A. (2004). http://www. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. MA.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. H.

http://tomgruber.blogsome. Can Core: learning object metadata University of Illinois graduate paper.pdf Friesen.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).cancore. Trondheim. Reuben (2004). UnderstandingMetadata. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). http://www. 2006...niso. (2004). I. 26-28. NISO Press. http://infotangle. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.ifets. Adam (2004). November. Infotangle. http://www. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Christina (2002). Online article. N. M. Defining “taxonomy”. Learning Circuits. BoxesAndArrows. and Shao. Green aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. BoxesAndArrows. J. http://www.http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata eibel. http://www. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. Stuart (2005).ppt Ricci. 2002. http://www. May 22.aace. P. BoxesAndArrows. 2003. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. Norway. http://www. http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. N. D-Lib Magazine. (2004).com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras.php?id=25 Tozman.php?id=25 Kroski. Ellyssa (2005). 82-97. Another new paradigm for instructional design.boxesandarrows. (2004). Understanding Metadata. Wagner.htm Gruber. Christian (2004). http://dl. J. Nov. pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. and Mosoiu.html Wodtke. A. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Do not reproduce 125 . M. October-December. and Godby.learningcircuits. July/August. S. mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. April 18. Norm (2005).ifets. Thomas (2005a). Thomas (2005b).greenchameleon. Dec.boxesandarrows. 11(7/8).info/issues. (2003). 2004. (2003). and Poulymenakou.htm Weibel. Presentation to Tag Camp. April 21. 004/tozman. http://www.. A. 2004. Mathes.pdf Oin. D. Building a Metadata-Based Website. http://www. 7(4).pdf Henze. and Nejdl. TagOntology . Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Chen. 7(4). April 9. and Diaz. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Lytras. epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. October 29.ecdl2003. Patrick (2006).dlib. (2002). G. 2005. W. B. Dolog.. P.html eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson.

http://www.ifets. 7(4). 70-81.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research .Journal of Educational Technology and

time and space. tablets. location-dependence. video) and distributed databases. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs).6 billion units in operation by that year. 2003). conversational learning. pervasive computing. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. Cited in Prensky. improved identity creation. strong search capabilities. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. However. using ambient intelligence. communicative skills and community building.” Two years ago. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. in Japan. such as increased computer literacy. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. rich interaction. it is predicted that there will be 2. personalization. location based technologies. (2004). multimedia. mLearning. brokerage.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. Do not reproduce 127 . Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. laptops. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. powerful support for effective learning. cell phones. personal digital assistants (PDA). Essentially. personalization. 2004). wearable computing. instant messaging (text. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. there were estimated to be 1. and mentoring. collaborative learning. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. cellular telephones.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. podcasting. tablet PCs. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. MP3 players.

technologies. http://www. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific 7. resources.fasfind. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.cs.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in http://www. pictures.” > > > papers/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.” They have a “firefly watching system. and pre-service teachers. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in ata. or a combination of media.” and a “bird watching learning system.mobilearn.htm Jari Laru.harvard. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. papers/AINA2004-final.telus.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.beta80group.knowledgepulse.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.cs. http://urbantapestries.cs.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. http://news.pdf location-specific text. http://www. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased http://www. Israel.pdf 128 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. and a glossary. including issues. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.ccu.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. movies. Learn more at: http://www. g/index. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. applications.elearningcentre.ccu. http://csdl2.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.ccu. 7. papers/JECR-2005. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.” > > > http://m.fasfind. http://www.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.” a “butterflywatching learning system. of the University of Oulu in Finland. links.stockholmchallenge.

135/ipodined/news.pdf Anderson. Emerging technologies: Messaging. 19. Ireland. Jill (2005).edu.J.. Paul (2005). (2005). Molinari. http://www. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.htm JISC (2005).formatex.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2002). Language Learning and Technology. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. http://www. of Birmingham http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. 04. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.pdf Godwin-Jones.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. http://www. A.jisc.94. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. A.pdf Jasola. Learning and Skills Development Agency. http://www. James (2005) 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. JISC Guide. (2004).net.pdf Geddes. (2003). JISC Technology and Standards and Sharma. Bob (2005). Y. Chen.bham. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Journal of Computer Assisted M0451. B. Gaming. Vol.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. /jisctsw_05_04pdf.kaywa. For example.ccu. 5.6. L.iadis. September wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long) ations. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. http://213. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual ault. No. The short message service (SMS) for schools/ /edition06/download/ ect%20summary. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. Kao. No. http://www. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. http://www. S. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial ault. Report. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.html Grew.pdf Bibliography Alexander.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . 347-359. http://www. P. http://www. Bryan (2004).ntnu. Univ. EDUCAUSE Review.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.html Kadirire. 17-22 http://llt. Ronchetti. R.flexiblelearning. 9(1).educause. M. Sept. 2006 in Dublin. January 2005..eee. 2(9).ac.. http://llt. http://www. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the rs/JCAL-2003. and Trifonova. and Pagani. J. (2005).jisc. http://www.pdf Bob Godwin-Jones.cs. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.232. 39. http://mobile. and Sheu.pdf Colazzo. 2004_final_low..eee. Archeology. Enabling Mobile Learning.ascilite. Växjö. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group comment/0. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Malavasi. Christopher (2005). Coralini. computer-aided. Cinotti. Liang.2. http://www. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. Presented at WMTE 2002. J. Ann (2005). Glyfada. http://www. 2005. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Australia.cfm?doc ASCILITE2005 Conference. Peter (2005). http://www. Pigozzi.pdf Mellow. Michael (2005). August 29-30. al. June/July 2005. Marc (2004). multimediabased learning application. and Sforza. D. 40(3). Chan. (2001).innovateonline... Mike (2005). http://drei. M. ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. H. http://doi. 2005.pdf Metcalf. and Cultural Heritage.pdf Scagliarini. and Dobreva. Understanding.bham. S. A theory of learning for the mobile age. http://21st.00.1039222 McLean.htm#Implications Prensky.oucs. April Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Vecchietti. M.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Proceedings. Roffia. 2005. (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. Neil (2003)..110 9/WMTE. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. E. http://portal. and. Kristóf (2002).ac. May/June 2005. Draft paper submitted for publication.ox. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. 2004. Hungary. 1(5). 2002.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.acm..clomedia. Amherst.. S.. E. Sweden. (2005). (2002). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. Teleborg Campus.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Conference on Virtual reality. http://www.doc Meisenberger. T. A. T. T. and Nischelwitzer. EDUCAUSE 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. E-Learning on the move. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.pdf Sharples. and Vavoula. May 23. June 27. http://www. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.asp Liu. http://education. Guardian Unlimited.html von Koschembahr. Budapest. http://www. ning.. MA: HRD 2490. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Learning in the Mobile Age. Donnelly. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Ellen (2005). Galasso.. Taylor. and es/clo_article. M. Växjö University. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. M.. 40-53. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.usabilitynews.digicult. bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.. F.century. (2005). Feb. http://kn. David (2006). M. Greece.pdf Thomas.. J. http://www. Feb.2002. Brisbane.

http://www. http://wwwusers. et al. machine The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming natural language generation. speech gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. http://tcc. (2004). research.cs.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.translating one natural language into . an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. http://eduforge. a component of intelligent tutoring Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: Di Eugenio. i. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. tools.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. http://www. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.lexxe. Lee et al. Do not reproduce 131 Description According to Coxhead (2001). http://dmoz..elsnet. (2004).php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.aaai.. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. speech synthesis. Kim (2000). and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. http://www.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.itc. natural language understanding. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.upenn. http://www. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. (2005a. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. and standards.” See also Jordan et al. rather than just returning Web pages.ldc.

this activity.

Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8


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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. yzdiss.pdf

Do not reproduce


Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft



Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing


© Brandon Hall Research

Corporation. Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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135 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.

Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. 002/hofmann.html


© Brandon Hall Research

This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. wikis.bham. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. as learners move between institutions. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. Running on the learner's such as search engines. Individualization in an LMS is weak. track. but these are only available to members of the course. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. there can be no electronic interaction.cetadl. etc. and review his or her learning activity. Technology needs to be situated. learners need to be in real-world situations. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. To practice real-world situations. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. libraries. discussion forums. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation.. Secondly. chat. e-portfolios. (Cortlett et al. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. without an offline client to the LMS. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. In many cases. blogs. A PLE must support lifelong learning. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A PLE is structured by the learner.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. it helps the user plan. This requires support over time. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered.). Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. work places. and through a variety of technologies.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). and. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. http://portal. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. learning management systems. amongst institutions. for the learner. whiteboard). Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. and social bookmarking sites. often only for the purposes of the course. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. social environments. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. efault.

uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. James (2006). Bibliography Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. http://www. http://incsub. Las Vegas. 22-27 July 2005. Sharples. 11. Chan. http://terrya. http://www.mlearn.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. and Westmancott. J. Jan.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. O. Nevada.pdf Colin (2005). PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Edinburgh. D.. PLE Reference /birmingham. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: T. http://elgg. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. Milligan.bath. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. Online case study paper.elearning.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research (2005). 2006. http://www. Incorporated Subversion. Ting.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. Terry (2006). January 9. es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ tt. UK. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning e/morriblog_more. 2006. http://www.jisc.

At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. http://www.ed.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. PDAs). Often.elenaproject. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. Furthermore. However. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.). artificial and/or presentation of materials.g.g. 2005). navigation. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. etc. ( yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . rule-based filtering. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. collaborative filtering. through a questionnaire). and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. http://www. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.g. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems...” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model..hcrc. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. These techniques include content-based filtering. learning environments. picture. the personalization can be applied to content. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. or it can be an implicit model. etc. Keenoy et al.

EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological A demo is available at: http://www. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. (2004).emarcon. Ler. (2004). dynamic user profiling techniques. Cozzolongo. Bowen.html http://www. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.cognitive traits. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.pdf m/index. and FilippiniFantoni. PowerPoint > > http://www. The Future of Access (or..hatii.pdf Callaway. (2005). http://adiret. /museomarmo. and Kuflik.pdf Bright. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. and Nuguid.virtualmuseum. http://www.pdf Beler. https://www. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of A. K. http://arxiv. with a particular focus on the museum sector. http://smart. Borda. William Niu.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile.. tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. Daisy (2002).ecdc.CY/0409055 Boyle T. http://www. Ngo. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. A. Pizzutilo. A.. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.(2001).asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Melbourne. B.beta80group..cs. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. Online paper.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Online paper.calimera. http://www.. http://www. S. http://www. A. gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld onal/index.calimera. De Carolis.umuai. J..pdf Calimera Project (2005). Kay. s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.pdf Cavalluzzi. Bibliography The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. ASCILITE 2001 Conference 20PDF/Personalisation. T. 140 © Brandon Hall Research . D.firstmonday. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!) bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. G. http://www. (2005). and Cook J..noekaleidoscope.. University of materials/access_lecture. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.gla. wireless networks.

Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.. George (2005). Gallipoli. Montreal.. (AVI 2004).. and Boavida. Gallipoli. May 25. http://w5.. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. (2003). C. Personalization and Digital Technologies. M. M. T. Spain. and Tasso.. http://lrnlab. Sanna. Web mining for web personalization. In R.ppt Correia. P. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. Dagger.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . (2004).www2004.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.di. Kuflik. (2005).) (2002). Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education.pdf Giroux. C.pdf Eirinaki. and Vazirgiannis.designshare. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Silvia (2003). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.jpbowen. W. April 2004. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . (2003).1145/643477.2004-1213.pdf Fuschi. Dillon. (2005).it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. A.edfac. http://www. University of Sydney (2004).com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education..p df Green.. 1–27. FutureLab. Roy (2004). Paper presented at ELearn 2002. (2002). Hershey. (AVI 2004). D.Info. (2004).. O. M. X.. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. H. Wade.. S. PEACH http://peach. Magical Mirror: multimedia. (Eds. PA: Idea Group Publishing. Soro. http://iswc2002.Information Access. Paris. http://www. Italy. (2002). Dominik (2003). and Paddeu. N. K. and nloads/futurelab_review_09. May 25. J. T. Nejdl.cs.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. http://www.futurelab. science centres and galleries. Facer. Moulin.24_Conlan. URL: l4RESULTS2004V2. 2004.. and Zancanaro. Henze. New York. Pianesi.ichim. http://www. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Barcelona.uniba. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.pdf Conlan. Italy. Málaga. Ecole du Louvre.uniud. and Numerico. Personalization through IT in onalisation/report_01. interactive services in home automation. Issue 7. s/2p170. or200406. O. S.. (2004).org/posters/ moulin. Graziola.pdf Ceccaroni. Online paper. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. February. http://www.. T. http://www. 2004. L.usyd.tcd. s/informal/resources/File. Subramaniam (Ed. Online Hawkey.) ELearning and Virtual Science D. S. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum.pdf Goren-Bar. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Heckmann.dimi. G. D. Rocchi.pdf Copa.pdf Dolog. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. https://www. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. and Verdaguer. Bowen.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web (2005).com/pub/evsc05b. May 2002. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. DigiCULT . In Mizzaro. September 2002. 2005 www.. V. /aims04. F.. C. M.p df FutureLab report. http://tmtfactory.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. M. and Sintek.cs. Stock. F. May 2004.learnexact. I. 3(1). http://www. and Humphreys.

