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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. Grant Hamilton. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. None of this would have been possible if my wife. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. Carlos Oliveira. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. Thanks. I have provided links to online learning examples. and services. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. Amy Davey. Pamela Fragomeli. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. The first report. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. along with an index. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. and support at all points of my career. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. editing. Pierre Cahorn. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. A third report. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. Karen. will be available in early 2007. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. technology. Jennifer McDowell. This report. Operitel’s CEO. Karen Anderson. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. lists of online resources. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. the second in the series.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. have supported this research from the beginning. Lise Bye. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes.

even if the originator of the words is not present. “things that make us smart. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. for example. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. in fact. many different ways to learn. We tend to forget. Schools were started to teach accounting. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. or device that extends human abilities. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. still used in many institutions of higher education. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. and language for communication.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. to quote Donald Norman (1993). But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. A third way to learn is by seeing. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. detentions. There are. material. With these reforms. The modern classroom. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. the classroom became industrialized. Learning became standardized and linear. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. the raising of hands. or “reader. linear teaching techniques online. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . with rows. Technologies are any technique. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. is a 2000 year old “technology.” Starting in the first century AD. But learning technologies have a much longer history.just the ability to follow an example. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Do not reproduce 3 . making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Medieval universities followed the same practice. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. class periods. and recess. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. fire for warmth and cooking. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. They are. as books were scarce. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. that lecturing. marks and other techniques for signaling direction.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger.

The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Eventually. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. At the same time. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. mashups can only be done using computer technology. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. the early days of computer networking. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. Like all new technologies. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. 2006). When a new technology first comes into use. as this is a non-technical guide. it needs to adhere to architectures. Rather than pages. When a new technology is introduced.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Thomas Watson.Students in these schools learned by reading. frameworks. and reciting. 2006). followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. chairman of IBM. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn.” Similarly. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Sadly. However. in 1876 someone at Western Union. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. For example.” In 1970. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. moving pictures (films). and standards. memorizing. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. changing the practice of teaching. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research .

a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic.org). the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. php). January. There is authentication and authorization support at every level.free.accessgrid.imsglobal. Number 3. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.fr/publication. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable.org) has a number of published documents that. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. 2005. Do not reproduce 5 . Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. In particular. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.grid. They provide location independence. presentation and interactive environments. For example.

This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times.ieee. This is especially true for adult education.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. interactive learning components. research.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.is based on open. In business. Instead. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). In Europe. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. http://sourceforge. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004).org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. reinforces this theme. http://imsproject. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Major specifications for e-learning. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.elframework. http://purl.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. They noted that “…in education. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.oclc.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. While packaged courses still have a place. and makes extensive use of XML. Instead of just providing courses.taken together. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.aicc.adlnet. http://www.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. Rather. and education administration. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research .com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. “[a] pull economy . At the same time. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. Bollier says. http://www. http://ltsc. enabling the search for content. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult.” In late 2005.

Wales. June 2005. Odeh.. mobile devices. 12(10).com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti.. (2005).html Anderson.. A. Milan. K. Thus.. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.htm Bollier. S. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Montreal. G. Italy.wired. and McGinnis (2004). 41(2).. http://www. 2006) has argued.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. and wearable computers. online resources.. Nov. Lausanne. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. 16. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group.bcs. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. (2005).cscsi. is becoming commonplace.. ambient networks. along with selected examples. User-created content. New York: Hyperion. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. F.com/wired/archive/12. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.idi. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . Reggiani. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. Bertolazzi. 2004. Chris (2004).edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. McClatchey. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. October.org/abs/cs. Wired Magazine. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. The Long Tail.educause. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). http://www. Sept. Bibliography Abbas. M. March/April 2006. M.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.. I hope you will find it useful.. David (2005). http://www. Switzerland. M.DC/0502051 Alexander. N. From this. Chris (2006). the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.amazon. Bryan (2006). Moreover..0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.pdf Anderson.1 0/tail. UK. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. 19.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage.ntnu.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. 2002. Weiss. M. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. http://arxiv. R.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. the reader can approach any topic in any order. and Conte. Ahmad. R. T. and Votis. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Z. http://www. For example. As Anderson (2004. In the last chapter. Cardiff. 2004).. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. http://ewic. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. http://www.. 2005).org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Likothanassis. Giotopoulos. M. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. K. M. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. F.pdf Bogonikolos. Web 2. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. Umer. Zanichelli. Ali. Five years ago. (2002). and a bibliography.. those learners are now keeping their own records. Chrysostalis.

johnhagel. Erlanger. Luo. 30. 2005. T.com.pdf Knorr.devshed. G. American Jrnl. http://www. L.. and Zhang. (2005). Stefano (2005). E.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. 4-36. and Borck. J.ICALT 2001. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services.co m/docs/SOA_World. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. Jagadish (2004). G.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .cancore. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.pdf Millea... Stephen (2004). R. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.pdf Erl. March 2002. http://www.athabascau. Oct. 13.ascilite. 2003. (2002).com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.pdf Cerri. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices .networking technology.. Gregor (2005). Green..org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. of Distance Education 10. http://www.com/paper_pushpull.html Hockemeyer. Aug.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. International E-Learning Specifications.1109/CIT.bcs. 2001.pdf Friesen. 2002 http://ewic.ca/protocols_en. http://www.org/celda2005/index. pdf He.infoworld. and Albert. Hao (2003). January 2005. 2.org. http://www.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. and McGreal. J. (2005).org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.html Hagel.Dev Shed.au Limited. Centre for Distance Ed. A field guide to software as a service.edu/pdf/ajde. http://ru6. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. 14-16.computer. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. http://cde. V. (2001).xml. (2005). Sept.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies.2005. I.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . T. http://www. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. C.cti. USA. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1. WI. J. Portugal. 1026-1032. Online. Porto.aspeninstitute..virtual.html Kong. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. (2002). A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.. Australia. Sept.asp Chatarji. C. http://csdl2.S.5 6 Marshall. Dec. http://www.iadis.amazon. (2005). CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Triantafillou. J. ThoughtWorks White paper. http://www. Lausanne. Thomas (2004). Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede. C. 2004. Infoworld.xml&DOI=10. http://www.gov. Upper Saddle River. http://www..gmu. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Athabasca University. 13-16. April 18. http://www.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . http://www. Norm (2006). Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. J.det. Education. Switzerland.htm Hohpe. for the Australian Dept. NJ: Prentice-Hall.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. Web Services . Madison. Tsiatsos. Perth. 6-8. Working paper. N. W. and Brown. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Proceedings.xml.act. and Putland. of Education and Training.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa. D.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall. Hornig. (1996).

Aalderink. Germany.astd. (2000). 2006.amazon..com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius.informatik.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. e-portfolios. 21. Donald (1993). (2005). (2003). ACTeN E-Content Report No.pdf Roberts.operitel..pdf Pierre.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.. G. http://www-i5. C. Cambridge.aspx Yang. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Peter (2004). (2003). Berlin: Springer. Library+information Show. C.amazon. M.ac. and Wade.Neumann.R. Learning Solutions. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.pdf Werkhoven. May 15. M. W. informal learning and ubiquitous computing..sinica. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids.28 April 2004. Dublin. http://www. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. future thinking: digital repositories. http://www. Feijen. http://ewic. April 1. W. and Weggen. http://www. Hambrecht and Co. Reflective learning. R. SCORM and the Learning Grid. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. M. 911-928. Klamma.alt. and Oliveira. ICWL 2003. J. Research report. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Journal of Information Science and Engineering.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06. http://www.acten. J. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. http://www. Harvey.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. 2006. (Eds. Lee. T. http://www. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. 9. Birmingham. G. H. http://www. http://www. 193–205.pdf Woodill. and Jarke.rwthaachen.ac.): Proceedings. G.unikarlsruhe. V. In W. http://www.edu. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. (2005).de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. Stuttgart. V. Trinity College. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. (2006). Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. pp.alt. Samuel (2006).iis. and Vossen. and Geys.. 27 .uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. F.aifb. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. 2005. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. UK. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. Mashups.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2. C.com/publications. MA: Perseus.pdf Spaniol.pdf Norman. S..com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. Cook.bcs. April 26-27.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . Zhou et al.pdf Urdan. and Ho. R. (2004). Rhonda (2006).

allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section. selected elearning related examples.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. Included are related terms. online resources to learn more about each technology. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report.

com/Explorer/NGT-AC. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. For example. accuracy. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. UK. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. and to respond to them effectively.. 2005). Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning.cs.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. and react to human emotions. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. SRI Consulting (http://www.mit. in Italy. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. Without the ability to understand emotions.media.convo.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. too. keystroke patterns. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. security. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.ac. gestures.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.bham.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. and legality. including the ability to recognize and express emotions.” http://www. posture.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. privacy. Affective Computing.. emotions. confused.co.myself-proj. facial recognition. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. or sad. understand.sricbi. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. http://www. speech patterns mainstream.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. et al. emotional design. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.html Do not reproduce 11 .” (Anolli. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. In online therapy.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. http://www.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. 2005). Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.

The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Isbister.. H. http://www. I. Lee. Salembier. Realdon. Joseph (2005). R.html Fallman. http://emotion-research. K. M. B.. Yamada. Portland. April 2-7. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.sics. 2005. V. Brassac. April 2-7. China. and Confalonieri (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. with many resources. Oregon. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences.doc Chateau. October 22-24.aisb. http://www.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. A. CHI 2005 conference. Nass.unige.dis. April 2-7. and Waterworth. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. P. Pianesi.wired.uniroma1. September 13. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. Graziola. are available online: http://www.sics. O. Oregon. 2005. http://emotion.. C.. J.. Vermersch.. CHI 2005 conference. CHI 2005. and Morishima.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. Z. Dr. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Zouinar. http://www.arizona. H. http://www. J. C.pdf Cahour. and Merisol.edu/emotion. Oregon. Balestra.pdf Diamond.sics. M. April 12-15. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. April 2-7. Issue 11/12. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field.. Hatfield. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.informatik... J. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.1 2/love. P.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. UK.pdf Goren-Bar.it/~lhci/009.unitrier.de/link/affective_port al..html In Germany. Iwamura. December. M. Mantovani. Portland.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction.. bibliographies. C. Portland. CHI 2005 conference.. (2005). 2005. (2005). (2005)... Portland. (2005). In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli.pdf Interfaces. Brave. listing many links to interesting resources.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.sics.. L. K.nsma.sics. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. CHI 2005 conference.org. http://www.. April 2-7.sics. O. April 2-7.pdf Maldonado.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. Nakajima. Wired Magazine. The Love Machine: building computers that care. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. Oregon. Nortillaro. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. B. Stock. 2005.com/wired/archive/11. http://www. F.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman. Portland. 2005. K.. 2005 http://www.. Oregon. Pachoud.. including studies of emotions in computers. Bouraoui. (2005).de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. Vescovo. Rocchi. http://www. http://www.. David (2003). http://www.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports..pdf Kaye. A. and Zancanaro. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. F. M. Zurloni.. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. J.. (2005). The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. Y. S. University of Hertfordshire..net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. CHI 2005. D. I Like It .bartneck. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . and Laaksolahti. D. N.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Oregon.doc Hook. Agliati.

Affective Computing.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado.cs. Ian (1997). Helena (2005). Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. (2004).htm Tao. University of Birmingham. Cambridge. Oregon. M. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. October 22-24.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. (2002).amazon.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www.sics.utokyo. http://www.sics. ACII 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Donald A.pdf Masum. http://www. Rosalind (1997). Dec. CHI 2005. T.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.pdf Mentis. S. Emotional Agents. Oregon. Miami. Portland. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. http://www. 2005. April 2-7. New York: Basic. 2002. 2005.de/emeocomp/co ntent. OR. 2005. (2005). May 26. Doctoral Dissertation. Charlotte (2005). http://www. http://www.pdf Mandryk. (2005). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Beijing. R. and Daily.doc Wright.. J.pdf Do not reproduce 13 .elearningreviews.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Portland. M. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. http://www. and Steele.ruebenstrunk. Berlin: Springer. 22. NJ. L. http://www.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg.t.bham. CHI 2005 conference. 35(2). Regan (2005).org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. China. R. 2005. Portland. Tan. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods.stanford. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Oregon. S.sics. (2005).sics. CHI 2005. Affective Computing vs. E-book http://www. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Paper for WEBIST 2005.ac. Portland.pdf Norman. http://www. http://www. J.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk.miv. and Ishizuka. and Picard.thesis.iste. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.amazon. Erlbaum.HTM Steele. MA: MIT.ac. April 2-7. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 2-7. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. Gerd (1998). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

and both may be found in the same http://w3. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. avatars. useful in educational simulations. Viswanath. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. and the students had to continue to teach her.gu. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. 2005). learning/adaptation. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. intelligent agents program (for example. 2004) and are. benevolence.. Katzlberger. 1999). has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Fourth. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. autonomous agents. and. First. 2005. rationality. therefore. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. but Do not reproduce 15 . Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Dick Stenmark. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Third.informatik. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. not only about environments. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. 2004). veracity. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. Agents have beliefs. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. Second. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. She made mistakes. Mentor. see the paper by Far et al. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. and many of them can actually learn. For example. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. 1999). In such situations. In this context. proactive (goal directed). Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). et al. However. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. A second agent in the simulation.

http://liinwww.ac. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.fsu. http://www. Skills Manager Agent 3. Student Assistant Agent 4. acting against other teams of agents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).ira.uka.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. 2000).liv. They are available as adaptive coaches. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.netobjectdays. go to: http://ritl. Content Agent 6. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. uses seven different types of agents: 1. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.old.also about other agents. (1998) developed a conversational agent.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.csc. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.stanford. (2004): http://www. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. See the article by Williams et al. User Profile Agent. Even though each agent acts independently. go to: http://ldt. http://www.com/ CodeBaby Corp.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Baldi.org/index. 2.codebaby. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. and expert guides. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Therefore.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. http://www. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. For details see: www.redwoodelearning. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. Learning Paths Agent 5.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623. expert role-players. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Massaro et al.extempo.

editlib. 75-80. 275-285. & Ebbers.pdf Lin.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.pdf Kao. E-Learning 2003. Ali (2002)... 21-38. Z. Doctoral Dissertation. G. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. W. (2002). Hypermedia.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.educause. M. Learning by Teaching Agents. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). (2003).aace.pdf Jafari.org/index. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. (2005). Krittaya (2005). Paper presented. B. TN. Vanderbilt University. Tennessee. (2005). (Ed.. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.org/index.editlib.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. and Shaw... Johnson. http://www. Ng. 11(3). Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). J.org/16948 Leelawong. L. 2005.). (2003). Educause Quarterly. http://www. (2002). Norfolk. 4(1). Proceedings. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.teachableagents. www. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. http://www. 1503-1506. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. 306-311). Nashville.pdf Kim.old.. G.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. E. & Lin. & Bengu. Nashville. Sun.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. 3. 10 (3).editlib. C. No. 459-462.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Telecommunications 2003. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. J. Clarebout.netobjectdays. http://www. (2002).org/index.. and Tsang. E-Learning 2003.educause. http://www. http://www. Inter-active Learning Res.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far.editlib. Educause Quarterly. (1999). Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. 1353-1356.editlib. www.org/newdl/index. In Proceedings. & Kim.aace. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. S. http://www.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. Jrnl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. VA: AACE. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. S. (2003).org/index. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. A.computer. Y.pdf Guessoum. Erfurt.org/index. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.. A. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. In Proceedings. In Richards. Zahia (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. Hypermedia. e-Learning 2005.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. Do not reproduce 17 .org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. Germany. http://dl. L. (2000).org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. (2005). C. Y. Koono. Hershey.. P. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. G.cfm?fuse action=Reader. S. and Palopoli. 5(7).teachableagents.University of Southern California. 1659-1666. http://www. 28(2). Thomas (2005). and Ho.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..editlib. Fuhua Oscar (2005). Y. & Johnson. Vanderbilt University. Doctoral Dissertation. Large Complex Systems. G. & El-Khouly..pdf Clarebout. S. Elan. W. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.. 267-286 http://www.isi. International Journal on E-Learning. http://csdl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. G.org/index.editlib. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. A. July.

Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.. 18 © Brandon Hall Research .org/newdl/index.ist. M.amazon. and Cole. Kommers & G. (2005).. In P.cfm?fuse action=Reader. 61-65. O. S. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (1999). D. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 194-201. http://www. Finland.. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. 14(1). L. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. of California. & Booth. G. and Stucky.. Cohen. A. Peter (1998).org/index.. V. and Ferneley.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader..). Virginia Poytechnic and State University.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. Carnegie Mellon University. Sandel.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. L. Petersburg. R.. http://www. D. http://www. Wesley.ogi. Ferat (2000).. http://www.editlib. Beskow. Richards (Eds. 1999. IFIP WG12. and Higher Education 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). PA.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. J. Russia.vt.org/16968 Sahin.org/index. (2004). http://citeseer.aace.editlib.org/index. H. Daniel.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. G. K. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).). J.. Biswas. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.org/index. S. L. 47-59. M. Doctoral Dissertation. (Ed. ED-MEDIA. G.lib. (1999). (1999).psu.html Shim.utexas.cse.edu/fil/ Padgham. & Leelawong. M. E. France. ED-MEDIA 2005. In Richards. and Solomon. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. www.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.amazon. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. R. M. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.http://www.org/index. June 1-4. (2005).edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Atreya.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.de/BIK/vpa/109. http://www. 1632.editlib. & Lim. (2004). http://www. Proceedings. http://www. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. S. 17(2). ED. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Proceedings.Media 2005. 10 (3). August. http://scholar.editlib. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. New York: John Wiley & Sons.cs. 1415-1420.uni-karlsruhe. (2006). Doctoral dissertation.aace.. Adebiyi. 3169-3176. Healthcare.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath..K. 321333. Government. Pittsburgh. and Winikoff. St. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.edu/565321.pdf Menczer. (2004). (2005).pdf Perez. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. and Núñeza. W.informatics. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Toulouse. U.aifb. http://cslu. Doctoral Dissertation.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. V. In Proceedings. R. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. http://www.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. 143-162. B.indiana. 1999.. http://dl. K.

Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Chicago. http://research. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge.ac. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. J. Michael (2002). (2004).com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. 2004. Paper at CLAG2004. M. Chun. (2004).http://www..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Proceedings.teachableagents.org/papers/15 8bis. & Madsen. April 18-21. N. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.org/index. Gilbert. ED-MEDIA 2004.editlib. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning.ppt Do not reproduce 19 .. http://ca.html Yan.pdf Williams.upc. 3000-3002.wiley. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference.Animation Software Related terms Flash. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes.” (Huk. motion graphics depiction.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research .animationfactory. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. et. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. like pictures in a flip book.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513.com/alchemy/gi fcon.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Also. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. Rather. al.” Lowe adds that “in some cases. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today.000 pre-built animated GIFs. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. The results of many experiments have been mixed. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. produced the best learning results. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. a static diagram. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. However. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. producing animations can be very costly.htm For a selection of over 400. coupled with imagining how something worked. (2003). Given that.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965.mindworkshop.topshareware. animations may even prejudice learning.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s.. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. 2003) Finally. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. However.0 http://www.05 http://www.topshareware. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.

animation. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.animationonline. http://www. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. effects. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias).catoolkit. go to: http://www.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). go to: http://www. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.com/dynamics/demov ersion. animating.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. 2004). go to: http://macromedia. http://www.apple.autodesk. http://www. http://www.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.com Enliven . http://www.html CAT . Version 9 is available: http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.softimage.html Falling Bodies .html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. http://www.com Maya is a high-end modeling. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.utoronto. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.massivesoftware.animats. It animates fall stunts.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI . http://faraday. Inc. their 3-D character creation environment..Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. It is part of Final Cut Studio.macromedia. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. http://www. http://www.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. the built-in programming language. To use ActionScript.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .com/pub/products/e nliven. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques.com/products/aftereffec ts/main. For information on Flash. For more information on Shockwave.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.eitechnologygroup.com/gallery/default. and rendering tool.Softimage Co..physics. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. For a free demo.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.viewpoint.swishzone.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.” http://www.adobe.newtek. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.

M. R. G.ascension-tech. S. and Hancock.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.htm Bibliography Castillo.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.sjsu. never too much.de/pub/bscw. (2003). http://www. Kriz.org.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. http://dl.org/2003/aug2 003/toth. Steinke. http://projekte.freedownloadscenter. C. FreeDownloads Center.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. http://www. July. 2003. D.K. 325–360.siggraph. and Floto. Learning Circuits. C. R.ucsb. (2004). 1046-1048.html Malheiro. March 2002..learninglab. Thomas (2003).Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. Flash Interactive Session.ascilite. S. (2003).learningcircuits. Cognition and Instruction. http://www. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . McBeath. S.learningcircuits. Educational Psychology Review. Lehi. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. http://esub. and Cate. http://www.com.pdf Hess. C.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.rapidintake. (2004). Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. (2003). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. (2004). ASCILITE Conference. Atkinson. http://www.htm Hess.org/2004/jul20 04/hess.. http://www2. T.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. 14(1). and Hess. G.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. M. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. Animation – just enough. Hancock.htm Hegarty.allworldsoft. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. Phillips (Eds.. and Hancock. R. 87-99.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. S.aace.unihannover. (2004). (1). Learning Circuits.org/12937 Mayer. S. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Learning Circuits.learningcircuits. http://www.. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. July 18. (2002). July 2004.pdf Lowe. 21(4). http://www.pdf Toth.com/books_catalog .. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. and Moreno.htm Huk. Jonas-Dwyer & R. G. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. T. go to AllWorldSoft.psych.

While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. multiagent systems. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. machine learning. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. expert systems. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. So far. data mining. intelligent tutoring. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. Nevertheless. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. cognitive informatics. agents. AI.

” On the other hand. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. and Aist et al. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. recommender systems. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing.. To seem humanlike. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004).learning. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. The reality is that. including collaborative filtering. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. Moreover. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. and data mining. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. (2003).g. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. To achieve their goals. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). While many systems purport to be personalized. and the teacher. possibly undeliberate manner. the subject matter expert. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs.

concepts. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.iit.. 2002).pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.unito. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.cs. etc) and how they are interrelated. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.di. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. http://lsa.” http://www.e.” http://www.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . http://www. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. rather than using a single type of knowledge.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.cs.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. gestures.colorado. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.uic.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Talking Head Tutor vs. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth.. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. (2005a. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. objects.

For a portal on the latent semantic analysis. As a result.edu.cmu. challenging.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . http://bach. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs.pact. Stottler Henke Associates. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.enel. intelligent conflict resolution. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. http://www.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. Infrature.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. http://www.cs.com/index.cs. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004. http://quantumsimulations. Aurora .tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. Inc.sinica.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.iis. Task Tutor Toolkit . (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.” http://www.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.gast.kicinger.infrature. without programming.uregina.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. and multiagents. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.html Founded in 1988. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Oguejiofor et al.com/doi/pdf/10. http://www.colorado. http://ariic.edu.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. including student monitoring.ucalgary. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.leaonline.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready. http://www. so that these systems become more realistic.unsw. and engaging.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.it.” http://ctat.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.uc3m.library.” http://www. see: http://lsa. question answering (QA) techniques. and INFOMAP. e-commerce.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.

uquebec.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. skill gaps.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. For more info: http://www2.licef.cs.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.uk/aiedsoc.ed.masternewmedia. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.com/s10.ke-corp. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.cmu.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. http://www.inf.inf.cs.autotutor. http://pact. http://www.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.cmu.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. see: http://www.org/AITopics/html/tutor.cs.stottlerhenke.aaai. http://ctat.ed. http://www.it.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).gemini.ucalgary. http://www. http://aied.ac.virtuelage.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.ca/eng/inde x. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.pact. and an interactive intelligent tutor.teluq.its2006. China. and learning style.wpi. http://www. http://aied.” http://www. The AIED conferences are held every two years. http://www.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. Taiwan. an adaptive testing algorithm.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.ac.htm Do not reproduce 27 .org/cfp.edu. preferred cadence.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.learningcircuits. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.” http://www.usyd.enel.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. with the next one in 2007.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .org/2000/feb2 000/ong.

482-487. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.sis. E.eurodl. Reilly. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. C.nccu.ht ml Aleven.. http://dx.uregina. and Schwarz.) (2006). & F.). Baroglio.ri. http://www.com/printer_f riendly_article. V. http://www..edu/pubs/pub_4073. (2004). B. McLaren. (2004). C. Paraguaçu (Eds. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. P. Argamon. B. http://www. http://lingcog. Paraguaçu (Eds.ppt Butz. C.pdf Aleven. T.pdf Baldoni. Vicari.B. and Maguire.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit.sbg. Hershey. and Picard. Roll. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. S. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. C.pitt. and Koedinger. http://www.pdf Chaffar. (2004). 22: 3–39.. Vicari. Brazil.pdf Barcena. and Frasson. S. S. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). R. http://www. (2004).tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. V.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.iit. In J. Chicago.pitt.82 Bhatt. G. and Patti. http://www.edu.cs. Artificial Intelligence Review. and F. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. ITS 2004. and Douglas..at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.org/10. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). In J. and Penstein Rosé. PA: Idea. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society.html Brusilovsky. http://www. K. Bibliography Aist. In Proceedings. S..amazon. Hua.). Ritter. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. E. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . R. R. http://nth.2005.di. 6(1).Marvin Minsky. J.pdf Brusilovsky.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. (2002).wpi. P.. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems..ac. Lester.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. 159-165. M.cmu. Mostow. M. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. Kobe.technologyreview. (2005). M.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. (2004).html Barker. Hermann (2002). Kort. C. Lester. R. and Evens. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. K.. C.cs. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web.doi. and Read. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.J. V. Peter (2000).Volume I. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . M. I. (1997). (2004). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.1109/ITCC. http://www. S.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. (2004). http://imlab. R.pdf Alkhalifa.. Maceió. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.unito.. Eshaa (Ed. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. http://www2.

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online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. and (4) computer marking. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. and documents for assessors to use. aptitudes.learningandteaching. eassessment. 1956). the automated scoring of essays. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. In a business situation. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. samples. are already available. or performance samples. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . computer-based assessment tools. and output.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). quizzes. online assessment. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. self-evaluation. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. For example. More sophisticated forms of automated. affective. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. When combined into a “360° evaluation. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. computer based assessment (CBA). rubrics.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. We can expect that. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Assessment software can generate templates. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. in the near future. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. once only done by a human assessor. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. making it hard to escape assess-ment. and psychomotor. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. evaluation. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. computer mediated assessment (CMA). Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. for example. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors.info/learni ng/solo. However. quizzes.

from Resources Management Services in the U. has recently won awards for its performance. and adaptive question branching.redinq..org/ ETS.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. and adminis-tration features.K. personality. and past work behaviors. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. For details.” http://www. http://nt.respondus.pedagogue.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. multilingual support. Diploma.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.flaguide. http://www. reporting. http://www. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.testcraft.horizonwimba.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. a completely customizable report engine.xstreamsoftware.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. see: http://www.com/wwwtools/magazines. http://www. Find them at: http://www.com The Evaluator. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. skills. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). learning tools.” organized by academic discipline.ets.com/evaluator Testcraft.operitel. a customizable look and feel. http://www. and services useful for outcomes assessment. http://www.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. see: http://lsa.dialang.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. and self-study. institutional evaluation. surveys. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.questionmark. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com/redinq/html/index. http://www.fasfind.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry.org/english/index. on its Web site. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research .com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.uc. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. Review it at: http://www. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.epistema. For information on latent semantic analysis. preview pages for all question types. check out the Dialang web site. abilities.vantagelearning.brainbench.colorado. http://www.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.rmsuk. See more at: http://www.0.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. http://www. http://www. http://www.

