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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. and services. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. The first report. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. Operitel’s CEO. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . editing. I have provided links to online learning examples. This report. Thanks. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. and support at all points of my career. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Pamela Fragomeli. technology. Karen Anderson. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. None of this would have been possible if my wife. will be available in early 2007. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. Karen. lists of online resources. Jennifer McDowell. Pierre Cahorn. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. Grant Hamilton. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. Lise Bye. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. A third report. the second in the series. Carlos Oliveira. along with an index. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. Amy Davey. have supported this research from the beginning.

The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. “things that make us smart. or “reader. is a 2000 year old “technology. in fact. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. the raising of hands. even if the originator of the words is not present. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago.just the ability to follow an example. for example. to quote Donald Norman (1993). or device that extends human abilities. class periods. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. Learning became standardized and linear. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. that lecturing. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Technologies are any technique. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. detentions. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. Medieval universities followed the same practice. But learning technologies have a much longer history. as books were scarce. fire for warmth and cooking. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. With these reforms. many different ways to learn. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. linear teaching techniques online. still used in many institutions of higher education. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. with rows. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. A third way to learn is by seeing. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. They are. the classroom became industrialized.” Starting in the first century AD. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. Do not reproduce 3 . and recess. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. The modern classroom. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. material.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. There are.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. We tend to forget. and language for communication. Schools were started to teach accounting. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology.

When a new technology first comes into use. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. chairman of IBM. in 1876 someone at Western Union. it needs to adhere to architectures. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. memorizing. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. For example. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. moving pictures (films). 2006).” In 1970.” Similarly. 2006). This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. the early days of computer networking. When a new technology is introduced. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. However.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Sadly. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Rather than pages. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. At the same time. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. changing the practice of teaching. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. and reciting. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. mashups can only be done using computer technology. frameworks. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Thomas Watson. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. and standards. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. Like all new technologies. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. Eventually. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander.Students in these schools learned by reading.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. as this is a non-technical guide.

imsglobal. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). presentation and interactive environments.free. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.org). the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. They provide location independence.org) has a number of published documents that. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.accessgrid. In particular. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. 2005.grid. Number 3. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. php). For example. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. Do not reproduce 5 . a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning.fr/publication. January. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs.

enabling the search for content. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life. They noted that “…in education.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). reinforces this theme.taken together.adlnet. http://sourceforge. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. Instead.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs).org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. At the same time.is based on open.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System.elframework. Bollier says.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. In business. http://purl. “[a] pull economy . access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. and education administration. This is especially true for adult education. In Europe. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. Instead of just providing courses. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.oclc. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. interactive learning components. http://imsproject. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. While packaged courses still have a place. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. http://www. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.” In late 2005.aicc. http://www. research. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. Rather. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times.ieee. and makes extensive use of XML. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. http://ltsc. Major specifications for e-learning.

Milan.. http://www. October.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.. http://www. and McGinnis (2004)..htm Bollier. 16. (2005). M. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. Odeh. Sept. http://arxiv. June 2005. Web 2. and Conte. Umer. UK. Switzerland.wired. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. Five years ago. 2005). F. For example. Montreal. Wales. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. 2006) has argued. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. and Votis.cscsi.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. the reader can approach any topic in any order.. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. http://www. Moreover. http://www. K. M. mobile devices. Italy. Lausanne. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences.bcs. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). Thus.educause. User-created content. Nov. (2005). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. 12(10). and wearable computers. http://ewic... Wired Magazine. A. From this. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. online resources. Ali.ntnu. As Anderson (2004. (2002). Z. Giotopoulos. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. those learners are now keeping their own records...org/abs/cs... K.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. is becoming commonplace. Ahmad. F. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. 2004. Bertolazzi. N. New York: Hyperion. Weiss. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Chris (2004). and a bibliography. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. 2004). David (2005). S. R. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. Bibliography Abbas.com/wired/archive/12. McClatchey.amazon. R. M. 41(2).pdf Anderson. In the last chapter.. Bryan (2006).pdf Bogonikolos. Cardiff.DC/0502051 Alexander. Chrysostalis. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. M.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. March/April 2006.idi. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. M. 2002. T. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. http://www.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Reggiani. M. G.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. 19. along with selected examples.. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. I hope you will find it useful.1 0/tail. The Long Tail. ambient networks. Zanichelli.. Chris (2006).html Anderson. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Likothanassis.

Sept. http://www. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources.athabascau. Jagadish (2004). http://cde.xml.bcs. and McGreal.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.amazon. American Jrnl. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. Green. http://www. C. Tsiatsos. (1996). USA. http://www. T.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.pdf Millea. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).html Hockemeyer. Norm (2006). http://www.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. J.cancore. (2005).pdf Erl. and Zhang.det.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras.ca/protocols_en. N. 2001.act. Stefano (2005). http://www. 1026-1032. Working paper. A field guide to software as a service. Athabasca University. J. http://www.html Hagel. J. D. Stephen (2004). What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . W. Perth.htm Hohpe. 4-36.computer. NJ: Prentice-Hall.ascilite. 13-16.pdf Friesen.org/celda2005/index.com.1109/CIT. Online.xml.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.devshed. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment.iadis. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. http://www. Sept. Dec.. WI. Upper Saddle River. (2005). (2001). G. and Putland. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05).au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies.co m/docs/SOA_World.pdf Knorr. Switzerland. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.edu/pdf/ajde.gmu. R.infoworld. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. http://ru6.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. for the Australian Dept. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid.gov. http://www. C. 30. of Distance Education 10. 6-8. and Brown. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . 13. E.com/paper_pushpull. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).aspeninstitute. T. Web Services . pdf He. 2004. Gregor (2005).. (2002). Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. Lausanne. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.. http://www.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. V. Triantafillou. G. Erlanger. Thomas (2004). J.. (2005). I. http://csdl2. Aug. http://www. http://www.xml&DOI=10. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. of Education and Training. Luo.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product. Oct. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203.cti.org.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. 14-16. Australia.Dev Shed. and Albert.html Kong. Madison.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . 2003.au Limited..2005.5 6 Marshall. 2005. Centre for Distance Ed. International E-Learning Specifications. Proceedings.virtual. April 18.networking technology. Education. January 2005. (2002). http://www.pdf Cerri. Infoworld.johnhagel..org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1. Hao (2003). Porto. L. 2002 http://ewic. (2005).asp Chatarji..ICALT 2001. ThoughtWorks White paper. J. Hornig. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.S.. C. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Portugal. and Borck. 2. March 2002.