A. (2005). and Lauder. (2001). Stock.itc. Levene. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.PDF Kay..bbk. . O. pums. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). Jones.. M. (2004).uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. R. Brusilovsky. IEEE Computer Society. and SeLeNe .l3s. http://peach.ijs.dcs. Niu .stuba. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. May 25. Online yNiu05. In: De Bra. Final Version. http://www. (eds. and Conejo. Kaszas.cs.uni-sb.ed.e5.unimagdeburg. (2005). W. Educational Technology & Society. editor. Nicola (2005). Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. 2004 http://www. A. http://www.. Kummerfeld. T. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). T. W. October 2004.. http://eprints. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.pdf Kuflik. J. 7(4):70-81. K.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information pers/PeachUM2005.. Rocchi. Bratislava. (2004).. pages 249-256..1. Seničar.unihannover. UM 2005. P. http://www.pdf Kuflik. and Niu. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. J. Yokoi... Brasher. /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. Italy. UK.pdf Kay. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide /waswbe05. 2004.cs. 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. http://csdl2. LSC. C. (2004). Proceedings of IIT. T. A.cs.. B.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). D.pdf Keenoy. Gallipoli. P.. UK http://homepages. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. Turcsanyi-Szabo.. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. P. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02).si/eng/ijceel. and Zancanaro. C..pdf scrutable_pums. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. J. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. B.pdf Henze. P. (2005). gs/icce/2002/1509/00/ 2005. Online paper. Edinburgh.pdf L. http://w5. Personis: A Server for User Models... (2002).pdf Kay. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . Online paper.pdf Kay. and Lauder. J. http://www. (2002) M.. and Nejdl. Yasuda. Online paper. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server.inf.. and Okamoto. http://www. Busetta. T. and WP4 Deliverable 4.pdf Keenoy. S. PIA Conference. and Peterson. P. D. Goren-Bar. and Blažič. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System.pdf Klobučar. P. (2004). W. M. Martin (2004). K. Lum. N. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.. M..p df Iwazaki. M.. (2004).pdf Johnson. (2005). de Freitas. In Mária Bieliková. P.. 23-30 July 2005. Waycott.ippr. E-Learning Networks. V.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.. B. T.usyd. Dolog. Penserini. http://www. K.

de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.. A. Paper presented at EDEN /proceedings/PerElPub. Communications of the ACM. Online paper. and Levene. Y. Lejeune. (2004). Armstrong R. J. J-P. May 2002. Cooley. K. A.. Montandon. Turcsányi-Szabó. January 2004. Julia (2004).org. J. May 702dss-h. Hall W. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version). Winterhalter..2. and Modritscher. Gutl. http://www. URL: http://maya... In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference. http://www.learninginprocess. Margaret (2002). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. Enric and Minguillon. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal. S.uniud. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning.. and Srivastava. (2004).uk/6832/01/ah 02. May 25. David. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS).pdf Ng M. Pluhar. /01/01-01.. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. May 2004.dimi. B. Spain.. (2004a). (2005). Kaszás. A. pp. (2002). Stuart.pdf Niederee. Mehta. and Schoonenboom. David..sts. M.depaul.. Bossung. C. (2000).uk/trails Sehring..pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Blake..dcs.soton. L. J.. ACM Press.428-431. Kaszás.utokyo. Schmidt.2.. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. http://www. Spain. M.html Schmidt.. Malaga. K. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. Keenoy.. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Budapest. R.iicm. M.. Stewart. Jones. Trummer. /ldr12-supplement.) (2002). Barrios.. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Turcsányi-Szabó.pdf Reeves. and Levene. Online paper.ipsi.. P. Flypad Report. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems.H.bbk. Montandon. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization.pdf Mobascher. A Multi-Dimensional. C. F.cs. Z.lsc. Hungary. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st 0605. S. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. (2004). A.. P.. 43(8):142–151..pdf Sakamura.dcs..2. http://www.fraunhofer. Málaga.. (2005).uk/trails Schoonenboom. available from www. Maier P.pdf Mizzaro. http://www. A. Keenoy.. 2002.http://senet. available from www.pdf Do not reproduce 143 .edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor. Preis. F. H. Diagne. C.www2004. 2004. V. Muller. 2004 http://www2.bbk. Faure. D. C. M.ncsl. A. Jones. August.mrl.ecs.. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning. Ken (2000). C. B. _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final.. M. ( nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. M. http://eprints. http://www.. A.. http://www.pdf Martinez. Gallipoli. m.elearningguild. New (2004b) s/2p264. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Lejeune. and Tasso. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. C.pdf Pivec..tuharburg.

H. Demiris. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002).pdf Tanikawa. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous. (2004). Yamashita. T. gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004).media. and Ioannidis. http://csdl2. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. and Hirose. IEEE Computer Society. Wang.. plus/HTML/papers/ IL. A. Chicago. 27-31 March 2004. Pliakas. USA.. M. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums. Online paper. (2003). 2002. Proceedings. s/flavia_mw2002. M. April 17-20.. http://alumni.miralab.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . Flavia (2002).unige. Ando... V.Sparacino.pdf Vlahakis. Y. http://www. N. Boston.. K.

and real-time training and documents in a supportive. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. 2001). In the business world. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Knowledge Management. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. vendors. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . which form a dynamic user profile. the portal offered information on more than 20. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. collaborative environment. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. content management. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 .000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. http://www. instructorled.Portals Related terms Collaboration. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. learning management systems. As of early 2006.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience .Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.elearningeuropa.

In Jafari. 2004. http://www.000 publishers worldwide http://www. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.proquest. http://www. http://www. wledge_center/index. including educational uses. and Aucoin. http://www.Education.elementk.000 online courses http://www. Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of 003/technologies/sharepoint/ World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. administrators. You’ve come a long ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.asp Element K – Access to over 2.asp?id=9028 Barron.executrain. Campus Technology Magazine. New York: AMACOM. Heidi (2001).html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. Campbell. HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. baby! E-learning portals.tamtam.700 online courses http://www. Ron (2004). calendars. audio and/or video. instructors. and universities. Tom (2000).learningcircuits. and Sheehan. K. http://www. he/259662-0-0-225-121.campustechnology.fathom. go to: http://www. e-mail distribution Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.htm Brockbank. instant messaging.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. PA: Information Science Publishing. school administrators. A Portrait of Learning Portals. M. (2003).htm CyberU – Access to over 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research Training Registry – Large online training directory www.hp. (Eds.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. Bray (2001). t/prodinfo/demo.. interactive discussion groups. May 2000. document management information. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. museums. online meetings with text. http://knowledgemanagement. lesson plans http://www. March 1.300 online courses http://www. and schedules. Learning Circuits. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Teach-nology – Access to over 27.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. and shared lists for tasks. news and 2000/ m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.teach-nology.

edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.asp Terra. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. 000/Weggen. J. A. Cornelia (2000). E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. Richard & Associates (2002). and Gordon.educause. and Sheehan. Reviewed at: http://www. Heidi (2003). C.Collins. 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.) (2003).edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. September 2000.htm Do not reproduce 147 .asp Katz. M. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. Hershey. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. PA: Information Science Publishing. (Eds. http://www. San Francisco: JosseyBass.learningcircuits. New York: AMACOM. (2003).educause.

the word “lecturing” means “to read. Experience them at: virtual classrooms. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey c_home. web conferencing. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video http://www.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. Hewlett-Packard. when experts are not readily available. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.elluminate. 148 © Brandon Hall Research .” In the Middle Ages. although many are trying to change this practice. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.macromedia. Online presentations can be very Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. However.lsc. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. http://www. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars.replayhq. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. See the TEAL Project at MIT. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. While it is expensive. Skypecasting. http://www. http://www. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. In fact. in partnership with Dreamworks. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.masternewmedia. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. webinars Consequently.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.

acue.humanresourceWebinars. A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as press/2005/051212xa. and 5/02/25.silicon.infoworld. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. online communities.e-learningcentre. a columnist at InfoWorld. and Do not reproduce 149 . virtual teams. and whiteboarding. Web http://www.htm resentations. online Coursebuilder. http://www. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. although it does not have to be. http://www.brandonhall. The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.000 software programs for business and presentation /web_conferencing.html#a1185 http://weblog. Webcasts. and Web ach.ccimeet. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. forums and message boards.00.elearningcentre.htm Teaching is often equated with live s/ http://buyersguide. videoconferencing. virtual classrooms. > > http://www.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.com/udell/200 5/01/22. Dreamweaver. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. virtual meetings.lsc. videoconferencing.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using ngadobe.380 0005416.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning. social software for online collaboration.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion ferencesolution. presentation and streaming presentation tools. http://www. http://www.adelaide. > > http://weblog.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for /web_presentations.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. independent listing of TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. and Flash.htm http://www.kolabora. http://www. http://www. conferencing. instant Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.” > http://www.htm http://www.elearningcentre. partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.thinkofit. http://cde.> > http://www.39155030.infoworld. http://ajax.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web Web m Human Resource Webinars is a free.

timelyweb.pdf http://www. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. 2004. and ation. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International.html Canali De Rossi. (in two parts) > > http://www.filesland. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Luigi (2003a).asp McNally. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. http://www.masterviews. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . and Furr. http://m.pdf Bibliography is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.blogspot. Luigi (2003c).html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. 2003. /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Belinda (2003). July 8. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).downloadjunction. 2005. http://www.aace. http://www.aln. Russ (2004). Armit (2005).http://www. http://www.html Using Apreso software. Jennifer (2004). July. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. July 26. 01/duckworth. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://www.learningcircuits.russellmcnally..programjunction. Live and Online!: tips.russellmcnally. Sept. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. (2004). http://www.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2003b). Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books /software/795/index. http://labnol.htm Duckworth. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. 7(3). (2002).com/Breeze Part2.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. May 15. P. April ns/index. Live 3008_148. Learning Circuits. K. Part1. 3. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Christine (2001).htm Canali De Rossi.pdf There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Robin Good Blog. http://www. 2003. Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.htm Hofman. Digital Inspiration. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.

Software. http://www. and Equipment.pdf etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Start Saving Time and Money Dec. but… Presentations Magazine. 11.infoworld. 2005. and Winfield. InfoWorld.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . AMACOM. http://www. Choose the Right Vendors. (2003) 1/ Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.html ns/delivery/article_display. S. Feb. L.http://kmi. Choices are great. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Dave (2002). The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.

simple. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. or where the online information frequently changes. or HTML knowledge. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Deploys easily . learning objects. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. a vendor of rapid elearning tools.. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. easy to use. but not always good for you. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. programming. microlearning > down pages. tests. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. virtual classroom. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. FAQ. It is best suited to text-based materials. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. manage the content and the users. graphics. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. In the first case. Reduce the number of development vendors. are built in. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. Standardize approaches. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. Leverage professional project management methods and tools.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. and communicate deliverable expectations. In the second sense of the term. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. Navigation built in . where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Advanced features. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. just-intime e-learning. 2003). Does not require any advanced skills. 2003). For example. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. low. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement.automatically assures that all navigation works. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. extreme e-learning.versus high-interaction). including tools and templates. Instructional design built in. It can refer to learning something quickly. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash.does not require any plug-ins. Assign SMEs who are committed. a demand to produce online content very quickly. by necessity. According to Ready Go!. glossary. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. such as creating links. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online.e. and based on preformed templates for layout and design.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . Tools for rapid e-learning are. and clip art is straight forward and supported . _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.bersin.” Find out more: pid. January 23. 2004.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.elearningmag.ltimagazine. June 30. 2006. and Bersin. version control protocols. Kendrick (2006).learningcircuits. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Paper. Future-Proofing. 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald.pdf Aldrich.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. July 2004. http://www. Templates. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Chief Learning Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Chief Learning Officer.clomedia. LTI Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning. article/articleDetail. LTI Newsline. http://www. http://www. Reusability.meetingone. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Larstan Business Reports. http://www. Penny (2004).com/showArticle. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.htm Bibliography 005/archibald. Dianne (2005).asp Bersin. Learning Solutions. Jennifer (2004).asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Making rapid e-learning work. Jay (2005). Lane (2002). See a demo at: http://www.scate.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.masie. Mark (2003). and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.htm Bersin.pdf Crosman.articulate. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Enhance. Edit. 2004). Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. http://www.clomedia. (2004). software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. http://www. Tips and Techniques. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. tools. http://www.access to a clear project Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. San Francisco: Pfieffer. July ticle/articleDetail.jsp?id=102399 es/clo_article. http://www. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.raptivity. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. which contains information on resources. Clark (2005).com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. See sample templates at: http://www. E-Learning for short attention spans. http://www.pdf Brodsky. January. Do not reproduce 153 . August 2004. June. Josh (2004) Transform Magazine. http://www. Learning Circuits. schedule and due dates. centrally located files.transformmag. Bill (2005).com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. conferences. and other good stuff. computer games. Web site. J. and Publish.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Josh (2005). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational es/clo_article. Learning.pdf Gustafson. Nov. Press /default.macromedia. 2006. es/clo_col_elearning. http://www.elearningguild. The Training Foundation online ticle/articleDetail. Project Management in the Age of Rapid hitepapers/ pid_vft_v1. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. http://www. Ray (2006).e-learning programs in weeks. http://www. Ed (2004). Garin (2004). 9. 2006.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.jsp?id=150619 Hess.learningcircuits. Learning Circuits. (2004b).com/pub/ele arning/ tracts/index. http://www. http://vftraining. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Kevin (2002). Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. 10.pdf Macromedia Inc. http://www. Joe (2005).pdf Jimenez. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Rapid e-learning gets the job es/clo_lettertoeditor.ltimagazine. Macromedia White Paper. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.pdf Mayberry. Mar. Learning Solutions. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. 2005. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. (2004a).elearningguild. January 16.elearningguru. Ray (2005).com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. http://www. June 2004.trainingfoundation. http://download.macromedia. LTI Newsline. http://www.pdf Jimenez.clomedia. February 2005. Stephanie (2006). http://download. Bersin and Associates White Paper. Learning Solutions. Rapid Intake White Paper.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.htm Masie Center (2005). Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.adobe. Macromedia White Paper. e-Learning Crop Circles.pdf Shepherd. Jan. 2002. Chief Learning Officer. Mobile and Device Based Learning.trainingpressreleases. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Eric (2003). Nick (2005). Chief Learning Officer. January 2003. Clive (2006). es/clo_article.clomedia. Vignettes for Training White Paper.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. 004/mayberry. http://www.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . sstory.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. April 20.

botball. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Do not reproduce 155 Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.cmu. engineering.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. engineering.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. for underwater exploration. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. simulation > General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for one child at a time. technology. and mathematics.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. and math. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. Check out their online catalogue at: The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.whmsi.rec.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.evolution. technology. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. http://www. http://www.ife. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. http://www. http://www. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. > http://www.aad. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.

irc. and other information on robotics.. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. Düsseldorf. November.pdf Nourbakhsh. Miller. Lathan. B.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. (2004).pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. and Powerful Run by NASA. Proceedings. http://robotics. D. H.php Bibliography Blank. W. Paper at the American LCSI is a company founded by Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation exrobotics.. http://www. http://www. particularly robotics... New York: Syngress Publishing. D. http://www.uml. http://zeus. It features news. Mr. and Wagner. Germany..l3s. /June22/educational-robotics. Hohmann. L. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. (2004). Meeden. (2001). U. and Loose. New > > http://www.pdf G. (2004). Yanco. 156 © Brandon Hall Research R. /edu. By donning motion sensors. go to: http://www. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education..cs. k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. M. Heinsohn. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. June. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.l3s. links.pdf Cooper. and vocal See also: Blank. and Dautenhahn. K.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. I. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.cuny.sci. Mindstorms: Children.. Keating. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. J. and Meeden.pdf http://www. M. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).ac.eng. http://www. Basic Books. S. P. AAATE Conference 1999. Germany.. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring lmenau2004F. _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. (2005). http://dangermouse. and Yanco. Ferrari.. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.microworlds.pdf oster. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Gerecke. Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://www.kipr. Harwin. http://www. (1980). Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.profetic.ams. http://www. D. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Robots in the classroom . (2004).pdf Ferrari. http://robothaven. I.. lip movements. H.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.brynmawr. http://www. Artificial Intelligence Conf. H. D. and Hempel. L.wtec. and for accessible education.. (1999). The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.

. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3..8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. S..pdf Stewart. McHugh.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . T. R. M. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Donnelly. and Rusbridge. D. http://rob. Sept. (2005).. Abbott.ccmlab. (2001).ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. A. 28-30. M.digicult. A. Ottawa. Dobreva. and West. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Ontario.

each with their own defining feature sets. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. collaboration. a rich user experience. in parallel. such as Google and Altavista. which submit queries. But. 2004). Web they take the structure of the Web into account. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. resource discovery. for a variety of reasons.” The first type searches the Web as it exists.examples are early yahoo. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Ezzy (2006a. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. They bring into the equation user preferences. information retrieval. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. Meta–search engines. dependable information. One is the problem of finding relevant. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. One new approach is called “federated searching. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. data mining. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Examples are Google and and Alta Vista. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. collective intelligence. as this section of the report shows. search engine optimization. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. While search engines have improved over the past several years.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. meta-search engines. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . such as Yahoo. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. federated search. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet.

be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. http://getoutfoxed.A social search engine with tagging and community-based Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. Clicking a cluster makes search more – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.looksmart. Gada. Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. rather than just returning Web pages.convera. and text. http://www. AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference – Features hundreds of searchable topics. http://www.alexa. Gravee .General search engines: A9 – Octavo – A collaborative search Alexa – Search results with Web traffic’s search service http://a9. Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www. http://www. http://www.about. http://www. blogs.netscape. Shares advertising revenues with content Grokker – Clusters results by subject. AlltheWeb – Search HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search http://www. http://channels. http://www. get answers http://www.faganfinder. http://www. http://oaister. then fill in the search PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. IceRocket – Searches images. http://www.jookster.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.alltheweb.answers.gravee. Gnod – A self-adapting discovery AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. and the Web. http://www. Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://www. Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://www.

and movies.Clusters results. FactMonster.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://books. Yahooligans. & KidsClick!. > > Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://www. Internet Movie Database – search within plot cast lists and theatre schedules. ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.acronymfinder. reviews. Wink then diplays the Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles IceRocket – Searches blogs only. cast lists and theatre FASTUS – Extracting information from real world Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://kids.ucr. Gnoosic – A search engine for Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government Clicking a cluster further refines a search. AolKIDS. http://icerocket.ithaki. 160 © Brandon Hall Research .gnoosic. http://www. http://qube.ujiko. Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given HealthFinder — A medical search engine. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. http://citeseer. users tag their favorite results and block Wink – Using social networking. reviews. Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. ArtKIDSRule. Ujiko – Clusters StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://www. http://www.topic appears. Froogle – Google’s shopping search Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. http://vivisimo. http://www. http://tagjag. TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://www. Much of this information is hidden from view.

http://www.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. LawCrawler .columbia. http://www. Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio SeekPort – Used to find items in TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.pandora.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.merl.krugle.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music LitLinker . VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. as of this ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.” Content-based search engines for pictures. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.cfm?doid=10 Truveo – A search engine for video on the Omgili . http://www.last.findlaw. Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or SearchEdu .ee.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.scirus.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.searchedu.columbia.Krugle – A search engine for developers. http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. http://www. http://techsearch.rawsugar. http://www.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion PubMed – Search engine for medical information.technorati.ncbi.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www. http://wwwqbic.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www. Newslink – search newspapers from around the world – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical MediaFinder . SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.liveplasma.columbia. http://wang16.4 billion links. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.psu.f cgi QBIC .cmp.rrzn.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.A legal search engine. Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. or federated searching. SearchTools. Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search earcheng. http://a9. dating and Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. health information sources. http://www-rocq. is a valuable resource for greeting Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://www. http://www. news sources. http://www. the user's community has total control over the results. and links the clusters.intute. http://www. A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. games. http://www. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.researchbuzz. Unlike other search engines. clusters. http://nlp.cs. yellow pages. city Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. hotels. pictures. weather. bookmarks. audio.trovando. white pages. and Web mail for the topic entered. and tracks a user's search SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.ixquick. ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. and their relationships. http://www. http://clusty. including a set of international telephone directories. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. Known as “meta-search” focused searches on topics they care about.bolton.zapmeta. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. eBay. Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. apartment rentals. http://www.searchtools.Voice searching – Proteus project at provides reviews and links to several hundred search Info – Searches reference works. jobs.ithaki. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.inria. flights. A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. maps/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. shopping sites. http://www. video. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the http://www. Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. lottery results. and notes.

Y. International Journal on e-Learning.just as a search engine is used for text.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. hprojects Bibliography works. > > http://firstgov. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. is against the idea of federated searches. 2006. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. 10(12). In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site.php Geser. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.. or topic . http://www.downes. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. No. June. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Pat (2005).ac. Search 2.htm vs. or swicki.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).com/archives/se The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. This search engine.pdf Ensor. December. 6. First Monday. Part 1.citysearch. Read/Write Web. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US Ebrahim (2006).com/archives/se 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. (2005).ala. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. and Shoham. http://infomine. olkitforexpert/ http://www. June 2004. can be published on the user's site. http://swicki.ucr. _thematic_issue_6_lores. July 25. 2004.readwriteweb. F. Do not reproduce 163 . Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Ebrahim (2006). Exchanging. http://www. http://www.tveyes.gpoaccess. Resource Discovery . (2004).Position Paper: Putting the Users _12/aharoni/index. Part 2. DigiCULT Thematic TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.. phrase. Read/Write Web. and Searching in eLearning Systems.editlib. No.0 vs. Traditional Search. Users can also browse by subject category. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.php Ezzy.html Battelle. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. A. Advanced Technologies for Contents Stephen Downes.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Guntram (2004).digicult. John (2005). July 20. 6. O. Traditional Search.elearning. 7-12. and Apprato. http://www. July-Sept. http://www. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.. For Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). http://www.readwriteweb. New York: Portfolio. Search FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages.eurekster. http://www. Frank.firstmonday.

(2004). Oct. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning 5. http://bobwyman.pubsub. M.html Kumar. http://www. 2005. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . Jakob (2003). html Porco. Doctoral dissertation. Oct. (2005). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. 4(1).pdf Murray. May 8.pdf Gincel. Part I: http://www.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Parts I and II. http://www. Richard (2004). A. http://www. (2000).ht m Pratt. Lisa (2005).prescientdigital.prescientdigital. 2004. SearchEngineWatch. It’s 05/mary_hodder_poi. eSchool News.http://www. April 28.18 69408.eweek. 3.00.eschoolnews.pdf Schlenker. 2004. White paper. . 15. 2005.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. 2004.pdf Sullivan. Simple advice for complex search Low. 2004. Corey (2005) Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.htm Part II: http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. P. S.washington. and Gupta. 149-166. Danny (2004).ac. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload.asp Wyman. 15.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.digicult. 10. W.1759. J. Kashyap. InfoWorld.php/2156221 Vaas. Stanford University. Major Search Engines and Directories. and 5/42FEsearch_1. http://www. S. http://homepages. they’re just limited. B. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter ublications/dissertation. 2003. J.html Heck. Bob (2005). When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. (2005).de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. and MacColl. InfoWorld. eWeek. Mimkes. Carmine (2006). Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox..isnoldenburg. Mike (2004). Prescient Digital Media. 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.ischool. _thematic_issue_6_lores. Refining enterprise search. http://searchenginewatch. June 30. Search engines don’t Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Oct. E. Mittal. toryts.

http://www. founder of the World Wide Web. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. taxonomies. search. near Boston. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. Abbas et al. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). producing metadata always implies a particular and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. http://www. Selected Examples In Europe. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. such Do not reproduce 165 . ontologies. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. but it will not be in general use for some time. are now falling short of earlier promises. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. metadata. (2005) note that “historically. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. microformats. 2003). Like it or not. semantic grid. It has both its advocates and its critics. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems.elenaproject.

Z.ifets. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Obrst. 2005. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).info/issues. In Fensel.sciam.pdf Anderson. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Cambridge. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. TheSemanticWebHype. http://arxiv. S. A Semantic Web Primer. KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. Bibliography Abbas. Antoniou. Huber. http://www.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. G. The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing.. The semantic web. semantic infrastructural services. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. http://www. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies.seco..php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. and Smith. May 9-12. Z. AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. (Eds.. Tim (2003). The first issue is free. K. M. MA: 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. Brantner. MA: MIT Press.) (2003). Ali. Miklos.. (1).dit. (2005). and 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. Sobernig. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.jxta.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . D. O. McClatchey. and Zillinger. W..aimatshape. and Whitelock.semanticweb. Cambridge. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).upm. http://www-jime.hpl. (2003).amazon. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation.. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. T. S..ifets. (2005). Mozo. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. Forward.. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. J. Aguirre. T.. http://jungla. http://www. Wahlster.. (2001). Mark (2005) J. http://www. http://www. Greece. Salvachua. B. http://kaon. R. Web Services. http://www.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. http://www. J. (2004).as semantic portals for end-users.. http://edutella. Lieberman. implementing.php?http://www . and van Harmelen (2004). T. May 29 June 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. and Lassila. S. S. http://www-jime. A. http://www.pdf Daconta. Scientific American. and Knowledge Management. Odeh. Simon. M. New York: Wiley. ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. May 2001. H. D. and

Oct.) (2005). http://www. Nicola (2005a). Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. Juan-les-Pins. G. (2001).unihannover. Online article. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. 2005. Sikora. Wilbert (2005). http://www. Amsterdam. W. htm Dorai. http://www. H. http://www. 4/ Passin. Paul (2003).9/semgrid. Greenwich. http://www. and Naeve. http://www. Cambridge. and Naeve. Oct. Lieberman. D. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia.. http://www.. pdf (2004). 1(4). Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure.pdf Kraan. Palmer. and Shadbolt. Brian (2005). Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE).De Roure. (2005). Stephen (2005). and Worldview”.pdf Nilsson. Nack. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. F. N. CETIS Online article. Syllogism. PA: Information Science -504. N.1961106. (Eds. T. 10. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential.downes. Semantic Web Technologies. D. Phil (2006). Cory (2001). http://www2002. May 27. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme.) (2003). Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Thomas (2004). Nicola (2005b). Sweden. http://www. Online article.. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. (2001).pdf Henze.. A. DevSource.jisc. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. 2001. Journal of Computer Science. Mauthe. 18-22 July 2005. Semantic Networks and Social / /waswbe05. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED' 2006. 500-504. http://homepages. 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews.cgi?post=31624 Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. CT: Manning.semanticgrid.cwi. and Neagu. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report.asp Hatem. (2002) ns/nack-acm-panel-2002.html Haack. M.pdf 1195933/printArticle Lytras. and Gouarderes. and Zetti.devsource. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning .pdf Downes.. A. (Eds. Hershey.kbs. C. H.189 5. M. and Hendler.kbs. http://www. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the J.Some Architectural Guidelines. The Netherlands. Jennings. M. http://www. L. H. A.ftrain. http://www. Ramadan.cetis. Lund. 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.scipub. Stephen’s Web. D.00.. Paper presented at the GLS /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. M. MA: MIT

December 3. Scott (2002).ifets. Wagner.pdf 168 © Brandon Hall Research . May 17– Syllogism. Marketing Profs. Millard. Networks. John (2004). and Diaz. Scott’s Workblog. Woukeu. 7. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first elegi/session2/paper12. D. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. and Miller. CETIS Online article. 1. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. and Worldview.ecs. http://www.10577. H. yllogism. (2005). L.soton. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. S.unikarlsruhe. http://ewic. 2004. Online CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.. D. Darwin. January http://education..bbk. G. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. F. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. J. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. G. June 14. B. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. and Del3. and Davis. (2005). June 21.pdf Updegrove. (2003). New York.w3. Semantic Web.html Van Dijck. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.p df Weinberger. Andy (2005). http://www.darwinmag. August 2. Staab.shirky. USA. http://www. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. InfoWorld. The Semantic Web.pdf Sampson. (2003)..asp?source=/5/updegrove1. E. F. 2003. P. WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. 2003. 2005. D. 2005. http://eprints. (2004)..aifb. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. and Stumme. Millard.pdf /column. New York. Scott (2005). C. M. and the Semantic Web. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. 7 (4) Nov. Who said that? 171444/printArticle Wilson.. H. Davis. http://www2004.pdf Tao.pdf Tane. A.html Stojanovic. Economics and Culture.cetis. and Christodoulou. http://www. story/0. L.00. gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). 3/49OPstrategic_1. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.cetis.sop.. David (2002).html?ArticleID=421 (2004). G.html Wilson. Online article.marketingprofs.inria. http://www. up. and Woukeu. http://www. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web (2001)..asp Udell. trust. 2004.dcs. Lytras.infoworld. http://poorbuthappy. Clay (2003). http://www. Peter (2003).bcs. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. http://www.

It was decommissioned in 2005.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). participants will be motivated to evaluate. http://www. reviewed simulations as an online content format.insead.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://cave. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.ncsa.calt.” My first report in this series.insead. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. role-playing. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.insead.insead. http://sos.noaa. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate Winters et al. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.insead. but information about it remains on the Web.calt.e.arcscience. games.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.calt. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.uiuc. learn. 2005).com/omni.calt. http://www. especially ones set by C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. i. http://www. http://www. http://www. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. According to High (2004).edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.icherubini.

com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. > > http://geowall.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.berkeley.forio. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience Biographix .adobe. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other Kaplan IT Learning .http://www.geo. http://www.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building Adobe – Macromedia Captivate .edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. http://www. and murmurs. http://www.biographix. without programming Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure. Forio .com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body ex.html weather eoWall/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. heart sounds.assima.sdsu.soe. http://www. http://www. with many examples to http://um3d. and Mac OS X. http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . has issued "The Calm and The Storm.dc. . m Intermezzon .com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.edcenter. http://crme. http://www." http://www.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help hpro/ Assisma .Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.virtualfishtank.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.intermezzon. Mass. http://www. to play in a virtual fishtank.noaa.stt-global." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. http://www. pulse rate. they are only available for Macintosh computers. For http://www. It runs on Windows.edcenter. Linux.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.insead.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. go to: Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. However. Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.

jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. http://www. NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.knowledgepresenter.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .knowledgeplanet.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. http://www.knowledgequest.maxit.learning2005. TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. which can then be used to build simulations. http://www.nexlearn.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.qarbon.bc.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation is/ Elliot Kookaburra Studios .edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.teds.outstart. MaxIT .com/products/ MaxIT .com/ Knowledge Planet . Integrates with many media types.the click of a mouse. http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.” http://www.sdsu. /firefly.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. Reusable Objects . http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.stottlerhenke. http://www.knowledge-director. http://www. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest . Do not reproduce 171 . http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and d/Links/Simulation_Training.stagecast. including simulations.

4.ncassr. A.. In Interaction Design and Children. Holland. June.uva. and Bostan. San Francisco: Pfieffer. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.. September.. Laser. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. October. 12. Making the most of software simulations. http://www. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. computer games. Simulation levels in software training. 1(10). (2005). Simjour. Sept. U. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. 2004. and Ip. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. http://itdl. and Sund Martin. July. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. http://www. Shannon (2004). Implementation and Evaluation. October 2004.PDF DeVries. Learning Circuits. Jennifer (2004). Online ts/poplog/packages/simagent.bbk. Chief Learning Officer. Les (2004). A.bham. 004/aldrich. B. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www.cs. Learning Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. T.projects. 172 © Brandon Hall Research .ft. Bjorn (2004). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich.htm ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/ tory. Six criteria of an educational simulation.simplay. J. Taghiyareh. L.. Clark (2004). International Workshop. Billhardt.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. R. Computer simulations in distance education. Aug.html Sobeih.html Karrer.. Department of Computer Science. http://www.. http://www. J.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. (2001). Viswanathan. Utrecht. A. Feb.for Philosophers and Engineers. Learning Circuits. September. F. http://www. & de Jong. http://www. (2001). Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). and pedagogy and elearning and other educational m Sloman. http://www.. p. apers/sobeihTR04.html Lunce.learningcircuits. and Wilensky. How playing power drives lessons P. AACE 004/bersin.blikstein.http://www. Kamau (2004). T. 2004. A. Financial Times. Clark (2005). http://www. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. (2004). Character simulations make e-learning come alive. and McCloughlin.learningcircuits. http://www. eSchool News.pdf Swaak. (2002).htm 004/estabrook. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. The promise of online simulations.clomedia.learningcircuits.htm eSchool News (2004).ac. 2002.pdf Cherubini. (2004).com/content/templat es/clo_feature. J. http://www. Montré /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. (2002).org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. 2004. Learning Circuits. M. http://www. http://www.. M. H. Aaron (2005). A. October 15-19. and Hou. Paper presented at Robocup conference.html Linser. Rasmussen.