.ac. Carro. 5365.unt.info/journals/8_3/6. D.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. E. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. http://www. http://www.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.oir.org/en/en_mod41.ac. 8 (3). M.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.” http://www.learnflex.com/029. & Rodríguez. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.tasainstitute. http://www.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.wlv. London: Paladin. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.org/research/re views/10_01.edu. is available from: http://liinwww..htm Atkinson. http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. Explore the links at: http://www. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. with over 1. http://www. Do not reproduce 37 .tcet.health.com/tools/rubrics.200 references.quintcareers.000 different tests from its database. with a list of 34 strategies.heacademy.ict4lt. Educational Technology & Society. A.3 Bateson. http://www.ac.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. Pérez.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.cshe. Gregory (1973).au/assessing learning/03/online.rmcdenver. (2005)..ifets.unimelb. M.uiuc. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers..uka.umuc. (2004). P. G. http://www.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.uk/cticomp/CAA. T.ira.html Bibliography Alfonseca.ulster.htm#2.learningandteaching. http://www. Freire. http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. http://school.com/career_asses sment..thinkinggear.scit. Obtain a copy at: http://www.ac.info/learni ng/solo.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too.discovery.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. http://www.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. Online paper. James (2005).com/schrockguide/ assess.economicsnetwork.pdf Atherton. Ortigosa.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. R. http://cba.uk/home.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.nestafuturelab. and Davies.

and Collis. K. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. http://www. J. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. C. eSchool News. http://www. (2003).assess. Burstein (Eds. Linn (Ed.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. K. A. and Hirschman. L.http://www.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. Jill. Daniel. www. McNamara. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www. and Chodorow.msu. St.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing.assess.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . Online paper. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". http://www.edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. Inouye. Louis. J.pdf Biggs.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. In M. (2003). (2002).cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.. Rethink testing for future success. NY: Macmillan. Hillsdale. How to Assess Authentic Learning. http://www.amazon. & Leacock. Harabagiu and F.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. and Marcu. http://www. (1982). Ciravegna (Eds.computer. Burstein.. (2001). (1956).htm. In the R.iltaonline. New York. http://www. Burstein. (2003). New York: McKay. Missouri. Marcu. Hillsdale.ets. Iwashita. L..pdf Brown J. http://www. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. B. (1997). New York: Academic Press.eschoolnews. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain.amazon.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. http://www.amazon. Martin. IL: Skylight. Jill. C.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke.amazon. Jill C. Kevin (2003).). Arlington Heights. S.iltaonline. Mexico. J. B. In M. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. IEEE Intelligent Systems. (1989). 3rd Edition.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown.htm Burstein. N. Robert (2005). Chodorow. In R. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. V. J. Langu-age Learning and Technology. 2005. Daniel. D. M.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. T. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. (2001).com/news/showS toryts.amazon. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Kaplan (Ed. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence.com/Books/b39739. & Olsen. and Knight. 1.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. Shermis and J.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and O'Hagan. http://www. http://www. Kay (1999). Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.. Shermis and J. http://llt.amazon. New York: Oxford.org/intelligent/archives. June 22. In S. August 2003.com/Books/b39739. Burstein (Eds.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Educational Measurement. Acapulco... S. Jill.pdf.

html Chalhoub-Deville. Robert.iltaonline. B. (1998).ncte.doc. Writing assessment: a position statement. Language testing and technology: past and future. Chalhoub-Deville. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. http://llt. & Landauer. H. PA: Information Science. New York: Basic Books. http://www. Online paper. and Parry. http://mason. University of Tasmania.hlc.. Howell. http://www.msu. and Howell. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. (Eds. S. E. Nathan. Millard. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. (2001). Language Learning & Technology 2. S. (2004). (2004). Howard (1993). 4. and Grellett.html Frase.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. n.edu. C.Hershey.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Louis. Language Learning and Technology. St.Carr.soton. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. N.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610. http://llt. Morgan. London: Falmer.amazon. v. http://www. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. W. P.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. Micheline. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency.edu.gmu. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. Lawrence. D.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference.au/worldcall/str5. v.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. Laham. May.pdf Hricko.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault. Online newsletter. Davis.msu. www. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. O’Reilly.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).ac.nmsu. Online newsletter. http://www. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. (2001). http://www. P. (1999). http://eprints.com/pdf/Paper Tests. T. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".. May.) (1999). Seven technologies for assessment. http://www. n. 2: 77-93.) (2005).htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. (Ed. 2.html Davies. Micheline. 2. M.Proceedings from a Workshop. (2005). http://www. http://www. C. K.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. D. National Research Council.utas.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.. Language Learning and Technology. Board on Testing and Assessment. L. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.htm Cebrian. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.amazon. Loughborough..html.htm. College Composition and Communication Online.nap.unimelb..softwaresecure. (1999).. EdMedia '99.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . Y. and Sclater. W. http://wwwpsych.pdf Dunkel P. Gardner. (2001). M.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.msu. 5. No. Foltz. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. http://llt. March 9. (2002).ecs. Howard.amazon. 5. M.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. In Proceedings.

. and Ward. Burstein. T.ed. 403-416. http://www.) (2005). H. (2001).medianet. Howard. (1999). and Watt. (2005).gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. France. J.msu. (Ed. University of Gothenburg.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. M. K.. (Eds. & Laham. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Learning. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.. (1979). D. International Journal on E-Learning. Washington.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. and Gifford.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.edu/cgi/viewcontent . W. Compiegne.gov/pubs2000/2000195. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.amazon. http://www. M. and Assessment.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey.pdf MacDonlad.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. http://lsa.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise.) (2000). Fitzgerald. and Ma. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. pp.bc.html Khan. & J. http://nces. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. New York.. N.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Government. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.S. and Hricko. D. W. Hershey.edu/papers/dp1. R (2002). http://llt.colorado. and Skinner. Hardas. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. B. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. Howell. (2006).LSAintr o. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. C. http://www. (Eds. Journal of Technol. Potenza. S. 4(6). V.amazon. http://escholarship. NY: Guilford Press. Weller.pdf Kenyon.amazon. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. D. Fremer. Self. McArthur. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. (2000).. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Discourse Processes.. Y. Information Science Publishing.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. M. C.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Mahwah. J.. and Malabonga. K.pdf Landauer. 259284. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. http://www.ed. (1998). http://www.. M. Hillsdale. J. P. Patrick (2000). (2006)..org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. R. D. M. In C.Jones. J. Handbook of writing research. G.proexam. National Center for Education Statistics. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . Tim (2006). and Writing. Online Assessment. A. Problem Solving.. Measurement and Evaluations.kent. Graham. PA: Information Science. DC: U. (2005).. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.amazon.amazon. 25. http://eric. & Mason. Foltz. http://www. & Leacock. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. Reports from the Institute of Education. S. 5(2). http://www. M. http://www. Language Learning and Technology.) (2002). May.pd f Weiner.amazon.

Operitel white paper. http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.operitel.com Do not reproduce 41 .

Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. to personalized media). Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. in part. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. (i. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.5 megabytes. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. which is gaining in popularity. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. (2005). Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. For example. compared with even a few years ago. Assists non-native speakers. Provides feedback to learners. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . This frag-mentation is being fueled.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. or by “streaming.e. You can’t add your own notes. the rest of the file has time to arrive. depending on the file size).. One audio application of interest to educators. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. while it is playing. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. is podcasting. (i. Provides another channel for material review. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . According to Crofts et al. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. podcasting.e. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings.. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. such as those for iPods. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs.

envision. http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. sound editing.apple.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.71.com. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. shareware.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. and other operating systems.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www.elearningcentre. phrases. It is available to download for Mac OS X. http://www. recording.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. freeware. open source software for recording and editing sounds. go to: http://www. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.48.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://www.audiotoolsdirect. http://www.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . CD audio extraction.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. GNU/Linux.com/blogs/doug/index. and utilities for conversion.com/lipsync/ind ex. http://www. DJ mixing.thepodcastnetwork. or sentences from audio Web sites. htm RECAP Ltd.uk/podcasting/index.edupodder.purdue. http://www. http://sourceforge. including podcasting.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. playback. and broadcasting are all found on this site.podcasting-tools.automaticsync. http://www. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.com/resources/dc_media.com/scwmarapr05sonification. http://recap. http://epnweb.co. Microsoft Windows.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.htm For a list of podcasting tools. including software to record and play podcasts.ibritt.com/itunes/ Audacity is free. http://www. http://www.scientificcomputing. http://www. enhancing.com/AudioTools/inde x.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. http://www. http://64.rds.avsmedia.ltd.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. tools. Audio and video software. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.

Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. Richards (Ed. http://recap. First Monday. M. and Higher Education 2003 (pp. and Videoblogs in Higher Education.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.com/products/audition/ main. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Podcasts..unl. Dave (2005). Chesapeake. May 20.html Kaplan-Leiserson. pdf Noakes. (2003). Sound Sense.ltd. In G. Learning Circuits.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. July 2005. http://digitalcommons. 10(9). Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. http://www. and Williams.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. http://www. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Retsema.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. P. S. C. University of Nebraska. http://www. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Scientific Computing World. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. http://www. (2005). Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. L.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.multitrackstudio. April 2005. 2005. Peter (2005). http://dl. Robin Good’s Blog. September. 45-50..educause.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.html Girvan. and Lomas.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. http://www. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. VA: AACE.bias-inc. J. Eva (2005).scientificcomputing. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Ray (2005). Government. Dion Cory (1999). A. and Swenson. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Brenda (2001).masternewmedia. http://edmarketing. http://firstmonday.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www.htm Jobbings. B.learningcircuits. http://www. Healthcare.aace.apple.sonicfoundry. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). Dilley.uk/articles/podguide. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. Luigi (2005).adobe. 417-419).editlib.h tml Canali De Rossi. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).cakewalk.audiolink.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.com/scwmarapr05sonification.org/index.com/home..html Curtis. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Fox. N. Doctoral Dissertation.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . June 2005.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.

Implementation. Development. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen.com/publications/emerging/emerging. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. in the end. In this vein.s html). many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Design. please see http://www. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. content development.brandonhall. simulations. and. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. As well. For details on each Microsoft product. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. 2005). see: http://www. and Evaluation) processes. either directly or with third party tools. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Further. (For details. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food).microsoft. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. No authoring tool does everything. rapid elearning. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience.

http://www.uk/contentpoint.adobe. and images and turn them into 3-D training. and PowerPoint slides. video. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. http://www. http://presentation. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. htm Composica . Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .acroservices. . www. http://www. http://www. http://www. visualization.Media – Import 3-D Models. http://www.com/presenter. rich text. http://www.elearningpowertools.Capture Station 2. Flash. go to: http://www.turbodemo. video. http://www.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.Content Point .atlanticlink. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily.Composica Enterprise .Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.anark.Thinkcap Studio .Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.com/products/ Articulate .co.com Anark .articulateglobal.lersus.co. http://www.com/ Counterpoint .allencomm.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.htm Brainshark Inc.info/ Allen Communications .> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. http://www. Integrates various media. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.thinkingcap.ilessons.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.copycatsoftware.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain.htm ActiveSlide.asp Bridge People and Technology . http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Acroservices .Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.com/eng/index.composica.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. hotspots. music.Designer’s Edge.brainshark. Builds quizzes.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.com/ Business Performance Technology .A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. buttons. video.htm Bernard D&G .accordent.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .com Agile . and marketing applications. pointers.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.activeslide.com/index.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS. pop-up messages. XML.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. http://www.bridge-pt.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.

elementk. http://www. http://www.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . DVD-video. HTML courses. http://www.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .com/ Information Transfer .WTDS-Web Training Development System .com imc AG . http://www.gen21.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/products/ Pro.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.digitalworkshop.com/products/forceten. Import rich media and customize graphics.co. and animation.e-learningconsulting. http://www.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .com/index. http://www.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. audio.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.ht ml E-Learning Consulting . http://www.elicitus.sculptoris.intecllc. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.lecturnity. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www. http://www.php e2train .com/Solutions/Elearni ng.eedo. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.com/ Hunter Stone .shtml Dynamic Media . http://www.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. Post the characters on any Web site.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. CD Rom.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set. graphics.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. such as the following: Web. http://www.hunterstone.com/ Eclipsys Corporation . creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.de/ Impatica .epistema.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. http://www.com Imaira Digital Media .impatica. stand alone . http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.exe files.dynamicpowertrainer.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. without programming knowledge. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.horizonwimba.com Element K .experiencebuilders.eclipsys. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. http://www.uk/ INTEC .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Digital Workshop . http://www.com/ka.e2train. http://www. and installation files.seminar. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .com/inde x_eng.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. video.

ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.uk/ MindIQ .mindonsite.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.co.com/prods erv.jsp Knowledge Planet . http://www.easyprof.knowledgextensions.learn. http://www.knowledgeplanet. http://www. with a built-in learning management system.instant-demo.com/index.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. http://www.ipsinc.Used to create presentations without programming skills.com/learncenter. http://www. shtml Itaca .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.intuition.mckinnonmulherin. and animations with tests and interactivity. audio.com . http://www.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. http://www. http://www. combining multimedia content like video.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. Works with SAP Learning Solution. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.LEARNERLand – Text.EasyProf .pdf Intuition .ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .php MindOnSite . http://www. centralized knowledge base. with no programming and no plugins. PowerPoint slides.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. http://www. http://www.mindiq.maxit.com/ NetPlay Software .maxit. http://www.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.customcourse. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. Ready-made button and navigation aids.com MyKnowledgeMap . http://www.com/flashhom e.knowledgepresenter.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. http://www. http://www.ie/software/publisher.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.knowledgequest.htm Kookaburra Studios .mohive.authoring tool based on Flash templates.learnerland.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.elearninginabox.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. Built-in testing engine. http://www. Word. graphics. .com/ OPTX International .com/home/home.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates.com/ Learn. Has its own built-in learning management system. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .htm MediaMaker .ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .

jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. and assessments. interactive Flash presentations and online training.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. http://www. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.In minutes. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.sensalearning.htm Suddenly Smart . customizable flashcards.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . kiosks.toolbook.teds.Nuvvo .softchalk. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. image labeling. GIFs. crosswords. popups.teknical.com/camtasia.techsmith.com/products/lc. Audio.cfm Serco (technical) .or SCORMcompliant.com/ Scribe Studio . http://www.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.E-Learning Objects . http://www. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. http://www. and course player all in one software package. Courses can be posted.com/common/affili ateRefer. http://www.com/learn_assistant. http://www.com/ Qarbon . matching games. course publisher. When content is developed.net/ PointeCast .net ReadyGo .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations. http://www.screenwatch.percepsys.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.com Respondus .qarbon.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/ Percepsys .podia. http://www.Publisher Professional .syberworks.podiaOnDemand .com/Products/elearnin g_objects.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. and highly interactive elearning content. http://www.com/ SumTotal .p hp?from=menu SumTotal .reusableobjects. or Spanish.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author.com Rapid Intake .Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.rapidintake. http://nuvvo.asp TEDS .com/product_sa.htm podia .StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. JPEGs. http://www.com/products/study mate.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. Microsoft PowerPoint. http://www.com/coursegen.readygo. http://www. http://www.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.ht m Techsmith . http://www. a customizable.respondus.students.pointecast. French.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.com/ Savvica .shtml Reusable Objects .htm Do not reproduce 49 . without knowing code. http://www. http://www.toolbook.com/sensasoluti on. http://www. http://www.scribestudio.com/learn_assistant.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. and Flash.suddenlysmart.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. image hotspot activities.

amazon.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.com/services/webpresentation-svc. and host online discussions.pdf Ramp.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. Montreal. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. McMullen. interactive and intelligent educational software. and Pahl.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . (2005).2-conformant objects and assessments.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8. (2005). audio.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .com/ US Government .. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. and Ainsworth. Doctoral Dissertation. D. and rapid simulation.westcliffdata.oswego.uk/index.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool.xplana. C.com/Technology. and Riesbeck. http://www.pdf Murray. P. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.xstreamsoftware.time4you GmbH . or Network. P..nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full.htm Zapatec . right in their browser with no additional software required. publish blogs.asp TrainVision . http://www. C.brandonhall. www. E. Illinois. Blessing.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. http://www. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. Government.com/products/products _xwb. (2003). CD. Northwestern University. http://workforceconnections.lectora..tue. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . Lin (2005). content conversion. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.Presentation Studio . templates. http://www. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. and wizards.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. L. M.cs.trainvision. http://www. http://www.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.. http://www.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. video. images.time4you. S.win.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference.com/download _rb40eval. (2005). Healthcare. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.dol. Berlin: Springer. http://www.gov/ Webex . http://www. http://www. De Bra. http://www. T. June 2005.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.co.bloki.webex. Melia. S.cs. and text.oswego. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). E. Evanston.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. www. and Brusilovsky.funeducation. http://www.

2004. Canada. Reuben (2005). (2005).org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. Masters Thesis.htm Tozman.sis. Gary (2005).s html Do not reproduce 51 . Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.learningcircuits. http://www2. Reuben (2004). W. http://www. 2005. Nov. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. Learning Circuits. NL.pitt. Sunnyvale. AACE.2005). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Another new paradigm for instructional design. A.brandonhall. E. BC.learningcircuits. June 2005. http://www.htm Tozman.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Technical Univ. CA: Brandon Hall Research.editlib.edu/~paws/publication s. http://www. Learning Circuits. Eindhoven.. Vancouver.com/publications/emerging/emerging.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. October 2428.org/index.htm Woodill. The myth about tools.

especially in gamebased learning activities. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.” Maldonado et al.sculptoris. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .codebaby.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. http://blogoehlert.typepad. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. in the broadest sense.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. In the context of elearning. the avatar may represent an actual human being.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. for example.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.telsim.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. and generally simulates human activity. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. games. Similarly.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.Avatars Related terms Agents. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. In some situations. but in e-learning. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. http://www.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. http://www.

the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. http://www. Suthers. and Nodder. http://www.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. Koschmann. http://isnm. Inc.co. J. K. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. R.pdf Maldonado.daden.pdf Online Resources In Europe. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning..uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Y. modular application. Ahad. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.pdf Jung.. H.Training Education & Education International Conference. S. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. eLearning Developers’ Journal. (2004). has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. Raj (2003). C.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. http://www.pdf Seth. Nexus Media.. users are represent-ed as avatars. 25.exodus. Yamada. Chan (Eds.elearningguild.stanford. and Weber. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Aug.knowledgeenvironments. Lee. C.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.. and T.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.redwoodelearning. In the toolkit.. H.ac.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. http://www.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. Try them at: http://www. http://www. 2003.tmmy..naccq.. Nass. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. offering a large number of supportive functions. New Zealand. (2005).com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.” which are avatars that teach. Brave. B.html 2005 . In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .co. A. D. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. 2005. (2005)..uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. Iwamura.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. S. Nakajima.W. In T.. and Morishima. http://www. http://www. M. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. http://ww.oddcast.vcom3d. www.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. Beatty. The devices keep students alert and involved. costs can be an issue. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. management.einstruction. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . However. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. 2006. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. giving almost instant feedback.” In spite of the costs. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. The use of clickers has several advantages. corporate. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. display. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. integrated with other types of learning technologies. and military settings. clickers. training the faculty member to use the software. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. higher education. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. classroom communication systems. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. increasing their motivation to learn. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. http://www. the costs and headaches multiply. or clickers.

http://www.com/cps/index. https://sharepoint.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002.learnstar.umass. E-Learning Dialogue.educause. No.pdf Burnstein. http://www.active-learning-site. Eric (1997). July 7. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. and Lederman. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.com/index.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.pearsonncs. http://www.utexas. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.gtcocalcomp.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. including material on the use of classroom response systems. 7 things you should know about…Clickers. http://www. Inside CUA.pdf Mazur.com. 41(5).physics.jmu.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.optiontechnologies.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. http://umperg. http://www.utexas. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. http://www. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. http://www.campustechnology.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.com/products_int erwrite. 272-275. Upper Saddle River. 3.elearning.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. March 3. http://inside.amazon. Tom (2004).aclearn.smartroom. Q.Publishing textbook.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.qwizdom.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.cisat. Anne (2006). http://www. http://www.com/news_issue. Volume 2004. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. pdf Cassidy. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.ubc. 3. Educause Learning Initiative. The Physics Teacher.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).com/index. http://www. http://www.” http://www.h-itt.edu/articleprinter1. Research Bulletin. http://www. (2003).com/Default. R.pearsoned.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.cua. 2004. http://www.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research . NJ: Prentice Hall. Feb. Ian (2004).net/display.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. 2006. http://www.

Conference.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Australia.edu.uq.itee. http://www. Melbourne.

Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. it requires skill and experience. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.g.g. The Institute for the Future.zoho. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. clarification.. evaluation.teamspace.. e. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. http://www. organize. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.com/virtualoffice/index.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.com/products/i ndex. and There are many different ways to collaborate. http://www. http://www. social networking building..g. and collaborating. collaborate. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. reduction.advancedreality.html?ad-main Annotea . social bookmarking.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. many respond. through brainstorming).Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). doing. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. organization.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.

Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.cisco. and meeting manager.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. and individual users. discussion forum. search.inteam. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook).org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat .comotivsystems.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://www. jot down notes.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. intellectual property management.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . http://www.com/ Cisco . http://www.backpackit. document versioning. office. with templates and workflows for product development.courseforum. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. share information. and instant access to the group workspace.jsp Engineering.globalchat.com/ EMC² . http://www.brightidea. and upload photos.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. voice and data collaboration.com/microsites/eRoo m/index.centraldesktop. http://www. alerts. and information technology adoption. robust document management.emc. Web conferencing.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.com/services/faq_basics . http://www. http://www.com/English/ps2/product s/product. and instant messaging. contacts.w3. markup of data. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. and collaboration. and communicate with others.bluetie. http://software. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. non-profit.bookmarks. calendar. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. http://www. collaborative file management.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . http://www.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.Unified MeetingPlace . project planning and reporting.Documentum eRoom .digite. education.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . http://www. instant messaging. version control. Features include IM. Presence (see who’s online).Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform. http://www. flexible workflow. http://www. and searchable discussion threads.gotomeeting. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. expert location.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.com/ourProduc t/index. Includes document organization and sharing.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.avecomm.opencroquet.citrix.com/ Blenks – In-team . http://www. recordable conferencing. http://www.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. http://www.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . share files.bantu. and communication.

universal file viewer for MS office documents. recording and playback.com/products/Collabor ation.grapevinesoftware. and document management. http://www.flypaper. http://www.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. allow members to update and edit files. invite workspace members.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . categorizing.com/halo/index.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. conducting surveys. require-ment and risk management. http://www. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.gliffy. http://www.groupsupport.shtml Hewlett Packard . meeting. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. share files and documents.hp. secure.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. and images. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. It has tools for managing multiple teams.google. data and process tracking.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. http://www. project management. http://www. assign file editing rights and completion dates. software construction. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. quantitative project management. and sending workflow tasks. http://www. Features include interactive data collaboration. interactive whiteboard. snapshots.facilitate.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www. and organizational process performance. http://www.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.features a project navigator.com/EN/products /GSII.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. Web-based extranet tool. desktop sharing.ezmeeting.groove. easy to use online collaboration system. http://collaboration. http://groups.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting.forumone. tracking the status of assignments. powerful.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . presentation tools.gordano. and creating action plans. cameras.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. 2001.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .ProjectSpaces is a password-protected.epam-pmc.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions.exactamerica. product quality assurance. The system streamlines project planning. Features include the following: Accessing documents. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. scheduling and using calendars. search. including whiteboards. resource information sharing. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.Halo Collaboration Studio . voting. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. attach threaded discussions to files. http://www. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.Live meetings and Web conferencing. It provides working groups with simple. and corporate instant messaging. drawing tools.engineering. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.net/home/index. http://www.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . http://www. and team management.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .

podcasting.mayeticvillage. calendars. http://www.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . http://www.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues.com/ iLinc Communications .An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Features include the following: Business email. Web resources. http://www.com/ JotSpot .com/products/docu ment_management/index.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.ibm.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. scalable.Lotus QuickPlace . and more. efficient.iceweb. peer-to-peer. including versioning. contacts. Integrated suite of multiuser.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. private interactive access or exchange of text.inquesttechnologies. task manager. including file sharing. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .com/Smart Apps. video. http://www03.kGroups provides a number of tools. discussion forums. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .interwoven. and photos.com/hotComm. http://www. a Wiki. customers. and secure peer networking architecture. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. folders. instant messaging and presence indication. online calendar. Features include the following: Document management.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. online contact management.ilinc. and extensibility. voice.za/index. http://www.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. image libraries. link sharing). partners. versioning control. http://www.uwc.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.jotlive. http://kgroups. Outlook.Jotspot Live. and file commenting. and Lotus Notes. online document management.webofficepoint. http://www.jdhtech.hyperoffice.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.com/html/produ cts. Features include the following: Shared calendars.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . a powerful. http://www. and shared documents. http://www. search archiving.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. security levels. integrates with MS Office. and customers on the Web.com/ Interwoven .A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.hotcomm.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . an interface to a mailing list server. blogs (Weblogs).com/ IBM .ac. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. and Microsoft Outlook integration.microsoft. http://www. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. structured. data. http://www. online editor. and provides search. Functions include the following: Share documents. realtime chat. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.hotComm . Customizable Web directory. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.

The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. Within each area.communityzero. calendaring. and share data or applications while they are online. MyWorldChat Communicator .html Rallypoint .CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.Rallypoint .com/ Same-Page.Corporate quality communications center.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions.novell.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. Enables individuals.oracle. http://www. instant messaging. milestones. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.com/collabsuite/index.opentext. called an online community.santacruznetworks.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . instant messaging.Microsoft – SharePoint . http://www. providing the best of both worlds.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. teams. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction.near-time. Create a NearTime space to share ideas. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.com/ Oracle .com/ Ramius .com/terms. see each other in real time using cameras. team events. http://www. audio and Webcam.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. Workflow Automation.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. resources. http://www.mspx Near-Time – Flow . and files. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign . Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. and presence management solutions.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. and communicate. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. and MP3 audio recording. http://myworldchat. file transfer.performancesolutionstech. task management.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. Allows people to talk to each other.A suite of persistent group messaging. http://www. Document Management. author and review pages individually and across the group. http://www. schedule and track events and activities. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Santa Cruz Networks . http://www. http://www.com/ Novell – Groupwise . real-time application sharing. http://www.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.parlano.same-page.rallypointhq.com – eStudio . and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. text chat. http://www.microsoft. organize and discover content through categories and tags. tasks. http://www. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. information.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. and contact and document management functions. processes.Community Zero . and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. share knowledge. moderator functions.

yahoo. newsgroup server.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www.Processes email.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. live video. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.Forum ZX .html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. http://www.com/products /stcollab. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration .writely. http://www. and business relationships.00. collaboration. application sharing. FTP server.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and breakout groups.sumtotalsystems.webcrossing. http://www.sharemethods. http://www. collaboration. desktop document folders.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference.04. or use it to build a Web application. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. store files. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. voice and Web conferencing.com/ SiteScape . Designed specifically for the non-technical user. and share. http://www. Includes VoIP. http://www.com/index. http://groups. and prospects – without leaving their desks. and instant messaging.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.com/product/ Vignette . and information sharing.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.webasyst. project.vignette. video.sitescape.solutions. interact.com SpiderWeb Communications . instant messaging. expertise.stalker. XML-RPC server. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 .com/contentmanagem ent/0. search.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.tacit. project teams.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.viack.2097.25. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.trichys.Collaboration software that includes document management. calendar sharing. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. workflow and task management. and more. http://www. http://www.com/company/news/press /2005. productivity applications. documents. and use live audio.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. http://www.html Trichys – WorkZone .com/content/default. threaded discussions. partners.seldensystems.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. Use it out of the box.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.cyber-grad. http://www. http://www.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . Webbased whiteboarding. http://www.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. and business partners. Web conferencing server (in-house). e-mail server. view and edit documents or images together. and calendaring tools. chat server. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. and other business communications.

Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. http://education.Features include Hands up. http://www. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. identify and resolve potential problems. http://www. Access to the tool is also given to clients.teamdynamix. and save to disk icon. discussions. http://www.opmcreator. connects peers. set user permissions.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.peoplecube.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. content.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. scheduling solutions. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .com/project. Share multiple projects with multiple users. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. content button. and communicate with their project teams. http://www.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. invoicing. http://www. assign tasks. http://www.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. annotation tools. online management for projects of any size and scope.axista.tomoye.Instant set-up.generation.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. review button. navigation. http://www.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. private/group chat.Intuitive project management software for work teams. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.saba.onproject.Web event calendaring. http://www.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. and e-mails.Projistics . http://www. applaud and meter.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator .project-open. whiteboard pages. files. affordable. and collaboration to timesheet management. form to submit questions. feedback. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . and asynchronous group meetings http://care. exit and help.brevient.HP Virtual Classroom .aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .com/ HP . project planning. http://www. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. and share documents.com/ onProject – myonProject . pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software.projectdox. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. and Web pages." virtual collabor-ation. http://www.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . and payments. video.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. attendee list.com Nagarro .caucus. calendars.nexprise.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files.hp. http://www. simple.com/ applications. print icon. project tracking. Works with Microsoft Project. scaleable.com/index.elluminate. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. data.nagarro. and data into a single storage area.0 . custom stamps.

office hours.elluminate.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . URL sharing. http://www.interwise. http://www.ivocalize. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. session reports. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.liveoffice. how often. and videoconferencing. Web. private whiteboards for each participant. and a change presenter ability.Synchronous Webconferencing software. integrated content management system. http://www. desktop sharing.com/ Intralinks .adobe. and phone use.Delivers unlimited voice. http://www. http://www. application sharing. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. keyboard and voice chat. broadcasts files. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. meeting management. sales presentations.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. http://www.genesys. and collaborative content-building sessions. notes. http://www.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . and more. instant Do not reproduce 69 . http://www. Allows holding live.Photon Infotech – SPARK . live demos. http://www. including Web conferencing. remote control. video. shared desktop. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.convenos. e-mail invites. and content display. video. http://www. toll-free conference calling. Multilingual. pre-recorded broadcasts. virtual office hours.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. and Web conferencing with WebEx. http://www. Features include shared documents. polling and quizzes. instant messaging. http://www. shared whiteboard and present-ation. online classes. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. attendee lists.mixmeeting.glance. and meetings. http://www.com/ internet_conferencing. synchronous online lectures. and text chat.batipi. e-learning classrooms.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . and collaboration features. visual.linktivity.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. transparency tools.com/website2/events _imc. and by whom. http://www.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. and Webconferencing specialists. online seminars.intralinks.photoninfotech. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.communiqueconferencing. annotations. Record classes or Webcasts. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. breakout rooms.net/site/getglance/exa mples. guest lectures.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging. Webcasts. hand raising. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. For example. learning. http://www.LiveOffice provides Web-based.horizonwimba.0 .A secure.com/ Linktivity Division.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces .com/ iVocalize . record and playback. and real-time videoconferencing. teleconferencing.

SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. and desktop videoconferencing services.webtrain.edu/~bwilson/build ing. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. and instant messaging capabilities. tour Web sites.com/bridgepoint.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).radvision. share other applications.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . editing. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www.telnetz. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. http://www.com/rndc/services/s ervices.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. The suite manages the creation.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . With the convenience of online access through an individual account. conference calling.com/home/s_vmps. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. Web conferencing.Web and audio conferencing services.raindance. and moderation of Webcasts.edufolio. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. http://carbon. e-learning. and document collaboration. http://www.netspoke.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. or an entire desktop. http://www.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other.webex. http://www.wave3software. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.com/action.To support large deployments. http://www. teleconferencing.cudenver. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. Webinars. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . send text messages.meetingone. and into the enterprise.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. text messaging. present PowerPoint slideshows. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.Powers online meetings.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. remote support. set up labs and conduct quizzes.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .vodium.voxwire. http://www. audio. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. publishing. Requires only a browser and a phone. http://www.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . surveys. http://www. discussion forums. or meeting. any application.Meeting One – Click&Share. http://www. Solutions include Web meetings. and system management. course. the Internet.

com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. Michaelides. http://cde. Maceió. http://www. A.pdf Bonk. 2003.com/groupware/in dex. Web 2. Nov.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.org/collab/inde x. De Roure. K. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. ChenBurger.com/webconf/workspa ces.” http://www.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. http://www.. http://www.. 2002. Buckingham Shum.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning.ecs. http://www. Fred (2002)...org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).ctcevents. http://www..collabtech.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. and Tate.1:100250. Page. 2006.writely. Q2Learning White Paper.org/index.bruck.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.diglib. S.collaborationloop.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Creating an eCommunity. M..com/writings. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning..com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.educause. Bryan (2006).athabascau. Brazil. 2002. http://www.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. http://www.htm Mitre Corporation. D. scientific.criticalmethods.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration.collaborate. 4. Bill (2004). Models of collaboration. communities. Komzak. Shadbolt. Sign up for free at: http://www. http://www.htm Butler. D.globalschoolnet. (2004). J. http://www. and Coleman.soton. J. N. http://collaboration.clomedia.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.. http://www. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.thinkofit. also has a great list of collaboration tools. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. also known as “groupware. Potter. Japan on July 13-14.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. Chief Learning Officer..org/tools. Dalton. Collaborative Strategies.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. September. J. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. Nov.kolabora. Eisenstadt.html Do not reproduce 71 . (2003).springerlink. http://www. M. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.ac.uk/12081/ Beshears. March/April 2006.1 Bibliography Alexander.mitre. T. 41(2). http://www.. http://eprints.com/View. D. S. Curtis (2002).0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.usabilityfirst.