G.unikarlsruhe.com/publications. 21. (Eds. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.aifb. http://www. http://www. J. 911-928. (2005).operitel. Germany.rwthaachen. http://www.pdf Spaniol.amazon. F. Cambridge.pdf Pierre. ACTeN E-Content Report No. Research report.pdf Norman. and Ho.alt.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. M.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. C. http://www. and Oliveira. Samuel (2006).pdf Woodill.alt.. Hambrecht and Co. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2. G. Donald (1993).org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. Cook. Dublin. future thinking: digital repositories.Neumann. Feijen. 2005. and Vossen. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.edu. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. C. (2003). 27 .ac.bcs. H. Reflective learning.R. Aalderink. 9. Library+information Show.. (2004). informal learning and ubiquitous computing. (2003).pdf Roberts. ICWL 2003. SCORM and the Learning Grid. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.. W. V.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06. 2006. May 15. Rhonda (2006). and Wade.iis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. MA: Perseus. Peter (2004). and Jarke. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. UK. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.): Proceedings.sinica.informatik.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. April 26-27. (2005). 193–205. http://ewic.aspx Yang. M. http://www. R. Stuttgart. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. In W. (2006).. (2000). Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.. http://www. 2006. Berlin: Springer. M. J. Mashups.amazon. Birmingham. Zhou et al. e-portfolios. Lee. S.. and Geys. http://www-i5.ac. http://www.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. W. http://www.acten. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://www. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. pp. Klamma. G. April 1.pdf Werkhoven. and Weggen. Trinity College. R. C.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. T.astd.28 April 2004.pdf Urdan.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. Learning Solutions. V.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . Harvey.

online resources to learn more about each technology.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. Included are related terms. selected elearning related examples. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section.

accuracy. in Italy.bham. or sad. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. In online therapy. speech patterns mainstream. privacy. 2005).edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing.media.convo.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. understand. confused. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural.cs.” (Anolli. and react to human emotions. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. posture. http://www.sricbi. SRI Consulting (http://www. emotional design. security. Affective Computing.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX.mit. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. 2005). Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.co.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. http://www. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. emotions. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. and legality. and to respond to them effectively. et al. keystroke patterns.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.” http://www. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. For example. gestures..ac. too.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.myself-proj. UK.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. Without the ability to understand emotions.html Do not reproduce 11 .. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. facial recognition.

M.dis. China.. (2005). A. 2005.wired.. M. Realdon.doc Hook. Dr. and Merisol. Hatfield. October 22-24.sics. http://www. and Confalonieri (2005). AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. and Laaksolahti.unige.. April 2-7.pdf Goren-Bar. F. Agliati.doc Chateau. Zurloni. C. Z. CHI 2005. B. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Brave. (2005). David (2003). Salembier.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Oregon.. http://www.. Nass.informatik. Oregon. M. April 2-7. April 2-7.. Portland. (2005). Issue 11/12. P.it/~lhci/009.sics. K. Wired Magazine. http://www. including studies of emotions in computers. Portland. H.. Joseph (2005). CHI 2005 conference. http://www.org. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field..net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. (2005). 2005 http://www. Portland. R. C. F.. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.com/wired/archive/11. B.. April 2-7. CHI 2005 conference.html Fallman... CHI 2005. 2005. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters..nsma.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. C. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. and Waterworth. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. S. Brassac. Lee. Isbister.unitrier. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Portland. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. with many resources. (2005).html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic.sics.. University of Hertfordshire. D. listing many links to interesting resources. Oregon. Bouraoui. http://www.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. L. April 2-7. O. I Like It . CHI 2005 conference. 2005.. 2005. Pianesi. http://www. O. The Love Machine: building computers that care. Oregon. Rocchi. UK. Nortillaro. Yamada. Balestra.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour. Nakajima. J. 2005. J. http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Zouinar.. Vescovo.edu/emotion. A. N.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. and Morishima. September 13.pdf Interfaces. April 12-15. Pachoud.sics.. J. D. J. V. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences..aisb. http://emotion.1 2/love.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.html In Germany. http://www. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.pdf Kaye. Stock. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Oregon. M. I. CHI 2005 conference.pdf Cahour. Mantovani.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar.. are available online: http://www. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. K.pdf Maldonado. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. December.sics. Portland...de/link/affective_port al. http://emotion-research..uniroma1.pdf Diamond. http://www. K. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . Y. April 2-7.arizona.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. H.. Oregon.bartneck. P. Portland. (2005).sics. Graziola. Iwamura.. Vermersch. bibliographies. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. and Zancanaro.