17. and CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. N. (2003). Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Florida. 8(31). White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. http://www. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. C.prospect. http://www. Sherry (1997). The American Prospect. 1997.. USA. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. M.protonmedia. Fort Lauderdale.knowledge... Online paper at: http://lsm.pdf Tjaden. _white_paper.uc.dei.html Winters. Mar. 291013Discovery%20simulations. 284-294.icherubini.-Apr. Gary (2003).pdf Do not reproduce 173 . http://www. In Association for Computing Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.pdf Turkle.

iu. therefore.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. http://www. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/index. grease. which transmits over short distances. RFID technology is developing rapidly. 2005).com/default . While controversial. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. especially in museums and for outdoor education. They are programmable while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. For a full discussion of this issue. infrared (IR) tags.checkpointsystems.iu. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security obiles/m02. http://uitspress. especially for tagging retail items in stores. or water.” http://vis.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. http://cnm. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay.ala. optical tags. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. easily changed. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.

Y. G.pdf /TSW0602.2005 .edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. K.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. adoption and 3_01_low. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. in a 2005 online article.msu. & Richards. M. 261-263. http://www.. April 13. (2003).com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn.toydirectory. A. http://www.html Osawa. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. Y.cfm? hesisFinal. 5. Infoworld. RFID: http://www. and Case. N.pdf Osawa et al. http://www. G. Aparna (2004). Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.).eschoolnews. Corey (2004).pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. eSchool News Online. 2005. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.66 Ward. http://www.. S. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. Masters Thesis.msu. H.jisc. M. T. (2005).org/newdl/inde infrared tags x.infoworld. Proceedings.html?s=feature Heining. http://www. (2005). http://csdl2.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.aace. M.. 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.pdf Robinton. 2004.. & Kondo.. P. http://www. http://www. (2006). In Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. James (2006).asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Shibuya. C. Technology Watch Report 1.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.. Tsukagoshi.digicult. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Noda. http://www. January 1. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online).com/monthly/articl e. K. TD Monthly. and Dobreva.digicult.. S. http://www. e. Bibliography Borck. http://www. Michigan State Toc. http://www.. March.cfm?fuse action=Reader. June 27. http://www.asp?id=1222 Ross. and Backhouse. R.rfidnews. 4(3). Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Andrew (2005)..xml&DOI=10. (2004). Donnelly. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy ry.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). (Eds. standards. Ando.pdf Salcedo. Noma. Oct. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.1109/WMTE. and Yano. van Kranenburg.csmonitor. R.. 276-283..aace.

connect with others. no matter their location or timing. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.First. http://blogmarks. describe. store. tagging. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. Also.citeulike. and to share them. Students. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. or distributed in e-mails.metafilter. http://www. metadata. search. researchers at all levels (students. http://www. as each member can upload resources discovered. share their stories.43things. As of April 2006. Third. Second. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries….us Web site (http://del. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery.icio. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. http://www. users can see what others are Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. ontologies. and books.A free service to help academics 176 © Brandon Hall Research . Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Flickr held over 100 million images. For example. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. search others’ references. http://ask. share references with colleagues. and search for a specific user's Blinks. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. Blink also provides tools to sort. and Web CiteULike .” a location to store links that might be lost to time. in turn.” post their favorite Web sites. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. http://www. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on Blinklist . They can save references. Fifth. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. get inspired.connotea. music. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. For instance. printouts. while users of the del. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. and organize the academic papers they are reading.blinklist. The result is something called a tag cloud. or check out what everyone wants to do. Fourth. they act as an “outboard memory.

netscape. Del. http://www. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.icio.simpy.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five Kaboodle .com/ Flickr – Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. search. http://www. Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://www.gnolia. http://ma. and non-hierarchical editorial control. share. Magnolia .A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.A free. k_menus. http://consumating. Also retrieve it Clipmarks . open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://myweb2.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www. users submit stories for review.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.icio.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://www. and discover relevant links.shadows. http://www. and/or books and find them again. http://www. but. . Jookster .com/ Furl . updated in near real Linkroll .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.pageflakes.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. With Project Pad .com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://www.Browse the Web and save any page with a Do not reproduce 177 . similar to Jots . http://www. http://www.digg.rojo.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.furl. http://del.netvouz. or enter new items and tag them. Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. Digg .com/ Simpy – Search tags.linkroll.Consumating . and share photos with others.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. Tags can be shared or kept private. the users decide. based on what is happening in the news media.A technology news Web site that combines social date/index.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. sort. index. Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the s/m/6350.html s/m/ es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.quickonlinetips.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.spurl.suprglu.icio. http://www. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. tags.fasfind.peterme.A. Flickr. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.infoworld.” > > Upcoming – An events calendar by place.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. with contributions from SWiK .Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. and Digg. Online Resources Jon Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords. anyone can start a directory of events for their own Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. 7001. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 about how tagging works with del. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.zvents. http://www. http://swik. Web Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. http://upcoming.quickonlinetips.” 558. http://www. March/April Wists – A social shopping site.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. http://www. http://www. > es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags. Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story. Suprglu elicious. 41(2).html http://atomiq. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.quickonlinetips.wists.tagzania. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. and social bookmarking.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://www.yelp.fasfind. and share it with others. http://www. Bryan (2006). es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.icio.smugmug. If a city is not there.html http://tagsonomy. http://www.

Hannay. B.html McGillicuddy. April 2005. mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.isi. Ideant.ascc.pdf Mejias. Jon (2005). The New School of Ontologies. Aug. http://ideant.289142. http://www. 2006. http://tomgruber.. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).sid19_gci1195182. (2005).org/writing/ my. http://www. HP Labs Report.corante. Ulises (2004). Collaborative knowledge gardening.html nd. 11(4). http://www. http://www. ntent/0. Liz (2005). http://www. May 20. Tag mania sweeps the Web. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Tom. Flack.infoworld. Trusted Sources. 5/facilitating_th. Jon (2004). July 20.htm Hammond. B. 2005. 11(4).hp. ammond/ s/tags/tags. 2005. April 2005. Webblogg-ed. 2005.weblogged. Tags vs. D-Lib Magazine.. 2006. Hammond. and 0/34OPstrategic_1.techtarget. InfoWorld. and Scott. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. B. Tom (2005). How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.plasticbag.html 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. http://ideant. and Huberman. Shamus (2006). http://www. Ulises (2005). T. Sept. August 20. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. Many2Many. ml Mejias. 2. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. http://www. 2. Udell. 2005. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Keynote address. Andy (2006).asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. http://www.pdf Gurber.adammathes.php Lund.html Mathes. Jan. (2005) 0/ ias_dtd. Adam (2004).. (2005). J.00. 2004.html Coates. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Golder. May 5. D-Lib Magazine. 20. Online paper. Online . S. http://dlib. Social consequences of social tagging. InfoWorld. Lund. Will (2005).ejournal. Nicholas (2004). Plasticbag.typepad. 2005. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages.. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.html Mote.html Do not reproduce 179 . T. (2005). June 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.pdf Richardson. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.http://www.infoworld.

e-mail. communities of practice. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. work. shared link libraries such as del. http://www. SMS.) Relationship Management ( and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. dating sites. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. photo albums. tagging. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. e-mail. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. 2005).classmates. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social 180 © Brandon Hall Research . etc. reviewed social networking as an online content format.” that entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between online personals such as (2005) call an “architecture of participation. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. social software.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs.) Experience Sharing (blogs. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. photo sharing sites. family. and the military. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. etc. social networking sites such as Friendster. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. etc. shared links. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. My first report in this series. etc. Friendster. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends.

fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.orkut.last. http://www. http://www. http://platial. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www. http://360. http://www.esnips. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. Facebook has networks for http://www. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. which are groups of people who can see each others' Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.codeville.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.intronetworks.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.” http://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know. LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. http://www. It costs several thousand dollars. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. or as a social network. http://www. http://www. For an example of the use of social networking analysis. and files and then make them available to Live Journal .org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage https://www. in Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. http://www.stumbleupon. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. http://www. MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age audio. as a blog. upload photos. Platial – A site to create social maps. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.analytictech. Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. Share it with others if desired. high Orkut .orgnet. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. and within “communities of interest. video.facebook.friendster. ks.livejournal. which is then open to other readers.spartasocialnetworks. and geographic regions. http://www.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. http://www.faceparty. http://www. Users share their writings and meet each other. workplaces.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at and the list of related articles using social network analysis. licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.

links to similar sites. Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-


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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > ec2003/kaplan.htm an2004/kaplan2.htm /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.


© Brandon Hall Research e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005.,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005.

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is


© Brandon Hall Research

http://www. http://www-142. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.pdf Knudsen. 44-49. London: Routledge.html Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Online Resources Virtual-Presence. the CAVE.jabber. http://www. http://www. and Windows. L. http://www. The driver sits in a box.berkeley. and Naeve.advanced. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://www." Do not reproduce 187 . MacOS X. Ken ( Keynote address at the ISEC conference. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Cambridge.) (2000). http://gaim.sourceforge. http://www. http://www2.txt Knudsen.networkworld.. Hubert (2001). In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). Presence applications poised for takeoff. (Eds. 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 n. http://www. Sept. e/CJKPresenceProd. secure.“Simultaneous Presence.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. Jabber – An open.hig. and descriptions of systems for virtual is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. http://www. On the Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same Bibliography Dreyfus.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.nada.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.ieor.virtual-presence.kth. http://www. John (2004). The production of presence – distance techniques in education. and Handberg.html Goldberg. In Soldek. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. Nils (2000).pd f Fontana. http://kmr. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. (2001).fakespace. A.percro.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring 090604specialfocus. Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. > > http://www. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. Online memo. Network World.acs. http://laimuz.advanced. (2002). and /tele/ Internet Society. Network Working Group (2000).org/teleimmersio eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. http://messenger. as well as news. MA: MIT Press.aim. 2004. history.

com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. M. http://www.pdf Lynn. A.Banff.modes. Amsterdam: IOS Press. September 24.swedishlearninglab.infoworld. A..wired. and IJsselsteijn. et al.pdf Sponberg. (Eds. H. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. http://cid.kth. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. D. 28. June 1.) (2003). Alberta... When time-shifting and telepresence collide. Wired News. Jan. In Hoyer. Being There: Concepts. Knudsen. nts/Sponberg. W. (2001). Davide.nada.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. M.pdf Udell. Regina (2004).info/downloads/TWR3lowres. January 2005.html Riva. L.. Calgary.digicult. Abbott. C. http://www.. 2002. http://www. http://www. H. and F. Dobreva. http://www. Germany: Hagen.Learning. InfoWorld. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. S. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. G. (Eds.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1. (2005). Jon (2005). and Rusbridge.650 64-0. Ins and outs of teledildonics.

the largest Internet telephone service. streaming video. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. cell phones. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Do not reproduce 189 . reviewed video as an online content format. in all its formats. Britain's largest telecom firm. Further. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Once video goes on the Internet. according to Foroohar (2006). A new version of television. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. telepresence. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. television. In spite of the limitations. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. screencasting. BT. As the following examples show. vodcasting. However. videocasting. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. My first report in this series. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. amateur and professional video cameras. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. 2005). tlearning. bandwidth becomes an issue. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. 2002). video blogging. Video blogging has become common. PDAs. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. even a video plug-in for Skype. IPTV. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines.

com/pressrelea see Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.on2.veotag. http://www. http://www.dfilm. low bandwidth video stream.brightcove.rocketboom.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the At BitTorrent. improves the satisfaction of the client.html Dialcom Networks. Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. a three-minute Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.” Users can upload video clips for free. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. http://www. See examples at: http://www. video.htm According to Axor Corporation of veotag allows users to upload videos. users can tag their own videos and post them to the and multimedia content to customers. partners. voice.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. the Internet telephone service. the “triple play” of Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. or students through a high quality. http://www. See samples at: http://www. See the current selection at: http://video. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. http://vpb. or set-top box.ourmedia. desktop. and divide them into chapters or 190 © Brandon Hall Research . PDA. http://www. For an example of a video blog. employees.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television tag them. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. In 1999.bittorrent. ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. and maintains loyalty. whether is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. It is still going strong at: The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.concord. with IPTV. http://participatoryculture.

html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.masternewmedia.dvguru. 2005.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio. Wi-Max. t-learning Study .educause. 1. http://www. http://eduscapes. For eaminglearning. Peter (2003) which users can submit. http://www.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV read “Ten video sharing services compared.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with Beyond Wireless Broadband. Luigi (2005a).uk/files/pdf/ m Canali De Rossi. termed “mobile Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.upenn. and by tags. The site already contains nearly 6. and visual resources. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content (2003).htm Canali De m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.” http://www. Dec.spider. http://www. www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital Luigi (2005b).co. and m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. but business models are or http://dvguru. London: Learning and Skills Development 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.masternewmedia.” http://www.” Bibliography Atwere. 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. http://www.pdf e.” http://knowledge. http://www.thinkofit.elearnspace. http://www. http://www.streamingmedia. http://www. Robin Good Blog.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.lsda. video.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.500 vlogs organized by popularity. Online article at: http://www. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. by 7005. http://www. Pradeep (2004).” eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. D.

Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. Robin Good Blog. Manchester. Mon. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. P. Brian (2002). 2005. http://www. IAT Services White Paper. and Young.pdf Klass. http://www.asp?id=7769 Meng.umist. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.). Online paper. C.msn. http://www. NC: Duke University.jhtml?articleID=161600153 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). http://www. Asensio. Brian (2005). 7. 2005. and Swenson. Rana (2005). April 26. Changing Channels.XMax Goes The Distance. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. site/newsweek/ Friedman. M. http://www2.masternewmedia. In Richards. University of Missouri. Campus Technology.pdf Newsweek (International Ed. 2005. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Matthew (2005).com/services/us/imc/pdf/ Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Jonathan.) (2002). IBM Institute for Business Value ticle.networkingpipeline. Feb.bcr. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. (Eds. L. http://www. 2005. http://www. (Ed. 417-419). Peter (2005).edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. pdf . discussions and implications. http://www1. http://www-rcf. 2. Durham. (2003).org/newdl/ Tom (2005). Nov. http://edmarketing. Networking Pipeline.aace. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.msnbc. S.php Taplin.htm Curtis. 2005.campustechnology.. e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. 8-9.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.). June 6.usc.cfm?fuse action=Reader. (2005). The IPTV Revolution. http://www.

Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. http://www. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.equator.ubc. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. desktop virtual reality. http://solipsis. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.columbia. designers. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. Creed. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. Depending on the level of realism achieved. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. http://www1.futurelab. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. and storytellers. http://www. http://www.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.kahootz. To do this. Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. exchange enabling. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. augmented virtuality. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. and the aim of the virtual experience.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer distributed virtual annah/savannah.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. mixed and Religious Studies department. http://ancient. interaction. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Videoconferencing is not required. simulation. skin color. By using aspects of game In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). Shape has developed the ects/arc/arc. Near Eastern. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. and look do not count much in virtual Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent. Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education.activeworlds.epfl. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.intuition-eunetwork. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.. m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. (2001). 175-199. A. Technology Area .spider.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). http://ru6. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual .asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.healthdatamanagement.pdf Bouras. Triantafillou. https://www. East Carolina University. (2006).com/article. For example. http://www. > > http://www. http://www. http://www. http://vrlab. 2006.informationinplace. Hornig. Campus Technology. > http://vads. http://ru6.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. and Tsiatsos. Philopoulos.hpc.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. and Tsiatsos. http://www. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.pdf Bouras. Luigi (2004).gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .uk/guides/using_g uide/ Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. V.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research .html The U.campustechnology. T.html Bibliography Bouras. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.cfm ?PostID=19660 > 7. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. http://vr.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. including education. T.secondlife.cti. and Tsiatsos. http://www.S. e-Learning through distributed virtual The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. August 9. (2001).uk/guides/vr_guid e/index. G. C.ergonetz. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.ahds.cti. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. C.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future http://www. C. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. Research report. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.

org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.oln. (2005). Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. and White.ikg.elearning. & Sester. 2004. G.actapress. 2004. s_elearn04. 2004. and Sester.digicult.. (2005). Donnelly. http://www. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.tcd. and Rusbridge. Guardian Unlimited.htm Katterfeld. P.masternewmedia. Eva (2004). Conlan.learningcircuits. (2002).. 1(2). T. No. R. Vol. M. Proceedings. Stephen (2004). P. Proceedings. M. F. Sept. http://www. Gerard (2002). http://www. (Section on Virtual Reality). 2005. (2005). Michelle (2003).com/PaperInfo. January 2005. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. M. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. http://courseweb.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. Abbott. M. http://www. Ekaterina (2005).html Liarokapis. 2004. (2005) July 9-16. 35.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: Do not reproduce 195 . F.html Jones. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Istanbul. 27. http://education. (2004).unihannover. Dec..pdf Hoare. 1.. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Web-based Education 2005 conference. E. La Coruna/ story/0. and Hicks. http://www. O. Virtual teaching aids become a reality.pdf Katterfeld.actapress. A.actapress. M.. C. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Learning Circuits... Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Lister. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information df Prasolova-Førland. http://www.htm Dickey. Web Based Education 2005 conference. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.unt. C.unibo.pdf Ross. http://www. https://www. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. J. Trend: augmented reality check.. (2004) 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld.Good Blog. http://www. D.cs. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 28. Bertolotto. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic 004/ /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. and Seyedarabi. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 and Mangina. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. ISPRS. http://www. dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. A.10577. http://www. rs/Queen. M. McArdle. McHugh. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Monahan.00.

com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. http://www. 2003). My first report in this series. and data rendering. data mapping.zoomclouds. allowing for innovation or new Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data ( The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. cognitive collage. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.semagix. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. On the other hand.ucar. et al. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. images. cybercartography. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. http://www. Finally. 2005). location based systems.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. data filtering. such as a blog.inxight. Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. reviewed visualization as an online content format. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. graphics. dynamic displays. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. mapping.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps.ontopia. http://www. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. See some amazing demos at: http://www. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. geographical information 196 © Brandon Hall Research . see index. which showcases their potential. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. visualization can represent alternative points of view. GIS.unifiedfield. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. For an example. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. The educational advantages of visualization are many. pattern recognition. Flash. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.”’ BBC News. VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.html For a practical application of visualization. Free demo at: http://www. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. /3608385. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival. Be sure to explore the “ Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.ddd. Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.” A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.idc.cs. http://www. It has images of space and the earth from space. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite Sample the collection at: http://svs.typorganism. and display (without glasses!).” http://www.medtropolis. VR.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Web site in Tokyo. http://www.alice.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.nixlog. A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .in English or Spanish.html The Texas Memorial Museum in a young graphic http://www. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.ul. see ‘Scientists seek “map of which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. Museum Edition. http://www. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. http://news.0 authoring AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. delivery. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. and visualization applications. April 7th. http://www. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. See: Paul Nixon.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. See his list of resources at: “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.

com/cat/dashb oard/index.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage Digital Dashboard http://msdn. index. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural WorkPlace Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. one million ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See this technology in es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. http://www. See their tool set and examples of their and information presentation.ontopia.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. in the U.owu. http://www.semagix. http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.unifiedfield.amnh. http://www. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.indiana. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland. anatomically detailed.S. http://www.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.xcelsius.arcscience. http://www.spotfire.ambientdevices. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.html XCelsius sible_human.nih.noaa. http://www. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . http://clustrmaps. for example.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by CenterView http://www. Using time as an added dimension.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. http://www.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps. OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.html Top Tier http://www. http://research. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.cs.vicodi. retrieval.umd.

for 2-D and 3-D graphing. ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. animation. including the following: Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. for 3-D data visualization. VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. They have worked with the U.pixologic. http://www. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. Clicking a related term extends the The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.okino.formz. many of which are unique. and anomalies in TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. for 3-D modeling. MapViewer. for thematic and analytical mapping.goes far beyond static JPG map images. Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.S. http://www.visualcomplexity. Okino makes visual simulation data DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.esri.softill. including the following: Voxler. http://www. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. http://www.” http://www. Try a demo at: http://www. Carrara. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United http://tangible. networks. http://www.advizorsolutions. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. and rendering Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://www. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www. http://www.visualthesaurus. and Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. Didger.accurender.timemap. Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.5-D modeling and rendering Online Resources Visualcomplexity.daz3d.visualanalytics. Pixologic is 2. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. for 3-D landscaping and animation. trends. modeling.

The Semiology of on_design_and_data_visualization.gvu. J. > > http://acg. EXYSTENCE ey/visurvey. He finished his PhD. in June 2004 and now has his own Web http://www. 14(1). P. A.cs. http://acg. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Sémiologie Graphique: les Ell. http://www. les cartes.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson. Working Paper. and Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.infovis.complexityandeducation. http://www. Bibliography nfovis/ > / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.pdf Bertin.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. (2003). as part of his doctoral work at MIT.gatech.. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.pdf Sherman (2003). Jacques (1983).” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis (1999).pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. http://www. and Resetarits.topicmaps. 31-49 http://www. http://www..vrco. les ré Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. G.edwardtufte.agocg.gvu.ualbert a. Mackinlay. Madison: University of” http://vis. (Eds. Paier.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. K. Proceedings. / Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite http://www.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . together with their estimated depth of influence. and Woodill. M.complexityscience. Following are two: > > http://graphics. http://www. http://coe.gatech. Jacques (1967).stanford. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological Card. > > http://www. J.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. J. B. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to s448b-04-winter/ http://www.liveplasma.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Paris: La Haye.editlib.ubc. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.iu. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. both visualization companies. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. is available The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. > http://benfry.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.

com/articles/abs tracts/index. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. NC: Duke University. June 1. 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.. (1992). External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Switzerland: University of Lugano. G. Luca (2005). Educational Media International. 3(1). Luca (2003).. Campus Technology. K. http://www. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. Theresa (1998). September. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.pdf Goldfarb. No. Spence. J. Abbott.campustechnology. 2. (2005). 4(1).agocg. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.siggraph.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. http://www.psycho. (2006). G. 41(3). 45. August 11. A..pdf?fuseaction=Reader.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 329-351. available online at 16(4). (1998). 185–213 http://www. A. EDUCAUSE ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.slis. C. and Rusbridge. Robert. Brent (2006). Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. http://www. and Woolsey. Information Visualization.html Ross. No. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. pp. K.. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.editlib.asp?id=11222 Metros. ey/visurvey. Siggraph. Ruth (2003).pdf Shneiderman. and Knezek. January 2005. Harlow. D. Morales. S. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Brian (2002). K.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.usilu. (2001). pp. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.digicult. http://nivea. England: AddisonWesley. (2005). 69-82. 4th Edition.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 erm0638. B. and Pagalthivarthi. http://www. http://www. Canadian Journal of Psychology. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. Lugano. http://www. 3. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside Donnelly. http://www.univparis5. (2004).info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Arns. 42.html Rhyne. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2005).pdf Scaife. 46: 461-488. J. 2ml/ Botturi. May/June. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Vol. 1-34.indiana.. Journal of Interactive Learning m O' http://www. S. M. (Section on Visualization). August. Mike and Do not reproduce 201 . and Bertoline. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 17-30. Vol. Durham. McHugh. Yvonne (1996).html /papers/externalcognition.asp Mittal. L. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. International Journal on E-Learning.cfm/files/pape r_5994. (2005).elearningguild. 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. http://itdl.istituti.

amazon. Edward (1997). and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. http://www. Information Visualization: perception for design. Cheshire.E. 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. CT: Graphics Press. David (2005). evidence and Ware. http://www. Edward (1990). New York: Watson-Guptill Publications.ciconline. From multimedia to multisensory education. CT: Graphics Press. Sharpe. http://www. Tufte. 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley.edwardtufte. 2nd Edition. Envisioning Information. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Visualization. Matt (2002). http://www. David (2002).com/tufte/index Tufte. 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Colin. Cheshire.edwardtufte. http://www. (2004). 2nd Ed. Digital Information Graphics. Tufte.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Amsterdam: Elsevier. Edward (2001). Visual Explanations: images and M. CT: Graphics Press. http://www.

and a microphone. headphones or speakers. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. Internet telephony is relatively simple. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” Do not reproduce 203 .cogs. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. and Telephony Related terms Broadband 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.avaya. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. in remote communities. Internet telephony. Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. 1996). In the near future. communications tools. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. Using VoIP. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. http://www.voipreview. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. but it is rapidly improving. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in http://www. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. Join the discussion at: http://voip.jajah. requiring an Internet Bibliography Cherry. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Steven (2005). a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. March Skype is the best known VoIP service. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.susx.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Geraldine (2005) 8 Fitzpatrick. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. IEEE Spectrum Online. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.spectrum. http://www. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.

A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic . Meredith (1996). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.nald. September.. S.msu. (2005).js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://ieeexplore. Robert (2005). Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT http://www.pdf Ottoson. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. 9(3). Language Learning and Technology.Ganchev. http://llt. Stojanov. M. and O’Droma. Mobile distributed e-learning center. I.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .

com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/ op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. It is controllable by the user m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. Do not reproduce 205 . The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn Computing Related terms Ambient computing. http://news. Selected Examples In Europe. managing. http://wearables. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. like a wristband or jewelry.ices. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. anytime. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.sportbrain.checkpointelearning.ices. especially for comercial airlines. weighs less than three pounds. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. 6. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. It is observable by the user 4. ubiquitous computing > http://www.learnexact.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. including wearable computing. The entire system.cmu.pdf http://www. http://www. http://killer. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. and other organizations involved in inspecting. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. or repairing complex machines. training to do their jobs. http://www. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. For example.bris. 1998): 1. In January 2006. including batteries. training. the automotive 690. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable.

http://www. May 12-13. (2004).ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Wired ml http://www. http://www. http://wearcam.pdf Kharif.htm Mann. ellaWVAC.eyetap.html The Wearable Computing site from http://www. Toronto: Anchor Books. (2002).cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.uoregon. and Bibliography de Freitas.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research ables/index.html The design of “smart clothing. and Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.eecg. Wearable Computing for the Commons. Simson (2004).toronto.” including computers built into underwear. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. http://www.ethz. VA.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. S. (2003). Olga (2005).ac. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). Business Week Online. Fairfax. H. Technology Review (Online).eee. Wearable computers that you can slip il/ 2004. http://www. 2006.wired. Mmoma (2006).wearable.http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to is a rich source of references.wired. and What you’ll wear in 10 years. 1. http://wearcam.html content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. ICWC98. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. S. M. March 24.toronto. http://www. C. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . See: > > > http://genesis. 2005.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. especially in the area of wearable cameras. March 8. Steve (1998).704 cle.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.nasa. http://www.704 http://www. M.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS). photo collections.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. and course offerings. PDAs.brightcove. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). including cell phones. with all the potential for viruses and spam. blogs. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been 7. Attensa Express. Here is a list of 48: 1. and electronics. TV guides. and 8. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Brightcove http://www. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. BlogLines 4. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. job searches. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. CDs. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. social bookmarking. feeds. To read content from a Web feed. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. each with its own features.0 format). and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. Awasu http://www. and Atom is the second. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.html 6. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. > For learners and teachers. Aggie http://bitworking.html 2.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . podcasts. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. Amphetadesk http://www. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information ( 5.attensa.awasu. basic text format for quick review.disobey. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the desk 3. Bloglet http://www.” as its content is changed by the author. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. Both RSS and Atom are written in Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. When changes are made to a Web site. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. listings of the latest books.

RSS-to-Javascript 40. Videora http://www.videora. RSS Software m/products/pulpfiction/ ml /EaZyRss.2 For a list of more My RSS Toolbar http://www.h tm 12.rssreader.feedburner. PubSub tml 29. SharpReader http://www. Sage http://sage.mozdev.rssreader.feedpublish.onfolio. Edu_RSS 31. Topix http://www. RSS Bandit 33. Protopage http://www.hexamail. EaZy RSS reader http://www. LearningFeeds http://www. StepNewz http://www.topix. Feedroll . Feedtier 37.blogplanet.php. RSSCalendar http://www. RSS2Exchange http://www. FeedBurner http://www. Feed-Directory http://www.rojo. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. OnFolio d/ 48. / 23. feedbeep http://feedbeep. Syndirella http://yole.feedforall. including listings for various electronic devices. RSS Orbit 24. Reader http://www. FeedForAll 46. FeedPublish 39. Fuzzy Duck http://www. Rojo 18. Pluck 16.somee.html 15. NewsIsFree http://www. Project 22. To have a blog aggregated. Thunderbird http://www.hebig.U. Newsgator 32. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for 25.feedroll. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .feed-directory.mozilla. Feedster hange/ 14. Gregarius 42. FeedReader http://www. FeedScout http://bytescout. RSSReader see: http://www.sharpreader.shtml 11. David. a blog by Alan Levine. http://www.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog. Online paper.downes.elearningguild. http://www.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Stephen (2004).dist. and D’Arcy ged/RSSFAQ2. Aug. 2003.usatoday. maintains a long list of RSS resources.Possible Future Evolution. RSS: the next killer app for /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.mcli.pdf Canali De Rossi.php 2003. http://www. http://www. July/August 2003. Do not reproduce 209 . RSS Ideas for Educators.1. Stephen (2002).ca/cgibin/wiki. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. http://www.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. USA Today (online). Lamb. Anh (2005). http://www. The Technology Source Archives. Mary (2003).ca/edu_rss.learningcircuits. June 2004. http://careo.cfm?ArticleID=5211 903DEV-L.contentious.elearning. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. Version 1.downes.htm 2004/0405_Trends.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography -08-01-rss-research_x. Luigi (2004).pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).htm erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. B. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. http://timyang.lo. http://www. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. http://www. Aug. 5-8.vccs.learningcircuits. Learning Circuits.pdf Gannett. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. Brian 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p 20for%20Educators111.downes. RSS: a learning technology. Read his article written specifically for educators. Dan (2004). http://technologysource.mcli. Brian Lamb. http://www. 1. Vancouver. Oct. 2004. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass tory. and Norman. Eva (2004). 31. University of North Carolina. May 2004.redjupiter.htm D’Sousa. Kaplan-Leiserson. Quentin (2006).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Online paper. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. eSchool News. (2003). D. Bill (2003). 004/downes. May 19. BC. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.maricopa. http://www. http://www. 3. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. RSS could transform online mc1003/ The Fuss.ubc. Learning Circuits.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. eLearning Developers’ Journal. 2004. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. A. 2005.htm Downes.

http://www. /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml.Levine. 2005.theshiftedlibrarian. Alexandra (2005). 3. 2005. 2006. s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. http://www.pdf 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. RSS: the next big thing online. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.oreilly.mediathink.blogspot. March 23.html Powers.alexandrasamuel. Namespaced extensions in feeds. Mihai (2006). Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. (2006).html?page=1 Udell. 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.oreillynet.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Shelly (2005).xml.html MediaThink (2004).com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. InfoWorld. eeds/index. http://www. Sept. http://www.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research .com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. Using RSS for data integration. O’Reilly Network. The Shifted Librarian.html Samuel. Otherwise Engaged. June 18. Aug. MediaThink White Paper. Jenny (2005). and Webb. http://www. July 7. Jon (2005).infoworld. Google Reader Blog. 2006. 2005. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).

wikipedia. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. Content is ego-less. My first report in this series.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.schtuff. anyone can read or add content to a wiki custom permissions. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. can be used by a team for joint writing. 2005). an image gallery. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. 2. Anyone can add to it.sourcewatch. http://www. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. 3.usemod. http://www. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever See the progress at: http://edu. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. For wikis to the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. features. the software used to run Wikipedia. Do not reproduce 211 .com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. 4. http://www.gilbane. is available for other applications.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. With some basic instructions.” Essentially. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.seedwiki. time-less.usemod. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a There are hundred of “wiki engines.tikiwiki. http://www. http://www.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. and projects. it is important to have several Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. and never finished. http://www.300. http://www.sourceforge. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. There are now over 1. http://wikipedia. and email Description Wikis are fully editable Web Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.