Luigi (2004b). http://cde.masternewmedia. C. Aavani. J. P.html Kreijns. R. Kirschner. 5(1).org/index.ieee. Bjorn (Ed. Proceedings. Robin Good Blog.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. 2003. In Crawford. J. D.) (2003). Luigi (2003a). June 30. http://www. January 2005.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. K.. A.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. J.) (2004).. http://www. Palo Alto. Findlay.masternewmedia. 827-829).amazon. 3. Soren (2002). (2002). http://www. and Sharifi.masternewmedia. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.. A.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. and Martens.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es.. (2002). August 2002.pdf Kaplan. and Jochems. June 22.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. http://www. 5(1).learningcircuits.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. London: Springer-Verlag.htm # Clapp.Canali De Rossi. (2004).N.pdf Strijbos.html Munkvold. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. http://www.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Robin Good Blog.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.. Educational Technology & Society.html Hurst.zcu.. June 5.ca/online_book/ch8 . R. http://ifets. McFerrin.html Institute for the Future (2005). http://www.. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. W. (2004). K. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. and Miller.. Institute for the Future White Paper. J.masternewmedia. VA: AACE. P. Sept. http://www. http://wscg.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. University of Athabasca. R. (2002). A.org/index. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing.editlib. Then Knowledge Management. CA.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2005).). Carlsen. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. J. 2004.cmswatch. CMS Watch. Collaboration First. & Weber. 72 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.cfm/files/pape r_12386.editlib.. J. Luigi (2004a).com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Robin Good Blog. Luigi (2003b). Robin Good Blog. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. Price. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.athabascau. and Forster. M.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. Gibson. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. (Eds. R. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. http://www. D.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing.rheingold. (Eds. Kirschner. Chesapeake.ieee. January 21. 2565-2569.. Technologies of Cooperation. Matthew (2004). Robin Good Blog.com/Feature/109 Elliot. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.htm Canali De Rossi.. D. May 2. (2005). Willis.. Fitzgerald. and Thomas. e-Book. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.masternewmedia. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi. I. http://ifets. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. Live ELearning.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. Learning Circuits. A. Educational Technology & Society.

php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 ..Norwell.com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Studies in Learning. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.edu.cqu.amazon. 24. (2004). Nov. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www. Innovation and Development. Callan.. G. Evaluation. http://sleid. J. K.au/include/getdoc. 1(2). & Purnell.

discussion groups. whiteboards. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. telephony. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. developed in Brazil. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. and yet tailored and flexible. instant messaging. It is being developed into a transportable.editlib. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.uk/deletacademictalk. Find her work at: http://64.google.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A.” http://goldenswamp. a process referred to as “text mentoring.com. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .ac.janison.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. Hegarty et al.71. For Laurillard.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. labs.au/eq/default.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. VoIP.48.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. telepresence. messaging. chat. blogs. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. including communications tools.conversate.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. discussion forums. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. UK.jisc. http://www. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. re-usable. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. http://www. For example. http://www.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.

Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. 2002.com Library. JulySept. June.pdf Kadirire.charityvillage. (Mlearn 2002).. Mark (2004). UK. and telephony tools. Learning Circuits.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.com/wwwtools/m/2645. and Cerri. > http://www.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. Bostock. September 23.hbs.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook.thinkofit. (2000). http://ewic.fasfind. http://www. M. 31 (3). and Collins. http://www. 19.elearningcentre.learningcircuits.amazon. D. and Bortolozzi..com/cv/research/ rmed35.co.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . and Wales. 2004. Jan. http://www. J. Francis.ac. 199-212. CharityVillage.formatex. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.html Laurillard. http://www.jisc.. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. M. University of Warwick. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. Pattie (2005).htm Garner.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.athabascau. (2005). Diana (1993). AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. and Elliott. Nick (2002).elearningcentre.html Morgan.gov.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Aug. Computer Mediated Communication.edu/item. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.html Laurik. British Journal of Educational Technology.ngfl. University of Birmingham.htm http://www.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.com/webconf/hostsite s. Sven (2002). S.pdf Eleuterio.org/micte2005/4. distance-learning course at Keele University.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. http://safety. Technologies of Online Learning.pdf LaCroix. http://hbswk. 31. London: Routledge.uk/schools/document .com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. http://cde. James (2005). F.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Hegarty.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.ac.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.ca/online_book/ch5 .warwick.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. J. 20-21.editlib. chat.bcs.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. Working Knowledge Newsletter. http://m. 2002. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.org/index. (2004). 13-20. R.co. (2002). 2005 http://www. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. International Journal on E-Learning. CAP e-Guide. e-Book. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. University of Athabasca. J. S.co. http://www2. J. M. http://www. I. Komzak. E-Learning 1.elearningcentre. (2004). Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.

Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). (2002).Stone. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. http://dircweb. June. 20-21. J.king. A.uk/papers/Stone_A. and Briggs. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view.ac.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . 2002.

2000). entering defined competencies into a matrix. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. In 1973. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. diagnose symptoms. and carry out proper procedures.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies.” it started in 1950 with Dr. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. W. skills verification. a Harvard psychologist. For a large list of competencies for physicians.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. go to: www. skills. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge.org/competencies/in dex. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer.org.itsc. performance appraisal. 2005). Edwards Deming.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. https://launchpad. skills inventory.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Description According to Sanders (2001). a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. David McClelland.imsproject. competency-based training. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. organizational and personal goals are tied together. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries.

April. a Canadian company. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.oracle. New York: David McKay. Benjamin (1956).com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.desire2learn. Josh (2006). see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. htm Many companies have their own competency models.cipd.syberworks.wmich. Clare (2005). Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. objectives. http://www. regardless of industry or sector. http://www. New York: AMACOM.htm Online Resources HRSG.learningcircuits.edu/paprog/clin_events.co. http://www. For example. 2005.amazon. Ken (2000). the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose..” http://www.learnflex.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans. Read their white paper at: http://www. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.html The U.hrsg.ibm.E.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Competency and competency frameworks.ncrel.com/article16.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. http://www. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. measurement. http://www. http://www.expresscomputeronline. April 25.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. Express Computer.com/20 050425/technologylife01.shtml Hogg.clomedia.ca/index.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. and development interventions. Chief Learning Officer. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.com/content/templat es/clo_article. activities. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.amazon.com/skillsman.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.S.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. London: Wiley. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Building a skills inventory. See the list of competencies at: http://www. R. Sudipta (2005).cpgvision. http://www. (1982).php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.amazon. http://www.

UK: Cambridge University Press. London: IDS.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . http://www. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. G. University of Toronto. E. London: IRS.amazon. Creating a Culture of Competence.html Radsma. http://www. N.amazon. Miller. http://www.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. 1-14. (2005). Rankin. P. White paper from Operitel Corporation. New York: John Wiley.amazon. and Hollyforde.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. Operitel Corporation. http://www. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Master's thesis. Ethan (2001).28. v. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. David. http://www. (2001). Michael. (1999).. and Grigorenko. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. (2004). P.htm Parkin. April 30. (2003). Competency Frameworks. Learning Circuits. Sanders. The Psychology of Abilities. March 2001.collectionscanada.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. (Eds. and Cahorn.pdf Rankin. Parkin’s Lot. N. http://www.) (2003). Competencies.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www. 2nd ed. Fall 2000.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. and Neathy. (2000). Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.cipd.com Woodill.linezine. and Epstein.co. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. http://www. 2005.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. (2001). N. L. http://www.blogspot. pp. http://parkinslot.htm Whiddett. (2001).com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.html Sternberg. Cambridge. London: IRS. Gary (2004). (1973). Ellen (2000). E-Learning Competencies. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. http://www. Godfrey (2005). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.operitel.amazon. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005.com/2.operitel. White paper.1/features/ewet te. American Psychologist.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. Study 706. R.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. F. Rankin. S. and Expertise. Johanna. Competency based learning management. S.learningcircuits. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.

Learning objects. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. the standardized railway system still works while private. to date. With the advent of learning objects. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” As well. displaying a course catalogue. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. Unfortunately. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.atutor. and reporting. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. and “topic maps. http://www. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. LCMS. you could hire a company to build a private. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. in fact. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. rather than complementary.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. According to its official Web site. They have designed competitive. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. Today.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. First. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. If you could afford it. 2006). simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. I feel that closed. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. functionality to an ECM. such as registering users. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. launching courses. Repositories. manage.” http://drupal.

January 23. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. 2003. http://www. Gerry (2003). “Monoliths.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms.softlab. http://www. June 9.pdf Cohen. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. http://www. and Brantner. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. http://plone.gerrymcgovern. Curtis (2005). 2005.ca/mt/archive/000 689. G.com/publications. elearnspace blog. Dec.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix.org Leslie. http://www. 18. (Eds.pdf Weigel. Van (2005). March 3. C. May 15. 40(3). Strategies for managing scalable content. http://www. Learning Solutions.e-learningcentre. George (2003).) (2005). Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference.asp Woodill. reuse in many places.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . 2005.htm Simon. C. 2003.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. EdTechPost blog.com/content/templat es/clo_article. P. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.educause. http://www. S.topicmaps.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. 2006. and Carmean. and Oliveira. TravelinEdMan blog. (2006). http://www.cisco. Ed.co. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. New Thinking Blog.clomedia. Hershey.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. and publish to multiple outputs. > > http://www.ntua. http://www. McGovern.cmsmatrix.com http://www. Scott (2005). S.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. http://www. Mashups. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper.html Cisco Corp. Retalis. Budapest. Why content management software hasn’t worked. http://sakaiproject.htm Siemens.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. PA: Idea Group. March 2005. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. 2003. Chief Learning Officer Magazine.author-it.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy.elearnspace. B. http://www. Cisco Corporation White Paper..topicmap. http://travelinedman.operitel.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS.blogspot. (2004). Jafari. (2005). A. May/June.html McGee.uk Bibliography Bonk. http://www.. (2003). Content Management: our organized future. Educause Review. San Jose. 2005.edtechpost.

Consequently. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. delivery models and infrastructure investment. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. 2000. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. personalization methods. 2001). Luan and Willett.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. knowledge discovery. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds.

Data Mining in e-Learning. U.uwaterloo.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.hkuspace.kent.. http://www. 13-16 http://asbointl. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.edu. California. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that.cs. 68(8). Smyth. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Lange.html Hammouda. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. New York: Springer. http://www. and Tschiedel. http://imej.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.com/index. and R. Uthurusamy.au/%7Ekalina/inde x.ac.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. http://pami.html Bibliography De Veaux. P.usyd.kdnuggets... and Kamel. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. School Business Affairs. Piatetsky-Shapiro. Australia. G.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. Alex (2002). What’s Not. K. AAAI Press/MIT Press. G. 1996.wfu.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. (2006). (2000). by applying fuzzy logic. P. http://pami. G.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. Thalheim.. text mining.kdnuggets.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. Grigoriev.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. 2001) http://www. and Smyth. R. Samuel (Ed.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.icosystem. B. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.pdf Freitas.. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. knowledge discovery. In Pierre. New York: Springer. Long Beach. (2004). http://www.pdf Jantke.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. (1996). edited U. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. Both products are from Convera. 1--34.amstatonline.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. B. Robert (2002). Do not reproduce 83 . Data Mining: What’s New.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses. http://www. Feb.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.uwaterloo.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages.reeltwo.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. P.cs. Grieser.. K. M. http://www.pdf Fayyad. pp.convera. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. (cited in Luan and Willett.soul. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.pdf Iskander. Piatetsky. http://www. http://www. M Fayyad. S. and Web mining.

and Yacef. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.html Ueno.pdf Mor. J. and Minguillon.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. http://csdl2. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. A. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. 41-54. RP Conference Presentation. Billerica. and Cheung. Vol 4. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. T. (2004). 2004 (7). In Proceedings. May 17-22. http://imej. C. Yacef (2005).compmech..com/PaperInfo. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). http://dl. http://www2004. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. 3(4). Japan. C. S..wfu. Gord (2004).cnrs.org/16915 Romero. 2006. K.ac. 52-59.ags.editlib. http://www. Portugal.is. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.unisb. http://www.pdf Loo.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 15(4). International Journal on ELearning. 319-346. Oliveira. Train. B. http://www.ccsd. A. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. and K. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. (2001). M. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. and Willett. and K. Oct.asp Merceron.actapress. MA: WIT Press. A.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.open. 47-55. http://www. Innsbruck. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).cabrillo.-Dec. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. 13-16. (2006). Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Feb. analyze for more adaptive teaching. 39-40.informatik. J. store.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.unikiel. (2004).org/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.computer. 3(1). David (2005). Data Mining in e-Learning.pdf Merceron.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047.aace. Maomi (2004). A. 7(1). 238-241.pdf Merceron. Yacef (2004).edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. and Ullrich. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.pdf Pahl. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).. http://wwwjime.com/acatalog/1845 641523. Claus (2004).ejel. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. http://www.2004. http://www. Scholl.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research .fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. E. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Advances in Management Information. K. NYC. Porto. http://archiveedutice.pdf Monk. and Ventura. Austria.pdf McCalla.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. (2004). (2006). Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. C. Hiroshima. http://www.

net/index. http://www. and 6) document results. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.hut. 2) categorize. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. 4) develop an action plan. 5) carry out a survey.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.edu.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making.tkk. http://www.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. http://www. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.bnhexpertsoft. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .sal. http://www. 3) vote/prior-itize. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.com/ Facilitate.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index.utoronto.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. in their case study of medical education. http://www. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.une. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. For example. http://www.facilitate. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004). such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.whichbook.decisionarium. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.

Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research .html Scott.pdf Frize. SIGGRAPH publication. V. R.uottawa. Porto. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. http://www.site. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. and Tschiedel. Theresa (1998).informatik.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.hut.edu.sal. USA.pdf Jantke. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Portugal..fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.2004. June 20-24. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. 23(4). B. (2000).mc. 6-9. Kauai.. see: http://www.sal. Gerhard (2003).. http://www.bnhexpertsoft. M.pdf Knolmayer. 12(2-3).dssresources. K. http://www.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty.html Rhyne. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. http://science. Jim (2002). Jay (2004). From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. C.com/history/dsshistory . and Koskinen.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.pdf Power.hicss. Manchester.pdf Jantke.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. M.. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). and Tschiedel. Hamalainen.. Enn (2005). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. S. Kankana (2005). http://www. For newsletters. White paper from BNH Expert Software.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. Lange.ac. Memmel. 101-110.uniserve. (2004).de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. In Proceedings. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Grieser. Dan (2003).actapress. http://dssresources.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril.meetingworks. http://www. 238-241.. Online manuscript.hut. (2003).com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.siggraph.. (2004). http://www. Enn (2004). 317-328. Grigoriev. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. K.html Hamalainen. August 16-18.pdf Chakrabarty. 2004. Hawaii. Thalheim. http://www. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. B. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. books.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. http://damit.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. and Frasson. B. O. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.com/index. 2005.dfki. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. Raimo (2003).” http://dmoz. B.com/PaperInfo.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS.manchester. H.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules.unikiel. Thalheim. Hawaii. Rostanin.hawaii. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. P. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. http://www. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. August. Jan. Information Systems for a Connected Society.pdf Ounapuu. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. and information on this area.. Germany.pdf Ehtamo. http://www. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. G.is. Aachen.

9.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .. and Laurindo. F. PA: Idea Publishing. http://www. Hershey. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. M. T.the curriculum. de Carvaho.ideagroup.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.html Shimizu.uniserve. CAL-laborate.com/books/details. Vol. Oct.edu. http://science. 2002. (2006).

resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. For air displays. In regards to digital paper. head mounted displays.theregister. viewers see a floating midair image or video.P rojector.io2technology. projectors. intelligent interfaces. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. http://killer. Electronic paper could change that some day.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www. big enough to be projected on large walls. In the near future. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard.co.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Inc.co. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).theregister. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.com/technology/ overview NTERA.” Selected Examples Samsung.com/about. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. This can be a holographic image. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. monitors.edu/design/Camera. > > http://www. electronic paper. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.cmu. lighting up theater size screens. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. Finally. still/video camera. By stacking a second projector. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly.siliconlight. digital paper. http://www.ices. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. in cooperation with Sony. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.ntera.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.html Promera is a hand-held computer.Displays Related terms Digital ink.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. http://www.

Hirota. Germany.provisionentertainment. T. http://thejournal.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. http://www. W. Pisano. Tim (2005).php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. Government..ac. G.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies.firstmonday. In 2005. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn..com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. 2005. E. Garrett. see: http://ad. M. See a demo at: http://www. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.unifreiburg.fogscreen.loaz. London: Springer. http://portal. and Ottmann..technorati.). Vancouver. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Dec. 2005.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. K. In G. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. State.. and Pizer.uk/index.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T.jisc. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.com/timwang/index. Richards (Ed. 3. Largest LCD and video projection. see: http://www. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.acm. (2005). Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.H. S. Oct.informatik. Hamburg.org/citation. http://www. Healthcare. (1996).cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. To access the articles.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies.pdf Wang. pages 3053-3068. H. Whitton. M. Canada. For a list of his publications. http://blog. A... Livingston.informatik.E.unifreiburg. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . http://ad.

evaluation. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.com/products/ep ortfolio/default. http://www.imsglobal.livetext.org/Articles/eportf olios. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. http://www.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.pupilpages. open source electronic portfolio. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.nottingham.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. http://www.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines.htm Educause.com/eportfolio/in dex.ch/dyn/9.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. and simple usability.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.educa. http://www2.htm IMS.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.osportfolio.paisley. http://isle.co.ac. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. http://www.uk/default. 2005). helping to transform education and training. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. maximum flexibility.angellearning.chalkandwire. My first report in this series.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www. http://www.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.com/college/portfolio s.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements.ac. thus. http://www. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.co.educause. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios.iwebfolio. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios.foliotek.elearningcentre. http://www.pebblelearning. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .elearnspace. http://www.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www.

D. Online.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper.educause.. J.. K.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.educause. http://ferl.asp?id=6984 Cohn.thejournal. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. vol. Aalderink.org. Dec. and Hibbitts. Online paper. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Frederick (2005). Love. THE Journal Online. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. An Overview of e-Portfolios. and Haywood.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.alt. http://connect. J. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. http://www. with many links.. e-portfolios. 39. http://www. 4. 16. March. http://www.pdf Greenberg. (2002).criticalmethods. W. Fall.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.htm Tosh. D. 37(2). engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . and Werdmuller.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. T. (2003). http://www. an online resource on collaboration. http://elgg. B. College of Education http://www. (2005).cfm Dubinsky. future thinking: digital repositories.amazon. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. G.. ePortfolios.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. Bob (2004).elearnspace. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.amazon.org/collab/v. 31(3).uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.eradc. Business Communication Quarterly.com/article.educause. Gary (2004). Dec.ac. Dublin. has a section on e-portfolios. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. D..com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. G. http://www. July/ August 2004.campustechnology. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.. J.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. (2004).edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001..pdf Batson. http://www. (2002).mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Fleming. and Wade. Trinity College. S. April 1.educause. J. University of Iowa. P. Cook. http://www.doc Banks. no. J. 2004 http://www. (Focus on Teaching). Harvey.org/Articles/eportf olios.becta. Educause Quarterly. 28–37. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits..educause. (2005). G. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. http://www. and McKean. Feijen.. (2004).. 2005. (2005). M. Reflective learning. http://www.pdf Conway.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. J. Vol 27 No 4. Light. and Ittelson. FD Learning White Paper.. Trent (2002).pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh.com/magazine/vault /A5260..org/papers/Learning_lan dscape. B. Educause Review.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. http://www. Bryde. Online Paper. elearnspace.pdf Lorenzo. Bibliography Achrazoglou. B. E. Educause Quarterly. George (2004). Lee. Graham (2005).. V. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model.

and portfolios.http://www.A.ht ml Young. http://www..A. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. 2(2).org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. C. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 144-169. & Figgins. M.ca/content/vol31.citejournal.3/tosh.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002). research.cjlt.

html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. writing about “first person shooter games. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story.com/ http://www. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. and learning (Amory. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. MySpace.clickteam. For a brief review of these tools. simulations. 2003). a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). from the University of Wisconsin. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.com.com/ http://www.com/xna/ Softimage. helping speed up the game creation process. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones.com http://us.myspace. complex problem solving.secondlife. This game allows users to play.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. create.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. identity work. Cyworld. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. 2005).facebook.” says that “in the mod world.freescale. http://www. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. as such. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. games. edit. Constance Steinkuehler. http://www.com/ In 2005. http://www.microsoft.thinkingworlds. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. allows members of a game development team to work together.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. http://www. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. There is a free 30-day trial version.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. Marc Prensky (2003). dubbed XNA Studio. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. Facebook. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.hive7.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. serious games.cyworld. play.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .com/ http://www. and Second Life. Examples include Hive7. Dr. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. The toolset. see: http://news. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.

com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).” Read her research at: http://website.digiplay. Sign up at: http://www. http://www.htm Dr.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design.com/news/548 http://www.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.uga.seriousgamessummit.pluginz.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.futureplay.mpjgaBKQ dAe.com/zone 8/index.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. Many of their learning games resources are free.it-c.siggraph. You can read about them at Pluginz. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations. See the selection of games at: http://www. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.com/solutions/g ames/default.wisc. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. Started in North America.coe. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.aspx urces.org.seriousgames. produces educational games for training.org/?14@33. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. researchers. Review them at: http://esub. http://www.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. http://www. implementation. http://www. > > http://www. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.education.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. along with their Web sites. Inc. Canada.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.programmersheaven. For example.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools. http://it. http://www.com/ Thiagi.muzzylane. and speakers on all aspects of gaming.softimage.org/index2.magnetargames.for the Xbox. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.htm Dr. http://www.uk/index2.” http://www.ucalgary.gdconf.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.dk/people/sen/public.nasaga.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.

June 25-28. New York: Cambridge University Press. Games and Education = Oil and Water.ac.uwf.xplanazine. J. simulations and microworlds. Lloyd (2005).teachableagents. 2006.cambridge. 2003. http://www. and Maurer. C.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren.pdf Guetl.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. http://www. H.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . Dreher. Hawaii.amazon.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Learning on Demand Bulletin. http://www.uwf.msu. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool.. http://www.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. and Michael. N. Jan.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. Gaming.iicm. Constance (2005).edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.pdf Swamy. http://llt. (2006). Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Bob (2005). Clifton Park.pdf Prensky. and Inform. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. http://website. March 10. http://www.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa.pdf Michael. N.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. (2005).php Reynolds. R. S. R. Multimedia learning in games. Fourth Quarter. D. Oct. http://www. IT-University Copenhagen. Gupta. Honolulu. June. http://www.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.ukzn. pdf Reynolds. Rob (2006b).za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003. Bryan (2006). Xplanazine.amazon.itc..com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Marc (2003). Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. and Swamy. http://www. Mayer (Ed. Williams. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference..php Rieber. Serious Games: Games That Educate. see: http://www. H. G. Technology Trends for the Year. Xplanazine. 2005.pdf Bergeron.education. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Clifton Park. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Train. Chapter 33. In Richard E. Language Learning and Technology.amazon.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. http://www.wisc. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. 549-567. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. 2005. (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 95 . 2005. C. 17-22. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Alan (2003). 19. and Biswas. SRI-BI. Doctoral dissertation. http://www.marcprensky. 9(1).xplanazine..com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool.Bibliography Amory. S. Beers. Montreal.pdf Godwin-Jones. D. 2006. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. and Chen. Developing Serious Games. http://www. Rob (2006a). (2005). 2003. (2005). University of Wisconsin Madison. January 2. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://jason. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. Simon (2005). Gamasutra.

2004.commtechlab. http://woz.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. Masters Thesis. Michigan State University.Tye.msu. Jason (2004). Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.

pdf Beringer. Report No. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. 3. FG2008. including identifying commercial products.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. haptics.” http://mplab.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.soton. Munich. http://www. Ludwig-Maximilians University.tudelft. eLearning Developers’ Journal.cybernet. Porta. at the University of California.org/reports/ReportNR-03. April 10-12 2006.. Aug. 2003. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . March. UK. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. (2005). UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. M. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. affective computing. F. Lombardi.com/~ccohen/gesture . Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.html Research by Dr. and robotics in elearning. Nicole (2001).fg2006. artificial intelligence. http://www. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.elearningguild.pdf Borghi. such as Markov models. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Michael (2003).com/pdf/2/081 803DES. 2008.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. L.ac.fg2008.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.ecs. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. looking for particular sequences. For a list of papers: http://www. Artificial intelligence techniques.smartkom. http://www. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab.ucsd. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain.. was held in Southampton.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. London. http://www. 18. FG2006.

(2000). In Proceedings. Chen..edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. http://doi. Computer vision in the interface. C.rutgers. http://www. X. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. 191-196.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. M.. M.actapress. PA. Sept. and Wong. C.pdf Peixoto. 2004. S. and Poggio. Nevada. 57-64.pdf Ebert. J. L. (2003).F (1999). 2000.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. Canada http://cims. D. Proceedings. P.. S. British Columbia. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027.Computer Communication.actapress.2000. A.iscslp2006.1 50 Nakanishi.pdf Wilson. Las Vegas. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. G.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. http://www. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. (2002).1109/ICALT.ucsb. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. http://cbcl.D. In Proceedings. J. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. and Kim. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul... Wong. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. http://csdl2. H. Park.. C. Lee..ercim.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Lai. Visualization. 242-245. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.pdf Lee. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). M. J. http://www.. http://www. T. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition..recveb. Sato. J. Communications of the ACM. http://portal. January. W.computer. (2004). Gao. P.110 9/CMPSAC.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. A. Y.ieeecomputersociety. (2005).edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .cse. Michael (2004). R. J.stat. and Ma. July 1997. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. 675 . and Carreira. A. October 14-16. http://www.xml&DOI=10.org/10.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang.. http://www. (2005).mit.2005. and Bender.mit. Fussell. Wesson. and Koike. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. (1997)... A.. Y. T. (2002).ogi. 884 – 900. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). (1997). 1999. 19(7). Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). Shi-Kuo (2000). Geiger. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.pdf Ou.com/PaperInfo.884693 Chen. Korea. July 22-27.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. L. http://www.media.clayton.pdf Daugman.html Chang. September 2002.acm.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci.pdf Loi. IEEE Transactions. and Yang.com/PaperInfo.fsu. Setlock. (2004). C. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.org/citation.676 http://lcv. and Cohen.research. Vancouver. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. 27-30. Y. IEEE Transactions. 47(1). http://interact.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. 21(9).org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. (2005). 442-446. Pittsburg. and Chang. J.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. and Bobick. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. Y. Deller.pdf Corradini. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Face and gesture recognition: overview.

illumination variations.hindawi. 2533–2543.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2004:16.com/GetPDF. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. http://www.

interactive creation.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. the same principles apply to user interface design.adobe. Designing Web-Based Training. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.org/cms/Home.acdamerica.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Canvas Professional http://www.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. rendering.com/TechIllustrator. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.blender3d.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. post-production.autodesk.2.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. e-Learning By Design. animation. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.html Blender . and playback.techillustrator.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.avs. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.corel.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Download a copy: http://www. Nevertheless. In acquiring Macromedia. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.0. and in his recent 2006 book.broderbund.

Gloria (2004).ucs.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. http://www. Pheonix.xaraxtreme. New York: John Wiley.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Germany. and Uyar.IBM CATIA http://www306.3dlinks. William (1991). Proceedings. In P. Kommers & G. http://www. (2004).itedo. Designing WebBased Training.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.amazon.com SmartDraw http://www. http://www.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.uk/index. http://www. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. Tools Usage Survey Results.co. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.editlib.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. http://www. http://grids.org/index.co. (2005). http://www. S.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.com. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Richards (Eds.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory.elearningcentre. Fu-Kwan (2004).google.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. William (2000).edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.microsoft.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. Potsdam. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.amazon.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. X. ED-Media Conference. http://www.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. June 1-3.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.com/E/1335.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.pdf Qiu. Pallickara.). http://esub. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Japan · Sept 7-10.amazon. http://www. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.smartdraw.indiana.siggraph. Do not reproduce 101 .pdf McConnell. NY: John Wiley.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.. William (2006). A. Tokyo.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.uk/index.co. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .stcphoenix.carto. A.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. http://www. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.com/index.ibm. e-Learning by Design. The most listings are for 3-D software.