Gerd (1998). 2005.HTM Steele. 2005. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Charlotte (2005).pdf Masum.thesis. http://www. (2005).bham.sics.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. OR. http://www. NJ.sics. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. and Ishizuka.stanford. 2005. Miami. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.doc Wright. 35(2).iste. New York: Basic. Oregon. and Steele.cs. (2005). 2002. Rosalind (1997). J.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. China. http://www. http://www. Portland. Donald A.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Portland.pdf Do not reproduce 13 ..pdf Mentis. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. University of Birmingham.amazon. Beijing. Dec. L. Portland. May 26.miv.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.pdf Mandryk.ruebenstrunk. Oregon.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. Tan. J. http://www.sics. E-book http://www. M. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg.pdf Ruebenstrunk. http://www. Ian (1997).utokyo. and Picard. M. April 2-7. ACII 2005. (2005). Portland. and Daily. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. October 22-24. 2005. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. Affective Computing. Cambridge. CHI 2005 conference. S. CHI 2005.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.t. Doctoral Dissertation. (2002).com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.sics.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Erlbaum. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.ac. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf Norman. R. http://www. Helena (2005). Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.amazon. MA: MIT. 22.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk. (2004).de/emeocomp/co ntent. Berlin: Springer. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. T. Regan (2005).htm Tao. Affective Computing vs. April 2-7. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education.uk/research/cogaff /Wright. April 2-7.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. Oregon. CHI 2005 conference. http://www. http://www. CHI 2005. Emotional Agents. http://www. S. R. http://www.ac. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.elearningreviews.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. and. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. useful in educational simulations. autonomous agents. and both may be found in the same http://w3. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. First. Fourth.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Third. see the paper by Far et al. 1999). but Do not reproduce 15 .Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). 1999).informatik. learning/adaptation. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. proactive (goal directed). et al. She made mistakes. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Second. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. A second agent in the simulation. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. 2005). flexible means reactive (responds to its environment).. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Dick Stenmark. Viswanath. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Mentor. In this context. therefore. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. 2004) and are. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. veracity. not only about environments.gu.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. and many of them can actually learn. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. In such situations. intelligent agents program (for example. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. 2004). Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. Agents have beliefs. benevolence. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. For example. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. rationality. 2005. However. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. avatars. Katzlberger. and the students had to continue to teach her. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.

Skills Manager Agent 3. They are available as adaptive coaches. http://www.csc.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . See the article by Williams et al. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. expert role-players. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. 2000).html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.com/ CodeBaby Corp.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. http://www. (2004): http://www. For details see: www.liv. http://www. http://www.redwoodelearning.editlib. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. go to: http://ritl.ira.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.extempo. http://liinwww.netobjectdays.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. Student Assistant Agent 4. and expert guides. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. Baldi. Learning Paths Agent 5. (1998) developed a conversational agent.codebaby.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. Therefore.fsu. Massaro et al.ac. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision.org/index.old.stanford.uka. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. go to: http://ldt. acting against other teams of agents. Content Agent 6. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. User Profile Agent.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. 2.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. Even though each agent acts independently. uses seven different types of agents: 1. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.also about other agents. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.

Vanderbilt University. (2002). W. e-Learning 2005.isi. Educause Quarterly. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. Doctoral Dissertation.teachableagents.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. L. G.old. Nashville.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. http://www.org/16948 Leelawong. S. & Lin. Koono.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. G.aace. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. E-Learning 2003. http://www. W.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 4(1).org/newdl/index. Ng. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. (2002). 28(2). S. A. VA: AACE.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. S.teachableagents. G.. and Shaw.. http://www. http://www. http://www. & Bengu. July. International Journal on E-Learning. www. 459-462.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 275-285. Clarebout. (2003). Proceedings. and Ho. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. (2000). (2005). Johnson. 1659-1666.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. 11(3).. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Doctoral Dissertation.editlib. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Tennessee.org/index. Hypermedia.pdf Jafari. 21-38.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen.). Large Complex Systems. C.. and Palopoli. Sun. A.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.editlib. Z. P. Nashville. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. C. and Tsang. Do not reproduce 17 .cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. J.org/index. In Richards. Paper presented.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. (2003). (2002). E. L. Jrnl. Erfurt.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 10 (3).pdf Kao.org/index. Zahia (2004).org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. 306-311).pdf Kim. No. Elan..aace. M. http://www. Inter-active Learning Res.editlib. (Ed. G.. http://dl. http://www.org/index. & Johnson.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. Fuhua Oscar (2005).netobjectdays. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. 3. & Kim.editlib. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). 1503-1506.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Krittaya (2005).educause. G.. 75-80. Ali (2002).editlib. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.computer. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Learning by Teaching Agents.pdf Guessoum.pdf Clarebout. (2005). Vanderbilt University. 2005. E-Learning 2003. Educause Quarterly. A. (2005).pdf Lin.org/index. & Ebbers. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.. B. http://csdl. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA.editlib. Y.educause. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. TN. Y. http://www.University of Southern California.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems... http://www. 1353-1356. & El-Khouly. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. (2003). 5(7). J.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. In Proceedings. Hershey.org/index. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. (1999). Norfolk. 267-286 http://www. In Proceedings. www. and Telecommunications 2003. Hypermedia. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. Thomas (2005). Germany.. http://www. Y.org/index.

org/index. Cohen. Doctoral Dissertation. Peter (1998). In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.amazon.org/index. Wesley. June 1-4. 321333. http://www.editlib. U.pdf Menczer.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. 143-162. and Higher Education 2004.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. In Richards. Healthcare. R. Sandel. 10 (3). Biswas.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone.aace. of California. Government. 61-65.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. New York: John Wiley & Sons. K.editlib. W. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.cs.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. http://www. 194-201. & Booth.de/BIK/vpa/109. http://citeseer. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. M. 14(1). Adebiyi. G.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).editlib..aace. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. (2005). Toulouse. Proceedings.editlib... In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung. & Leelawong.psu.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.).Media 2005.lib. In P.. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Carnegie Mellon University. S..org/16968 Sahin.aifb. (1999).. www. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. (Ed.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. http://www.amazon. 1632.ogi. PA.org/index.edu/fil/ Padgham.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno.http://www.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. V.utexas. L. L. and Núñeza.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 1999. http://dl. (2006). 3169-3176.. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. V. In Proceedings. R.ist.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. 47-59. Doctoral Dissertation.org/index. R. Beskow.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. Russia. J. Atreya. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Kommers & G. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. St. Proceedings. 1999. http://cslu. 1415-1420.org/index. G.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. France. G. M. and Cole. B. (2004).edu/565321. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Ferat (2000). Virginia Poytechnic and State University. Richards (Eds. S. M. J. O.K. Finland. ED-MEDIA. H. IFIP WG12. (1999). M. and Solomon.editlib. K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. (2004). Doctoral dissertation. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. and Winikoff. http://www. Petersburg.pdf Perez. ED. L.vt.uni-karlsruhe. 17(2). S. ED-MEDIA 2005. http://www.indiana.cse. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. http://www. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . & Lim. D. and Stucky. http://www. August. D..html Shim. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. (2004). Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).informatics. E. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. Pittsburgh.org/newdl/index. (1999). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. A. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. http://www. http://scholar.. Daniel.).. and Ferneley. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).