Dec.” http://writingwiki. The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.elearningcentre.different. http://kairosnews. http://www.html Augar. WritingWiki. Perth. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.infoworld.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.37/teresadeca/webheads/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in mlaut.48.shtml Brian Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. and Zhou. http://64. http://weblog. Twiki. “ th04/procs/ has lots of resources on wikis. http://radio.wikibooks.html Ciffolilli. http://www. Teaching and learning online with wikis.ubc. http://aronsson.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. Andrea (2003). Raitman.ikiw. including a section on wiki tools. http://www. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.” is a rich source of information on wikis. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. http://www. http://www.fasfind.learningwiki. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. Jon Udell. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Not all uses of wikis in education work well. http://flosse. maintains an extensive list of wiki :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. Australia. entwikis.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from including wikis. mattison. as well as an analysis of how they work. http://en.” http://tlc.Weblogs. First Monday. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://m.socialtext. N.dicole. ries/wikis/2004/02/16.elearning. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a 8(12).org. is provided by David Mattison.html Bibliography Aronsson. A free trial is available. http://careo. of the University of British Columbia. (2002). His article. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. that she updates regularly. Phantom Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .nu’s first nine months in service. (2004).pbwiki. 5-8.ucalgary.. Operation of a Large Scale. http://www.

Wiki Tools. 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. http://www. Wood.usemod. Why Wikis Work Not.http://firstmonday. 7004.10. Online paper. InfoWorld. 2. Online article.zkm. http://gilbane. T.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. UniversityWiki. Brian (2004). Making the case for a wiki. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. Educause _002_09_ebersbach. Cossarin.infoworld. David (2004). http://www. Jon (2004). July. 2005.1/technot Do not reproduce 213 . http://www. Online article at PCMag. 0/19. Searcher. http://www. ssier_imprimer. (2004). Clark.educause. Lamb. Quickiwiki.pdf Fountain.ariadne. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. Nov. The wiki way.. (2001). 19. http://c2.pdf and Webb. ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.infotoday. http://www. L. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Swiki.html Stafford. Ariadne. David (2003). http://www.shtml Rubenking. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Online article. Neil (2003). Lauren (2005).com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. April 2003. July 7.14 02872.oreillynet. S. International Journal of Information Ethics.. January. 12(10). http://container. Emma (2005).Oct. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://www. Online article at: http://www.profetic. 2004. Issue 42. Oct. 2006. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.00. Schwartz. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: (2006).uk/issue42/ Udell.html M0452. Richard (2003). Renée (2005). April 2004.asp Schmitt.4149. Anja (2004). Bo & Cunnin. and Rudolph.pdf 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. O’Reilly Network..educause. Wiki pedagogy.

I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. However. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. which. which can then lead to inventions. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. in turn. floppy disks. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. After a product has been successfully launched.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . CD-ROMS.

video games. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Ontologies. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. Some will die quickly. ascend the curve. means that they actually think differently. The technology of e-learning. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. However. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. This is due. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. to the complex. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. both in classrooms and online. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. while others will last for decades. some will never leave the development stage. 2003). because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. mature. In any field. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. and computers. in part. But not all technologies will travel this road. change itself seems to be inevitable. Further. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. The experience of younger learners with television. peak. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. in both formal and informal settings. or may never become commercially viable. For a variety of reasons. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. this approach is now rapidly changing. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. and decline.

In North America. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. the civil rights movement. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. However. the baby boomers. that is all about to change. huge data wall displays. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. terrorism. sex. With feedback. But they are usually disap-pointed. In contrast. Once we master the art of reading. For the older generation. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Because of this. 1994). The speed of change increases with each passing year. until we become habituated. Generally. Within the next five years. generally went to work earlier.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. digitization of smell. Their children. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. surprise. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. To keep our attention. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. p. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. the computer. we will see the restructuring of education and training. gaming consoles. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. commercials. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. the space race. global warming. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. television. wearable computers. touch and taste. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. the learner. For example. or violence is needed to keep our attention. born in the 1970s. ecological disasters. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. and the globalization of corporate capitalism.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. designers of Sesame Street. in a back-and-forth exchange. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. In approaching electronic educational media. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. video games. It works for a time. libraries.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. and digital ink and electronic paper. results in an action by the other participant. The children of the baby boomers. 28). 2002. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. mobile phones.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Then even more movement. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and personal digital assistants. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. mind-altering drugs. movie theaters. whereby the action of one participant. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s.

http://www. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. http://www. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. and the mapping of everything. Texas. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. http://www. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. shortly. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. James (1994). creative products. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and Woodill. Guides are Do not reproduce 217 .com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. (2001).com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. At the individual level. http://www. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Gary (2006). It is already a place for massively multiple player games. New York: Bibliography Christensen. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild Marc. New York: Collins. In the next wave. Two hundred years ago. Rushkoff.operitel. portfolios. Boston: Harvard Business School http://www.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Digital Game-based Learning. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. San the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Dallas. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. May 2006. Douglas (2005). Likewise. http://www. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. technologies and services for the next 5 years. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Bob (2006).” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Clayton (1997).

bartneck. +1 (415) 682-0688 Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .unige.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 e. Manuel I. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. 2910-595 Setúbal .org/ AiLive Inc. 27A 2º esq. Marc Schrö MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.O. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. D. Building Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Palo MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. 1515 Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.umu. CA 94304 USA WEBIST Av. Den Dolech 2 P. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. L69 7ZF.informatik. 17th Floor. New York. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. 3400 Hillview Humaine Project c/o al.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.myself-proj.Portugal Auburn University Auburn.51.ailive. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Box 513. UK

W. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 Alchemy Mindworks P. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.educause. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Box 5200. W Toronto. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 Ascension Technology Corporation Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. Bloomington.adobe. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Edmonton. 10004-104 Avenue.ascilite.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.php/Main_ Page Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Burlington. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. Huntsville. Inc. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. Educause 4772 Walnut s/index. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.ascension-tech. 1900 East Tenth CodeBaby Corp. Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr.O. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Suite 206 Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. P. Box 2124 Menlo Park. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. L69 7ZF. Box Apple Extempo Systems.mindworkshop.animationfactory. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.

PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.massivesoftware. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley. PO Box 24478.asp EI Technology Group. Suite 100 Menlo Park.viewpoint. TN 38152 USA http://www. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 Pty Ltd The Basement. San Antonio.cmu.aaai. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 Cognitive Science Society Department of 220 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ NewTek. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.newtek. SWiSHzone.San Rafael.cognitivesciencesociety. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .swishzone. Avid Technology http://www. Inc. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.html Ulead Systems 970 W. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. Wellington.cs.aclweb. 190th Street. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 Avid Technology.htm AutoTutor c/o 5131 Beckwith Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. Inc.460.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. One Park West Tewksbury. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. Tel: +1. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. Suite #480 Torrance.ucsb.macromedia.avid.eitechnologygroup. Suite 108-414 San 601 Townsend Street San tylab. 110 Cuba Mall. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA Character Animation Technologies Ltd. Santa Barbara.S.A.

European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.licef. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.cs. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.cs.wpi. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. Suite K. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. CA CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. Calgary. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.10th Street S. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.gemini. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.cmu. u.W. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Chantilly. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . Inc. West Montreal.iit. University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. H-1111 Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road 100 Sherbrooke St.W.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Suite 360 San Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.ucalgary. Do not reproduce 221 .com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.cs. Egry J. Suite 1500 Montreal.cis. East Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building Quantum h/current_computer_science_education_re search.enel.

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2280 St.envision..e-learningcentre.audiolink.cakewalk.adobe. NC 27609 USA Tel: (919) 571-3292 Fax: (919) 571-2760 http://www. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 S1 2NS UK Sonic Foundry 222 West Washington Avenue Accordent Technologies 300 XStream Software. Audio and Podcasting Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. CA 951102704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Inc. 860 Sandalwood AudioLink. Sheffield Technology Parks.adobe. Continental iTunes Apple Computer. Grime and San Jose.A. Suite 200 x.Vantage Learning 110 Terry Drive. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Bremmers Audio Design Vlamingstraat 71 2611 KS Delft The Netherlands http://www. Watertown. Ontario. 50 Hunt St. Inc.xstreamsoftware. PA 18940 Tel: (800) 322-0848 Fax: 215-579-8391 http://www. MA 02210 USA Tel: (617) 423-9004 Authoring Tools Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue.html AVSMedia Online Media Technologies Ltd. Suite 200 El e-Learning Centre Learning Light Cakewalk 268 Summer Street Boston. Laurent Blvd.multitrackstudio.purdue. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Fax: (617) 423-9007 http://www. Arundel AcroServices c/o L.epnweb. OH 43551-3225 USA Tel: (419) 872-9999 Do not reproduce 223 .uk Envision Center Purdue University 128 Memorial Mall. Suite 100 Newtown.html Automatic Synch Technologies Tel: (510) 582-3437 http://www. Inc 140 Keller Street Petaluma. CA 94952 USA Tel: 1 (707) 782-1866 Fax: 1 (707) 782-1874 http://www. Inc.. CA 90245 USA Tel: (310) 374-7491 Fax: (310) 374-7391 http://www. WI 53703 USA Tel: (608) 443-1600 Fax: (608) 443-1601 http://www.automaticsync. MA 02472 USA Tel: (617) 926-9007 http://www.aspx BIAS. 29 Harley Street London W1G 9QR United Kingdom Fax: (44) 207 182 6722 http://www.sonicfoundry.. Stewart Center West Lafayette IN 47906 USA Tel: (765) 496-7888 http://www. Cooper West Educational Podcast Network c/o David Warlick Raleigh. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Products: Performance Analyzer http://www.

CA 94709-2114 USA Tel: 1 (866) 522-7941 http://www. AZ 85016 USA Tel: (602) 343-1500 Fax: (602) 343-1600 http://www. Israel Tel: 972-4-993 0484 Fax: 972-4-983-1715 products/acrotrain.horizonwimba.html Content Point c/o Atlantic Link Strelley Dynamic Power Trainer c/o Dynamic Media Straßganger Straße 287 224 © Brandon Hall Research . 136 South Main Street.htm Anark Corporate Headquarters 1434 Spruce Street. Nottingham. Two University Office Park 51 Sawyer CourseGenie c/o Horizon Wimba 520 8th CourseWare c/o Bridge Via Sangallo DazzlerMax c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Coursemaker Studio c/o Learn. Inc. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 531-1631 Designer’s Edge c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.http://www.bridge-pt. Suite A300 Salt Lake AuthoLearn c/o TrainVision P. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 Camstasia Studio c/o Lifeboat Distribution 1157 Shrewsbury Avenue Shrewsbury.anark.learn. Inc. +44 (0)115 9061375 Fax. Waltham. MA 02453 USA Tel: (781) 370-8000 http://presentation. Banshee c/o McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. Suite 200 Boulder. CO 80302 Tel: (303) 545-2592 Fax: (303) 545-2575 Brainshark.mckinnonmulherin. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. +44 (0)115 9061251 http://www.htm Bloki c/o Zapatec Inc. FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 Fax: (954) 233-4001 http://www.bloki.htm CopyCat Tel: +44(0)845 4900 228 Fax: +44(0)870 900 9098 http://www. 20100 Milan.copycatsoftware. Suite 2300 New 200 South. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.p asp CLI Virtuoso Authoring System c/o Cisco Learning Institute 1661 East Camelback Road Suite 300 Phoenix. NJ 07702-4321 USA Tel: (800) 847-7078 Fax: (732) 389-2066 http://www. UK Tel. 1700 Martin Luther King Jr Way Berkeley.trainvision.brainshark. Italy http://www. 14000 NW 4th Street Virtuoso/Index. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.Box 1116 Ramat Yishai Custom Learning Studio c/o MyKnowledgeMap Ltd 37a Micklegate York YO1 6JH UK Tel: +44 (0)1904 659465 Fax: +44 (0)1904 466081 http://www.acroservices.atlanticlink. NG8 6PE.

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uk/index.reusableobjects.digitalworkshop. Do not reproduce 227 . Ontario. 2280 St. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.readygo. 3rd Floor Magalia. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Suite 400 New Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. 2280 Laurent Blvd.scribestudio. Suite 200 Ottawa. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www.articulate. Suite 150 Lindon. Inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 http://www.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. Laurent Blvd. RapidBuilder c/o XStream Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W.pointecast. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.screenwatch. Redmond. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www. Cedar Ave & Napier Road. Inc. 150 Hamlet Court Road ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.podia. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www.xstreamsoftware. Ste.. Richmond. 200 South. Johannesburg.westcliffdata. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www. PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC RapidGuide c/o XStream Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 Presentation Studio c/o WebEx podia Ltd 6th Floor.Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Courtice. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www. 110 Fourth Ave.

WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. CA 92101 USA http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile. Germany Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.xplana.5709 time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.qarbon. Ste 202 Encinitas.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. Edmonton. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 Avatars CodeBaby Corp. #1910. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .suddenlysmart.respondus. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 TurboDemo c/o Bernard D& SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.turbodemo. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. +49(0)721. Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.. Gandy Blvd.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 mate. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Suite 1550 San DA Group The Lighthouse. Trainersoft FunEducation. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.4259 Fax: (760) 635.seminar. ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.codebaby. 323 Newbury Street Boston. Suite 200 Tampa. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.sensalearning. SC.time4you. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. 55 South Market St.funeducation.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd ime4you/ibt/en/start.toolbook. 76133 Karlsruhe.hunterstone.percepsys. 10004-104 01 616 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. 4.. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.

Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 OmniWeb Omni Development. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.blogburst. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.wavemarket.O. Dale Mabry Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. CA 94608 USA mniweb Opera Software ASA INDIA. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. W Toronto.O. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. Mazgaon. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.cramersweeney.opera. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. USA Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. Moseley. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. 6th Flr.oddcast. Inc. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.qelix. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.. CA 94043-0801 USA CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada GTCO CalComp.. Ste.. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Nesbit Rd. B13 9SG. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. 11th Floor New Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.daden. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.html Knowledge Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View.telsim. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Mumbai 10.flock. Mary Apts. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. Inc. Inc.vcom3d.redwoodelearning. Inc. Birmingham. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. 219 Oddcast 589 8th Ave.omnigroup. Suite 260 Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. Suite 900 Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos Browsers Flock 100 View Street. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Centra c/o Saba. Jospeh Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Central Desktop.batipi. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.bluetie. NJ . Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. 1192 East Draper Parkway. Brevient Tel: Smartroom Learning Breeze c/o Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.umass.telnetz.qwizdom.saba. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www.smartroom. Suite 522. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 udienceResponseSystems/Home. Suite 103 Toronto. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Draper.aspx Qwizdom. Inc. Somerset.bantu. Suite# 401.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.0162 http://www.caucus. Amherst. Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.944. 6th Floor New York. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 230 © Brandon Hall Research .pearsoned. Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. Orlando. Pleasant St. 100 North Lake Avenue. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 404 Fifth Avenue. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.avecomm. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 Brightidea. Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. Inc.backpackit. Inc. Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www.brightidea. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. 12617 Meridian E. #205 Batipi 11 St. SW. 1050 Pittsford Victor Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Suite 101E Falls BlueTie.brevient.adobe.

digi-net. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 LLP PO Box 325. Suite 950 Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. 1034 N. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www.courseforum.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.citrix.emc. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 Cisco Sanibel EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. San CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 Digité. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .elluminate. 795 Folsom Street. Inc. 82 Pioneer Way.edufolio. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.W. Suite 105 Chapel ps5664/ps5669/index. Inc. 6th Floor San Francisco.communiqueconferencing.same-page. Suite 630 McLean. Ontario.comotivsystems.html Citrix Digi-Net Technologies.digite. Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. Suite 305 EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert eStudio c/o Same-Page. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. 57th Street Gainesville. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. 170 West Tasman Dr. Lauderdale. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Suite 600 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. Inc. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. 232 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. LLC 501 West Franklin Collaboration Loop CMP Media

ezmeeting.glance. Gordano 18 Kenn Road. #115 B. HyperOffice 6101 Executive hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . 3100 Steeles Avenue Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.groove. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic c/o Citrix Systems. Inc.4517 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.gotomeeting. Suite 2300 New York. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.flypaper.exactamerica. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. Clevedon. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 Groupwise c/o Novell. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. 395 eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.hotcomm. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.grapevinesoftware. Glance Networks.Tel: (978) 474-4900 GroupSupport. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 Global School Net 132 N. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.globalschoolnet. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 Groove Networks. Suite 500 Markham. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.forumone. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. El Camino Real.

com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.mspx LiveOffice. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.. 11th floor New York. lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.linktivity. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.intralinks.meetingone. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 Inc. 44th St. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.interwise. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. 3 Wing Do not reproduce 233 .ibm.near-time.interwoven. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – onProject.ivocalize. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.jdhtech.mayeticvillage. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite 300 Near-Time.netspoke. 25 First Street.mitre. Suite 412 MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. 1289 N. Phoenix. Suite 1401 Denver. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.ilinc. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.onproject. Fordham Blvd.http://www03. Sunnyvale. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Suite 100 LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 IntraLinks 1372 Broadway. Suite 6500 iLinc Communications 2999 N. Inc. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.

Suite 440 San Jose. 1175 58th Avenue. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.parlano. Suite 1450 Chicago. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 210 RADVISION OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 Photon Infotech Inc.nagarro. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.peoplecube.radvision. Riverside Plaza. Suite B.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Inc. Inc. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.opmcreator. Box 3325 York.project-open. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. 17-17 State Highway 208.seldensystems. 35.sharemethods.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. Suite 445 Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.Adyar 003/technologies/sharepoint/ Selden Integrated Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.cyber-grad. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 SpiderWeb Communications. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Harbor. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.opentext.photoninfotech.O. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 Raindance Communications. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. New project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Inc. Suite 200 Greeley.projectdox. 3679 Concord VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Cactus ml Parlano 10 ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley.

TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Teamware CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort WebAsyst PO Box Web Crossing. Box 135 FIN-00381 Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.webtrain. Suite 950 WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.usabilityfirst. Ontario M2N Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.stalker.webex.viack.Box 2900 Alameda. dex.O.. Suite 810 Toronto. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.Tel: (415) 383-7164 Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 WebEx Communications. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.sumtotalsystems. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.vodium.tacit.O. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Suite 1050 Vancouver.teamspace.backpackit. Suite 100 Austin. Do not reproduce 235 .webcrossing.txl Viack 14811 N. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Kierland Blvd. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 Vodium 1629 K Street NW. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.trichys. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Canada http://www. Suite 100 Scottsdale. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.webofficepoint. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7


© Brandon Hall Research

Tel: (514) 745-4010 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK

Fax: (781) 890-828 Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300


© Brandon Hall Research

Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4)

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 LearnCenter c/o, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915


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isnewmedia.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Suite 260 Foxborough. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 soft/hcm/ent/module/ Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. St. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. East . VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal. PO Box 100 Fair TeraLearn LCMS c/o TEDS Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 1280 San Francisco.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.technomedia. LTD 671 N. Glebe mGen Enterprise mGen. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.maxit. 1001 De Maisonneuve SSElearn Portal c/o On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.teralearn. West. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.sselearn.meridianksi. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. 500 West ng/index. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 n_resources/learning. Chantilly. 100 Foxborough Blvd.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Do not reproduce 241 . IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. 550 Queen TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. Suite 700 PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.Suite 350 Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. Inc. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. Suite 2200 Chicago.mgen. Inc. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.saba. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.

1619 Sumter Street Columbia . BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.wbtsystems. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Suite # 105 Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.arizona. 122 West Way. Ontario. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain WebMentor LMS Avilar Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Box 9752 Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Suite 200 Ottawa. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.avilar. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.O. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . 6760 Alexander Bell Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.cdlib. 4th Floor LMS c/o SumTotal. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Laurent Blvd.fldata. Victoria.sir. 17041 El Camino Real. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Inc.edutools. Inc.sumtotalsystems. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. Inc. Inc.gyrus. 240 Bay Street. 4 Expressway Plaza. 2280 St. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.ttg-inc. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Tracker. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. Suite 101 Houston. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.trainingpartner.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.vbtrain. Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Suite 200 Roslyn eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee..

org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.llearn.clarklabs.eoscenter.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. m ESRI Suite 300. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.rice. Fondren Library. MS GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. P. Rice University. AZ. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. CT 06459 USA http://www. Norton Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Box 1892.mcli.geocomm.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. 5151 East Broadway. Box 3000 Markham Street Victoria.cadcorp. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.unsw.merlot. Suite 1600 Tucson.O. ETRAC.dist. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 Do not reproduce 243 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .plos. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. Suite 3100 San Francisco. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.esri. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Sterling Court. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 AZ 85250 USA http://www. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 ENC Learning Inc. SG1 2JY.

edu PanGo Networks. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Box 240000 Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.aaai. Suite 100 Framingham. html ELSNET Trans 10. Suite 501 Portland.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. Electrical and Computer Engineering. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 Metadata. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.stockholmchallenge.cancore.knowledgepulse. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. Inc. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.pangonetworks. Austria http://www.5372. 959 Concord Street. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm MOBILearn c/o Dr.berkeley. of Geography.O.O. Inc. 17 SE 3rd t. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library PMB #112 Lake MapInfo One Global View Troy.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.imsglobal. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 Tel: (614) 764-6000 Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Spotlight Mobile. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.smm. Suite 100 Menlo Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.

com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. internet2. 3000 Richmond Rive KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.lexxe. Suite 300. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. Italy http://tcc.internet2. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.ldc. Inc.lockss. 19104-2653. Deane Rd. 10010 USA http://www. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 1st Floor A .elena-project.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.stockholmchallenge.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .org/site/pp. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.advancedreality.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.movedigital. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. MoveDigital. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .asianart.cetis.Project Coordinator CSI .com Groove National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. PA. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich. Whisman Road Mountain 1000 Oakbrook Drive.

333. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.teach-nology. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Slate Hill.presentations. 3º 08021 Barcelona. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood 50 S. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.6526 Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 ProQuest 789 E.elementk.worldwidelearn. Presentations. Inc. NE Calgary. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Ninth Portals SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Teachnology. 15-4-A 3333 http://www.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.elluminate. Suite 600 Elluminate Canada Suite World Wide Learn Suite 100.apreso.lsc.saba. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.proquest.elearningeuropa. Box 172 1039 . CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.genesys.saba.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . Alberta.rmv. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. New York 10973 USA Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. ns/index. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.macromedia. iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.17th Avenue SW Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. Suite 225 Santa Monica. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Box 1346 Ann Macromedia. Eisenhower Parkway P. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. 3016 5th Ave.trainingregistry. NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman. Inc.readygo. Raptivity P. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.raptivity. Radstock Somerset. Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Michigan.ife. SWEDEN. Inc. SE-100 44 Stockholm. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. 130 W.scate. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.whmsi. Lindsey Bldg. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 ReadyGo Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. CA NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 Centre for Autonmous Systems. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.nasa. Box 2827.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University. Woods Hole Marine ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.irc.generalrobotics. Suite B Orion. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Kungliga Tekniska Hö Euron c/o Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 O. Union St.rec.cmu. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Henrik I Christensen.articulate. Evolution Robotics. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . Ste.html Norman. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.eng.

info. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 excite. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .intute.about. Google (including Froogle. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.excite. Box 1133 Headquarters 555 12th Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.alexa. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.O. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Suite 500 Oakland.copernic.Search Engines 229 West 43rd Street New dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 Ask. 42nd Floor New York. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 Copernic 360 Franquet Street. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. Suite 60 Quebec. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.ask. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) Koders Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 Gada. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.dogpile.findlaw.6100 http://www. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Healthfinder P. Chicago.convera. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.

com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .technorati.lexxe. New York. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.1057022 LookSmart. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.rawsugar. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. 23rd Oklahoma City. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.looksmart. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.acm. Netscape AOL LLC.82152 Martinsried http://www.msn.. 6th Flr. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 Suite 207 San Francisco.netscape. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco.convera.almaden. 601 108th Avenue NE.cfm?doid=10 Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. Inc. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. MSN Search One Microsoft Way Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 SearchKing. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. 17th Floor New York.W. Suite 1200 LitLinker c/o ACM. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. Ltd. NY 10003. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. 7th floor. 64 Fulton Street. INDIA. 360 22nd Technorati 665 3rd Street. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.metacrawler. Suite 211 Palo Alto .biz Truveo. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 Pandora PubSub Concepts. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com/v2/index.pandora. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Mumbai 10. Mary Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. 2400 VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. Nesbit Rd. Mazgaon. QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. 23rd Floor San Francisco.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road. Inc.truveo.qelix. 22000 AOL Way Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Inc.W.. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.lalisio. Seventh Floor New York.searchking.

701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.New York.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.assima. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.atghome. EC4M 7NG Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk / Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.zoominfo.tkk.experiencebuilders.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.columbia. Box 1558 New Canaan.seco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. Yahoo http://www. 1st Floor A Zoom Information Inc. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 Inc. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.macromedia. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.knowledgequest. Inc. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 Flash c/o anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI Captivate c/o Macromedia. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.biographix.htm Yahoo! Inc. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www. GreenPark Reading. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI . Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue 307 Waverley Oaks Road Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G ö IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com 250 © Brandon Hall Research . Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. 10 Old Assima Ltd.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.stt-global.

assima.eduperformance. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. 1821 Walden Office Square. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. Québec. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.xstreamsoftware. Laurent Blvd. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.stt-global.outstart. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. Suite 240 CA . LLC 100 South Main Street. Light & Acoustics..learning2005.knowledge-director. Inc.teds.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Newburyport. Suite 1550 San Jose. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. England Stagecast Software. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Suite A-207 Brossard. Taschereau MASIE Center. 2280 RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Inc. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. 55 South Market St. B15 2TT.cs. Suite 360 San Mateo.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Suite 200 SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Softsim Outstart Studio.. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www..noaa. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 ts/poplog/packages/simagent.muzzylane. Suite 300 NexLearn. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 Wizard Training Suite c/o NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. Do not reproduce 251 . Schaumburg. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Suite 400.qarbon.bham. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.stottlerhenke.knowledgeplanet. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.

Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. Suite 224 Bloomington. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. Morton Street. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Social Bookmarking Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Inc.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.tagzania..classmates. Inc. Social Software Alliance c/o Social Friendster.. Suite 900 Austin. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 Network c/o The TechnoCentre. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Box 920089 Needham. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. Suite 500 Renton. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. 655 High Street Palo Alto. Suite 125 San Diego.rojo. WA 98055 USA http://www. CA 94089 USA Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.O.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.shadows.. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. 625 Second Street San Francisco.friendster. CA 94105 USA Classmates Online. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. 2001 Lind Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos mag. Menlo Eventful c/o EVDB.zvents. Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.networkltd.spurl. 101 Wolf Drive. Inc. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.furl.socialtext.analytictech. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Rojo Networks. 795 Folsom St. Thorofare. CA.icio. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 Spurl Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research . FURL c/o LookSmart. Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr c/o Yahoo! Inc. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.checkpointsystems.

Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CA 92121 USA http://www.sociosite. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.jabber.dfilm.advanced. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.percro. Church Jabber Software Foundation Virtual Reality Activeworlds BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. 4th Floor Marshalltown. Suite 115 San Diego.O. Cupertino. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.fakespace. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 VA 23461-1924 Fakespace 11 E. 7220 Trade Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Veoh Networks. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.brightcove. Box 1641 Denver.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.1011 CM Sparta Social Networks. New York. Inc.html Jabber Software Foundation P. CA 90028 USA PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.ergonetz.hpc. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.spartasocialnetworks. Box 1641 MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.hp. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 Suite 900 San Francisco. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.O. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 iTunes Apple Computer. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. CA 94105 USA Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. Suite 1001 Los PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. 95 Parker Street Futurelab 1 Canons Road Do not reproduce 253 .

intuition-eunetwork. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 iDashboards 5750 New King Formz 2011 Riverside Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. Williams Building College CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.accurender.corda.advizorsolutions. Tracy. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www.501 North Morton 1333 Butterfield Rd. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 Virtual Reality Lab ADVIZOR Solutions. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.cs.idashboards. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.ambientdevices.esri. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego.V. Station 14 CH-1015 UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc. Golden Software. Box 240000 Huntsville. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. MapInfo One Global Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Suite 100 Lindon. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Grove. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. Inc.intergraph.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Box CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Suite 3 Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Troy.coe. IC ISIM Intergraph Corporation P. Suite 206 ESRI Suite HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.mapinfo. Golden. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.informationinplace.umd. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Intuition 9. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.epfl.daz3d. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. 350 South 400 FeedTank 590 Grand St. Suite 110 Troy. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Danvers. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. 809 14th Street.O. Cambridge. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Draper.