CT: Graphics. Envisioning Information.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Cheshire. http://www. Carolina Chapter. Frances (2004).com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www.amazon. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research .stc.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. Edward (2001).pdf Tufte. Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire. CT: Graphics Press. STC. http://www.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. http://www. Edward (1990). CT: Graphics Press. Edward (1997). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Cheshire.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. 2nd Ed.amazon.

com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.unige.handshakeinteractive. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. and force-feedback mice. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. When used approp-riately. http://www.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .Haptics Related terms Force feedback.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . Read the press release at: http://www.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. suits.forcedimension.se/index.asp Body-based devices include gloves. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. including pens. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.html http://www.sssup.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Finally. http://www.sensegraphics. joysticks/ joypads.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. http://www. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.immersion. gloves. Haptic devices come in many forms.sensable.miralab. http://haptex. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. Do not reproduce 103 . haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.pureform.” http://www.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .mpbtechnologies.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). > > http://wwwpercro.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom.it/projects/pureform. http://www. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.

http://haptex..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. 2003.pdf Hespanha.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.media. http://www. Matsubara.2005. G. Dobreva.digicult.html O’Malley.pdf Ó hAnluain. Shahabi. M. D. 2003.mit.xml&DOI=10. and Rusbridge.ht ml Kushner.. M. Haptics Laboratory. 2004. M.cim. Report delivered January 15.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. and Gillespie. http://www..1109/ICALT.ra.usc.pdf O’Modhrain.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. Blindness. G. 2005. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. New York Times (Online).pdf McLaughlin. S.” http://www.matr. C. (2002). NJ: Prentice-Hall. N.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. A. M. The Haptic Museum. Sukhatme.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. http://www.informatik.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. Reaching through the net to touch. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.miralab.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0. http://csdl2. M. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).. Chapter on Haptics. http://web. McLaughlin. G. Technology and Haptics.mcgill.roblesdelatorre. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Santa Clara. McHugh.. Nakamura.computer.. and Sukhatume.piaggio.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. L.pdf O’Modhrain. Upper Saddle River. Y. http://csdl. M. http://www. M. Iwane. Proceedings.net/article-7304.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.ccii.pdf Rowell.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. April. J. (2004). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. CA. R.. Research report. (1997). and Jaskowiak. M. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. Reality bytes.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Laurie (2004).ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. and Ichitsubo.ethz.unitrier. Proceedings. David (2003).haptics-e. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. http://www. 22. Japan.S. A.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). Deliverable D4. Wired News.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.smh. Oct. M. professional.unipi.. and Essl. Italy in March. July 3. Medioni. Abbott.computer. Donnelly.isfh. G. J. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. (2003).1_release-public.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . (2000).phptr. (2005). Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.S. S. and Hughes. 2005..unige. M.html Levesque.1. http://www. McGill University.com. Daithí (2003).B. Vincent (2005). 3-5 June 2004. http://www..html Ross. Prentice Hall online article. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. 917-921. (2005). http://www..org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.” http://www. July 31.

informit. 1(3).asp?p=345621 Sakano. H.com/articles/printerfrie ndly. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception..journalofvision.http://www. Kaneko.. (2001).org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 . K. 250a. & Uchikawa. Y. Journal of Vision. http://www.

tangible computing.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. handwriting recognition.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. gesture recognition. like digital ink and paper. digital paper. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors.html Sony.ices.cmu. input devices. http://www. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.fujitsu.eink.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. electronic paper. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. > > http://killer. see: http://www. For a review. and some." http://web. Philips.dottocomu. Called Librié.html Description For humans to use a computer. projectors.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.com/b/archives/00 2571.cmu.buffalo. textures. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).mit. experience computing.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. Writing will require special digital pens. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. human-computer interaction. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. head mounted displays. Now in the research and development phase. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. haptics. they must interact with it through an interface device. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.com/technology/howitwork s. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. However.media.ices. monitors. display technologies. see: http://www. In 2005. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.edu/design/Digita link.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. wearable computing.” http://www. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .html http://killer.

This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. human computer interaction. http://www.com/wired/archive/5 . 4) bend. http://www.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.channelnewsasia. Although this technology has been around for a few years.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://whiteboards. http://www. http://www.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.wired. Following are three such articles: > http://www. http://www. http://www.thewirelessdirectory. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.co.05/ff_digitalink_pr. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.thegrid.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.becta.cs.logitech.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. it is constantly being improved and updated. 3) throw.org. http://www. consisting of a pen and a charger. See their advice and resources at: http://www. http://www. These methods are 1) touch.lifehacker.edu. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.swan.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.edfacilities. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.sony.ac.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . and 5) build.usask.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.smarttech.edna. http://www.devx.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.wacom. http://www. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. http://www.com whiteboards.aclearn.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.com/index.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.elearningcentre.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. http://www. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.org.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.net/display. http://www.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards. 2) roll. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. and graphic. http://www.au/edna/page4588.cs.

Tablet PC Developer. Kato.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.pdf Mohamed. Adelaide. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.com/wired/archive/8 . and Ottmann.com/article.).devx. H. Indurkhya. F.co. Jan. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. Peltason. 2005..uclan. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.00.pdf Revell. Whiteboards are doing the chalking.wired. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing.1585516. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .org. K.10577. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. S.anoto. Will (2004). Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.unifreiburg. http://www.html eSchool News. http://dl. (2005).guardian.. The most flexible paper yet revealed. http://www.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. and Ottmann.> > http://www. Y. J. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. 15(3). HCI2005. Springer.com/news/showst ory. http://education. with its use of digital ink. http://ad.wired.guardian. Guardian Unlimited.ac. King’s College.microsoft. Nicole (2006).html In G.uk/elearning/ story/0.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.08/epapers. Oct.mspx Bibliography Cogill.org/16321 Read.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.eschoolnews. http://www. Bandoh. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. University of London. Guardian Unlimited. 2004.mercurynews.informatik.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. http://www. http://ad. Michael (2005). eSchool News Online. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. January 6. Dal-RI.1116483. (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0. Australia.. April 7.pdf Cross. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. 6. K. Fri. December 22. Scotland. Julie (2002). Haag. is described in a 2002 press release..com/wired/archive/9 .aace. N. (2006). (2003).newscientist. T. 2003.virtuallearning. C. J.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388.pdf Otsuki. 2004. M. 2006. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.10577. http://education. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Richards (Ed. http://www. (2005). Jan. 2006.. Edinburgh. The Mercury News.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed.unifreiburg.html http://www. http://www. 2004. NewScientist Magazine (Online).html Wong. 26. Alan (2004).informatik. Phil (2004). http://www.co.00.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop. 257-269.04/anoto. Vancouver. and Nakagawa. T. B.htm Zeichick.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. June 1.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight.

Content management. Course Management Systems (CMS). the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. 2005). and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). conversation. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer.. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. elearning portals. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Whenever possible.e. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture.

in alphabetical order.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.elementk.. groups.Training Partner http://www. content-driven forums run by experts. is available as a free download. instructors and resources creating communities of learning. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.fldata.KnowledgeHub http://www.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).geolearning.com/ Compendium Corporation .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. more control over their own data For faculty. . a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. more control over the learning environment For institutions.” http://elgg.trainingpartner.com/ Element K .com/ IBM .compendiumcorp. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. The roles.com Gyrus . roles. .org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. and other academic services. http://www.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. a search engine. The LMS companies.WebMentor LMS http://www.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www. which has the following aims: > > > > For students.GeoMaestro http://www.cornerstoneondemand.ieee.com/ GeoLearning Inc. http://opensourceschools. a contact management system. .com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research .allencomm.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. .g.net/index.TrainingMine http://www. Inc. To quote the developers.academici. a leading open source learning management system. .gyrus. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). one of the LMS vendors listed below. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.gen21. a communic-ation platform.php EVE. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.com/ Frontline Data Solutions.avilar.

saba.sselearn.com/ Syntrio .mGen Enterprise http://www.strategia.maxit.LearnFlex LMS http://www.wizdom.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.teralearn.com/isnm2005/in dex.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.com Websoft Systems Inc.vbtrain.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.IntraLearn XE http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.mgen.com/redbooks.ca/en/default.com/ Vuepoint .jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.ttg-inc. .KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.aspx RISC .com .com/ mGen Inc.com/2004/index. Tracker.asp Learn. .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.htm SAP .teds.com/ WBT Systems .com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.websoft.html OutStart Inc.com/ Strategia .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.sumtotalsystems.jsp Operitel Corporation .ips-inc.InfoSource http://www.iPerform http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www. .epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .oracle.cfm TEDS Inc.ssaglobal.learnsomething.redbooks.html Plateau Systems .com/ Saba .intralearn.knowledgeplanet.html IntraLearn Software Corp.Net http://www.LearnCenter http://www.isnewmedia.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.learn.risc-inc.com/ SSE .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www. . .wbtsystems.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. .Intellinex LMS http://www.outstart.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.DOTS .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.novasys-corp.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/portal/index.sap.technomedia.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.LearnerWeb http://www.meridianksi.com LearnSomething Inc.ibm.com/ Intellinex LLC.TopClass LMS http://www.com/ TeraLearn.oracle.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.vuepoint.LMSLive http://www.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.intellinex.OnTracker LMS http://www.com/ NetDimensions .SSA Learning Management http://www.netdimensions.Oracle Learning http://www.com/flashhom e. .Ed Training Platform http://www. .plateau.com Inc.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.com/overview.net/trackerinfo.TM SIGAL http://www. .SAP Learning Solution http://www.com/index. – TEDS http://www.html?Open InfoSource Inc.operitel.html Trivantis Corporation .TeraLearn LCMS http://www. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.SSElearn Portal http://www. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.trivantis. .howtomaster.com/ MaxIT .CourseMill LMS http://www. .com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.webraven.Isoph Blue http://www.syntrio. .TotalLMS http://www. .

mq. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. (Online edition).” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. http://www. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . Sam (2005). University of Birmingham. 2006.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.ac.A possible future for online learning. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. Ronchetti.info/static. Jan. by Sam Adkins.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. http://www.thelearningmanager. http://www. http://www. Pierre (2000). M.71. .edu. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . Building educational virtual environments. 2005. Workshop on virtual learning environments. L.learningcircuits.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. T.” and open source course and learning content management systems. Ed. Molinari.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.co. http://incsub. October.pdf Dillenbourg. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. .learningcircuits.48. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.com/ Xtention Inc. (2006).Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).cetis.uk Teresa A. Virtual Learning Environments.melcoe. http://lttf. James (2005). Proceedings. ICALT2002 Conference.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. James (2003).htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www... 21.pdf Cohen. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.com/ from the JISC in the UK. June 20-21. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.uk/index.building new education strategies for schools. A.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.htm Bouras.ieee. (2002).37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.jisc. http://www.unitn.pdf Dalziel.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central. http://www.xstreamsoftware.edutools.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo. A.science.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ac. C.nxtbook.brandonhall.PDF Farmer. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. and Tsiatsos.The Learning Manager http://www.xtention. UK. (2002).com XStream Software Inc.org/eun. Learning Circuits. and Trifonova." http://www. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). August. . For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems.eun. http://www. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. Incorporated Subversion.e-learningcentre.

31-Feb. M (2005). and Sharifi.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.pdf Tsinakos. http://www. and Walker. Maomi (2005). Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.anadolu. http://wscg..unimelb. T. 5(2). Czech Republic. Avgoustos (2004). and Quealy. R. October 2005. A. Browne.edu.infodiv.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.zcu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. The puzzle: virtual learning environments . http://www.aace.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.cfm?fuse action=Reader. J.ac. November 2004. LMS Governance Project Report.edu. 40(3). Vancouver. (2005). M.. http://www. (2006). May 2006 http://www. April.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .org/newdl/index. Exeter. http://tojde. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Report published by UCISA. May-June.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. Jan.pdf Ueno. http://www.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). 2005. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Healthcare. Government.ucisa. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. WSCG Conference 2005. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.educause. Van (2005). L. 4. 2005.bath.pdf Wise.ac.au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport.pdf Sadeghi. and Higher Education 2005..tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. Proceedings of ALT-C. Plzen. Educause Review. Aavani. Report for the Melbourne. Derek (2004). Proceedings. J. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.pdf Morrison.

does not mean the intended learning has taken place. However. reusable learning objects (RLOs). it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. of learning objects. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. SCORM.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. learning object model (LOM). At the simplest level.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. rapid learning. a well-known standard for learning objects.” such as a graph. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. learning object repository (LOR). sharable content objects (SCOs). Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. 2004. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. They are emulations of “software objects.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. intelligent tutoring.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. culture. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. curriculum. Beyond that. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). The acronym SCORM. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. Learning objects have several uses. This idea is based on older. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are.” This use has been more successful. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. 2006). A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). Wiley. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. computer-use practices. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. As online educational materials are produced. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . Rather. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability.

lolaexchange.org/Home.rice. http://dlist.org/index. stores.merlot. http://www.goenc. with a focus on information literacy. http://www.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://www.oise. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). http://web.downes. http://dspace.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 . and distributes digital research material.wisconsin.utoronto. http://www.maricopa. http://www. http://learnware. http://www.arizona. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. http://lester.fedora.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.000 items.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.cdlib.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. with almost 15.edu.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. http://www.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.llearn.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories. http://www. It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://www.koha. preserves.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://www.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.mcli. and they can be general or subject specific.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.profetic.edu/DesktopDefault. resources for grades K-12. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.thegateway.educanext. http://nsdl. http://mlor. http://www. http://ideas.uwaterloo.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.dist.lrc3. indexes. http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.sir.uvic.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).unsw.net/project. http://www.

(2004). Celentano.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. C. T. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.org/guidelines/index. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.9.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. http://www. EdTechPost. F. 5-16. J.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.uniroma1.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. M.cancore.1/downes . Stephen.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. and Anderson.uwm.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.org/ci/en/ev. Online document. CANCORE.unesco.org/content/v2. B. http://www. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. is available at: http://www.htm Collis. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2004).org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.nmc. http://www.ca/mt/archive/000 681.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02. http://www. (2000). Online paper. authored by Rachel Smith.uis.html http://www. http://www. 2(4).edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.doc Christiansen. A.uwm.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. http://www.org/14190 Downes.lornet.ca/implementing_proje cts.elearnspace.publiclibraryofscience. http://www. http://dl. Version .cisco. March.dicole.dis.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.edtechpost.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.it/~lhci/002.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.irrodl. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning..html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource.L..edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. A. http://www. (2004). M. http://www. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.amazon. http://www. Bibliography Barritt. and Alderman. 2(1).html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.aace. (2003). http://www. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . & Strijker.itdl.html Edusource (2003).org/eng/scientifiques. International Journal on E-Learning. 1(3). And Longo.org/blog/archives/ 002089. Software Architecture Document.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.jcdl. http://portal.

and Morales.ca/protocols_en.) (2004). Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.learninglab. S.amazon. 1(3). 2004. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. 2004.kth. Hatala. R. March. T. Anderson. http://www. Learning Circuits. D.doc Fiaidhi. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR).pdf Richards.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. (2004). Richards..org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. Mattson. Elizabeth (2004). CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Norm (2006).uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. V. http://www. InSITE conference. S. April 2002.p df Roselli. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment.ac. Online Education Using Learning Objects. 1 (3). March. Learning Circuits.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.edusource.html Murphy. 2004.html McGreal.Part 2.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. N. A Primer on Learning Objects.http://www. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.org/index.. March.cancore. Learning Material Repositories .org/mar2000/p rimer. M. Roberts.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Paper presented. 7(1).html Leeder. Final Project Report. Derek (2004a). July 14. March.learningcircuits. London: Falmer.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. T. T. http://ideas.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.pdf Krauss. 14. Rachel (2006). Wolfgang (2004).htm Morrison. Derek (2004b). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Warren (2000). A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Friesen. http://www. Learning Material Repositories . (2005). and Freisen.edu. http://www. R.. and Mohammed..cfm/files/pape r_11841. and Schafer.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. http://proceedings. http://www.9%2015-11-03. J. G.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability.usq. Paquette. Online.. G. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. MacLeod. Norm (2005). Lori (2002). http://www.bath.. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. M.html Heery. http://www. (2004). Rossano...Rafts or Battleships? . Do not reproduce 117 . 12.Rafts or Battleships? . Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.itdl. G.. R. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. http://www. S. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.html Friesen. Downes. and Pragnell. Harrigan.htm Nejdl.bath. Aug.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. INTERACT 2005. M..itdl. http://www. G.blogs. K. N. http://www. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality..Part 1. (2004). http://www. http://www. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS.org.learningcircuits.eduserv.. Jan. (2002). Fredinand (2004).editlib.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.ca/implementing_proje cts.. D. June. McGreal.htm Friesen. Research Report.cancore.informingscience. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Babin. Rory (Ed. Online paper.ac.

(Ed. http://www.itdl.fastrakconsulting. (2000). White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Iterating Toward Openness.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. David A. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. M. (2006).dis.uniroma1.org/read/ Wiley. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. 1(7). Brigham Young University.htm Shepherd.co.pdf http://www. http://www.htm Wiley. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. (2004).).pdf Santally.dis. David A.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. Doctoral dissertation. (2000). A. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.> > http://www. http://opencontent. 9.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . David A.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. Online.. : http://reusability.uniroma1.p df Wiley. (2002).org/docs/dissertation. Govinda.. Clive. and Senteni. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Objects of Interest. Jan. http://opencontent.

S. galleries.intergraph. users will be able to use a variety of devices. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. including cell phones.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. PDAs. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. gaming consoles.http://www. personal media players.frappr. proximity tools. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map.http://www. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information.org/ ESRI. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). navigation. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. including privacy concerns. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. However. findability. and security issues. laptops.com/ MapInfo . galleries. and wearable computers.http://www.http://www.cadcorp. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. http://www. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.com/ Clark Labs .http://www. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.esri.com/ Intergraph .mapinfo. geocaching.clarklabs. Department of Defense. as with any new technology. more demands for a person’s attention. location-based systems are found in museums. Do not reproduce 119 . Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .

leeds. http://www. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.fi/english/page.pangonetworks. as well as papers on trends in GIS.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.google. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. While not very useful for most people.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery.museum. http://www.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. http://www. http://earth.bham.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work. http://www. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction. http://www.il. at: http://www. similar to what a GIS system uses.smm. create.google. it is a great tool for teaching science. http://www. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. http://earth.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.greatestplaces.confluence.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.live.google. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world. http://www.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.searchable from a database.ac. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.000 archaeological sites in the state. http://mvz.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. http://portal. http://platial.5372.edu.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.cetadl.berkeley.asp?path= 500.biogeomancer.geog.google.com/index.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.org/index.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.esri. http://www. http://www.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.” http://www.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.chimer.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. See their complete range of products.ac. http://local. http://www.state.

Earth. F.pdf Tsirliganis. A.ordnancesurvey. and visualize spatial information.edu/sco/gis/his tory.1642288. J... and Borriello. January. G. IEEE Report. and Chamzas. Learning Circuits. 38(4).html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. Arnaoutoglou. Koutsoudis. http://www.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. J. G. A. see: http://www. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space..php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. S. DigiCULT Newsletter. (2001). 15. Heather (2005). http://www. Issue 6.jisc.ac. Dec. Mapping. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.com http://geotags. Donnelly. Dobreva. 1999.ac. http://www.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.intergraph. http://www. M.html Ross. http://www. enthusiasts.uk/oswebsit e/education/index.pdf Do not reproduce 121 .uk/elearning/ story/0. N.. Future LocationBased Experiences. M. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. http://www.bc..htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. and students.C.ca/ Geotags.geocomm.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www. Abbott. 2003. http://education.. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Chapter on Location Based Devices.co. and Rusbridge.learningcircuits. manipulate.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. and Location-Based industry professionals. Part II. Online article.directionsmag. 2005.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. Guardian Unlimited.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. http://www.com/ Bibliography Benford.co.info/index. http://www. Nov.intelresearch.com/gis4mt/index.00. (2005).. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. (1999). DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Jan 2004.pdf Spohrer. D.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. McHugh. Eva (2004). location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.com/geo/ Cardinali.ibm.wisc. C.. Fabrizio (2005). http://www.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.http://www.. http://pngis.geography.gees. http://elearningeuropa. A.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.guardian.digicult.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS).eoscenter.opensourcegis. (2003).html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.research.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.htm McLean. Pavlidis. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. IBM Systems Journal. CAD. Steve (2005). We learning: social software and e-learning.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. > > http://geotags. 2005. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.digicult. Information in places.

The programs that do this are call “Web Services.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. communications. the rules for sending files across the Internet. such as those for collaboration. of how to communicate with each other. Many of these objects are software programs. Programs can be “stand alone. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. providing an informal collaborative environment. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. in schools and universities. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. to a lesser extent. For two or more programs to talk to each other. A “mashup. or through “Web services. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. For example.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page.” then. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. hybrid applications. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. also called “object interoperability. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Mashups are constructed in several ways. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. composite applications.” Using SOAP. etc. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. Similarly. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. run all by themselves. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses.” that is. 2004). Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. or protocol. document management. personalized. at the same time.Mashups. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. integration. all expressed in binary code. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. API clouds. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. tag clouds. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other.

http://www.htm Siviter.us.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. Vol. Mix.businessweek. Curriculum as Mashup. 6.icio.com/products/print_fr iendly.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. Business Week Online. 2006.com/publications. and mutate. > > http://www.icio. J.infoworld. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. 2002. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. C. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. Paul (2002). July 25.0 APIs.html Warlick.wikipedia. J.” It has many examples of mashups. http://www.businessweek.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. G.operitel. Web Services.org/resources/web services.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . Dodero.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063.ieee. http://ww6. match. a writer for Business Week. July 28. Infoworld. 6. http://del. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.bctechnology. http://www.html Hof.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. and Oliveira.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. http://www. http://www. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Many have educational value. Galen (2006). http://www.techlearning.com/ http://www. and Padron.pdf Stacey. 6.mashupfeed. http://www.html Rob Hof. Mashups.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. Robert (2005). Douglas (2004). Issue 1. 2005. http://en.elearnspace.htm Torres. As Warlick (2006) has noted. (2006). (2004). Learning Solutions. January 2004 http://lttf.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. Dec.html Woodill. Learning Technology newsletter.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.emilychang.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic.. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.pdf Seimens.deitel. January 2004 http://lttf. 2006. C. Vol. Learning Technology newsletter. techLEARNING. Elearnspace. SOAP. Bibliography Gruman. March 6. May 15.programmableweb. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. http://blogs.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. Enterprise mashups. David (2006). 2006. Issue 1.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.ieee. George (undated).programmableweb.

http://www.umbc. community.pdf Delphi Group (2004). Benayache. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. In Proceedings..html Description At the same time that learning objects. D.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.wssu. F.edu/o4e/viewhome. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. M. Finin..cetis. C. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. to develop metadata standards. repositories. http://metadata.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. H. An ontology. C. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. http://iiscs. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. MA. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. http://www. 7(4). http://dublincore.php?id=25 Chen. and institutional stores.educause.info/issues. Lenne. and Joshi.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.mit..xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets.edu/get/a/publication /105. A. Ohio.. http://ebiquity. (2004). T. Delphi Group report. http://www. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.Metadata. Boston.. B. http://www. search engines.mit.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Moulin.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual.imsglobal. Bibliography Abel. http://libraries. http://simile. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. A.edu/content. metadata. and services. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. (2004). Perich.. and artificial intelligence are being developed. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.ifets. and Chaput.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.do?tm =O4E. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. 98-111. in the context of information technology.cancore.ac.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Barry. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. pervasive computing. June 2004.

Ellyssa (2005). 2005. Trondheim.. http://www. http://www. http://dl. and Diaz.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. http://www. Building a Metadata-Based Website. April 21. N. May 22.delphigroup.boxesandarrows. Dec. A. Thomas (2005a). Reuben (2004). BoxesAndArrows. http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. Green Chameleon. 2006.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.ppt Ricci. P. P. J. http://www.aace.php?id=25 Kroski. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. October-December. http://www. Wagner. University of Illinois graduate paper. October 29. http://www.greenchameleon. April 18. NISO Press.tagcamp.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider.html Gruber.ifets. Patrick (2006). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. and Godby. M. 2002.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Norway. Understanding Metadata. D. Pouloudi.niso. TagOntology . 7. http://infotangle. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. Do not reproduce 125 . 2004.boxesandarrows. Stuart (2005). (2002)..dlib. (2003). A. BoxesAndArrows. Learning Circuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Online article. and Poulymenakou. http://www. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Adam (2004).learningcircuits. G. http://www.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Infotangle.cancore. 7(4). 11(7/8).adammathes. and Mosoiu.http://www.ifets.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. and Nejdl. S. July/August.htm Gruber. (2003). http://www.org/.boxesandarrows.info/issues.. Defining “taxonomy”. http://www. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. (2004). BoxesAndArrows. 2002.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Norm (2005).org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.php?id=25 Tozman.info/issues. http://tomgruber. http://www. D-Lib Magazine.ecdl2003.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. April 9. Presentation to Tag Camp. A. Dolog.blogsome. 7(4). Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. 82-97. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. 2003.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. Thomas (2005b). International Journal on E-Learning. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Chen.org/10614 Mathes. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Christian (2004)..pdf Henze. Lytras. M.html Wodtke.pdf Friesen.htm Weibel. 2004.. and Shao.pdf Oin. http://tomgruber. November. (2004). J.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.ca/editors. 26-28. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Christina (2002). I. W. B. N. 2005. Nov. http://www. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. (2004).

Journal of Educational Technology and Society.ifets. 70-81.info/issues.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . 7(4). http://www.

in Japan. However. rich interaction. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. 2003). cellular telephones. time and space. pervasive computing. there were estimated to be 1. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. Do not reproduce 127 . using ambient intelligence. and mentoring. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. multimedia. strong search capabilities. location based technologies. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. powerful support for effective learning. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. Essentially. Cited in Prensky.” Two years ago. laptops. MP3 players. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. mLearning. location-dependence. tablet PCs. communicative skills and community building. it is predicted that there will be 2. conversational learning. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). cell phones. personalization. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. personalization. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. collaborative learning. (2004). improved identity creation. 2004). wearable computing. personal digital assistants (PDA). any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. video) and distributed databases. podcasting. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. such as increased computer literacy. instant messaging (text.6 billion units in operation by that year. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. tablets. brokerage.

adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.cs.com/home_en.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.” > > > http://www. Australia.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.htm Jari Laru. http://news.fasfind.” a “butterflywatching learning system.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.harvard. http://spotlight-mobile.co.elearningcentre.cs. and pre-service teachers.” They have a “firefly watching system.co. activities.cs.” > > > http://m.com/wwwtools/m/271 7.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. Learn more at: http://www.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.pdf location-specific text. http://urbantapestries.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.se/projectd ata. http://www.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.ccu.fasfind.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.” and a “bird watching learning system.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.ccu.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators. applications. technologies. http://www. pictures. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.fasfind. Israel. US. of the University of Oulu in Finland.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.knowledgepulse. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.edu. http://www.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.edu. or a combination of media.ccu. resources. movies. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.computer.bbc.stockholmchallenge.mobilearn.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.pdf http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. including issues.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.mobilelearning.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.beta80group. audio. http://www3. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. and a glossary.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. http://csdl2. http://gseacademic.telus. http://urbantapestries.pdf http://www.edu.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. links.

pdf Bibliography Alexander. Y.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.bham.flexiblelearning. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. B. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.html Kadirire. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.pdf Attewell.eee. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.unitn. Language Learning and Technology. Sept.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . and Sheu.msu. Univ. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. M. 17-22 http://llt. (2002). JISC Guide. (2005). Report. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.94.itdl.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. http://www. http://www.msu.. http://knowledgetree. Molinari.au /edition06/download/geddes. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. January 2005. and Sharma.6. James (2005). (2005).ccu. and Trifonova.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. No.uk/eli_practice. Paul (2005).135/ipodined/news. EDUCAUSE Review.m-learning. A. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.jisc.pdf Anderson.uk/handler/public ations.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). September 2005. Bryan (2004). Learning and Skills Development Agency.ntnu. (2003). Gaming.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. http://www. Kao. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.cs. http://www. J. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. http://www. S. http://mobile.pdf Godwin-Jones. No.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.jisc. 9(1). Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. E. A.educause. http://213.kaywa. http://www. Vol. 39. For example.. of Birmingham http://www. 5.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://www. Jill (2005).org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. L.idi.science. http://www.html Grew. P.iadis. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.ac.pdf Jasola.pdf Colazzo.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.formatex. T.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.html Chen. R.ac. and Pagani. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.J.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.htm JISC (2005).ac. Ronchetti.org/micte2005/4. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. 2006 in Dublin.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. 19. Bob (2005). 2(9). 347-359.edu.pdf Geddes.232. http://www.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. http://llt. (2004). http://www. Gaming. Ireland.net. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner..

co.. (2005). David (2006). Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and Cultural Heritage. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.com/news/article 2490. 2002. http://www. E-Learning on the move.bham. http://kn. Kristóf (2002). Learning in the Mobile Age.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Guardian Unlimited.pdf Thomas. Romagnoli. Mike (2005).cfm?doc umentfileid=7298.ascilite.eee. 40-53.ox. Coralini. http://www. multimediabased learning application. Enabling Mobile Learning.pdf Metcalf. Taylor. Liang. http://education.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. and Yang. M.guardian.ac. T.century. http://www. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning.acm.. M. http://www.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Understanding.pdf Scagliarini. D.digicult.ac. Proceedings. Chan. April 2005. S. Växjö. Wang.org/10. Draft paper submitted for publication.2002. Roffia..doc Meisenberger. Ann (2005).usabilitynews... DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. M. Australia. and Vavoula. Feb. http://www.2. Galasso. MA: HRD Press. M. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. A theory of learning for the mobile age. L..amazon. A. and Dobreva. http://www.htm#Implications Prensky. Archeology. S. http://portal. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. E. 2004. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. Neil (2003). May/June 2005. 2005.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. http://doi. M. Proceedings. Donnelly.00.1490476. Brisbane. 1(5).uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. June 27. Växjö University.oucs. Feb. F. T. http://www. and Sforza. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.1039222 McLean. (2004). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. August 29-30.. Chief Learning Officer. Christopher (2005). June/July 2005.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.. Michael (2005). http://21st.ieeecomputersociety.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.. G. Conference on Virtual reality. Teleborg Campus.. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.pdf Sharples. Ellen (2005).Light. http://drei. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.educause.phil-inst.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.fhjoanneum. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. computer-aided.clomedia. May 23.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Hungary. Presented at WMTE 2002.fil.html von Koschembahr. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. Vecchietti. http://www.pdf Mellow.innovateonline. (2001).uk/public/getfile. Marc (2004)..edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.. 2005. (2005). T.org/citation. Peter (2005). and. M.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Budapest. (2002)..110 9/WMTE. and Nischelwitzer. Cinotti. H. EDUCAUSE Review. http://www. J.ac.asp Liu. Glyfada. 40(3).info/index. Greece.. Sweden. J. 2005. Amherst. A. Pigozzi.open. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. UsabilityNews. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Malavasi. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. J. http://www.uk/elearning/ comment/0.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.org. E.

‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. Lee et al. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.lexxe.it/index. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. (2005a. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.ldc. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. natural language generation.elsnet. research. http://tcc.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). (2004). et al. tools. http://eduforge.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education.uk/~silvia/litReview. http://www.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations..html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. machine translation.. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. i.e. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. http://wwwusers. http://www.org/softwaremap/trove_list . it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.york. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.cs.” See also Jordan et al.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. and standards. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. Di Eugenio. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing.org/aitopics/html/natlang. Kim (2000). TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). http://dmoz. natural language understanding. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.aaai. speech recognition. Do not reproduce 131 . 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.ac. speech synthesis.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.itc. (2004).upenn. http://www. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.translating one natural language into another. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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ac. To practice real-world situations. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. wikis.uk/ilogbook/d efault. and through a variety of technologies. amongst institutions.cetadl. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. manage. discussion forums.bham. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. This requires support over time. learners need to be in real-world situations.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. as learners move between institutions. and. e-portfolios. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). Individualization in an LMS is weak. http://portal. for the learner. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. Running on the learner's PC. learning management systems. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. and review his or her learning activity. work places. (Cortlett et al. but these are only available to members of the course. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. libraries. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. without an offline client to the LMS. there can be no electronic interaction. and social bookmarking sites. such as search engines. whiteboard). blogs.). In many cases. it helps the user plan. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Technology needs to be situated. social environments.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. chat. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A PLE is structured by the learner. often only for the purposes of the course. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. track. Secondly. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered.. A PLE must support lifelong learning. etc. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits.

cetis.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan. Online case study paper. M. 22-27 July 2005. http://www. http://www. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Las Vegas.ac.za/CD/papers/Corle tt. Ting. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.ac. Chan. Jan. D.org. Nevada. http://terrya. http://www.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. T.cetis. 2006. Colin (2005). Terry (2006). 11.mlearn. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. (2005).uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. January 9..edublogs. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.pdf Farmer. http://www.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).ac.elearning. http://elgg.bath.jisc. http://incsub.ac.ac. James (2006).jisc. 2006.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. and Westmancott. Sharples.uk/index. J. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. http://www.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. http://www. Incorporated Subversion. Edinburgh.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. PLE Reference Model..uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.. O. UK.ac. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.

At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. 2005). Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user..g. artificial intelligence. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. and/or presentation of materials.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. picture.ed. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. learning environments.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. However.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. These techniques include content-based filtering. rule-based filtering.. etc. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.g. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). http://www. the personalization can be applied to content. through a questionnaire). but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .). PDAs). it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. collaborative filtering.org/en/index. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.ac. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. http://www. (Filippini-Fantoni.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches..hcrc. navigation. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work.elenaproject. Often. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. Keenoy et al. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Furthermore.uk/ilex/final. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 .g. or it can be an implicit model. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. etc.

Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.(2001). D. (2004).pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.pdf Beler. PowerPoint presentation.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.cs.ecdc.pdf Bright. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . S. http://adiret.ascilite..beta80group. W. http://smart. http://www. with a particular focus on the museum sector.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. J. (2005). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. C..org.umuai. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. http://arxiv. Online paper.arts..three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile.CY/0409055 Boyle T. University of Glasgow. A.org/ Bibliography Abbott.unimagdeburg. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.ca/English/Pers onal/index. William Niu. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. HATII. Ngo. De Carolis. dynamic user profiling techniques. (2005). dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.pdf Callaway. wireless networks. http://www. A. http://www.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch..uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.calimera. A..pdf m/index. Borda.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.gla. http://www.cognitive traits. Cozzolongo. http://www. (2004). http://www.calimera.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. A.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Bowen.metmuseum.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Calimera Project (2005).unibo. J. Kay. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).hatii.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Ler. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.noekaleidoscope.org/default.net/home.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. Daisy (2002). T. http://www...de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. Melbourne. G. http://www.firstmonday. and Cook J.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. and Kuflik.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art.. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. B..ac.emarcon. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.virtualmuseum. K. A. http://www. and Nuguid. A demo is available at: http://www. S.arces.pdf Cavalluzzi.html http://www.org/pdf/cs. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. > > http://www. The Future of Access (or. Pizzutilo. https://www.directa. Online paper. and FilippiniFantoni.

Kuflik. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. C.24_Conlan. and Zancanaro.org/10.) (2002). M.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. D. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.Information Access. and Tasso. O. (2003). and Vazirgiannis.nestafuturelab. 1–27. O. P. PA: Idea Group Publishing. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.. (AVI 2004). (2004). http://iswc2002. May 2002.usyd.org/posters/ moulin.. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.. http://tmtfactory. DigiCULT .pdf Conlan. Barcelona.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . 2004. FutureLab. George (2005).. M. (Eds.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference.ichim. http://lrnlab. http://www.pdf Giroux... and Sintek. 3(1). ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.cs. Rocchi.it/papers/gorenbar2005.uniba. http://www. G.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. D. A.pdf Heckmann. Personalization and Digital Technologies..1145/643477. Italy. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.uniud. Personalization through IT in museums. University of Sydney (2004).p df Filippini-Fantoni. interactive services in home automation. K. Italy. Málaga. I. Dagger. Wade. S. Bowen. (AVI 2004). H.pdf Goren-Bar. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. Pianesi. M.www2004. (2002). and Paddeu. Gallipoli. W.futurelab. Gallipoli.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Montreal. (2002). Moulin. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects.ie/Owen. S... Rudd.edu.jpbowen.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Stock. April 2004.acm.p df Green. FutureLab report. Magical Mirror: multimedia. and Cardinalli. Subramaniam (Ed. Ecole du Louvre.. and Boavida.dimi.ppt Correia. M.di. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. URL: http://doi. (2005).pdf Eirinaki. T. and Verdaguer. S. May 25. C.edfac.2004-1213. http://www. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. PEACH http://peach. http://www. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.learnexact. T. February.Info. New York. 2005 www. R. Paris..cs. In Mizzaro. Dillon. Spain.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. Web mining for web personalization.. Henze.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. T.. http://www. http://www. N. Hershey.. http://www.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . V. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. http://w5.org. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning.itc. F. C.htm Hawkey. Online paper.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. Soro. L. science centres and galleries.tcd... In R. P.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. and Numerico.designshare.com/pub/evsc05b. F. (2003). Sanna. https://www. (2004). X.pdf Ceccaroni.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. September 2002. (2005).pdf Fuschi.it/intint/people/papers /aims04.pdf Dolog. Graziola. May 2004. Issue 7. Comparison of museum/city tour guides.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. Online paper.semanticweb. P. (2005). Nejdl. May 25. and Humphreys. D.. Facer. 2004. http://www. Dominik (2003).pdf Copa. Silvia (2003). Roy (2004). (2004). M. J. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. N.

(eds. P. Online paper. http://csdl2.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14.. M. .PDF Kay. SeLeNe . J. T.pdf Klobučar. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. 2004.pdf Kay.pdf Keenoy.. M.cs.pdf Kuruc. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Jaroslav.1. May 25. Penserini.. http://adiret.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. UK http://homepages. Lum. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. P.. P. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). M. WP4 Deliverable 4. W. and Peterson. L.dcs. http://w5. Final Version.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. and Nejdl.bbk... Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. N.pdf Kay.pdf Kay.pdf Henze. S. 7(4):70-81. http://www. Seničar.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.stuba..fiit. Waycott. UM 2005. R.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005. Dolog.pdf Kuflik. (2004). Callaway.it/papers/avi2004. A. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web.edu.. Levene.. and Okamoto. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. T. Brusilovsky..l3s. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). M. T. Rocchi.. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. and Lauder.uni-sb. P. Nicola (2005). http://www.. and Zancanaro.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1. http://eprints. Martin (2004). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.cs.. Online paper. (2004). and Conejo. J.. Busetta.cs. J.ed.pdf Kuflik..de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.p df Iwazaki.unimagdeburg. UK. Kummerfeld. T. (2005).au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. Turcsanyi-Szabo.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). 2005. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Online paper. 23-30 July 2005. 2004 http://www. T.bbk. (2002). Brasher. and Zancanaro.unihannover. Yasuda. Stock. K.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication.ac. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. http://www.. IEEE Computer Society. B.itc. and Montandon..pdf Henze.. PIA Conference..Self E-Learning Networks. Online paper. A. Bratislava.e5. J.edu.. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). K.2. (2004). (2002). Levene. In: De Bra.si/eng/ijceel.4. (2005). C. Italy.pdf Keenoy. In Mária Bieliková. J.ac..pdf Johnson. P.usyd.ippr. de Freitas.ac. and Blažič. P. and Lauder. (2005). 142 © Brandon Hall Research . Personis: A Server for User Models. S. Proceedings of IIT. Niu . Jones. C. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.computer. O.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. K.cs. pages 249-256. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. Goren-Bar.usyd. B. (2005).inf. Kaszas. (2004). Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. http://www.. P. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. (2001). editor.ijs.sb.au/~piers/papers/ pums..de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. W.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. http://www..de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. and Niu. M. Gallipoli. A... Edinburgh. LSC. W. D. B. Educational Technology & Society. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.kbs. Kummerfeld. October 2004. D. http://www. V. P. http://peach. (2004).. Yokoi.. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

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while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers.elearningeuropa. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . learning management systems. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. http://www. 2001).Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. In the business world. instructorled. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. Knowledge Management. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization.Portals Related terms Collaboration. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. vendors. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. content management. the portal offered information on more than 20. collaborative environment. which form a dynamic user profile. As of early 2006. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia.

go to: http://www.microsoft.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. Hershey. Campbell. http://www. In Jafari. http://www.nl/mart/CategoryView. administrators.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. news and announcements. http://www. A. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries.asp Element K – Access to over 2.amazon. and Sheehan.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16.proquest. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. M.cyberu.Education.htm Brockbank. March 1.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.000 lesson plans http://www.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.com/article. New York: AMACOM. http://www. http://www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. Learning Circuits.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . You’ve come a long way.hp.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. museums.trainingregistry. and universities. http://blogs. (Eds. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.amazon. instructors.learningcircuits.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.ittoolbox. document management information. Ron (2004). school administrators. online meetings with text.www2.asp?id=9028 Barron. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. e-mail distribution lists.teach-nology.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. Bray (2001).com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.worldwidelearn. May 2000.saba. and schedules. and Aucoin. Heidi (2001). calendars.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.000 publishers worldwide http://www. http://knowledgemanagement.300 online courses http://www.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. Campus Technology Magazine. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.000 online courses http://www. category.700 online courses http://www. students.campustechnology. including educational uses.elementk. K.executrain.fathom. 2004. instant messaging.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Tom (2000).microsoft. http://h20219. R. interactive discussion groups.com/home. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.tamtam. http://www. and shared lists for tasks.students. A Portrait of Learning Portals. (2003). audio and/or video.. baby! E-learning portals. PA: Information Science Publishing.

Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.educause.Collins.amazon.amazon. and Sheehan. http://www.educause. New York: AMACOM.asp Katz. and Gordon.asp Terra. (2003).org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. http://www.. http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.learningcircuits. Richard & Associates (2002). Hershey. (Eds.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. September 2000. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. J. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. Cornelia (2000). Heidi (2003). A.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.) (2003). M. http://www. C. Reviewed at: http://www.htm Do not reproduce 147 . Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.

html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. However. Experience them at: http://www. webcasting.lsc. although many are trying to change this practice. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.replayhq. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web.mit.edu/TEAL).org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. It is clear that in this age of entertainment.elluminate. http://www.macromedia. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.com Hewlett-Packard.com/site/index.” In the Middle Ages. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. the word “lecturing” means “to read.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. when experts are not readily available. in partnership with Dreamworks. webinars Consequently. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Online presentations can be very boring.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. While it is expensive. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Skypecasting. 148 © Brandon Hall Research .htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars.masternewmedia. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. virtual classrooms. web conferencing. http://icampus. In fact. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. http://www. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. http://www. See the TEAL Project at MIT. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press.

http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. and whiteboarding. social software for online collaboration.com/cxoextra/0.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live. http://ajax.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.elearningcentre.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. Breeze. intranets.ccimeet.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.lsc.com/eweek/web conferencing. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.380 0005416. > > http://weblog.kolabora. http://www.eweek. Webcasts.brandonhall.silicon.co. > > http://www. http://www.00.humanresourceWebinars.com/news_radars /web_presentations. videoconferencing. and Flash.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach.htm http://www. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.com/publications/lel/lel. http://www.> > http://www. presentation and streaming presentation tools.co. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. Do not reproduce 149 .edu.adelaide. instant messaging. and kidneys.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. videoconferencing. http://cde.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.elearningcentre. http://buyersguide.athabascau.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. and e-learning.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. and using PowerPoint and Breeze. http://www.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.com/webconf/index. Coursebuilder. brain. online meetings.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.infoworld.infoworld.thinkofit.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. independent listing of Webinars. http://www.co.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. virtual teams. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. Captivate.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.elearningcentre.39155030. online communities.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. groupware. forums and message boards. http://www. Web seminars. virtual meetings.kolabora.com/udell/200 5/01/22.acue.elearningcentre.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.com/udell/200 5/02/25.” > http://www.htm http://www. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.html#a1185 http://weblog.e-learningcentre. Authorware. and Web presentations. Dreamweaver. although it does not have to be.hp.co. virtual classrooms. Web conferencing.htm http://www. a columnist at InfoWorld.co.

pdf http://www. Belinda (2003).com/software/present ation. Luigi (2003a).jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations..org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. Robin Good Blog. Live and Online!: tips. P.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.learningcircuits. P. 7(3). Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148.asp McNally.com/wwwtools/m/21593.html Canali De Rossi. July 26. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.masterviews.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. http://m.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. (2004). Sept. Russ (2004). http://www. http://www. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. Luigi (2003b).htm Canali De Rossi.presentations. http://www. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. April 30.com/Breeze Part1.blogspot. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia.amazon.htm Duckworth. Christine (2001).pdf Bibliography Agarwal.timelyweb.apreso. 2003. 2005. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. 2003.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.russellmcnally.downloadjunction. and Furr. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . and Quick. 2003. http://www. (in two parts) > > http://www. Luigi (2003c). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.fasfind.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.aln. Live ELearning. 2004.masternewmedia.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.com/presentatio ns/index. July.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://labnol. http://www. Sept.filesland. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. (2002). K. Armit (2005). Learning Circuits.programjunction.aace. Jennifer (2004). July 8. http://www. May 15. Robin Good Blog. Digital Inspiration.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.html Using Apreso software.com/product /software/795/index.com/downloads/sear ch.01. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. K. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. http://www. 3.htm Canali De Rossi.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. http://www. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.htm Hofman.http://www.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www. http://www.pdf Scott.com/Breeze Part2.russellmcnally.

and Equipment.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display.infoworld. (2003). but… Presentations Magazine. InfoWorld. Choices are great.html Zielinski.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .pdf Spielman. and Winfield.open. L. Dave (2002).com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. Dec.amazon. Feb.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. http://www.ac. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. Software.. S. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. 2005. AMACOM. Choose your presentation tools carefully.presentations. 11.http://kmi. http://www. Choose the Right Vendors. Start Saving Time and Money Today.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. http://www.

learning objects. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. easy to use. For example. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. and communicate deliverable expectations. Does not require any advanced skills. tests. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary.versus high-interaction). Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. manage the content and the users. microlearning > down pages. Navigation built in . low. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. or where the online information frequently changes. programming. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. In the first case. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Assign SMEs who are committed. just-intime e-learning..Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Instructional design built in. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. and clip art is straight forward and supported . and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Standardize approaches. glossary. such as creating links. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. 2003). E-learning produced this way can be very boring. FAQ. graphics. virtual classroom. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement.automatically assures that all navigation works. extreme e-learning. or HTML knowledge. According to Ready Go!. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. including tools and templates. It can refer to learning something quickly. simple. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . are built in. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. by necessity. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. In the second sense of the term. but not always good for you. 2003). and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. Reduce the number of development vendors. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online.does not require any plug-ins. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. Deploys easily . It is best suited to text-based materials. Advanced features. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design.e. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks.

http://www. http://www. E-Learning for short attention spans.raptivity. April.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.readygo. schedule and due dates. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. and Bersin. conferences.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.elearningguild.ltimagazine.masie. http://www.htm Bersin. version control protocols. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.com/showArticle. Lane (2002).com/content/templat es/clo_article.elearningcentre.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.asp Bersin. Templates.bersin. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. Learning Circuits. Clark (2005).transformmag. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Paper.elearningguild. J.htm Bibliography Abell. January 23. 2004.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. Edit. http://www. Bill (2005). Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. http://www. http://www.amazon. http://www. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Reusability.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Mark (2003). LTI Newsline.learningcircuits.access to a clear project plan. Making rapid e-learning work.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. http://www. See sample templates at: http://www. July 2. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.meetingone. Jennifer (2004). http://www. and Publish. Future-Proofing. Josh (2004).com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. http://www. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. August 2004. Tips and Techniques. and other good stuff.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses.” Find out more: http://www. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines.elearningmag. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Penny (2004). 2004). http://www.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.articulate. Transform Magazine. See a demo at: http://www.pdf Aldrich.clomedia. Chief Learning Officer.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. June.pdf Crosman.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. http://www. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.org Web site.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.clomedia. Learning Solutions.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. San Francisco: Pfieffer.microlearning. June 30. http://www. Dianne (2005). Kendrick (2006). J.pdf Brodsky. http://www. January.co. July 2004.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. computer games. 2006. Enhance.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. which contains information on resources. LTI Newsline. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. Larstan Business Reports. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Chief Learning Officer.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Do not reproduce 153 . When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. (2004). Jay (2005). centrally located files.scate. Josh (2005).asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. http://www.com/studio. tools.

(2004b). http://www. http://www.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning. http://download. http://www. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Macromedia White Paper.ltimagazine.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.htm Masie Center (2005).elearningguild.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.pdf Macromedia Inc. 2005.macromedia. 2006. Chief Learning Officer.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. Garin (2004). 2002.e-learning programs in weeks.learningcircuits.clomedia.pdf Gustafson.com/articles/abs tracts/index. 2006. Vignettes for Training White Paper.clomedia.adobe. Jan. http://www.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. June 2004. http://www. Ray (2006). Clive (2006).pdf Shepherd. LTI Newsline.com/articles /default. Nick (2005). http://www. January 16. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://download. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. January 2003.macromedia.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. http://www. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Joe (2005). Press release.elearningguild. Ray (2005). Mobile and Device Based Learning. Mar. Stephanie (2006).clomedia. Nov. http://www. Ed (2004).trainingfoundation. February 2005. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.elearningguru. Eric (2003). Learning Solutions. 2006.trainingpressreleases. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. Chief Learning Officer.pdf Mayberry.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. Simulation.jsp?id=150619 Hess.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Learning Circuits.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. http://www. (2004a). http://www. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.pdf Jimenez. Kevin (2002).com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. The Training Foundation online article.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research .com/new sstory. http://vftraining. e-Learning Crop Circles. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Macromedia White Paper. 10. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.pdf Jimenez. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. April 20. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Rapid Intake White Paper. Learning Solutions.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 9.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.

> http://www. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. http://www. for underwater exploration.cmu. Inc.lego.ri.gov. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. http://mindstorms.whmsi. simulation > http://www.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. and math.edurobot.edu/index.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. engineering. http://robotics. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.botball.nasa. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. technology.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. http://www. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science.rec. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.com/r_home.aad. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. technology.active-robots.org/aboutbotball/overview.evolution.euron.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. one child at a time.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.ife.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. and mathematics. http://www. engineering. http://www.

. D. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. http://zeus.eng.amazon.pdf http://www. lip movements. (2005). links.brooklyn. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.andrew.php Bibliography Blank. M. Meeden.. and Dautenhahn. (2004). Artificial Intelligence Conf. Harwin. (1980). L.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. Düsseldorf. Lathan.. and Powerful Ideas. W. Keating. and Yanco.pdf Ferrari. Ferrari.cuny.ed. November.. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Sept.wtec. C. (1999). Proceedings. go to: http://www. and Loose.net/ Run by NASA.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. J. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Yanco.jp/ See also: http://www..pdf Boersch.jp/ Blank. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. D. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. B.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.com/solutions/mw exrobotics. (2001).edu/~sklar/er /edu.. http://dangermouse.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. June. Mindstorms: Children. S.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. and Hempel.sci.cs. Kumar. Robots in the classroom .com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research .l3s. Computers. M.gov/rcc/index. (2004).ams..org/article. I. Basic Books. Mr. D. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). http://www.ac.. http://www.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. H.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. http://www. Germany.fhbrandenburg. AAATE Conference 1999.nasa. G. (2004).de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. D. particularly robotics. L. http://www. K. http://www. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. D. and Mataric. P.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. and other information on robotics. Miller.profetic.pdf Cooper. Hohmann. By donning motion sensors. D. New York. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. > > http://www.kipr. http://www.technology. U.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.pdf Papert.atr. Germany.. New York: Syngress Publishing.amazon. http://robothaven. H.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F..microworlds.tools for accessible education. (2004). Find out more about this group at: http://www.brynmawr..uml. Heinsohn.osaka-u.l3s. and Meeden. It features news. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Kumar. H.cmu. and vocal tics. http://robotics.irc.pdf Nourbakhsh. Paper at the American Assoc. M. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. http://www. I. and Wagner. http://www. R.

Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.ccmlab. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and Rusbridge.. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. (2001). A. http://www. Donnelly..digicult. M.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . S.pdf Stewart. T. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. http://rob. M. 28-30. McHugh. Dobreva. Sept. Ontario. D. A. Abbott. Ottawa. and West. R.. (2005).

One is the problem of finding relevant. Ezzy (2006a. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. collaboration. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. search engine optimization. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . 2004). There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application.examples are early yahoo. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. information retrieval. Web directories.com and Alta Vista. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. such as Yahoo. for a variety of reasons. While search engines have improved over the past several years.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. data mining. a rich user experience. each with their own defining feature sets. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. meta-search engines. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content .” The first type searches the Web as it exists. such as Google and Altavista. But. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines.so they take the structure of the Web into account. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. collective intelligence. resource discovery. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. Meta–search engines. One new approach is called “federated searching. Examples are Google and Overture. as this section of the report shows. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. which submit queries. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. federated search. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. They bring into the equation user preferences. dependable information. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. in parallel.

http://www. http://www.msn. http://www. http://www.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://www.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.altavista.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://getoutfoxed.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.General search engines: A9 – Amazon.looksmart. then fill in the search box.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .com Gada.umdl.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www. blogs. http://www.google.gada. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.com About. http://search.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.about. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.umich.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com/ Answers.hotbot.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.alexa.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. video.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www.mooter. http://www.grokker.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.faganfinder.alltheweb.com’s search service http://a9. rather than just returning Web pages.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://www.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. http://www. http://dmoz.gnod.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.lexxe. and the Web. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.convera. http://www.com/search/defa ult. http://www.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://www.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://search. http://search.gravee.answers. get answers http://www.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ Gravee . http://oaister.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.otavo. http://www.jookster.ask.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://channels.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.aol.icerocket.netscape. and text. http://www.gigablast. http://www.aeiwi.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.

stumbleupon. cast lists and theatre schedules.yahoo.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. reviews. Much of this information is hidden from view.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.govmine.koders. http://rollyo.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.imdb. http://www.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. AwesomeLibrary. http://www.ist.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.pubsub.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://books. AolKIDS.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://www.blinkx.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www.squidoo. http://www.ucr. http://qube.gnoosic. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .topic appears.google.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. ArtKIDSRule. http://tagjag.ujiko.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.com/v2a/flash.psu. Yahooligans.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . & KidsClick!.gov/ http://www. http://www. users tag their favorite results and block spam.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://infomine. http://www.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. and movies. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.eurekster.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.google.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.imdb. http://icerocket. http://froogle. http://www. http://kids. http://citeseer. > > http://firstgov. reviews. http://vivisimo.wink.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://www. http://www.Clusters results.ithaki.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://scholar. http://www. books.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. FactMonster.google. http://www. http://swicki. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.gpoaccess. Wink then diplays the results.com/v2/index.com/ Wink – Using social networking.healthfinder.ai.qelix.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. cast lists and theatre schedules. http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.sri.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.acronymfinder.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.

last.4 billion links. http://www.acm.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.merl.fm/ LawCrawler . http://www.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show. http://www. http://lawcrawler.truveo.psu.liveplasma. as of this writing.cfm?doid=10 56808. http://www. http://wwwqbic. http://portal.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.columbia.nlm.uni-hannover.convera.scirus. http://www. http://www.com/ Last.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu . http://techsearch.omgili.rrzn.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.com/ MediaFinder .com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.ee. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.pandora.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.findlaw.rawsugar.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www.nih. http://www.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.searchedu.psu.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.” Content-based search engines for pictures.cmp.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.seekport. http://www.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://www.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.technorati. http://smealsearch1.columbia. http://wang16. http://www.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics. http://www.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.org/ Omgili .columbia.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.ncbi.almaden.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.Krugle – A search engine for developers.searchking.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.ee.ist.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.f cgi QBIC . http://www.ee. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.gov/entrez/query. http://www. http://www.org/citation.krugle.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www. http://www.A legal search engine.ibm. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.soundspotter.com/ LitLinker .

http://www.search.dogpile. http://nlp.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. http://searchenginewatch. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. games. companies.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. http://www. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. maps/directions. bookmarks. therefore.com/ clusters. and their relationships.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. movies. and tracks a user's search history.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. yellow pages.zapmeta. city guides. http://www. http://www. http://vivisimo.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.uk/ SearchTools. Unlike other search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. including a set of international telephone directories. Known as “meta-search” engines.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.researchbuzz.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. classifieds. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.bolton. audio. http://www-rocq. the user's community has total control over the results.trovando.zoominfo. http://www. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. lottery results. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . and Web mail for the topic entered. http://www. http://www.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. is a valuable resource for researchers.nyu. http://clusty. dating and personals. http://www.cs.com/ Info – Searches reference works.copernic.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. greeting cards. pictures.xcavator. flights.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. weather. or federated searching. and notes. tickets. http://www.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.info. white pages.searchtools. http://www. news sources. apartment rentals.ac.intute.ac. http://a9. http://www.inria.ixquick.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. http://www. health information sources.kartoo. eBay. focused searches on topics they care about. video.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. hotels.net/indexu.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.ithaki.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. http://www. jobs.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. shopping sites. http://www. http://www. and links the clusters.

6. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).tveyes. A. December.citysearch.searchenginecolossus.elearning. Read/Write Web. and Searching in eLearning Systems.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. http://www. Y. First Monday.org/index. Ebrahim (2006). John (2005). http://www.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. http://www. June 2004. 2006. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. and Shoham.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.php Geser.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1.netmasters. Resource Discovery . or swicki.html Battelle. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. Part 2.. July-Sept.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. Users can also browse by subject category. http://swicki. is against the idea of federated searches. No. http://infomine. 2006.amazon.just as a search engine is used for text. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.. Traditional Search. http://www. Exchanging. http://www. > > http://firstgov.gov/ http://www. (2004). July 20. New York: Portfolio. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). For example. (2005). Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. DigiCULT Thematic Report. F..ucr. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. http://www.firstmonday.0 vs. July 25. O. http://www.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. Traditional Search.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. 7-12.gpoaccess.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. Read/Write Web.com/ Stephen Downes.gov/ http://www. and Apprato.ac. Part 1. 6. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. can be published on the user's site.0 vs. No.pdf Ensor. Do not reproduce 163 . See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.readwriteweb. Guntram (2004). or topic . This search engine.readwriteweb. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. Search 2.co. Search 2.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Ebrahim (2006).eurekster. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. S. 2004. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.php Ezzy.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Pat (2005).editlib.htm Ezzy. International Journal on e-Learning.downes.digicult. Frank. http://www. phrase.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. http://www. http://www.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. 10(12).ala.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. June.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro.

eweek.useit. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches.ischool.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. (2000). (2005).washington. Mittal. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials..aace. April 28.. http://www. W. 2003.digicult. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Richard (2004). http://www.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. Corey (2005). Part I: http://www. Prescient Digital Media.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. 4(1). Lisa (2005). E. eSchool News.prescientdigital. http://dl. (2005). 2004.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . June 30. Mimkes. Mike (2004).de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04.eschoolnews.html Heck. Refining enterprise search.com. and MacColl.php/2156221 Vaas. 15. http://www. Parts I and II. http://www. Danny (2004). InfoWorld. Oct. Search engines don’t suck. http://www.isnoldenburg.ed. (2004). Paper presented to the DELOS2005 .com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference.pdf Schlenker. Doctoral dissertation. Oct.ht m Pratt.infoworld. http://www.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi.com/article2/0.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. eWeek..htm Part II: http://www. Oct. International Journal on E-Learning. and Gupta.com/links/article . Simple advice for complex search solutions.org/16955 Low.00.prescientdigital. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. Jakob (2003). 2004. S. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. White paper.pdf Murray. they’re just limited.pdf Gincel. B. J.1759. Kashyap. 2005. 2005. http://www.uk/boon/delos200 5. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. 10.html Kumar.pubsub. J. Bob (2005).com/news/showS toryts.ac. http://searchenginewatch. 149-166.infoworld. S.com/alertbox/20030630. 15. SearchEngineWatch.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. It’s Gada. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS.asp Wyman. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources.pdf Sullivan. and Hilf. P. html Porco. Oct. http://homepages. A. May 8. Carmine (2006).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. Major Search Engines and Directories. 3. 2005.http://www.18 69408. Stanford University. http://bobwyman. 2004. 2004. InfoWorld. M.

One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. near Boston. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. search. http://www. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. (2005) note that “historically. but it will not be in general use for some time. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). such Do not reproduce 165 . Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). ontologies.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. Like it or not.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. taxonomies. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. semantic grid. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). microformats. metadata. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate.org/en/index.alphaworks. http://www. Selected Examples In Europe. 2003).aktors. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT.ibm. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. Abbas et al. are now falling short of earlier promises. http://www. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. founder of the World Wide Web. It has both its advocates and its critics. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location.elenaproject.