3000-3002. http://ca.. New York: John Wiley & Sons.http://www. In Proceedings.editlib.upc.teachableagents. Michael (2002). & Madsen. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. Gilbert. (2004). Paper at CLAG2004. 2004.ac.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.html Yan.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X. Chun. Chicago. http://www. http://research.pdf Williams. ED-MEDIA 2004. M. J..org/papers/15 8bis. N.org/index. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.wiley. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. April 18-21.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. (2004).

> Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. Also. a static diagram. produced the best learning results.000 pre-built animated GIFs.05 http://www.html Real GIF Optimizer 3.mindworkshop. coupled with imagining how something worked. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. However.topshareware. animations may even prejudice learning. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences.” (Huk.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. Given that. However.animationfactory. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s.Animation Software Related terms Flash. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. like pictures in a flip book. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. The results of many experiments have been mixed. 2003) Finally.topshareware.0 http://www. Rather. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.com/alchemy/gi fcon. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. producing animations can be very costly. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.. et. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations.htm For a selection of over 400. motion graphics depiction.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. (2003). al. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.

macromedia. It animates fall stunts. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.animats. animating. http://www. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques.viewpoint.com Maya is a high-end modeling. For a free demo.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. go to: http://www.com Enliven .html CAT .physics. and rendering tool.autodesk. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.adobe. http://www.utoronto.newtek. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. http://www. For information on Flash. http://www. http://faraday.com/dynamics/demov ersion. Inc. Version 9 is available: http://www.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. animation.catoolkit. 2004).html Falling Bodies . a subsidiary of Avid Technology. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. To use ActionScript.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. effects.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. go to: http://macromedia. http://www.animationonline.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. http://www.com/products/aftereffec ts/main.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).com/gallery/default.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.Softimage Co.. the built-in programming language. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.com/pub/products/e nliven. It is part of Final Cut Studio. For more information on Shockwave. http://www.apple.” http://www. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use.softimage. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.swishzone.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. go to: http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.eitechnologygroup.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages..com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI .massivesoftware.

http://www.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. Thomas (2003).htm Huk. and Floto. ASCILITE Conference.psych. 87-99. July 18.htm Hegarty. (2003). http://esub. Phillips (Eds.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. M. (2004). http://www. (2004). C. Learning Circuits. http://projekte.ucsb. M. (2003). Cognition and Instruction. http://www. (2004). Jonas-Dwyer & R. McBeath.unihannover. (2003).org/2004/jul20 04/hess. S. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Steinke.pdf Hess. Educational Psychology Review.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. March 2002. (2002). S. 1046-1048.learningcircuits. Animation – just enough. T.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. 325–360. C.org/12937 Mayer.pdf Lowe. http://www.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. go to AllWorldSoft. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. and Hess.com/books_catalog .K.ascilite.org. C. S. http://www. never too much. R.freedownloadscenter.. Learning Circuits. http://www.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.siggraph.sjsu.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software. and Hancock. (1).htm Bibliography Castillo.learningcircuits. S. Kriz.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. R.org/2003/aug2 003/toth. and Moreno..edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn..html Malheiro.learningcircuits.de/pub/bscw. G. FreeDownloads Center.. Lehi. G. http://dl.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. Atkinson. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. S. July. R. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. D. Hancock.aace.pdf Toth. and Hancock. July 2004. T.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings.. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. and Cate. Learning Circuits.com.learninglab. G. 2003. http://www2. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning.ascension-tech.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.allworldsoft. 21(4). Flash Interactive Session. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. 14(1). (2004).htm Hess.rapidintake. Utah: Rapid Intake Press.

Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. agents. expert systems. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. multiagent systems. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. intelligent tutoring. machine learning. AI. Nevertheless. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. So far. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. data mining. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. cognitive informatics.

seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. including collaborative filtering. possibly undeliberate manner. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing.g. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . and Aist et al. and data mining. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. To achieve their goals. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. While many systems purport to be personalized. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. To seem humanlike. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program.learning. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). (2003). The reality is that.. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. and the teacher. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. recommender systems. the subject matter expert. Moreover. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.” On the other hand. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed.

” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.” http://www. etc) and how they are interrelated. http://www.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. (2005a.cs. 2002).e. gestures.colorado. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. rather than using a single type of knowledge.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.unito. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.cs.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . objects.di.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.” http://www.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. Talking Head Tutor vs.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. concepts. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration...edu/papers/daveDissert ation. http://lsa. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.iit.

es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b. challenging.kicinger. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology.sinica.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.html Founded in 1988. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. http://www. http://bach. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.enel. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.uc3m.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready. Task Tutor Toolkit .pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. Infrature.pact. Inc.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.infrature. and multiagents. intelligent conflict resolution. see: http://lsa.unsw.gast.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.edu.library. http://www. Aurora .pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .” http://ctat.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al. Stottler Henke Associates.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.uregina.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004. http://www.cs.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.it.cmu. As a result. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. e-commerce. http://www.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.iis.” http://www.com/index.leaonline.edu. question answering (QA) techniques. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.cs.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al. without programming.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.colorado.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. and engaging. including student monitoring.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques. http://quantumsimulations. so that these systems become more realistic.ucalgary. http://ariic.pdf Oguejiofor et al.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research . and INFOMAP.com/doi/pdf/10.” http://www.

org/AITopics/html/tutor.it.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.cmu. http://www. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.” http://www. For more info: http://www2.licef.ed. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.cs.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.cs. http://pact.ca/eng/inde x. http://www.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www.stottlerhenke. The AIED conferences are held every two years.cmu.ucalgary. http://aied. Taiwan.” http://www.virtuelage.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment.uquebec.cs.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.wpi.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.edu. preferred cadence.uk/aiedsoc.inf. with the next one in 2007. http://www. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. China.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.htm Do not reproduce 27 .For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.ac.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.ke-corp. http://ctat. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.aaai.learningcircuits.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). http://www. http://www.inf.gemini.ed.org/2000/feb2 000/ong. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.ac.usyd.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.enel.its2006.autotutor. http://aied. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://www.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. skill gaps.teluq.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education. and an interactive intelligent tutor.org/cfp.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. and learning style. see: http://www.pact. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.com/s10.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .masternewmedia.