com Unified Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. 212 Elm Street Somerville. RIDemo Brivibas Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.pixologic. 869 97th Ave N. Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 Visual Analytics Inc. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Suite 102 Mountain View.vicodi. Donau-City-Strasse 1.nih. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.vrvis. 2513 Charleston Road. Inc. Inc. NY 10012 USA Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. FL 34108 USA http://www. Unit A2 Vicodi Edvins Snore. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. 3 East 28th JAJAH Inc. MA 01863 USA http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.jajah.mccrackendesign. Unit # 1 Mississauga.unifiedfield. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. Inc. Ltd.musanim. California. ETZ H Electronics Lab. A-1220 Vienna. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Inc. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. Ontario L4V 1T8. 155 Spring MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. 2nd Floor Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . 94043 USA http://www. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. 9th floor New York. U.sportbrain.topozone. 73 Princeton Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. Suite 3A New Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Spotfire.spotfire.nlm.Tel: (209) 832-7353 VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. CA 94712 USA http://www.okino. 20010 Fisher Avenue. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. FeedForAll PO Box Feedreader / i-Systems Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. Rue Guillaume-Tell CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Seventh Floor New York. Inc. Inc.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.ethz. 111 SW Fifth StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Inc. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 64 Fulton Street. Building K Mountain Rojo Web Feeds Attensa.. South #358 St. Hanover. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Pacific Business Centre #101 .feedzilla. Nederland Tel: +31. Suite 381 Feedster.rojo. 200 2nd Ave.715135858 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco. CA 95008 USA http://www. Suite 100 Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. First Floor. 116 New Montgomery Street. 2nd Floor Palo FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Broadway. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Estonia http://www. Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge. Switzerland http://www. P. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.1001 Onfolio Four Cambridge Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. Suite 2260 Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. 795 Folsom St.onfolio. 11211. 167 Hamilton RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research PubSub Concepts. Inc. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. Coldbrook Business Corp. Suite 900 Austin. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. San Francisco.feedburner. Valdeku 100.pubsub. Petersburg. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.

com Do not reproduce 257 .Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

72. 18. 189. 13. 64. 20. 146. 35. 112. 170. 145. 128. 15. 16. 148. 127. 158. 160. 26. 112. 193. 196. 86. 100. 77. 145 Conversational learning. 24. 211 Broadband. 190. 141. 28. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 66. 139 assessment. 47. 8. 85 Blogs. 180. 36. 165 Air display. 69. 97. 123. 191. 55. 45. 208. 35. 127 Cooperation. 81. 196 Dashboards. 226 Authorware. 74. 59. 122. 52. 113. 24. 69. 70. 89. 165. 198. 24. 78. 174. 212 Boolean searches. 176. 184. 93. 200. educational. 193. 50. 110. 34. 74. 39. 196. 132. 5. 194. 179. 11. 93. 127. 127. 110. 125. 203. 211. 171. 165. 140. 80. 4. 178. 63. 29. 71. 48. 223. 68. 39. 5. 27. 153. 160. 43. 109. 194. 26. 67. 46. 207 Classroom response systems. 16. 72. 23. 46. 16. 196 collaboration. 127. 174. 48. 65. 181. 89. 219. 90 Assessment. 94. 93. 66. 63. 88 cybercartography. 177. 137. 54. 74. 199 Architectures. 79 Complexity theory. 116. 47. 91. 18. 122. 145. 159. 91. 199. 140. 101. 47. 129. 138. 18. 46. 201 Adaptive systems. 170. 21. 197. 15. 128. 25. 190. 215 Communities of practice. 27. 50. 26. 90. 39. 63. 159. 28. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 29. 4. 93. 180. 193. 181. 23. 127. 97. 58. 189. 66. 31. 119. 121. 145. 91. 209. 94. 209 Augmented reality. 50. 192 Browsers. 46. 121. 72. 21. 53 barcodes. 57. 231. 180 Competency Tracking. 45.Index 3-D graphics. 50. 46. 201 cognitive collage. 172 Audio. 191. 62. 83. 43. 114. 177. 194. 45. 93. 156. 171. 40. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 35. 203. 29. 23. 191. 122. 216 Affective computing. 116. 128. 82. 65. 66. 36. 83. 78. 23. 217 Collaboration. 50. 176 Cell phones. 189. 196. 84. 74. 41. 218 Agents. 70. 117. 49. 118. 137. 146. 66. 205 Animation. 135. 70. 196. 144. 48. 75. 159. 136. 35 Content management. 196 cognitive maps. 169. 45 Avatars. 18. 33. 81. 150. 21. 56. 37. 15. 30. 65. 122 Ambient computing. 209. 146. 65. 196. 109. 23. 63. 193. 44. 85. 27. 100. 170. 27. 125. 171. 44. 130. 59. 52. 67. 69. 180. 48. 112. 180. 57. 65. 84. 22. 59. 36. 103. 211. 47. 198 Data mining. 64. 27. 60 Cognition. 17. 100. 165. 84 Adobe. 21. 170. 74. 22. 28. 6. 42. 52. 67. 174 Bayesian probability. 177. 209. 85. 20. 203. 216 Computer based assessment. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 35. 46. 50. 74. 161. 139. 162. 69. 95. 21. 42. 7. 176. 71. 169. 24. 80. 2. 207. 211 Communications Tools. 85. 69. 211. 193. 12. 4. 15. 67. 137. 60 Clickers. 25. 197. 80. 57. 160. 184. 51. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 49 AJAX. 109. 70. 203. 149. 190. 101. 149. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 170. 195 Authoring tools.

193. 134. 107. 156. 119. 201 Grid computing. 120. 26. 199. 52. 199 Gesture recogntion. 170. 3. 45. 217 images. 210. 59. 203. 196 Graphics. 186. 196 e-Commerce. 30. 127. 104. e-learning. 12. 23. 64. 94. 217. 88. 152. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 100. 197. 47. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 248 graphics. 58. 45 Displays. 78. 216 Director. 189. 81. 11. 45. 65. 88. 33. 189. 93. 125. 26. 83. 70. 109. 146. 100. 159. 180. 57 Flash. 18. 47. 152. 22. 153. 9. 196. 45 dynamic displays. 106. 54. 27. 125. 169. 13. 49 Google. 134. 107. 106. 63. 238 Geocaching. 215. 70. 119. 34. 90 Experiential learning. 178. 122. 63. 169. 51. 161. 47. 119 FireFox. 72. 9. 16. 60. 158. 28. 193. 166. 86. 49. 122. 239 Individualization. 108. 204 Dreamweaver. 193. 201. 37. 196 Immersive environments. 69. 174. 158 Informatics. 123 Hype in e-learning. 34. 27. 11. 37. 155. 158. 24. 225. 170. 23. 4. 63. 42. 109. 170 Federated searches. 164. 88. 31. 163. 151. 170. 174. 57. 162. 131. 93. 53. 89. 167 evaluation. 124. 79. 200. 165 Handwriting recognition. 103. 166. 25. 127. 17. 15. 74. 153 Facial recognition. 134. 9. 123. 197. 20. 30. 175. 202. 49. 180. 163 Findability. 4. 20. 176. 137. 169. 106. 23. 196. 200. 103. 7. 215. 176. 121. 25. 162 History. 32. 74. 152. 75. 122. 5. 106 Healthcare applications. 187. 179. 134. 26. 16. 89. 26. 59. 55. 27. 90. 197. 85. 66. 4. 162. 154. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 184. 154. 132. 101. 137. 80. 191 Games. 80. 48. 13. 8. 103. 184 e-Science. 88. 80. 88. 91. 97. 35. 216 Distributed systems. 187. 19. 210 formative assessment. 110. 9. 183. 11. 70. 67. 149. 119. 250 Folksonomies. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 88. 133. 198. 120. 106 Haptics. 75. 120. 57. 26 Emotional design. 196. 94. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 201 FrontPage. 198. 193. 94. 84. 25. 16. 173. 190. 8. 121. 196. 160. 74. 48. 21. 5. 109. 114. 13. 97. 196. 15. 217 Instant messaging. 71. 33. 25. 68. 134. 89. 172.Decision support systems. 114. 214 Human-centered computing. 194. 219 Infrared tags. 66. 85. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 110. 199. 124. 178. 11. 141. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 149. 205 Hybrid systems. 64. 205. 86 Deep Web. 86. 60. 35 Frameworks. 20. 29. 24 e-Portfolios. 146. 100. 119. 158. 98 GIF graphic format. 25. 49. 95. 3. 11. 162. 169 Expert systems. 16. 152. 216. 116. 215 Informal learning. 5. 26. 91. 158 Design. 46. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 85 Extreme learning. 106 Head mounted displays. 35. 80. 106. 84. 197. 7. 139. 5. 52. 107. 193. 101. 93. 6. 69. 97.

85. 22. 114. 63. 137. 140. 114. 199. 205. 49. 57. 120. 43. 42. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 191. 15. 128. 127. 59. 17. 97 Ontologies. 193. 125. 246. 246. 141. 190. 62. 139 Personalization. 199. 146. 135. 148. 181. 6. 25. 124. 244 Motion Graphics. 153. 23. 216. 119. 220. 196 Pedagogy. 145. 5. 32. 230. 114 Learning Objects. 116. 182. 215 Interoperability. 148. 66. 147. 78. 124 iPod. 70. 36. 143. 54. 31. 48. 115. 191. 255. 40. 171 Metacognition. 238. 127. 91. 107. 6. 174. 100. 62. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 100. 6. 149. 97. 127 Podcasting. 26 Metadata. 178. 189. 47. 143. 135. 166 PowerPoint. 77. 176. 155. 156 Legacy materials. 114. 27. 205 Macromedia. 127. 81. 241. 141. 124. 211 latent semantic analysis. 65. 69. 42. 148. 223 Portals. 165. 139. 74. 180. 139. 134. 192. 172. 146. 115. 190. 159. 123 Medical applications. 174. 129. 196. 154. 85. 49. 189. 199 Neural networks. 107. 46. 58. 139. 16. 127. 171 M-learning. 160. 47. 129. 171. 119. 127. 20 Museums. 46. 23. 112. 4. 116. 152 Lecturing. 7. 176. 191. 134. 152 Libraries. 180. 7. 43. 81. 47. 128. 143. 44. 80. 183. 187. 17. 156. 6. 196 Mashups. 120. 109. 140. 139. 191. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 134. 21. 65. 76. 165. 135. 176. 175. 95. 124. 45. 42. 256 Microworlds. 80. 80. 122. 68. 26. 80. 45. 65. 139. 86. 65. 180.Interface devices. 240. 138. 233. 150. 109. 144 Navigation. 119. 113. 8. 145. 48. 160. 124. 161. 178. 169. 114. 121. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 129. 111. 152 Networks. 183. 242 learning object model. 121. 226. 82. 166. 109. 162. 158. 80. 29. 149. 146. 6. 179 Optical tags. 79. 64. 137. 34. 174. 42. 42. 23. 180. 178. 60. 250 mapping. 249. 138. 125. 45. 163 Microformats. 145. 136. 7. 127. 122. 25. 113. 24. 120. 189. 34. 110. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 35. 77. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 60. 189. 45. 137. 110. 90. 204. 93. 93. 21. 134. 116. 213. 26. 241 Learning Management Systems. 234. 122. 11. 166 Pervasive computing. 45. 122. 43. 150. 211 Knowledge management. 54. 7. 153 Microsoft. 26. 112. 63. 145. 114 learning object repository. 26. 130. 48. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 20. 108. 119. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 103. 145. 206. 54. 165 Microlearning. 135. 152. 128. 78. 174. 194. 170. 35. 30. 239. 193. 128. 107. 142. 216. 119. 244 Meta-search engines. 186. 237. 215. 4. 36. 140. 4. 146. 190. 161. 89. 134. 140. 123. 2. 165 pattern recognition. 192. 137. 172. 68. 114. 26. 26. 125. 131. 65. 98. 66. 47. 149. 15. 130. 80. 124. 53. 125 Lab book wiki. 130 Mobile computing. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 144. 18. 106. 90. 109. 69. 101. 246 Location based tools. 111. 165.

154. 93. 38. 199 Turing Test. 176 Team management. 4. 176. 48. 46. 186. 46. 54. 141. 141. 47. 55. 209. 120. 93. 152. 9. 169. 221 SCORM. 169. 144. 163. 160. 116. 150. 42. 189 Search engines. 48. 48. 203. 89. 49. 217 Translation. 81. 45. 49. 21. 119. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 119. 74. 106 Proximity tools. 189 Security. 184. 156. 191 Tours (online). 114 Repositories. 86. 150. 134. 168 résumés. 94. 193. 36. 114 Screencasting. 139. 180. 169. 197. 152 Projectors. 39. 84. 148. 178. 68. 114. 9. 35. 88. 62. 181. 109. 175. 179. 52. 115. 64. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 133. 54. 35. 83. 26. 124. 174. 199 Single-user wiki. 124. 166. 211 Tags. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 125. 155. 11. 110. 50. 167. 50. 155. 119. 171 Scenarios. 5. 119 quizzes. 83. 46. 153. 35 Semantic Web. 122. 20. 114. 52. 118. 70 Radio. 160. 132 Streaming video. 154. 225. 211 Skypecasting. 16. 4. 165. 247 rapid learning. 11. 35. 191 Tangible computing. 176. 199 Taxonomies. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 152 Thin clients. 64 Telephony. 91. 175. 131. 174 Social bookmarking. 170. 57. 216 Tests. 34. 156. 116. 9. 112. 177. 149. 40. 36. 175 Rapid e-learning. 91. 165. 97. 131. 95. 54. 215. 205 Shockwave. 114. 40. 5. 163. 191. 179. 170. 124. 122 Tagging. 57 T-Learning. 62. 135. 7. 247 Role-playing. 137. 148. 49. 167 reusable learning objects.Presentation tools. 22. 207 Social networking. 82. 54. 131. 178. 15. 115. 174. 39. 47. 185. 182. 134. 122 sharable content objects. 109. 36. 74. 6. 189 Television. 80. 215. 162. 122. 174. 65. 177. 71. 150. 94. 159. 196 Serious games. 66. 171. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 69. 161. 88. 129. 148 Smart labels and tags. 189. 46. 8. 116. 174. 176. 47. 178. 35 Quizzes. 119. 38. 183. 26. 35. 171 Science. 161. 174. 165. 47. 158. 158. 138. 47. 27. 37. 168. 50. 179. 166. 181 Speech recognition. 125. 27. 153. 93. 26. 134. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 189. 180. 26. 48. 35. 75. 48. 203 Telepresence. 180. 189. 124. 141. 141. 30. 87. 174 Project management. 59. 47. 159. 175 Tag clouds. 191 summative assessment. 117. 74. 35 Symbology tags. 9. 123 Simulations. 90 Reusability. 57. 106. 215. 125. 170. 137. 173. 36. 177. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 72. 37. 246 Privacy. 177. 11. 172. 227. 190. 155. 114 Robotics. 188. 125. 172. 174 self-evaluation. 110. 189. 77.

74. 100. 148. 40. 51. 145. 123. 60. 124. 198. 43. 137. 5. 206. 148. 74. 13. 121. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 106. 177. 68. 148 Virtual classrooms. 217 Word. 65. 256 Webcasting. 216. 211. 45. 90. 11. 182. 199. 189. 187. 239 Wikipedia. 7. 182. 64. 9. 236. 108. 216 Vlogs. 208. 106. 253 Videocasting. 189 virtual classroom. 154 Virtual learning environments. 81. 187. 79. 57. 212 Wikis. 200. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 49. 256 Woodill. 207. 150 Webinars. 89. 209. 215. 44. 190. 191. 165. 176. 210. 9. 22. 69. 197. 137 Virtual reality. 211. 174. 106. 3. 57. 109. 159. Gary. 200. 192. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 255 Web conferencing. 113. 205. 4. 203. 205 Usability. 88. 108. 46. 214. 131. 62. 196. 148. 215. 213. 160. 194 Video.Ubiquitous computing. 209. 119. 189 Vodcasting. 193 Visualization. 80. 148 Whiteboards. 255 Wearable computing. 67. 212. 56. 150. 98. 149. 123. 130. 210. 193. 177. 211. 91. 74. 164. 107. 66. 112. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 127.

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