. Salvachua.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning.aimatshape. and Hendler.semanticweb. http://www. J. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005).ifets.amazon. (2005).org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051.ifets. http://www.tkk.. D. Brantner. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning.hpl.open. T.. S. http://www.personal-reader. S.. (Eds. The semantic web. http://edutella. New York: Wiley.ideagroup. Greece. xi. Forward.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. The first issue is free.com/article. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. http://www-jime.php?http://www . In Fensel. H. R. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. Ali.. A Semantic Web Primer..de/html/ Aguirre. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. http://www.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. http://jungla. (1). A. Mozo. semantic infrastructural services. (2003).hp.. M. T. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. Odeh.dit. Simon. M. Umer.) (2003). M. Z.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. http://www.pdf Anderson... O. G. http://www. May 2001... Z. Scientific American.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. and Knowledge Management.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .. Obrst. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Lieberman. Olmedilla. Tim (2003). (2004). (2005). MA: MIT Press.amazon. http://www. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. and Whitelock.seco.. F..uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. 2005. Miklos.upm.. Mark (2005). and Ahmed. http://kaon. G. MA: MIT.pdf Daconta. http://arxiv. Cambridge. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. D.info/issues. Web Services. Sobernig.net/ Bibliography Abbas. Markus..com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. Wahlster. and Smith. and Lassila. http://www.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. B.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. McClatchey. http://www. http://www.open.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. implementing.ac. Hendler. T. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). and van Harmelen (2004). Cambridge.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou. S. S. J. and Zillinger.as semantic portals for end-users. A.ac.jxta.info/index. W. May 29 June 1. K. L.. http://www-jime. (2001).cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler.amazon. May 9-12. Huber.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. J. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. D..sciam.

Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning .com/article2/0. Brian (2005). 2005.. http://www.189 5.. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. and Worldview”. Jennings. http://www.downes. Wilbert (2005).cetis. Hershey. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference.org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin. http://www. and Shadbolt. DevSource.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. http://www. (Eds. and Naeve.kbs. Ramadan.pdf Henze. http://www.) (2005).. MA: MIT Press. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. The Netherlands. Online article. Cory (2001). (Eds. http://www. May 27. http://www.pdf Downes. Amsterdam.ac.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. and Zetti. http://www. Journal of Computer Science. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Semantic Web Technologies. 18-22 July 2005. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.9/semgrid. Lund. Juan-les-Pins. (2005). France.pdf Nilsson.org/v1. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Syllogism.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. http://www.1961106. 500-504. Oct.devsource.amazon.) (2003). A.cwi.jisc. Paul (2003).De Roure. Cambridge.. Oct. M. Greenwich. (2001). M. Lieberman. D. Wahlster. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia..us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504.. Mauthe. Paper presented at the GLS conference.unihannover. and Neagu. http://homepages. M. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.scipub. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. (2002).com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita. PA: Information Science Publishing. Nicola (2005b). H.. A.semanticgrid.html Haack. http://www. Thomas (2004). Nack.kbs. A. CETIS Online article. Sweden. (2004). D. Semantic Networks and Social Networks. L.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. and Naeve.pdf Henze. (2001).pdf Kraan.com/~doctorow/metacrap. L.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05. http://www. http://www2002. N. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 .. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web.Some Architectural Guidelines. Stephen (2005).well. htm Dorai. T.com/ContraShirky. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report. 1(4). 2006. pdf Doctorow.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. M. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. G. http://www. J. F.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. H. Nicola (2005a). Palmer. and Hendler. D.ca/cgibin/page. http://www.amazon. 10. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Sikora. CT: Manning.amazon.00. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05.unihannover. Phil (2006).ac.. Online article.ftrain. W.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras.asp Hatem. and Gouarderes. Rutledge. H. N. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. C. Stephen’s Web. 2001.

pdf Tane. David (2002). J. 2004. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited..com/read/swiftkick /column. and Davis. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. and Stumme. 2003. InfoWorld. 2005. Syllogism. 2005. (2005). (2003). and Christodoulou.w3. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. D. Staab.dcs. Online article. L. Wagner. H. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.ac.. http://www. G. USA. A.shirky. R.cetis..html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. Semantic Web. June 21. Economics and Culture. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. http://www. http://www.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. http://eprints.unikarlsruhe. http://www. Andy (2005). Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. 2003. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. January 17.pdf Sampson. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.ac. 2004. Schmitz.981948. and Woukeu.html Stojanovic. Davis.html Wilson.ecs. and Studer. Journal of Educational Technology & Society. http://ewic. http://www2004.inria.infoworld. M.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Online article. C. S.co. Clay (2003). K. F. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. Karenos. Peter (2003). trust. http://www. and the Semantic Web.bbk.. June 14. August 2. Networks.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. New York. G. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www. Scott’s Workblog.. F. D. 2628.sop. CETIS Online article.info/journals/7_4/5.asp Udell. The Semantic Web.pdf Tao.p df Tao. A.pdf Samaras.soton. Woukeu.pdf Updegrove. (2001). and Miller.pdf Shirky. http://poorbuthappy. and Worldview.bcs. Lytras. D.guardian..html Van Dijck. 7.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).uk/selene/reports/ Del3. December 3.. (2004). May 17–22.. G. (2004). (2005). L. Scott (2002).uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.ac. Scott (2005).com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1.10577. John (2004). (2003). and Diaz. Darwin. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. 7 (4). E.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.com/login/sign up. http://www. Nov.ifets. Millard. B. Who said that? Metadata. http://www.ac. Marketing Profs. http://www.cetis.00. 2002. H.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. http://education.marketingprofs.aifb.darwinmag.. http://www.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger. New York. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. Millard. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism. P.

http://sos.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.e.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.noaa. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.insead. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. but information about it remains on the Web. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. It was decommissioned in 2005.” My first report in this series. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. http://www. participants will be motivated to evaluate. See a variety of such projects at: http://www.calt.icherubini.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. 2005). http://www. http://www.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. http://www. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. role-playing. especially ones set by themselves.ncsa. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . microworlds. reviewed simulations as an online content format. http://www.insead.calt. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. According to High (2004). “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.gov/ Winters et al. http://cave.insead.uiuc.calt.insead.arcscience. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.insead. games.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.calt. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. learn.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).com/omni.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www.calt. i.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.

edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.biographix.adobe. http://www. http://www. http://www.ISLE .htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.sdsu.dc.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.shatters.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.ht m Intermezzon .Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.adobe. http://www.umich. breathing.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.soe." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. It runs on Windows. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.lsa. and murmurs.berkeley. http://crme.edu/harvey_about.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.insead.experiencebuilders." http://www.forio.edu/ http://um3d.assima. heart sounds. http://www.sdsu.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.edcenter. http://www.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning .umich. Mass.edu/geowall/ind ex.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory. http://www.miami. with many examples to try.stt-global. http://www. > > http://geowall.making-history. http://thinkertools.intermezzon.virtualfishtank.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www. pulse rate. to play in a virtual fishtank. For example.http://www. However. http://www.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.com/ Forio .html weather forecasting. Linux.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.med.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.noaa..fsl. http://www.com/broadcastoverview. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . A guide’s voice prompts the employee.calt. without programming knowledge.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.net/ Biographix . http://www. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. they are only available for Macintosh computers.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .geo. and Mac OS X.atghome.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.edcenter.net/celestia/index. go to: http://www. http://www.

create courses specifically on using computer software.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie. including simulations. http://www. which can then be used to build simulations.sdsu.com/products /firefly.com/portal/index.jibc. Integrates with many media types.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.” http://www.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.outstart.com/product_r pe. http://www.knowledge-director. http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.maxit. http://coe. http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. http://www.co.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand. http://www. http://www.nexlearn.com/ Kookaburra Studios . http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.stagecast.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.com/3dTraining. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/ Knowledge Planet .reusableobjects. http://www.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.asp Knowledge Quest . http://www.com/ MaxIT .htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.percepsys.maxit.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.learning2005.knowledgepresenter. http://www. Do not reproduce 171 . http://www.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.bc.stottlerhenke. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.com/products/sim.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.knowledgeplanet. http://www.the click of a mouse.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.elearningcentre.icherubini.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.qarbon.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.com/ MaxIT .jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.xstreamsoftware.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.teds.knowledgequest.virtualcontrolroom. http://www. http://www.

ht m Sloman. http://www. Holland...clomedia.PDF Blikstein. The promise of online simulations. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. http://itdl. H. Rasmussen. A.bbk. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Six criteria of an educational simulation. A. Jennifer (2004). http://www.htm Aldrich.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. and McCloughlin. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. http://www.. p. L. How playing power drives lessons home.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook.uva. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. September.net/papers/ELearning.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. M. Shannon (2004). (2002). September. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich.com/content/templat es/clo_feature. U. Bjorn (2004). http://www. B.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21.ncassr.com/news/showS tory. (2002). Clark (2005).case studies.html Lunce. A.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.blikstein.projects. Kamau (2004). http://www. Gash. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. Computer simulations in distance education. http://www.learningcircuits. J. http://www.. October.learningcircuits. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. and Bostan.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. & de Jong. J. June. Making the most of software simulations.htm eSchool News (2004). (2001). Montréal. Les (2004). Viswanathan. http://www. Mazloumian.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. Utrecht.eschoolnews.pdf Swaak..http://www. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . AACE conference.cs. July.. (2005). October 2004. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . (2001).html Sobeih. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.simplay. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Clark (2004). 1(10). http://www. (2004).for Philosophers and Engineers. Simulation levels in software training. Laser. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. F. http://www. http://www. In Interaction Design and Children. 2004.html Learning Circuits. Chief Learning Officer. (2004).org/2004/jun2 004/bersin.amazon.medialabeurope.ft. Financial Times.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. R.science. Learning Circuits. Taghiyareh. Feb. and Wilensky. Learning Circuits.ac. 2004. Department of Computer Science. Paper presented at Robocup conference. San Francisco: Pfieffer. 2002. Simjour.pdf Cherubini. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. T. P.ac. M.learningcircuits. J. http://www. Implementation and Evaluation. eSchool News. 2004. Aug.pdf DeVries.html Karrer. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer.. http://www. 8. A. Sept. A. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005).html Linser.learningcircuits. 12. Learning Circuits. T.bham. Aaron (2005). and Hou. A. October 15-19. 4. A. International Workshop. and Ip. and Sund Martin.htm High.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.. Online report. computer games.

April.icherubini. 284-294.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper. 8(31).dei. Sherry (1997). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.pdf Do not reproduce 173 ..pdf Tjaden. In Association for Computing Machinery. http://www.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. 17.. http://www.pdf Turkle.uc.knowledge. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. (2003). Florida. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. USA.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.html Winters. M.protonmedia. 1997. and Strohecker. Mar. http://www..prospect. C. Online paper at: http://lsm. Cherubini. N. Fort Lauderdale. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. Gary (2003).org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. The American Prospect.-Apr.

some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.checkpointsystems.. http://www. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.com/default . Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. grease. For a full discussion of this issue. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.ac. http://cnm. RFID technology is developing rapidly.” http://vis.edu/102605_meal.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. especially in museums and for outdoor education.edu/index. 2005). easily changed. They are programmable and. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.iu. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. especially for tagging retail items in stores. infrared (IR) tags.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).ala. http://uitspress. optical tags. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.open.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. or water. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. therefore. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag.org/Template. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.iu. While controversial.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. which transmits over short distances.

and Backhouse. K. S. TD Monthly. Oct. M.66 Ward. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.pdf Osawa et al. 261-263.msu.. (2003). and Yano. in a 2005 online article. (2005)..infoworld. Ando. S.. January 1.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. A.pdf Murray. http://www.rfidnews.msu.com/monthly/articl e. R.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . Y. http://www. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).. (2005).. (Eds.org/ Bibliography Borck. http://www. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.. RFID: frequency.org/news/showsto ry. G. http://www. Proceedings.pdf Robinton.ac. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). P. http://www. & Kondo. adoption and innovation.html Osawa.asp?id=1222 Ross et al.toydirectory.. http://www. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Y.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.org/newdl/index. http://www.com/monthly/articl e. R. Tsukagoshi. 2004..cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://www.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. June 27.aace. Infoworld.asp?id=1222 Ross. 276-283. Michigan State University.aace. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.).jisc. Aparna (2004).2005 . Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. In Kommers. M. Corey (2004).digicult. http://www.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. 2005. A. N. (2006). 5. T.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. Shibuya. Donnelly.. eSchool News Online.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.digicult. http://www.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. and Case. 2004. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box..csmonitor. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. and Dobreva. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. H.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www. Noma. James (2006).org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. & Richards. van Kranenburg.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Masters Thesis.html?s=feature Heining. Ogata. (2004). (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. K.xml&DOI=10. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. http://www. M.pdf Salcedo. Andrew (2005).eschoolnews.. 4(3). standards.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. http://www.toydirectory. G.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. April 13. Noda. http://csdl2.1109/WMTE. C. March.computer. Technology Watch Report 1.

get inspired.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. connect with others. http://www. in turn. describe.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. and books. ontologies. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. and to share them. Blink also provides tools to sort.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. Flickr held over 100 million images. or distributed in e-mails. search others’ references. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. or check out what everyone wants to do.blinklist. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. and search for a specific user's Blinks. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. music. they act as an “outboard memory. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. and organize the academic papers they are reading.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.” However. As of April 2006.A free service to help academics share.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . printouts.connotea. They can save references. and Web links.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. http://www. For example. Second.icio. http://www. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.com/ Blinklist . http://ask. faculty.net/ CiteULike . Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective.43things. store.icio. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. Students. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. http://www.First. Fifth. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. The result is something called a tag cloud. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. Third. For instance. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. while users of the del. search. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. tagging.metafilter. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. researchers at all levels (students. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. Fourth. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. share references with colleagues. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. as each member can upload resources discovered. users can see what others are Blinking. no matter their location or timing. Also. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content.us) post their favorite Web sites.us Web site (http://del.citeulike. share their stories. metadata. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. http://blogmarks.

icio. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. but.northwestern. http://www. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. or enter new items and tag them. Also retrieve it easily.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.shadows.pageflakes.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN.com/ Furl .linkroll.icio. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. and non-hierarchical editorial control.memeorandum. similar to Digg. http://www.com/ Project Pad .netvouz. the users decide.eu/products/networ k_menus.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. and/or books and find them again.A free.net/ Jookster .us .feedmarker. http://www.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com Clipmarks .eventful. http://myweb2. users submit stories for review.com/ Magnolia .com/ Del.org/news.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. http://flickr.simpy. http://www.gnolia.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.kaboodle. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet. search.com/ Flickr – Store. http://www. music.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www. RSS.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .com/ Kaboodle . http://www. http://www.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.edu/ppad2/ index. http://www. http://www.clipmarks. updated in near real time. sort.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.yahoo. based on what is happening in the news media.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. http://blog.rojo.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. http://projectpad.com/ Jots . With digg.Consumating .html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. and discover relevant links. http://www.com/ Simpy – Search tags.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. http://www.search. blogging.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://www. share.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.digg. http://www. and share photos with others.com/archives/beta_up date/index. http://jots.netscape.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. http://consumating.html Linkroll .com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://del.furl.us/ Digg .jookster. http://ma.networkltd.

edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.html http://www. http://weblog.educause.” > > http://magazines. http://www. and share it with others.html http://tagsonomy. tags.yelp.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. http://www.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.quickonlinetips.wink.icio. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. 41(2). If a city is not there. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. Bryan (2006).pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.fasfind.infoworld. http://www.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . a technology columnist for InfoWorld.us.com/ SWiK . and Digg. http://www.zvents. http://www.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.us.com/archives/000 558.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.quickonlinetips.html http://atomiq.peterme. with contributions from users. http://www.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.net/ Suprglu .quickonlinetips. and social bookmarking. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.spurl. > http://www. http://www.com/udell/gems/d elicious.” http://www.tagzania.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. March/April 2006.veotag. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.wists.icio.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. http://upcoming.com Wists – A social shopping site. http://swik.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. Online Resources Jon Udell.A. http://www.fasfind.S. http://unalog.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/wwwtool s/m/7172. http://tabblo.com/wwwtool s/m/6350.smugmug. Web 2.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.com/ about how tagging works with del.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. Flickr. http://www. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.suprglu.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.com/index.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.

Online Paper. 11(4). Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. 2. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.htm Hammond.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. SearchCIO. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Lund. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.educause.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. Flack.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Tags vs. T.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. June 21. Online paper. Andy (2006).com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng.html Udell. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. HP Labs Report.pbs. Shamus (2006). http://www. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge.infoworld. 2004.pdf Gurber. J.weblogged. (2005).corante. B. 2005. Jon (2005). 2005. http://www.ht ml Mejias. Nicholas (2004). T. http://www. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. D-Lib Magazine.hpl. 2006.pdf Mejias.ascc. Many2Many. Liz (2005). Trusted Sources. 2006. D-Lib Magazine. Keynote address. Collaborative knowledge gardening. 2005.289142.typepad.html Mathes. and Hannay.php Lund.. Tom. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. July 20. 2005. http://www.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my.dlib. (2005). T.. (2005). 2.pdf Richardson.org/teachersource/learning .asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. Jan.plasticbag. T.hp. Social consequences of social tagging.techtarget. InfoWorld. May 20. May 5.com/originalCo ntent/0..org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. B. April 2005.. 2005. http://www. Webblogg-ed. Ulises (2005). http://www. 11(4).com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Ideant. Tom (2005). Hannay. (2005). April 2005. S. Plasticbag.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.shtml Golder.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.ejournal. Tag mania sweeps the Web.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell.html McGillicuddy.com. http://searchcio. Aug. M.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. August 20. Will (2005). http://many.isi.00. Jon (2004).html Mote. 20. and Scott. http://ideant.html Coates. and Huberman. Hammond. Adam (2004). http://www.infoworld.html Lawley. The New School of Ontologies.adammathes. http://dlib. http://tomgruber. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05)..html Do not reproduce 179 .http://www. Sept.org. InfoWorld. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. http://ideant. Ulises (2004). http://www.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. B.sid19_gci1195182. http://www.typepad. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages..

online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et.al. tagging. 2005). text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging.com. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration.com. etc. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. communities of practice. dating sites. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. SMS.” that is. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends.classmates.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. work.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . The sites are places to meet people with common interests. family. e-mail. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters.) Relationship Management (Orkut. social software. shared link libraries such as del. My first report in this series. etc. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. etc.us. and the military. social networking sites such as Friendster.) Experience Sharing (blogs. e-mail.icio. online personals such as Match.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. http://www. etc. reviewed social networking as an online content format. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. photo sharing sites.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. photo albums. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. Friendster. shared links. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM.

Share it with others if desired. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. workplaces. Facebook has networks for colleges.analytictech. http://www. It costs several thousand dollars. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/inflow3. photos. Users share their writings and meet each other.esnips.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. http://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know.com/reg/sample.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. http://www. http://www. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. http://www. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links.last.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.myspace. http://www.spartasocialnetworks.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.my-diary.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.linkedin.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks.com Platial – A site to create social maps.orkut. high schools. http://platial.facebook.html Last.livejournal.com/introNetwor ks. http://www. http://www. http://www.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. in associations.orgnet. http://www. http://www.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://www.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. http://www. which is then open to other readers.com/ Orkut .freeopendiary. http://360.yahoo.com/ucinet. http://www. video. upload photos. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. documents.com/signin/index.diaryland.faceparty.netminer. https://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.com/ Live Journal . and within “communities of interest. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.” http://www.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. and files and then make them available to others.xanga.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.stumbleupon. http://www.friendster. http://www. or as a social network.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. as a blog.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. audio. and geographic regions.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.codeville. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.intronetworks. http://www. https://www.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.ibm." http://www. A.org/teleimmersio n. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location.networkworld.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society.ebuddy.) (2000). and Naeve. MacOS X. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. C. Keynote address at the ISEC conference. as well as news. http://messenger.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.html Goldberg.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. Presence applications poised for takeoff.no/at/nmm/enlund. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). http://www. the CAVE.org Bibliography Dreyfus. secure.acs. (Eds.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. http://www. John (2004). Telepresence and Virtual Presence.virtual-presence. C.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. > > http://www. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. 6. http://laimuz. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.nada. http://gaim. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. MA: MIT Press.amazon.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd. http://www.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. London: Routledge. Sept.“Simultaneous Presence..berkeley. In Soldek.org/rfc/rfc2779. A. http://www2. Network World. http://get. http://kmr.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Ken (Ed.aim. Naeve. Hubert (2001). history.pd f Fontana.com/index. and Windows.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. http://www.advanced. The driver sits in a box. Online memo.jabber.yahoo. http://www-142. Nils (2000).php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.html http://www. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.fakespace. BSD. 2004.org/teleimmersio n2. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. Cambridge.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.live. J.net/ Jabber – An open.hig. (2001).percro.kth. (2002). ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. http://www.ieor.ietf. On the Internet.advanced.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. and Handberg. http://www. http://www. and Pejas. 44-49.txt Knudsen. L. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. J. http://www.unizar.pdf Knudsen. Network Working Group (2000).com/software/swlotus/products/product3.sourceforge. http://www. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.

pdf Lynn.infoworld.amazon. June 1. (Eds. September 24.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.org/docume nts/Sponberg. (Eds. January 2005. Amsterdam: IOS Press. and Rusbridge..se/pdf/CID-206. Calgary. http://cid. M. A.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.. et al. http://www. Regina (2004).. S. M. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.650 64-0.swedishlearninglab. http://www.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . Donnelly.com/news/culture/0. and IJsselsteijn. Alberta. D.pdf Sponberg. Knudsen.kth. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. http://www. C..pdf Udell.Learning. A. (2001). and Handberg. McHugh. W. Abbott. Davide. 28. http://www. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.) (2003). http://www. H. Germany: Hagen. Dobreva. L. Wired News. Being There: Concepts. Jan.. H. Jon (2005). (2005). InfoWorld.html Riva.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1.digicult.modes.Banff.nada. Ins and outs of teledildonics. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.. In Hoyer. G. F. 2002.wired.

is an essential part of learning in today’s world. tlearning. However. video blogging. telepresence. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. IPTV. the largest Internet telephone service. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. Video blogging has become common. Once video goes on the Internet. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. BT. according to Foroohar (2006). Further. in all its formats. streaming video. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. bandwidth becomes an issue. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. vodcasting. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. As the following examples show. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. Britain's largest telecom firm. PDAs. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Do not reproduce 189 . 2002). In spite of the limitations. cell phones. television. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving).Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. A new version of television. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. 2005). amateur and professional video cameras. screencasting. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. videocasting. even a video plug-in for Skype. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. My first report in this series. reviewed video as an online content format.

rocketboom. the “triple play” of video.veotag. with IPTV.ar/iptv_en.ourmedia.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. http://vpb. a three-minute videoblog.google. or students through a high quality.org/ At YouTube.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.bittorrent. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. http://www. whether dial-up.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. http://www. cellular.html Dialcom Networks. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .co.dmeurope. and divide them into chapters or segments.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. PDA. the Internet telephone service. http://www.org/ In 1999. low bandwidth video stream.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.axor. http://www.com.uk/index. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.com/default. http://video.” Users can upload video clips for free. partners. http://www.addictingclips.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.dfilm. It is still going strong at: http://www.on2. http://www. http://www.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.com For an example of a video blog. http://www.com/nara. voice.medialogic. http://participatoryculture.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. employees.apple.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. or set-top box. See examples at: http://www. and maintains loyalty.com/ BitTorrent.youtube.com/pressrelea ses.xstreamengine.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. and multimedia content to customers. improves the satisfaction of the client.com/index_about. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.rocketboom.brightcove. tag them.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.bittorrent.concord. See the current selection at: http://video. video.google. http://www. desktop. see Rocketboom. See samples at: http://www.

http://www.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.streamingmedia. http://www.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. Wi-Fi. http://eduscapes.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones. http://www.masternewmedia. www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.com/article.wharton. The site already contains nearly 6.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning.thinkofit.elearnspace. 2005.co. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. http://www. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. P.uk/tlearning/contents.com/seeds/index.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. http://www.pdf Bardia.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.iptv-industry.com/ http://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. http://www. Dec.masternewmedia.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.spider.pjb.navy.” http://www.org/doing/media. Luigi (2005a). 1. http://www.edu/articl e.org.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. and visual resources.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.co.masternewmedia. video. Luigi (2005b).mefeedia. http://www.masternewmedia. termed “mobile television.veoh.elearningcentre.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019. D.dvguru.lsda. For example. read “Ten video sharing services compared. and Bates. Wi-Max.mil/index. but business models are fuzzy.ht m Canali De Rossi.htm Canali De Rossi.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.” http://knowledge. https://www. (2003).uk/files/pdf/1443.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.com/webconf/video. Robin Good Blog. Peter (2003).” http://www.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. which users can submit. and by tags.upenn. http://www. by alphabet.hpc. Online article at: http://www. Beyond Wireless Broadband.500 vlogs organized by popularity.educause.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media.” http://www. Pradeep (2004).” Bibliography Atwere. t-learning Study .

php Taplin.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman.). http://www. 417-419). Tom (2005). The IPTV Revolution.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. M.XMax Goes The Distance.htm Curtis.amazon. (Eds.networkingpipeline. http://www. Matthew (2005). Online paper.. http://www. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.com/showAr ticle. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. In Richards. Changing Channels. 2005. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. (2005). Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. Newsweek (International Ed. pdf Nolle.pdf Klass.usc. Mon. Jonathan. 2005.org/newdl/index.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. NC: Duke University. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . Campus Technology.). (Ed.cfm?fuse action=Reader. 8-9. Nov.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. http://www.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.pdf Thornhill. University of Missouri. Brian (2005). and Young. Rana (2005). Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Manchester. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. http://www2. Peter (2005). Asensio. http://edmarketing. G. 2005. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.campustechnology. June 6. http://www-rcf. Durham.ac. Networking Pipeline.apple.aace.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.masternewmedia. (2003). P.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. 2.) (2002). http://www. Robin Good Blog. discussions and implications.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). April 26. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . 2005. 7. http://www1. IAT Services White Paper. Dec.com/article.ibm.asp?id=7769 Meng. and Swenson. 2005.bcr. L.msnbc.msn. http://www. S. http://www.umist. Brian (2002). Feb. C. IBM Institute for Business Value study.

and look do not count much in virtual spaces. skin color. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. http://ancient. http://www. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. augmented virtuality. Near Eastern. Creed. and storytellers. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. http://www1. interaction.cs.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.org/highlights/augur. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. simulation. http://www. exchange enabling.ubc. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. designers. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. Videoconferencing is not required. and Religious Studies department. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. and the aim of the virtual experience.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. distributed virtual environments.arts. http://www. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.futurelab.org. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.netofpeers. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. Depending on the level of realism achieved. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).columbia. Exploration and discovery are enabled.equator. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. http://solipsis.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.kahootz. http://www. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Shape has developed the augurscope.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. By using aspects of game play. To do this.net/wiki2/index. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. inventors. mixed reality.ca/index.ac.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry.shapedc. desktop virtual reality.

com/edu/index. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.opencroquet.informationinplace. C. Research report. http://www.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. T.ch/About/about_index.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. Philopoulos. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. C. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). http://www. http://ru6. and Tsiatsos.edu/vrel.activeworlds. > > http://www.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . East Carolina University. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. http://vrlab..cti. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.epfl. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. Hornig.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.com/article.html Bibliography Bouras.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index. T. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities.coe. For example.html The U.cti. http://vr. (2006).gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7.campustechnology. http://www. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://ru6.ahds. A.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).ecu..com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.pdf Bouras.secondlife.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 .de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. G.navy.healthdatamanagement. and Tsiatsos.mil/index.hpc. T. (2001). 2006. Paper presented at ICALT 2001..co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.com http://www.intuition-eunetwork.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.ergonetz.org/index. http://www. C.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. http://www. Campus Technology.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . (2001).Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.ac. Triantafillou. https://www. including education. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.spider.ac. August 9. > http://vads. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. V. http://www. Technology Area .pdf Bouras.cti. http://ru6. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. and Tsiatsos. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. 175-199.ahds. 24. Luigi (2004).S.

Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. 2005. Petridis. Trend: augmented reality check.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. 35. Guardian Unlimited. 2004. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. Stephen (2004).au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. http://courseweb. http://education. P. (2005).eng. Gerard (2002). F. C. R. Istanbul. C. McHugh.1314022. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. and Mangina. (2004). 28. Monahan. (2004). M. M. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. https://www.htm Dickey. http://www. Proceedings. 2004. G. Dec.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04.unibo. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Web-based Education 2005 conference..elearning. Learning Circuits.. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.html Liarokapis. No.. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments.actapress. Sept.p df Prasolova-Førland.guardian. M.unt.. 27.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.10577.. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference.pdf Katterfeld. http://www. T.com/PaperInfo.html Jones.tcd. P. 2004. and White. Proceedings.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. http://www.digicult.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . (2002). Donnelly. F. E.learningcircuits. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. http://www. Lister. S. A. Web Based Education 2005 conference.com/PaperInfo. http://www. 1.monash. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.oln. 1(2).masternewmedia. http://www.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. January 2005.actapress. and Seyedarabi.icc2005.00. (2005). ISPRS. and Sester. G.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. July 9-16.co.cs. & Sester.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. Eva (2004). 2004.pdf McArdle. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Ekaterina (2005).htm Katterfeld. Dobreva. D.uk/elearning/ story/0. La Coruna/Spain. http://www. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools.org/htmleng/english. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. J.. Vol.ikg. Conlan. Bertolotto. http://www. M..ie/Owen. and Hicks. Sept. A. Abbott. Michelle (2003). O. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.pdf Ross.unihannover.edu. (Section on Virtual Reality).. M. (2005).it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen.pdf Hoare. http://www.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.. (2005). and Rusbridge. http://www. M. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.Good Blog.com/Reference.actapress.