Marvin Minsky.. http://lingcog. Paraguaçu (Eds.unito. http://www. Roll. (2004).. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Baldoni. M.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. S. R. J. Kort. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. Artificial Intelligence Review. (2002). S.nccu. Lester.) (2006). (2004). Vicari. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. M.pitt. Kobe. and Evens. & F. K. and Frasson. C.cmu. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Bibliography Aist.B.doi. and Koedinger.82 Bhatt.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.pdf Aleven. R. V. Paraguaçu (Eds.. C. 159-165. http://www..pdf Alkhalifa.sbg. Hermann (2002). http://www2. Vicari. I. and F. http://imlab.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. and Penstein Rosé. S.com/printer_f riendly_article.).cs. R.. http://www. and Picard.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. and Maguire. 6(1).ht ml Aleven.ac. (1997). V. http://www. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer.2005. (2004). McLaren. (2004). Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. and Read.. M. (2004). and Douglas.. 482-487.wpi.J. P. In Proceedings.ppt Butz.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. S. Lester.. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.ri. Maceió. R. (2004). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens.technologyreview. http://nth.edu/pubs/pub_4073.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Mostow. 22: 3–39.. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Argamon. S. http://dx. C. Baroglio.pdf Brusilovsky..Volume I. Brazil.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read.uregina. http://www.eurodl. and Patti. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Chicago. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). http://www. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. B. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit.iit.cs. http://www.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. P. Hua. Peter (2000). G. Eshaa (Ed.). V.di. T. Reilly.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. and Schwarz. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. In J.amazon. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. In J. C. (2004). PA: Idea. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web.html Brusilovsky.1109/ITCC. C. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. B. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . Hershey. (2005). Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. http://www.pdf Chaffar. M.sis. Ritter. E. R.pdf Barcena.html Barker. ITS 2004. E. C. K.org/10.edu.pitt. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.

edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.cs.pdf Far. and Frasson. McNamara. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. Yu.niu. http://www. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). of Technology. K.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology. 15(4). of South Australia.findarticles.unsw. Aleksandar (2001). http://www. C. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Fossati.1 27. 11(3).journal. http://ltodi.linkingpublicationresul ts.Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning. 163-183. S. Doctoral Dissertation.ncku.5.tw/iceer2005/ Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013.. (2004).ucalgary. S. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Di Eugenio.. (2001). D. C..ips.edu/~freedman/papers/l ink2000.cs. Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.iaalab. M (2005a).uic.cs. (2005). H.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. Educational Psychologist. D.pdf Freedman. G. D. Fall. 433-447.edu.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. W.cs. A. Chiou. DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education. C.1:105633.com/p/articles/mi_ hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day. Yang. ITS 2004... C. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process.uic.editlib.. 23(4). Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Graesser. (2005).leaonline.. Byung-In (2000).iit.. B.org/index. (2000). 13(2).. (2006).pdf Di Eugenio.pdf Davidovic. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www.edu. and Glass. Fossati. 18-22 July. Netherlands.html Gamboa. http://www. Tainan..enel. Aug. Yu.est.edu/~circsim/documents/ bcdiss.com/(yzmy11 ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. D. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 . R. J. ICEIS'2001..sinica. Univ. Taiwan.library. M.1 Cho.3296.metapress. AutoTutor. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system.. http://www. Haller. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. Lu. 40(4).edu. J. Driscoll. S. http://www. M (2005b). Amsterdam. Illinois Inst. (2004). D..ucalgary.uottawa. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18900 Craig. http://springerlink.pdf Chorfi.site. 1-5 March. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005). http://www. H. http://www.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. (2004). A. Pardo.639. (2005). and Pedagogical Agents.pdf Frize. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. and VanLehn.enel.H. Haller. and Sarmanova. B. A. and Jemni.iis. B. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. In ACL05.) Fasuga. M.ca/People/far/. Proceedings.ca/People/far/res -e/theme05. and Gholson.com/doi/pdf/10. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging. 15-16. and iSTART. and Glass. http://www. M. and Fred.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez. http://www. Vicarious Learning. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. B.pt/hgamboa/Publica/c2 _331. and Kloos. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. Reva (2000). S. 225-234 http://www. http://ariic. and Hsu. Ong. D.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www.

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Sydney. http://www. Doctoral Dissertation. Illinois Institute of Technology.ppt Ureel. J.edu/twiki/pub/Public/ SemlabPublications/aied-final.actapress.com/gp/product/0262 691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Smid. http://www.. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis.stanford. Illinois Institute of Technology.pdf Vasilakos. Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. L.cs.aspx? PaperID=27013 Steinhart. Schultz. http://www. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. E. Kinshuk. B. V. pp. Cambridge.wpi.cs. http://www. Chris (2000). Illinois Institute of Technology. Jason (2005).editlib. Jay A. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial.. Brazil. VA: AACE. http://www. Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense. Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Chicago. The Sciences of the Artificial.edu/~circsim/documents/ jaydiss. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning. Herbert (1996). http://www. S. Masters Thesis.colorado. P. http://www. (2005).. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000).iit. Z. Terrence (2005). Maceió. MA: MIT Press.Simon. MA: MIT.org/iwalt2000/slides/maomi _uno.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System.com/PaperInfo. http://lsa. Innsbruck.pdf Ueno. a second-generation dialog-based tutor. (2004). Journal of Interactive Learning Research.wpi. (2004).pdf Yusko. (2002). Clark. Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Wiemer-Hastings. July 20-24. Doctoral Dissertation. On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models. T.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski. http://nth.wpi. Svacek. Norfolk. Chicago.ieee. Chicago. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied Informatics.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss. P.amazon.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Owen Bratt.pdf 34 © Brandon Hall Research . 299-318. Feng-Jen (2001).edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. and Pedrycz. Maceió.pdf Thornton. http://lttf. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003). The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor. 15 (4). Australia. University of Colorado.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-011106-070108/unrestricted/turnert.pdf Yang. Austria.org/index. and Volf. Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. Worchester Polytechnic Institute. Masters Thesis.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18895 Walonoski. Palmerston North.cs.amazon.wpi.. Maomi (2000). The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer.. Doctoral dissertation.iit. and Peters. http://godel. W.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Thomsen-Gray. K.iit. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. Devedzic.com/gp/product/0262 700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner. (2003)... In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Cambridge. 3rd Ed. http://nth. NZ. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. http://www. http://www. Peter (2004). In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Brazil. Yujian (2000). David (2001).pdf Zhou.