Another is the category of “artificial life simulators.unifiedfield. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. http://www. Finally. See some amazing demos at: http://www.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. data mapping. http://www. and data rendering.ontopia. geographical information systems. see ZoomClouds. On the other hand. mapping. images. visualization can represent alternative points of view. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. http://www. 2005). Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. which showcases their potential. My first report in this series.zoomclouds.net/omnigator/models/ index.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. http://www. location based systems. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.com/solutions. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. The educational advantages of visualization are many. dynamic displays. For an example.inxight. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. cognitive collage. et al. graphics. 2003).ucar.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.dpc. allowing for innovation or new understandings. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. data filtering. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. cybercartography. such as a blog.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.semagix. reviewed visualization as an online content format. pattern recognition.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. GIS. Flash.

Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.medtropolis.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. http://www. http://www.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. http://esapub.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. It has images of space and the earth from space.lecielestbleu. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography. http://www.bbc.html For a practical application of visualization.esa.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. VR.org/timeformations/ intro.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.bham.gsfc. delivery.idc. 2004.edu/ Paul Nixon. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. http://www.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.skyscraper.alice.mit.utexas. http://chatcircles.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.ddd.typorganism.cs. Be sure to explore the “zoo.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385. Free demo at: http://www.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.media.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle. and display (without glasses!). has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. http://www. Museum Edition.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.in English or Spanish.ubc.vista.tmm.edu/index. and visualization applications. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.” http://richie.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies.” http://www. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .com Web site in Tokyo. See his list of resources at: http://www.nlm. a young graphic designer.medibolt. http://www.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.nixlog.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.marumushi.”’ BBC News. http://www. http://www.gov/index.ac. April 7th. See: http://www.ul.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information. http://news.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . Sample the collection at: http://svs. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.0 authoring system. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.esrin.vrco.nih.co.com/VBody.nasa.

unifiedfield.com/index. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .amnh.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn.vicodi. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. for example. http://research.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com/solutions.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. http://www.ontopia. retrieval.S. http://www. and information presentation. http://www.spotfire.at: http://www.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.com/cat/dashb oard/index. http://clustrmaps.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. http://www.corda.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.arcscience. http://www. http://www.edu/postcartoaag06.org/about.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://www.com/applicati on.at/home.cs.vrvis.gfdl. http://www. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.nih.com WorkPlace http://www. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.ambientdevices.net/omnigator/models/ index.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. See this technology in action.cs. http://www.com/omni. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.semagix.owu.microsoft. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.indiana.noaa. http://www.com CenterView http://www. http://makingmaps. in the U.umd.html Top Tier http://www.feedtank.nlm.html XCelsius http://www.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.idashboards.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.xcelsius.com/index. anatomically detailed. See their tool set and examples of their work. http://www.ibm. one million items.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.mccrackendesign.

including the following: Voxler. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.com Pixologic is 2.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. for 3-D modeling. http://www. http://www.5-D modeling and rendering software. and anomalies in data.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications.formz.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.com/vc/index.advizorsolutions. Grapher. modeling. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. They have worked with the U.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. trends.S. for 3-D data visualization. and. Try a demo at: http://www. many of which are unique. http://www.okino. http://www. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.musanim.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.intergraph. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www.softill.microsoft.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. associations.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. http://tangible. http://www. Didger. http://www. animation.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . for 3-D landscaping and animation.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.golden.daz3d.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. MapViewer.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www. http://www.visualcomplexity. http://www.topozone.esri. Clicking a related term extends the process. http://www. Strater.accurender. including the following: Bryce.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.media.com/mam/mam.pixologic.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. http://research.visualthesaurus.goes far beyond static JPG map images. for thematic and analytical mapping. networks. Carrara.timemap.mit.oziexplorer.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. http://www. and rendering software. and rendering.visualanalytics. http://www.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns.mapinfo. http://www.” http://www. http://www. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.

and Woodill. P.gvu. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research.fakespace.pdf Bertin.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research .media.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.liveplasma.” http://vis.com/ Bibliography Alpert. http://www. les cartes. http://www. Paier. He finished his PhD. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. Sherman (2003).com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.ualbert a. Mackinlay. 31-49 http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. les réseaux. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. Madison: University of Wisconsin.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.edwardtufte.ubc. http://www.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. A. K. > > http://www. > http://www. http://coe. Paris: La Haye. 14(1).iu.vrco. Jacques (1983).The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. and Shneiderman. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. M.edu/eet/ Ell. (Eds. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.. http://www.infovis.pdf Bergmann.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.agocg. EXYSTENCE network. J. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. both visualization companies. > > http://acg.topicmap.editlib. J.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.topicmaps.gatech.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.sdsu.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. http://acg. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www. Working Paper.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. Following are two: > > http://graphics.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.ac.mit.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.edu/index..cs. G.) (1999).stanford. B.edu/research/r esearch.complexityandeducation. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. (2003).ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www. Jacques (1967). Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.. together with their estimated depth of influence. http://www.com/ http://www.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. J.mit.gatech. is available online. The Semiology of Graphics.gvu.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.net/printRec. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. Proceedings. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.masternewmedia.complexityscience.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. http://www.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.media. http://www.org/index. and Resetarits.

August. S..org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Reading. International Journal on E-Learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Harlow.pdf Goldfarb. (2005).slis.html Rhyne. Ruth (2003). Luca (2003). 16(4). http://www. 3(1). pp. http://www. K.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. G.com/article.. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. http://itdl. K. Morales. D.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. 69-82. and Rusbridge.html Madhavan. A. 2. G.elearningguild.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. 4(1).com/publications. J. 41(3). C. (2006). http://www.digicult. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.indiana.K. Campus Technology.ac. (1998). eLearning Developers’ Journal.fr/CanJ/CanJ.. June 1. http://www. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. L. Abbott. (1992). Theresa (1998). January 2005.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. 17-30. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. England: AddisonWesley. B.. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. 46: 461-488. Vol. pp. and Woolsey. 4th Edition. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. Information Visualization.org/dl/index. http://createdrealities. August 11. Siggraph. and Bertoline.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . Vol. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.amazon. A.. 1-34.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. S.asp Mittal.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. NC: Duke University. A. J. and Pagalthivarthi. Luca (2005). McHugh. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. 329-351. Dobreva. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Canadian Journal of Psychology.. 42. (Section on Visualization).cfm/files/pape r_5994. http://www.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. No. (2005). M. (2005). P.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi.amazon. Mike and Rogers. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction.pdf Shneiderman.asp?id=11222 Metros. 3. Educational Media International. Durham.org/index.amazon. 185–213 http://www. (2005).com/articles/abs tracts/index.pdf Scaife.ht m O'Regan.editlib. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. and Knezek. Lugano. May/June. Donnelly. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. available online at http://www. http://www. M. Brent (2006). Arns. No.univparis5.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Yvonne (1996).html Ross. http://nivea. 2005.usilu. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Spence. Switzerland: University of Lugano. (2001). http://www. http://www. 45.psycho. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. http://www.siggraph.agocg. http://www. (2004). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. EDUCAUSE Review.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark.aace. September.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Robert.campustechnology. K.educause.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. Brian (2002).istituti.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638. http://www.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Fall. CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed.com/tufte/index Tufte. Edward (1990).ciconline. http://www.edwardtufte. Edward (1997). http://www. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Edward (2001). Cheshire. (2004). http://www. David (2005).com/tufte/index Tufte.E. http://www. David (2002).com/tufte/index Ware. Cheshire. Digital Information Graphics. Visualization.org/threshold Tufte.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon. Matt (2002). Amsterdam: Elsevier. http://www.edwardtufte. evidence and narrative. Envisioning Information. CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. Colin. Sharpe. 2nd Edition. Cheshire.amazon. From multimedia to multisensory education.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Threshold.amazon. http://www.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Press. Information Visualization: perception for design. http://www. Computers. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. M.

htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.avaya. http://www. http://www. and a microphone. http://www. IEEE Spectrum Online. http://www. communications tools.jajah. Internet telephony. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.elearningcentre. http://www. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.skype. in remote communities.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. http://www. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.weblogsinc. Steven (2005).com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. Join the discussion at: http://voip.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. headphones or speakers. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Seven Myths about Voice over IP.voipreview.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.ac.spectrum. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. http://www. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.ieee. Geraldine (2005). March 2005.html Do not reproduce 203 .cogs. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. http://www.envisioninc. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.susx.org Bibliography Cherry.infoworld. 1996). Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. Using VoIP. In the near future.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. http://www. requiring an Internet hookup.co.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. Internet telephony is relatively simple. but it is rapidly improving.

ieee.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones.org/xpl/freeabs_all. I..edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . http://www. and O’Droma. Language Learning and Technology.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . 9(3).nald. http://ieeexplore.Ganchev.pdf Ottoson. M.msu. Meredith (1996). 9-12. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. September. (2005). S. Robert (2005). Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. Stojanov. Mobile distributed e-learning center. http://llt. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.

In January 2006. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. including wearable computing.bbc. The entire system. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. managing. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.co. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. 6. Do not reproduce 205 .edu/design/VuMan. It is observable by the user 4.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.bris. http://killer. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. especially for comercial airlines. ubiquitous computing > http://www. the automotive industry. http://killer. anytime. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. training to do their jobs. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. It is unrestrictive to the user 3.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.cs. It is controllable by the user 5. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. http://news. 1998): 1.ac. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2.com/Home/Home.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. Selected Examples In Europe.hubuska.ices.edu/design/Ion. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. or repairing complex machines.cmu.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.learnexact.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. training. like a wristband or jewelry.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. including batteries. and other organizations involved in inspecting. weighs less than three pounds. For example.cmu. http://www. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.pdf http://www.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. http://wearables. This can extend professional training in to remote areas.ices.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.sportbrain. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.checkpointelearning. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. http://www.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.

Fairfax.html The design of “smart clothing. March 8. Wired News. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.html Garfinkel.org/index.uk/index. Toronto: Anchor Books.wired. http://www. M. http://www. March 24.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.704 81-0.mit. C.toronto. Technology Review (Online).http://www. (2003). and Lupisella.businessweek. (2004). Olga (2005).edu/research/wear ables/index. S. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.jisc.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. H. Business Week Online. and Levene. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. S. http://wearcam. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.704 81-0. May 12-13. (2002). Steve (1998).uk/wear-it http://www.media.eee.uoregon.edu/ http://wearcam. Dec. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. Wearable Computing for the Commons. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.org/icwckeynote. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.wired. Simson (2004). 2005.nasa. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.wearable.pdf Kharif.cs.eyetap.eecg. http://www. 2004. http://www.ethz. M. What you’ll wear in 10 years. 1.eecg. http://www.com/news/culture/0.ac. ICWC98.com/news/culture/0.amazon.org/index_graphical.org is a rich source of references.ac.” including computers built into underwear. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. Mmoma (2006). and Niedzviecki.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. http://www.ht ml http://www. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).technologyreview.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. Wearable computers that you can slip into. http://www. 2006.toronto. http://isd.com/read_arti cle.gsfc.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. http://www. http://about.htm Mann. VA.bham. especially in the area of wearable cameras. See: > > > http://genesis.

BlogLines http://www.html 6. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator.” as its content is changed by the author. and electronics. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. each with its own features.org/Aggie.brightcove.0 format). and Atom is the second. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. basic text format for quick review. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).html 2. To read content from a Web feed. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.com/ 4. Amphetadesk http://www. Brightcove http://www. Awasu http://www. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.com/ampheta desk 3. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one.com/productBlog Express. including cell phones. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed.com/ 7.attensa. Bloglet http://www. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. Attensa http://www. > For learners and teachers. job searches. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. blogs. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. PDAs.com/ 5. photo collections. feeds. this method of finding out what is new is spam free.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . and course offerings. social bookmarking. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).disobey. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. Here is a list of 48: 1. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Aggie http://bitworking. CDs. When changes are made to a Web site. podcasts.com 9. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed.awasu.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds.com/ 8. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site.bloglet. TV guides. with all the potential for viruses and spam. and laptops.bloglines.net/dl. listings of the latest books. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching.

com/v2 33.downes.fuzzyd.com/ 21.pubsub. My RSS Toolbar http://www.newsgator. Rojo http://www.2 http://www.com/ 29.com/ 22.com 28.com 40. RSSCalendar http://www.com/ 31.com 18. PubSub http://www.blogplanet.com/ 17. see: http://www. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.com 14.projectdu.com/ 15.feedforall.10.mozilla. Videora http://www.sh tml 41. Protopage http://www. feedbeep http://feedbeep. FeedReader http://www.feedroll.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35.feed-directory. Newsgator http://www. Topix http://www.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .mozdev.com/feedscout. SharpReader http://www.com/ 19. FeedScout http://bytescout. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Project D. RSSReader http://www.onfolio.hexamail. Feedtier http://feedtier. LearningFeeds http://www. Gregarius http://gregarius.learningfeeds.com/ 30.videora.com/ 43. Feedster http://www.com/myrssto olbar.com/ 13.shtml 11.co.feedzilla.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.protopage.org/ 37.U.rssbandit. RSS Orbit http://www. Fuzzy Duck http://www.rsscalendar.hebig.com/rss/ 39.html 27.uk/rssreader / 23. Feed-Directory http://www.h tm 12.org/ 44. To have a blog aggregated.bytescout. StepNewz http://www. Syndirella http://yole.com/ 25. including listings for various electronic devices.feedreader.rojo.com/ 16. EaZy RSS reader http://www. Reader http://www. FeedBurner http://www.puremis.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.com/ 34.ht ml 20.php.newsisfree.somee.net/ 24.rssreader.com/ For a list of more aggregators.feedster.com 32.net/index. NewsIsFree http://www.net/ 26.ca/edurss02.pluck.feedpublish.net/ 45.com/rss2exc hange/ 38. RSS Software http://www.com/thunderbir d/ 48. FeedPublish http://www. Edu_RSS 0. OnFolio http://www. Feedroll . RSS Bandit http://www.feedburner. FeedForAll http://www.com/ 46.com/today/ 36. Pluck http://www.rssreader.http://www. RSS2Exchange http://www.sharpreader.rss-to-javascript. Thunderbird http://www.com/ 42. Sage http://sage.topix.

The Technology Source Archives. B. http://technologysource. A.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. RSS: a learning technology. http://www.htm Downes. Online paper. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.ca/files/RSS_Educ.teachinghacks. Anh (2005). Online paper.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes.learningcircuits.ca/cgibin/wiki. eLearning Developers’ Journal.Possible Future Evolution. http://www.pdf Gannett.htm Levine.dist. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.vccs. Lamb. maintains a long list of RSS resources.wcc.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://www.usatoday. Vancouver. and Norman.ubc. Stephen (2002). 2003.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS)..dist. Luigi (2004).php 2003. 2004. Do not reproduce 209 . (2003). 31.redjupiter. Aug. Learning Circuits. http://www. USA Today (online). Stephen (2004).instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .com/news/showS tory. and D’Arcy Norman.lo.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. 3. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.elearning.edu/services/rssify/rs sify.htm D’Sousa. http://www. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. Version 1. D. Dan (2004).mcli. July/August 2003.ca/files/RSS_Educ. RSS Ideas for Educators. http://www.elearningguild. a blog by Alan Levine. May 19.downes. Brian Lamb. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. 5-8.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Eva (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.htm David. 1. 2005. http://www.learningcircuits. Bill (2003).htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. Brian Lamb.eschoolnews.ca/edu_rss. Robin Good Blog. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. http://www.maricopa. Quentin (2006).edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.com/wiki/doku. http://www.downes. http://www. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Mary (2003). http://timyang. University of North Carolina. Oct.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.pdf Canali De Rossi.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. 2004.masternewmedia.contentious. RSS: the next killer app for education. Aug.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. BC. http://careo.maricopa. Learning Circuits.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. RSS could transform online communications. http://www.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. June 2004.htm Harrsch.teachinghacks.mcli. eSchool News. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. Read his article written specifically for educators.1. May 2004. http://www.downes. http://www. Aug.

http://www.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.blogspot. 2006. O’Reilly Network. (2006). InfoWorld. Shelly (2005). The Shifted Librarian. M. 3. March 23.mediathink. and Webb. http://www.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1.theshiftedlibrarian. July 7.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big.xml. Alexandra (2005). Mihai (2006). Namespaced extensions in feeds. Aug. 2006.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . Using RSS for data integration. 13. 2005.oreilly.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.oreillynet. http://www.pdf Parparita.html Powers. Jon (2005). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. June 18. Google Reader Blog.html Samuel. http://googlereader. RSS: the next big thing online. 2005. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Jenny (2005). MediaThink White Paper.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.infoworld.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. http://www.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Otherwise Engaged.Levine.html?page=1 Udell. http://www. T.html MediaThink (2004). 2005.alexandrasamuel. Sept. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). http://www.

Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.com/cgibin/mb. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Do not reproduce 211 . There are now over 1. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. http://www.10. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. http://www. With some basic instructions. http://www. RSS. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. can be used by a team for joint writing.” Essentially. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. Anyone can add to it.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. an image gallery. My first report in this series. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.org/index.wikipedia.com/artpdf/GR12. See the progress at: http://edu. 3. it is important to have several contributors.schtuff. http://www.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.org/tiki-index. features. http://wikipedia. 4. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. time-less. custom permissions. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.net/features.com/cgibin/wiki. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. and projects. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.gilbane. For wikis to work. 2. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. http://www.300. is available for other applications. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.usemod. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.sourcewatch. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. and never finished. 2005).pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Content is ego-less. and email notification.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. approaches. http://www.seedwiki.tikiwiki.sourceforge. http://www.usemod. the software used to run Wikipedia.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2.

Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.” http://writingwiki.” is a rich source of information on wikis.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. Raitman. R. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://www. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://www.48.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .jot. as well as an analysis of how they work.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.ikiw.infotoday. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.se/wikipaper.ascilite.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.ucalgary.Weblogs. http://whiplash.learningwiki.wikibooks.elearningcentre. http://www.com/ Jon Udell. http://www. is provided by David Mattison. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. http://radio. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. http://64.” http://tlc. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.com/ WritingWiki. http://flosse. Dec. 5-8.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. Swiki..dicole. First Monday. L.html Bibliography Aronsson.71. N. (2002). http://careo. and Zhou. Operation of a Large Scale. “Quickiwiki. Andrea (2003).html Ciffolilli. Dec.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. http://en. A free trial is available. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis.org has lots of resources on wikis.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. including a section on wiki tools.infoworld.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.com/wwwtools/m/25242. http://m. http://weblog.html Augar. W. Twiki.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.org. http://www. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. http://aronsson.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. (2004).co. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.pbwiki.socialtext. http://www. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. His article.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis. Australia. Phantom authority.elearning.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. of the University of British Columbia.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. http://www.shtml Brian Lamb. 8(12).fasfind. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.nu’s first nine months in service. including wikis. http://kairosnews.different. that she updates regularly. Perth. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.ubc.

(2006).uk/issue42/ Udell. July.html Tomkin. UniversityWiki. Issue 42. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.4149. Online paper. T. Jon (2004).. Clark. Ariadne.com/artpdf/GR12.http://firstmonday. 2004. InfoWorld. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). The wiki way.zkm. 2006. Oct.irrodl.pdf Leuf.profetic. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.com/article2/0. Educause Review.00. Online article.ariadne.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).html Stafford. (2004). M. January. http://www. L. http://www. Nov. http://c2.1/technot e_xxvii. Quickiwiki. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. http://www.. April 2003.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. O’Reilly Network. Neil (2003). David (2003). http://gilbane. Renée (2005). http://www. 12(10). http://container. Brian (2004).com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. 19. Anja (2004).. Emma (2005). Profetic: dossiers pratiques. S..com/cgibin/mb. Lauren (2005). Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.14 02872. http://www. 2.pcmag.html Wood.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. and Rudolph. International Journal of Information Ethics. Wiki Tools. 2005. Richard (2003). Swiki. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.pdf Fountain.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. Bo & Cunnin. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .infoworld. Cossarin.ac. M.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. http://www. Online article at PCMag. July 7. and Webb.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452.shtml Rubenking. Online article at: http://www.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer. http://www. Online article.org/content/v5. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. 36-48. Searcher. Making the case for a wiki.10. Sept. Wiki pedagogy.usemod. J.amazon.educause.pdf Kulisz.com. W. http://www. April 2004.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.pdf Do not reproduce 213 .Oct. David (2004).oreillynet. Twiki.asp Schmitt. http://Weblog. (2001).php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.infotoday.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. Why Wikis Work Not.educause.

adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. floppy disks. in turn. which. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. which can then lead to inventions. After a product has been successfully launched.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. However. CD-ROMS. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears.

Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. and computers. means that they actually think differently. 2003). to the complex. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. this approach is now rapidly changing. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. Further. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. But not all technologies will travel this road. The experience of younger learners with television. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. In any field. peak. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. video games. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . in part. both in classrooms and online. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. For a variety of reasons. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Some will die quickly. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. some will never leave the development stage. and decline. in both formal and informal settings. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. mature. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. Ontologies. However. This is due. change itself seems to be inevitable. while others will last for decades. ascend the curve. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. or may never become commercially viable. The technology of e-learning.

the learner. It works for a time. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. digitization of smell. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. terrorism. the computer. surprise. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. However. libraries. huge data wall displays. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. 2002. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. that is all about to change. global warming. Because of this.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. In approaching electronic educational media. Within the next five years.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. The speed of change increases with each passing year.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. until we become habituated. the baby boomers. gaming consoles. and personal digital assistants. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. ecological disasters. or violence is needed to keep our attention. To keep our attention. Their children. For the older generation. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. whereby the action of one participant. designers of Sesame Street. In contrast. In North America. p. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. generally went to work earlier. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . mobile phones. video games. Then even more movement. Generally. the civil rights movement. sex. wearable computers. The children of the baby boomers. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. With feedback. For example. born in the 1970s. mind-altering drugs. we will see the restructuring of education and training. 28). Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. movie theaters. commercials. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. the space race. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Once we master the art of reading. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. touch and taste. and digital ink and electronic paper. 1994). results in an action by the other participant. in a back-and-forth exchange. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. But they are usually disap-pointed. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. television.

creative products. Douglas (2005). At the individual level. http://www.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker.amazon. Rushkoff. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power.amazon. Gary (2006). James (1994). It is already a place for massively multiple player games. In the next wave. Likewise. New York: McGraw-Hill. technologies and services for the next 5 years. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. shortly. May 2006.operitel.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Two hundred years ago. portfolios. and the mapping of everything.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. (2001).atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Bob (2006). With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option).com Bibliography Christensen. http://www. http://www.amazon. http://www. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Marc. New York: Collins.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. or can be more bound up by the technologies. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey. Dallas. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. it will be a giant collaborative workspace.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. http://www. Digital Game-based Learning. Texas. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. http://www. Clayton (1997).amazon. Guides are optional. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon.

bartneck. 27A 2º esq. 3400 Hillview Avenue. 1515 Broadway.de/link/affective_port al.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. CA 94304 USA http://www.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi.auburn.mit.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.com/ WEBIST Av.myself-proj.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.nngroup. UK http://www. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. 2910-595 Setúbal . Palo Alto.ac.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.cs. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.media. Building 5. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.se/~muse/hom e. Den Dolech 2 P. Box 513. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www.ailive.Portugal Tel.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.org/ AiLive Inc.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2. New York. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www.51.informatik. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .bham.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.unige. L69 7ZF.net/ Auburn University Auburn.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.O. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.umu.webist. 17th Floor.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. Marc Schröder. D. Manuel I.agentlink.

CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www.redwoodelearning. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.O. Box 2124 Menlo Park.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.au/index.extempo.liv. N.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.informatics.mindworkshop. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 .com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Bloomington.edu Extempo Systems.com/ Apple Computer.O. 10004-104 Avenue. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. W Toronto.animats. Suite 206 Boulder.com Alchemy Mindworks P. O.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index.computer. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.adobe.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. L69 7ZF. Edmonton. Burlington.org. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.educause.W. P. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.ac.ascension-tech.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Box 527. Washington.indiana.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.animationfactory.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. #1910. Huntsville.apple. Inc.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. 1900 East Tenth St. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.ascilite. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.csc.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. Inc. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. Box 5200. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.isi.rit.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. Secretariat.codebaby. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.

avid.cognitivesciencesociety.aaai.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.autodesk. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. Santa Barbara. TN 38152 USA http://www.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.com/home.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.pact. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.com/pub/index.org/home. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. Wellington. Inc.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . Tel: +1.siggraph.cmu. PO Box 24478. Suite 100 Menlo Park.818.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.newtek. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www.San Rafael.6450 http://www.asp EI Technology Group.psych.macromedia. 190th Street. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/index. One Park West Tewksbury.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.massivesoftware. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.org/ SWiSHzone.html Ulead Systems 970 W. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.catoolkit. 110 Cuba Mall. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab. Suite #480 Torrance. Avid Technology Park.com/ NewTek. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. Inc.460.htm Macromedia.com/ Avid Technology. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.autotutor.cs.eitechnologygroup. San Antonio.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.S.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com Pty Ltd The Basement.swishzone. Inc.ucsb.viewpoint. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.aclweb. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.A. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .

W.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. 100 Sherbrooke St.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. 1.unisa.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. H-1111 Budapest. West Montreal.iit.10th Street S.eden-online.brainbench.enel. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.licef.virtuelage.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.W.org/eden. Suite 360 San Mateo.stottlerhenke.ucalgary. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.cs..com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Egry J. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. Chantilly.uquebec.cs.cs.cmu. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.wpi.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .gemini.usyd. u.edu.com Do not reproduce 221 .au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. Alberta.edu Quantum Simulations. Suite K. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. East Adelphi.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.ca/eng/inde x. Calgary.cis.ke-corp.teluq.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.com/index.it.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. Suite 1500 Montreal. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.umuc.edu. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. Inc.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. Calgary. CA . University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.

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CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. +49(0)721.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. Germany Tel.codebaby.com/products/study mate.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. Edmonton.suddenlysmart.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. 55 South Market St. Gandy Blvd. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.4259 Fax: (760) 635. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.funeducation.maxit.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.5709 http://www.com Trainersoft FunEducation. Suite 200 Tampa. Ste 202 Encinitas. 76133 Karlsruhe.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. 4.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.. 10004-104 Avenue.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.seminar.co.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.sensalearning.xplana. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.83 01 616 http://www. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.hunterstone.com/coursegen. Suite 1550 San Jose. #1910. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.thinkingcap.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.toolbook.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. Inc.turbodemo.time4you. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.qarbon. 323 Newbury Street Boston. Inc.respondus.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. SC. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .percepsys.com DA Group The Lighthouse. CA 92101 USA http://www. Redmond.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.syberworks.

Inc.tmmy. Suite 900 Austin. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.O. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. 6th Flr. Inc.. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. 11th Floor New York.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.redwoodelearning. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.blogburst. B13 9SG.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. USA http://www.vcom3d. Mazgaon. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.mozilla. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.knowledgeenvironments.wavemarket. Mary Apts. Mumbai 10.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.opera. 219 Tampa. Ste.qelix.flock.O.omnigroup. W Toronto..com Oddcast 589 8th Ave. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.telsim.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . Inc. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. Dale Mabry Hwy. CA 94608 USA http://www. INDIA. Inc. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Suite 260 Orlando. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.daden.com/v2/index.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P. Birmingham. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.com GTCO CalComp.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View.com WaveMarket. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.co.html Knowledge Environments..htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.cramersweeney. P.oddcast. Nesbit Rd. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.uk/chatbots.com OmniWeb Omni Development.. Moseley.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.com Moorestown.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.co.active-learning-site. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.

Suite# 401.pearsoned.batipi.gtcocalcomp.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.edu Batipi 11 St.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. NJ .com Smartroom Learning Solutions. Inc.inteam. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Inc.qwizdom.telnetz.bluetie.adobe. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Inc.aspx Qwizdom.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Pittsford.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street. Jospeh Street.com 404 Fifth Avenue.com Centra c/o Saba. #205 Pasadena. Suite 103 Toronto. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.smartroom. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd. Inc. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. 6th Floor New York. Puyallup. Orlando. Ontario. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Inc. Draper.com BlueTie.944. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. Suite 522. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. 12617 Meridian E. SW. Amherst.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.Columbia.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.brevient. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.caucus. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.0162 http://www.avecomm.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research .com/centra-saba Central Desktop. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.optiontechnologies. 1192 East Draper Parkway.bantu.physics.com Brightidea.umass. Somerset. Suite 101E Falls Church. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.saba.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.backpackit.brightidea.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Pleasant St.

Suite 105 Chapel Hill.com Digité.centraldesktop.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.comotivsystems.edufolio. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.com Cisco Systems. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Suite 600 Ottawa. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.digi-net.collaborationloop. 82 Pioneer Way.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.epam-pmc.emc. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.same-page. 795 Folsom Street.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.html Citrix Systems. Sanibel FL. 1034 N.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. 57th Street Gainesville.elluminate. Suite 950 Portland. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. 170 West Tasman Dr. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Inc.engineering.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.courseforum. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. Inc.convenos.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. 232 http://www.communiqueconferencing.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. San Jose.communityzero.com LLP PO Box 325.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Suite 630 McLean.citrix. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. Lauderdale. Ontario.W. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. 6th Floor San Francisco.com Digi-Net Technologies.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. Inc.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.digite. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.cisco.com Engineering.

Suite 500 Markham.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.net Groove Networks.com GoToMeeting.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.gordano.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .com Groupwise c/o Novell.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com B.ezmeeting. El Camino Real. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.exactamerica.groupsupport.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Inc. 395 Encinitas.globalschoolnet. Inc. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.com Glance Networks.V. #115 Rockville. Inc.glance.gotomeeting. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.groove. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.4517 http://www.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. Clevedon.novell.facilitate. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.net Global School Net 132 N.horizonwimba.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. Suite 2300 New York. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.forumone. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.hyperoffice. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.genesys. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www.hp.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.flypaper. Ste.com c/o Citrix Systems. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.net GroupSupport. ON.grapevinesoftware.hotcomm.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.

mayeticvillage. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.ilinc.ivocalize.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. 25 First Street.linktivity.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. Suite 412 Cambridge.. Suite 1401 Denver. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.ibm. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.jdhtech. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn.iceweb. 3 Wing Drive.netspoke.com onProject. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Fordham Blvd.meetingone. Suite 100 Tucson.microsoft.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.http://www03.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough.org/tools.intralinks. Inc.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. Suite #150 Herndon.com Interwise.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. 1289 N.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.mspx LiveOffice. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com Near-Time. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. 11th floor New York.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. Sunnyvale. Inc.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 300 Torrance.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.near-time. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.com Do not reproduce 233 . 44th St. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.interwoven. Phoenix. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Inc.onproject.liveoffice.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.mitre.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.interwise.inquesttechnologies.

First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Inc. Riverside Plaza. 3679 Concord Road.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.peoplecube. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.sitescape.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Ste 275 Mill Valley. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Suite 200 Greeley. Inc. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.ht ml Parlano 10 S.com Photon Infotech Inc. Suite 210 Maynard.projectdox. 51. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com/collabsuite/index.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church.sharemethods.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www. Cactus Rd.com RADVISION Inc. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Suite B. 1175 58th Avenue. 17-17 State Highway 208.performancesolutionstech. New No.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.raindance. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway.project-open. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. P.parlano. Inc.nagarro.photoninfotech.com Selden Integrated Systems. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com Raindance Communications.cyber-grad.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.opmcreator.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.radvision.com SpiderWeb Communications.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.O. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.microsoft. Suite 1450 Chicago. Box 3325 York.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.Adyar Chennai. 35.oracle. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . Suite 440 San Jose.seldensystems. Harbor.q2learning. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.opentext. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.

trichys.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Suite 100 Scottsdale.com/content/default. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.webcrossing.webofficepoint.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.wave3software. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.axista.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View..com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.stalker. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. Kierland Blvd.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.vignette. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.webex. Suite 100 Austin.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.teamware.com Teamware P. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.backpackit.com Web Crossing. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.teamspace.net WebEx Communications. Suite 810 Toronto.webtrain.webasyst.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.com Do not reproduce 235 .sumtotalsystems. Canada http://www. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. P.O. Inc. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.usabilityfirst. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.txl Viack 14811 N. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.vodium.Box 2900 Alameda. Suite 950 Washington.tomoye.viack. Inc.teamdynamix.com/groupware/in dex. Ontario M2N 6H8. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.O.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.tacit.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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com. LTD 671 N. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. Glebe Road. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.ca Do not reproduce 241 . East .outstart.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.mgen. Suite 700 Arlington. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. St. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. 550 Queen St.meridianksi. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.technomedia. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Suite 2200 Chicago. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com mGen Enterprise mGen.maxit.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Inc.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.sselearn.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco.oracle.sap. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.isnewmedia.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.oracle. Inc. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. 500 West Madison.teds.ssaglobal.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. Inc.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto.com TEDS Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. Suite 260 Foxborough. 100 Foxborough Blvd. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Louis.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.plateau.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems. West.saba.syntrio. Fifth Floor Montreal. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.teralearn.wizdom. Chantilly.

risc-inc.. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.O. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www.wbtsystems. 122 West Way. Ontario.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. 17041 El Camino Real.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. 240 Bay Street. 4th Floor Oakland. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. Inc. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Suite 200 Ottawa. Suite # 105 Columbia.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.fldata.trainingpartner. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.xtention.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.sumtotalsystems. 2280 St. Inc. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . NY.vuepoint.ttg-inc. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc.sir. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Box 9752 Boulder.avilar.vbtrain.uwm. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www.edutools. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Laurent Blvd. Inc. Suite 101 Houston. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.arizona.xstreamsoftware.cdlib.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.info/index.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. 4 Expressway Plaza. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.com Tracker. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.gyrus.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. Victoria.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.

org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. MS 44.cadcorp. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.netera.geocomm. Suite 1600 Tucson.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Box 3000 Boulder.com Do not reproduce 243 .com/gis4mt/index.O.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. Sterling Court. Houston.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.edu. Fondren Library.dist. AZ 85250 USA http://www. P.lolaexchange.unsw.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.maricopa. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl. 5151 East Broadway. Stevenage.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.lornet. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. Hertfordshire.goenc.lrc3. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.eoscenter. Norton Road.4464 Markham Street Victoria.ca ENC Learning Inc.mcli. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. Box 1892.plos.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.rice.thegateway. AZ. Suite 3100 San Francisco.cf m ESRI Suite 300.org/eng/scientifiques.edu/DesktopDefault. ETRAC.merlot.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.O.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. CT 06459 USA http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.clarklabs. SG1 2JY. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Rice University.esri.llearn. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.

pangonetworks.edu.knowledgepulse. Box 240000 Huntsville. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. P. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.bham. Dept.5372. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. Inc. Austria http://www.O. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.imsglobal. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.mapinfo. html ELSNET Trans 10. Electrical and Computer Engineering.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.stockholmchallenge. PMB #112 Lake Mary.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.org/ Spotlight Mobile. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.berkeley. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.com Metadata.aaai.uk/handler/defaul t.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.ac.edu PanGo Networks.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.eee.smm. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.cetis.org/aitopics/html/natlang.cancore.mobilearn.intergraph.O.ac. of Geography. 959 Concord Street. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.fi/english/page.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Suite 100 Framingham. Suite 501 Portland. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata.asp?path= 500.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. Inc.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.

uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. Suite 300. 1st Floor A . CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. Inc.seti. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.elena-project. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.ac.stockholmchallenge. 19104-2653.org/site/pp. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.ldc. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .lexxe. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www. Inc.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p.com MoveDigital.upenn. Whisman Road Mountain View.lockss.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.advancedreality.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.internet2. Italy http://tcc. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .itc. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .sun. PA.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.elsnet. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.it Victoria.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.net internet2. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 10010 USA http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Deane Rd. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.overnet.movedigital.llearn.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.groove. Inc.cetis.com Groove Networks. NY.asianart.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.

3333 http://www. 3016 5th Ave.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.executrain. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.elearningeuropa.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.6526 http://www. NE Calgary. Suite 225 Santa Monica. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.genesys.saba.rmv.O.com Portals CyberU.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. New York 10973 USA http://www.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.cyberu.lsc. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.trainingregistry.mit.macromedia.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Ninth St. 3º 08021 Barcelona. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. Inc. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.elementk.worldwidelearn. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .org Macromedia.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.17th Avenue SW Calgary.apreso.com ProQuest 789 E. Eisenhower Parkway P. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.saba.com 50 S. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Inc.teach-nology. 15-4-A Gatineau. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com/presentatio ns/index. Suite 600 Alpharetta.ca Slate Hill.proquest.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.microsoft.333.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.virtualmuseum.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Minneapolis. Alberta.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.com Teachnology.presentations. Box 172 1039 . Alberta.com Presentations.elluminate. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.

generalrobotics.hp. Radstock Somerset. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.aad.ed. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.articulate.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.com/halo/index.evolution.ac. Michigan. 130 W.html Norman. Suite B Orion. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.com Raptivity P.osaka-u.ri.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Pasadena.rec. SE-100 44 Stockholm. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. Centre for Autonmous Systems. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.euron.nasa.org Evolution Robotics. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Lindsey Bldg.atr. Union St. Chilcompton. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.ife. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. O. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. D. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.com ReadyGo Inc.org Euron c/o Prof.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.whmsi. Ste.. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.eng.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr.readygo.raptivity. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.irc. Henrik I Christensen. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Inc. Box 2827. CA 94040. Redmond.gov.cmu.ams. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . Inc.scate. SWEDEN.botball.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.active-robots.

com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.info.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.koders.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. Box 1133 Washington. Google.ac.alexa. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.excite. Inc. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.com Ask.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.net Koders Inc. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.gnod.kartoo.com Gada.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.ixquick.ask.net/ Healthfinder P.O. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.intute.convera.com Info. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.com Gnod. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag. Chicago.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road.copernic. Suite 60 Quebec.com Headquarters 555 12th Street. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.dogpile. Suite 500 Oakland.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.Search Engines About. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. 42nd Floor New York.O. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www.6100 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.findlaw.com Google (including Froogle.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Box 29141 San Francisco.google. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.gigablast.about. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. DC 20013-1133 http://www. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.icerocket. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.healthfinder. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.com excite.

CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. 23rd Oklahoma City.1057022 LookSmart. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.seekport.rawsugar. Ltd. Seventh Floor New York.netscape.com LitLinker c/o ACM.ibm...pubsub.cs. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .W.krugle. New York. Suite 211 Palo Alto .lalisio.org/citation. 17th Floor New York. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Mary Apts. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. NY 10003.W.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.technorati.edu/ PubSub Concepts.looksmart. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.com/v2/index.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.82152 Martinsried http://www.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Inc. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www.qelix. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.searchking. 23rd Floor San Francisco.http://www.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.mooter.com SearchKing. INDIA.acm.com Pandora Media.cfm?doid=10 56808.pandora. Inc. Inc.almaden. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.msn. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.com/ Netscape AOL LLC. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. Suite 207 San Francisco. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.nyu. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Inc. 625 Second Street San Francisco.metacrawler. Inc. 64 Fulton Street. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. 7th floor. 6th Flr.lexxe.truveo. Mazgaon.biz Truveo. Mumbai 10. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.convera. 601 108th Avenue NE. 360 22nd Street.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Nesbit Rd. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. 2400 N.

EC4M 7NG London. Ontario.columbia.elena-project. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.com Flash c/o Macromedia.macromedia. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research .com Captivate c/o Macromedia.tkk.Project Coordinator CSI . Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. 10 Old Bailey.biographix. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.knowledgequest. Box 1558 New Canaan.forio.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. Yahoo http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.assima.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .New York. Inc.zoominfo. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.alphaworks. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. GreenPark Reading.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.O.stt-global. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.yahoo.intermezzon. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.com Zoom Information Inc.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.personal-reader. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.macromedia. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.ee. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.atghome.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.experiencebuilders.com Assima Ltd. 1st Floor A .seco.htm Yahoo! Inc. Inc.ibm. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.

CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.net Do not reproduce 251 .teds.outstart. Suite 240 Atlanta.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. 1821 Walden Office Square.xstreamsoftware. Suite A-207 Brossard.knowledgepresenter. Québec. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.nexlearn. Suite 300 Wichita.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.eduperformance. Inc.stt-global.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St..virtualcontrolroom. CA .qarbon.com/English/t 6essai.knowledge-director.com Softsim Outstart Studio. 55 South Market St..fsl. Light & Acoustics.stagecast. Ontario. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.com NexLearn. B15 2TT.com Stagecast Software.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.maxit. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Inc. Suite 400.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria. Schaumburg. LLC 100 South Main Street. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www. Newburyport. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.ac.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.muzzylane. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.bham.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. Suite 360 San Mateo.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. Suite 1550 San Jose.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. England http://www. 2280 St.com MASIE Center. Taschereau Ouest.assima.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. Laurent Blvd. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.cs.learning2005.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.noaa. Inc.stottlerhenke. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www..knowledgeplanet.

First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. CA 94105 USA http://www.spurl. Inc.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. Suite 500 Renton.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .icio.com Social Bookmarking del.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.com Friendster.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Morton Street. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.furl.eu Rojo Networks. 101 Wolf Drive. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N..analytictech.us Eventful c/o EVDB. Inc. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Box 920089 Needham.rojo.netscape.com Classmates Online. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. Suite 224 Bloomington. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.tagzania.com FURL c/o LookSmart..shadows. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.com/ mag. 2001 Lind Ave.icio. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. Suite 900 Austin. CA. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.friendster. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Thorofare.edu/index. Menlo Park. 625 Second Street San Francisco. CA 94089 USA http://del. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. 795 Folsom St.com Spurl ehf.classmates. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.checkpointsystems.gnolia. 655 High Street Palo Alto. Ltd.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. 568 Howard Street San Francisco. Suite 125 San Diego. WA 98055 USA http://www.iu. Inc.socialtext. Inc.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.networkltd. Inc.O.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.zvents. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. SW.

Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.net Sparta Social Networks. Inc.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.fakespace.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 4th Floor Marshalltown.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc. 7220 Trade Street.com iTunes Apple Computer.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. CA 92121 USA http://www.jabber. Box 1641 Denver. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.org Veoh Networks.brightcove. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.percro.sociosite. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . New York.hpc. Suite 115 San Diego.com Do not reproduce 253 .com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.apple.spartasocialnetworks.spider.hp.org.com/halo/index. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.ergonetz. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.dfilm. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco.futurelab. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.O.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. VA 23461-1924 https://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Box 1641 Denver.org Fakespace 11 E.1011 CM Amsterdam.xstreamengine. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.html Jabber Software Foundation P.com Jabber Software Foundation P. Inc.com Brightcove. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.activeworlds. CA 94105 USA http://www. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.bittorrent. Cupertino. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .O.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. CA 90028 USA http://www.advanced. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www.percro. Church Street. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.veoh.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.navy. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.jabber.

Suite 280 Downers Grove.ac.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.intergraph.ecu.com Golden Software.accurender. Suite 110 Troy.edu/vrel. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. IC ISIM VRLAB. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego.com/ MapInfo One Global View.intuition-eunetwork.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. Draper.xcelsius.O.com ESRI Suite 300. Suite 206 Bloomington. Troy.vista. Golden.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.coe. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. Williams Building College Park. 350 South 400 West.formz. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.informationinplace. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Inc. 809 14th Street.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street..com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Columbus.mapinfo. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. Inc.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Tracy. 1333 Butterfield Rd.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.umd. Inc. Box 884.O.corda.V. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.advizorsolutions. Suite 100 Lindon.feedtank.ambientdevices. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.bham. Danvers.epfl. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.golden.idashboards. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions. Cambridge.501 North Morton Street.cs. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.esri.com Intuition 9. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .daz3d. Box 240000 Huntsville. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.

ETZ H Electronics Lab. 9th floor New York. Suite 102 Mountain View. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Inc. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. Donau-City-Strasse 1.inxight. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.unifiedfield. 3 East 28th St.skype. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.visualthesaurus.jajah. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.ontopia. Riga.okino. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.spotfire. Inc. MA 01863 USA http://www. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.mccrackendesign. 94043 USA http://www.net Pixologic. Unit A2 Naples.sportbrain. 869 97th Ave N. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Spotfire.microsoft. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. 73 Princeton Street.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. 2513 Charleston Road.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. U. 2nd Floor Poolesville.nlm. Ontario L4V 1T8.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. CA 94712 USA http://www. Ltd. Inc. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. A-1220 Vienna. FL 34108 USA http://www. California.com JAJAH Inc. 212 Elm Street Somerville. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.softill.pixologic.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.vicodi.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.vrvis. NY 10012 USA http://www.S.nih. Suite 3A New York.com Unified Field. 20010 Fisher Avenue. Inc.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Unit # 1 Mississauga.topozone.visualanalytics. RIDemo Brivibas 183.musanim. 155 Spring Street.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. Inc.

rssreader. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Inc. 116 New Montgomery Street.wearable. Inc. CA 95008 USA http://www.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.pluck. P.attensa. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. 64 Fulton Street. Coldbrook Business Corp. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Seventh Floor New York. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Suite 605 San Francisco.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. 11211.com Rojo Networks. Suite 381 Vancouver.feedburner. Suite 900 Austin. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Broadway. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Tallinn. 2nd Floor Palo Alto..onfolio. First Floor.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.ch Web Feeds Attensa.V. Estonia http://www. San Francisco.com Feedster. Valdeku 100. Inc.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Nederland Tel: +31. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.feedforall.feedreader.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.microsoft. 795 Folsom St. Building K Mountain View. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.feedster. Suite 2260 Portland. South #358 St. Suite 100 Campbell. Inc.com PubSub Concepts.jot. Inc. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .715135858 http://www.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.ethz..feedzilla. Inc.rojo. Petersburg.brightcove.com Brightcove. 200 2nd Ave.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.org JotSpot.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Pacific Business Centre #101 .pubsub. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. Switzerland http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.mozilla.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. 3rd Floor Cambridge.1001 W.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.bloglines.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Hanover. 167 Hamilton Ave. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.

socialtext.Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.com Do not reproduce 257 .

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

211 Communications Tools. 44. 78. 50. 48. 110. 16. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 70. 137. 27. 80. 146. 196 cognitive maps. 145. 211. 74. 95. 55. 69. 121. 24. 196. 8. 203. 203. 41. 145. 172 Audio. 62. 127. 180. 75. 67. 63. 52. 160. 48. 53 barcodes. 211. 27. 46. 121. 4. 86. 194. 46. 231. 169. 196. 4. 4. 180. 209. 178. 91. 63. 15. 91. 189. 24. 24. 193. 198 Data mining. 18. 47. 97. 54. 190. 181. 125. 47. 72. 69. 2. 74. 39. 117. 57. 100. 191. 201 cognitive collage. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 64. 171. 46. 135. 93. 101. 127 Cooperation. 109. 44. 11. 74. 176 Cell phones. 65. 35. 40. 23. 160. 15. 15. 13. 196. 226 Authorware. 184. 193. 16. 209. 69. 114. 36. 50. 140. 57. 69. 90 Assessment. 216 Computer based assessment. 66. 20. 42. 207. 191. 91. 159. 34. 12. 5. 68. 39. 67. 170. 128. 212 Boolean searches. 85. 65. 24. 170. 72. 35. 150. 189. 71. 112. 144. 21. 132. 43. 33. 118. 93. 176. 125. 46. 149. 136. 146. 176. 192 Browsers. 74. 119. 174. 50. 127. 60 Cognition. 194. 78. 35. 196 Dashboards. 74. 201 Adaptive systems. 67. 27. 194. 80. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 141. 217 Collaboration. 23. 85. 156. 112. 52. 21. 65. 37. 93. 139 assessment. 180. 15. 146. 145. 184. 127. 21. 158. 145 Conversational learning. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 159. 70. 174 Bayesian probability. 25. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 66. 159. 80. 70. 16. 26. 84. 29. 139. 129. 22. 177. 149. 28. 28. 23. 189. 171. 112. 77. 100. 123. 5. 20. 18. 179. 83. 207 Classroom response systems. 208. 161. 127. 209 Augmented reality. 47. 35 Content management. 35. 51. 49. 59. 199 Architectures. 28. 31. 190. 219. 79 Complexity theory. 90. 93. 46. 52. 66. 170. 165. 215 Communities of practice. 205 Animation. 197. 43. 93. 180. 162. 60 Clickers. 88 cybercartography. 195 Authoring tools. 128. 191. 94. 66. 47. 26. 17. 7. 130. 74. 66. 89. 180 Competency Tracking. 165. 83. 193. 196. 199. 42. 70. 59. 58. 71. 211. 67. 177. 100. 122. 122. 196 collaboration. 197. 63. 109. 81. 113. 165. 45 Avatars. 27. 218 Agents. 101. 22. 193. 89. 211 Broadband. 84 Adobe. 140. 48. 6. 85 Blogs. 50. 160. 153. 116. 109. 18. 177. 82. 196. 137. 137. 65. 50. 127. 29. 29. 45. 26. 69. 165 Air display. 209. 56. 64. 148. 49 AJAX. 200. 190. 39. 171. 169. 45. 170. 18. 110. 203. educational. 116. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 81. 30. 59. 63. 57. 138. 72. 198. 122. 181. 23. 103. 216 Affective computing. 45. 193. 36. 36. 174. 21. 85. 122 Ambient computing. 203. 23. 223. 84. 50. 27. 46. 97. 48. 94. 25. 170. 128. 65.Index 3-D graphics. 21.

89. 30. 45 Displays. 34. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 8. 70. 33. 104. 238 Geocaching. 49. 60. 134. 123. 175. 203. 120. 201 Grid computing. 91. 88. 63. 193. 119. 63. 94. 20. 193. 5. 178. 196 Immersive environments. 93. 106. 80. 149. 11. 134. 186. 57. 193. 217 Instant messaging. 80. 4. 75. 174. 114. 106 Head mounted displays. 189. 18. 13. 31. 183. 173. 85 Extreme learning. 93. 29. 85. 25. 98 GIF graphic format. 88. 180. 217. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 47. 216 Distributed systems. 9. 16. 101. 119. 114. 37. 134. 215 Informal learning. 131. 65. 121. 146. 45. 9. 169 Expert systems. 158 Design. 9. 103. 69. 45 dynamic displays. 88. 198.Decision support systems. 70. 151. 190. 79. 199 Gesture recogntion. 68. 162. 51. 20. 88. 169. 19. 47. 53. 106 Healthcare applications. 216. 30. 154. 55. 5. 80. 5. 7. 74. 196. 49. 134. 166. 146. 137. 200. 94. 66. 179. 25. 23. 88. 139. 67. 97. 11. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 27. 5. 196. 83. 60. 197. 158 Informatics. 210. 24 e-Portfolios. 70. 47. 187. 52. 88. 46. 109. 69. 106. 11. 215. 205 Hybrid systems. 7. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 48. 52. 109. 95. 64. 196. e-learning. 15. 127. 152. 170. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 13. 141. 84. 122. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 97. 23. 108. 170. 120. 155. 26. 132. 97. 33. 100. 197. 216 Director. 225. 25. 84. 119. 80. 54. 3. 180. 4. 159. 86. 170 Federated searches. 66. 72. 122. 158. 3. 91. 26. 248 graphics. 101. 71. 160. 199. 45. 16. 137. 202. 200. 11. 106 Haptics. 193. 162 History. 127. 133. 116. 152. 26 Emotional design. 57. 201 FrontPage. 16. 57 Flash. 27. 158. 9. 174. 24. 250 Folksonomies. 35. 217 images. 74. 169. 81. 163. 154. 193. 149. 86. 191 Games. 58. 134. 89. 162. 176. 178. 28. 100. 205. 35 Frameworks. 110. 21. 119 FireFox. 26. 85. 90. 48. 23. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 158. 93. 214 Human-centered computing. 187. 198. 25. 107. 86 Deep Web. 90 Experiential learning. 210 formative assessment. 16. 12. 42. 196. 103. 153 Facial recognition. 63. 59. 196 e-Commerce. 107. 197. 163 Findability. 74. 164. 184. 100. 162. 120. 22. 167 evaluation. 166. 106. 170. 121. 94. 35. 153. 107. 78. 49 Google. 176. 199. 122. 75. 123 Hype in e-learning. 125. 8. 27. 17. 89. 194. 15. 37. 59. 169. 49. 106. 109. 20. 172. 197. 152. 124. 184 e-Science. 4. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 64. 26. 26. 125. 11. 119. 196. 204 Dreamweaver. 152. 156. 165 Handwriting recognition. 215. 25. 201. 13. 124. 32. 239 Individualization. 219 Infrared tags. 161. 34. 189. 6. 103. 110. 196 Graphics.

189. 199. 125. 230. 134. 140. 122. 53. 138. 63. 256 Microworlds. 116. 111. 27. 65. 237. 152 Lecturing. 42. 127. 156. 98. 145. 26. 146. 145. 42. 70. 119. 246. 40. 42. 193. 26 Metadata. 21. 6. 128. 124 iPod. 26. 206. 145. 80. 153. 113. 149. 165 pattern recognition. 26. 93. 7. 127. 145. 121. 123 Medical applications. 24. 110. 66. 109. 196 Mashups. 250 mapping. 249. 23. 216. 199 Neural networks. 114 Learning Objects. 22. 57. 244 Meta-search engines. 4. 81. 165. 49. 42. 241 Learning Management Systems. 115. 65. 116. 6. 89. 86. 45. 213. 114. 226. 121. 205 Macromedia. 5. 114. 68. 47. 91. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 130. 140. 100. 165. 45. 155. 174. 128. 119. 139. 162. 34. 174. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 125 Lab book wiki. 178. 147. 47. 242 learning object model. 122. 139. 80. 43. 122. 112. 36. 25. 48. 35. 79. 191. 148. 20. 166 PowerPoint. 107. 146. 196 Pedagogy. 139. 85. 138. 171 Metacognition. 135. 112. 114. 239. 146. 110. 190. 135. 233. 78. 97. 161. 114 learning object repository. 15. 124. 190. 135. 4. 171 M-learning. 29. 74. 4. 144 Navigation. 176. 120. 119. 127. 43. 120. 7. 152. 42. 183. 159. 189. 135. 54. 238. 143. 165. 170. 64. 130 Mobile computing. 139. 175. 165 Microlearning. 137. 109. 119. 35. 6. 134. 54.Interface devices. 20 Museums. 191. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 141. 223 Portals. 139. 8. 11. 196. 193. 141. 66. 140. 129. 246 Location based tools. 43. 45. 23. 90. 211 Knowledge management. 123. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 190. 60. 150. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 7. 143. 36. 124. 178. 205. 129. 69. 169. 26. 45. 192. 163 Microformats. 109. 2. 122. 129. 140. 174. 180. 136. 127. 116. 204. 69. 246. 180. 234. 149. 215. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 106. 189. 17. 127. 59. 32. 215 Interoperability. 125. 21. 114. 148. 65. 16. 65. 142. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 47. 48. 171. 154. 137. 241. 124. 85. 180. 124. 174. 44. 134. 181. 34. 178. 80. 128. 80. 120. 115. 128. 145. 77. 156 Legacy materials. 63. 15. 76. 172. 137. 80. 30. 179 Optical tags. 7. 161. 17. 158. 103. 125. 26. 6. 47. 144. 23. 137. 77. 160. 150. 113. 111. 160. 62. 180. 152 Libraries. 101. 31. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 80. 114. 46. 146. 166 Pervasive computing. 45. 182. 109. 78. 18. 189. 166. 68. 187. 93. 148. 149. 62. 216. 194. 65. 127. 191. 90. 186. 100. 240. 176. 58. 153 Microsoft. 124. 130. 191. 199. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 6. 97 Ontologies. 172. 127 Podcasting. 139 Personalization. 192. 244 Motion Graphics. 49. 176. 143. 119. 26. 107. 134. 134. 82. 25. 46. 183. 220. 107. 152 Networks. 211 latent semantic analysis. 255. 131. 81. 48. 54. 95. 108. 60.

114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 86. 177. 48. 74. 186. 47. 149. 46. 131. 174. 179. 46. 169. 30. 106. 189. 125. 9. 183. 42. 176. 176. 166. 215. 88. 185. 119. 150. 174. 90 Reusability. 16. 37. 170. 35 Symbology tags. 129. 148 Smart labels and tags. 148. 119. 199 Turing Test. 72. 119 quizzes. 48. 55. 52. 155. 190. 159. 4. 177. 9. 209. 125. 97. 49. 137. 175 Rapid e-learning. 174 self-evaluation. 207 Social networking. 171 Scenarios. 64 Telephony. 139. 59. 22. 80. 153. 36. 184. 50. 162. 114. 152 Projectors. 247 Role-playing. 5. 8. 46. 47. 48. 155. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 54. 82. 116. 114 Repositories. 94. 36. 170. 7. 221 SCORM. 9. 199 Taxonomies. 227. 174. 122 Tagging. 35. 106 Proximity tools. 178. 175. 49. 125. 165. 134. 166. 48. 48. 47. 124. 62. 77. 168 résumés. 71. 52. 180. 40. 124. 21. 38. 35 Quizzes. 172. 35. 45. 131. 122. 161. 83. 161. 215. 203 Telepresence. 182. 11. 189. 133. 114 Robotics. 154. 26. 152 Thin clients. 66. 93. 124. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 177. 138. 114. 40. 84. 191 Tangible computing. 141. 173. 205 Shockwave. 26. 38. 132 Streaming video. 124. 216 Tests. 217 Translation. 196 Serious games. 179. 26. 156. 116. 167. 27. 115. 189 Security. 50. 50. 191 Tours (online). 167 reusable learning objects. 160. 35. 171. 95. 115. 110. 197. 119. 74. 163. 4. 141. 172. 83. 87. 88. 247 rapid learning. 94. 34. 114. 64. 225. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 150. 54. 168. 174. 159. 5. 70 Radio. 47. 119. 203. 215. 35 Semantic Web. 116. 35. 69. 36. 246 Privacy. 165. 36. 110. 175 Tag clouds. 54. 134. 26. 75. 62. 131. 178. 91. 158. 137. 155. 109. 191 summative assessment. 93. 180. 189 Search engines. 141. 109. 170. 169. 9. 191. 180. 91. 178. 47. 177. 89. 37. 193. 46. 6. 27. 118. 65. 169.Presentation tools. 15. 188. 174 Social bookmarking. 179. 20. 148. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 176. 122 sharable content objects. 134. 171 Science. 122. 152. 199 Single-user wiki. 57 T-Learning. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 135. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 49. 39. 47. 123 Simulations. 176 Team management. 57. 93. 125. 11. 158. 160. 181 Speech recognition. 117. 175. 163. 174 Project management. 74. 68. 189. 174. 39. 141. 144. 54. 120. 114 Screencasting. 181. 211 Skypecasting. 189 Television. 11. 165. 156. 189. 81. 153. 211 Tags. 35. 150. 112. 154. 57.

208. 213. 74. 5. 123. 106. 187. 177. 217 Word. 150. 160. 212 Wikis. 67. 154 Virtual learning environments. 200. 108. 60. 177. 176. 165. 22. 211. 210. 203. 74. 174. 66. 9. 206. 106. 193. 211. 192. 198. 194 Video. 98. 112. 148. 113. 57.Ubiquitous computing. 253 Videocasting. 209. 65. 80. 62. 81. 69. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 255 Wearable computing. 121. 79. 43. 57. 148 Whiteboards. 255 Web conferencing. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 106. 211. 45. 205 Usability. 51. 216 Vlogs. 150 Webinars. 210. 9. 216. 74. 137 Virtual reality. 149. 40. 193 Visualization. 100. 212. 256 Woodill. 89. 148. 88. 191. 159. 209. 236. 214. 119. 107. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 239 Wikipedia. 131. 123. 90. 137. 64. 205. Gary. 145. 11. 130. 3. 127. 182. 197. 148 Virtual classrooms. 124. 91. 44. 46. 7. 189. 13. 189 virtual classroom. 187. 108. 109. 56. 256 Webcasting. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 182. 4. 196. 148. 200. 189 Vodcasting. 190. 164. 199. 49. 215. 215. 68. 207.