computer based assessment (CBA).info/learni ng/solo. self-evaluation. When combined into a “360° evaluation. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. and output. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. affective.learningandteaching. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. making it hard to escape assess-ment. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. are already available. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. the automated scoring of essays. in the near future. online assessment. rubrics. for example. eassessment. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. Assessment software can generate templates. once only done by a human assessor. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. 1956). (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. aptitudes. and psychomotor.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). and documents for assessors to use.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. For example. We can expect that. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. or performance samples. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. samples. However. evaluation. quizzes. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. More sophisticated forms of automated. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. quizzes. In a business situation. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. computer mediated assessment (CMA). Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. computer-based assessment tools. and (4) computer marking.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 .

brainbench. personality. Review it at: http://www. a customizable look and feel. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. has recently won awards for its performance. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. and adminis-tration features. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.uc. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. surveys.” organized by academic discipline. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests. from Resources Management Services in the U. check out the Dialang web site. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. preview pages for all question types.xstreamsoftware. Diploma. a completely customizable report engine.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. see: http://lsa.com/redinq/html/index. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). http://www.respondus.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. and adaptive question branching. http://www.pedagogue.dialang. http://nt.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.” http://www. http://www. http://www.org/ ETS. reporting.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. and services useful for outcomes assessment. abilities.questionmark. institutional evaluation.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. skills. learning tools. For information on latent semantic analysis.com/news_per formance_analyzer2.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. http://www.testcraft. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.epistema.com/wwwtools/magazines. http://www.fasfind. and self-study.K.vantagelearning. and past work behaviors.redinq.flaguide. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. http://www. See more at: http://www. Find them at: http://www. on its Web site.com/evaluator Testcraft.com The Evaluator. http://www. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry. http://www.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.0.. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research .com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. For details. see: http://www.rmsuk. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. multilingual support.org/english/index.colorado.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.operitel.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.ets. http://www.horizonwimba.

ac.quintcareers. http://www.tcet.ac. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. http://cba.ac. & Rodríguez.info/learni ng/solo.pdf Atherton. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Do not reproduce 37 . cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.ict4lt. Carro. 5365. http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.wlv.scit. G.cshe. http://school. Freire. P. is available from: http://liinwww..000 different tests from its database.edu.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.uk/home.thinkinggear.oir.. http://www.unimelb. Obtain a copy at: http://www.nestafuturelab.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.com/tools/rubrics.ac. and Davies..discovery. A. (2004). http://www.heacademy.org/en/en_mod41.htm Atkinson.learningandteaching.com/career_asses sment.info/journals/8_3/6.200 references. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.uka.com/useguide/asse ssme/online. 8 (3).htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.html Bibliography Alfonseca. M.ira. http://www.health.edu/dme/exams/ITQ. http://www. D.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. M.com/schrockguide/ assess. Online paper. Gregory (1973). James (2005). http://www. http://www.learnflex. http://www.3 Bateson. http://www. Ortigosa. E. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers..org/research/re views/10_01. Educational Technology & Society.uk/cticomp/CAA. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. (2005). with over 1. http://www. Explore the links at: http://www.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. London: Paladin.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.au/assessing learning/03/online.” http://www.com/029.uiuc.tasainstitute. R.htm#2.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers.ulster.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.economicsnetwork.unt. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. with a list of 34 strategies. Pérez.umuc.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba.rmcdenver..edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. T.ifets.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too.

The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement.org/intelligent/archives. Rethink testing for future success.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. NY: Macmillan. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (2001). (2003). New York.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium...com/Books/b39739. J. Martin. J. D. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. St..edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. Louis. Jill. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. M. C. Jill C. IL: Skylight.. Burstein. Marcu. and Chodorow. Acapulco. New York: Academic Press.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Online paper. New York: Oxford.. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Educational Measurement. Arlington Heights.amazon. Shermis and J. Ciravegna (Eds. and Marcu. C. http://www. Kay (1999).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Hillsdale. J. In R.pdf. In M. McNamara. (2002).amazon. Kaplan (Ed. (2001). http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. Daniel. L.http://www. B. http://www. Burstein. and Hirschman. Chodorow. In the R.htm. In S. & Olsen. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Shermis and J.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. Iwashita.iltaonline. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.assess. Burstein (Eds. (1989). Hillsdale.amazon. N. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.eschoolnews.amazon. S.msu. S. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". Harabagiu and F. (1982).htm Burstein. J.). New York: McKay. T. In M. (2003). 3rd Edition. Inouye.com/Books/b39739.. http://www. Jill. Burstein (Eds.ets. Jill. http://www. IEEE Intelligent Systems.computer. (2003). eSchool News. and O'Hagan. How to Assess Authentic Learning.com/news/showS toryts. and Knight. Robert (2005).) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. 1. Missouri. K.iltaonline. L. Kevin (2003). http://www. & Leacock. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://www. June 22.amazon. (1956). Linn (Ed. V. and Collis.amazon. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. http://www.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. 2005.pdf Biggs. A. http://www. http://www. K. Daniel.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. http://www. http://llt. August 2003. (1997). www.pdf Brown J. Mexico.assess. B.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research .

msu.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.softwaresecure.gmu.) (1999). Writing assessment: a position statement. (2001).au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.html Frase. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. M.html Chalhoub-Deville. D. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. (Eds. Seven technologies for assessment. Online paper. and Howell.nap.msu. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". http://www. http://www. E.unimelb. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. W. Millard. Board on Testing and Assessment. http://llt. B. C. Language Learning and Technology. Nathan. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. P. Online newsletter. 2. Davis.amazon. K. Micheline. (2001). http://mason. n.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). M. N. In Proceedings. (Ed. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Howard. http://eprints. http://llt.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. www.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones.. O’Reilly.amazon.) (2005). The Student Assess-ment Handbook.ncte.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. http://llt.Carr. No. http://www. M. (1999).msu. http://www. March 9. University of Tasmania. Gardner. and Grellett. Robert. http://www.htm Cebrian. Howell.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9.html.amazon. 5. (1998).htm. v. Language Learning and Technology. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. W. St. New York: Basic Books. http://www. May. 5.. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. London: Falmer. (2001). 2. Morgan. Lawrence. (2005). Louis. P.Hershey.utas. 2: 77-93. 4. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process.iltaonline.ecs. C. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.Proceedings from a Workshop. (1999). (2004). http://www. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. Loughborough. and Sclater. S.au/worldcall/str5.pdf Dunkel P.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase... D. http://www. H.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. May. Y. PA: Information Science.com/pdf/Paper Tests. Laham.pdf Hricko.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. (2002)..edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.. S. College Composition and Communication Online. n. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. Language Learning & Technology 2. (2004).nmsu.doc. Online newsletter. Chalhoub-Deville. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. L.hlc.edu.html Davies.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.soton. Foltz.ac.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . Howard (1993). Language testing and technology: past and future. v. EdMedia '99. & Landauer. http://wwwpsych.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. Micheline. T.edu. National Research Council. and Parry. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.

Online Assessment.. (1999). (2000). University of Gothenburg. In C. T. http://www.kent. Howard.. http://www. http://www. H. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments.. S. (2005). Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. (2001). Discourse Processes. and Ward. K. http://www. C. and Gifford. and Skinner. Measurement and Evaluations. http://llt. K.) (2000). (Eds. Information Science Publishing. 403-416. http://www. (Eds. (2006).edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.amazon.. M.html Khan. http://www. M. N. D.bc. W. Reports from the Institute of Education. & Laham.proexam. D.ed. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.amazon.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. W. and Assessment. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. M. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Washington. Mahwah.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. (Ed. Potenza. McArthur. International Journal on E-Learning. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Hershey. Fitzgerald.S. and Ma.Jones. G. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.edu/papers/dp1. D.amazon. & J..gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. Language Learning and Technology. pp. V. Compiegne. Weller.amazon. May. Journal of Technol..amazon.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. A. 4(6). Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . 5(2). J.pd f Weiner. C. Handbook of writing research. http://www. and Watt. Howell. http://www. Government.) (2002). and Writing. Y.. & Leacock. R. http://lsa. M. Patrick (2000). Self. (2005). 259284.gov/pubs2000/2000195. J. (1998). Problem Solving.msu. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. Learning. PA: Information Science. J. & Mason. France.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill.. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. and Malabonga. B. 25. National Center for Education Statistics. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. M.colorado. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.. http://escholarship. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. Foltz. Tim (2006). J.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. New York. M.. Graham.ed. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. NY: Guilford Press. R (2002). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Hricko. Hardas.pdf Landauer. Fremer. P.LSAintr o. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.edu/cgi/viewcontent . S. (1979). DC: U. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.pdf Kenyon.) (2005).com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. http://eric.amazon.medianet. Burstein.. Hillsdale. (2006). http://nces.pdf MacDonlad. D.

operitel.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.com Do not reproduce 41 . http://www. Operitel white paper.

The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. (2005). It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. or by “streaming. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod.5 megabytes. is podcasting. while it is playing. (i. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. to personalized media). while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. Provides feedback to learners. For example. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. depending on the file size). the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. podcasting. which is gaining in popularity. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium.e. compared with even a few years ago. Assists non-native speakers. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. the rest of the file has time to arrive. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. such as those for iPods. You can’t add your own notes. This frag-mentation is being fueled.e.. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient).Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. in part. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. Provides another channel for material review.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. (i. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. One audio application of interest to educators. According to Crofts et al. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence.. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history.

and other operating systems. http://www.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. htm RECAP Ltd. or sentences from audio Web sites. http://www. http://64.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. shareware. http://www. http://www.com/resources/dc_media.avsmedia.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. GNU/Linux. http://recap. http://www. CD audio extraction. Microsoft Windows. http://www. http://sourceforge.elearningcentre. http://www. http://www.com. Audio and video software.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. including software to record and play podcasts.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.apple.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und.com/scwmarapr05sonification. phrases.co. freeware.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. tools.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. http://epnweb.htm For a list of podcasting tools.envision. http://www. open source software for recording and editing sounds.automaticsync.podcasting-tools.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. recording.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.com/blogs/doug/index.scientificcomputing.thepodcastnetwork.ibritt.com/AudioTools/inde x.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. go to: http://www.48.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing.rds. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.ltd. http://www.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words. http://www. playback. It is available to download for Mac OS X.purdue.audiotoolsdirect.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. enhancing.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .71.com/lipsync/ind ex. DJ mixing.edupodder. http://www. sound editing. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. and utilities for conversion. including podcasting.uk/podcasting/index. and broadcasting are all found on this site.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.masternewmedia.

B. http://edmarketing. Learning Circuits. (2005). and Swenson. Peter (2005).ltd.apple.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.educause. Ray (2005). http://www.com/home. (2003). 45-50.cakewalk.learningcircuits. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. 417-419). (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning.bias-inc. April 2005.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.scientificcomputing. P.html Kaplan-Leiserson.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. and Williams.multitrackstudio.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. http://www.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. N.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. Scientific Computing World. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Doctoral Dissertation..edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions).html Girvan. In G. Government. June 2005.aace.. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri.htm Jobbings. Dave (2005). A.uk/articles/podguide. Retsema.org/index. July 2005. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Podcasts. 2005.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper.com/scwmarapr05sonification.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists..com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. pdf Noakes.adobe.sonicfoundry. http://dl.com/products/audition/ main. http://firstmonday. Chesapeake. Richards (Ed. September. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). 10(9).org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. Dion Cory (1999). and Higher Education 2003 (pp. C. Dilley. University of Nebraska.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. M. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. S.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. VA: AACE.h tml Canali De Rossi. http://recap.masternewmedia.unl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. Brenda (2001). First Monday.audiolink. Sound Sense. Robin Good’s Blog. http://digitalcommons. L. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. J. http://www. Luigi (2005). May 20. http://www.editlib. http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www.html Curtis. and Lomas. Healthcare. Eva (2005).com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Fox.

Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. As well. For details on each Microsoft product.brandonhall. please see http://www. Design.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. and. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. and Evaluation) processes. content development. Further. simulations. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Development. rapid elearning. Implementation. either directly or with third party tools. 2005).Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. in the end. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. (For details. In this vein. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content.microsoft.s html). Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. No authoring tool does everything. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. see: http://www. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis.

http://www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.com/presenter.lersus.Content Point . rich text.Media – Import 3-D Models.com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product. http://www.Thinkcap Studio .com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. http://www.com/ Business Performance Technology .acroservices.allencomm. http://www. http://www.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.ilessons. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. http://www.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link . http://www.info/ Allen Communications .adobe. and images and turn them into 3-D training.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. and PowerPoint slides.asp Bridge People and Technology .atlanticlink.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.thinkingcap. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://presentation.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. go to: http://www. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.bridge-pt. http://www.com/index.Composica Enterprise . as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. pointers.co. video.accordent. pop-up messages. video.composica.htm Brainshark Inc.com/eng/index.co.copycatsoftware.elearningpowertools.com/ Acroservices .Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.uk/contentpoint.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. visualization.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.anark. buttons.Capture Station 2.activeslide. www. and marketing applications.articulateglobal.com Anark . http://www.htm Bernard D&G .brainshark.htm ActiveSlide. video.Designer’s Edge. .AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. music.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.com/products/ Articulate . hotspots. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. http://www. Integrates various media.com Agile . Flash. htm Composica . http://www.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Counterpoint . http://www. Builds quizzes. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. XML. http://www.turbodemo.

horizonwimba.com Imaira Digital Media . Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.com/ Information Transfer . HTML courses.com/index.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www.php e2train . graphics. http://www. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www.com/products/forceten.Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www. http://www. http://www.com Element K .uk/ INTEC .asp Eedo Knowledgeware .iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. http://www.sculptoris. stand alone .eclipsys. http://www.com/ Eclipsys Corporation . or Macromedia Flash media presentations.intecllc. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .digitalworkshop. http://www. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.lecturnity. CD Rom.Digital Workshop . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.de/ Impatica .elementk.hunterstone. audio.impatica. Import rich media and customize graphics. without programming knowledge. video. DVD-video. http://www.elicitus.experiencebuilders.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.exe files.co. and installation files. http://www.com/products/ Pro. Post the characters on any Web site. such as the following: Web.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.e-learningconsulting.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.com imc AG .KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/inde x_eng.shtml Dynamic Media .gen21. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. http://www.WTDS-Web Training Development System . http://www.e2train.com/ Hunter Stone .dynamicpowertrainer. and animation.ht ml E-Learning Consulting . http://www.com/Solutions/Elearni ng.com/ka. http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.epistema. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.eedo.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.seminar. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .com/ Integrated Performance Systems .

authoring tool based on Flash templates. Word.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. http://www.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.com/ Learn. http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter.learn. http://www. http://www.maxit.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .com/flashhom e.maxit. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www. audio.mohive.knowledgeplanet.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.knowledgequest.com MyKnowledgeMap .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. with no programming and no plugins. Works with SAP Learning Solution.com/prods erv.elearninginabox.instant-demo.htm MediaMaker . http://www. combining multimedia content like video. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .mindiq.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash. Built-in testing engine. .knowledgepresenter. centralized knowledge base. http://www. http://www.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex.com/home/home.easyprof. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.com/index. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.asp Knowledge Quest .co.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.uk/ MindIQ . http://www. http://www.intuition. http://www.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity.php MindOnSite .EasyProf . shtml Itaca .asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .ipsinc.customcourse. graphics.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.pdf Intuition . http://www.ie/software/publisher.mindonsite. http://www.com/tbt/dac/index.com .com/ OPTX International . http://www.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons. Ready-made button and navigation aids. Has its own built-in learning management system.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.mckinnonmulherin. http://www. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. with a built-in learning management system.Used to create presentations without programming skills.knowledgextensions.htm Kookaburra Studios .E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.LEARNERLand – Text.com/learncenter.jsp Knowledge Planet .NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. http://www.learnerland.com/ NetPlay Software .Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. PowerPoint slides.

interactive Flash presentations and online training.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. and highly interactive elearning content.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. image labeling. and Flash.asp TEDS . http://www.percepsys. http://www.com Respondus . password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. http://www.cfm Serco (technical) . http://www.qarbon.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. popups.In minutes. http://www.Publisher Professional .htm Do not reproduce 49 .com/ Percepsys .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. Courses can be posted.readygo. customizable flashcards.respondus. or Spanish. When content is developed.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. matching games. http://www. course publisher. http://www.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.rapidintake. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.toolbook. http://www.students.com/Products/elearnin g_objects.ht m Techsmith . http://www. http://www. and assessments. http://www.htm Suddenly Smart .com/ Scribe Studio .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.com/ Qarbon .com/common/affili ateRefer. http://nuvvo.com Rapid Intake .sensalearning. Microsoft PowerPoint. GIFs.suddenlysmart. http://www. http://www.teds.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. French.net/ PointeCast . kiosks.podiaOnDemand .com/products/lc.pointecast.or SCORMcompliant.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.com/ Savvica .p hp?from=menu SumTotal .htm podia .screenwatch. http://www. http://www.scribestudio. http://www.com/camtasia.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.techsmith.reusableobjects.com/sensasoluti on.Nuvvo .jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.shtml Reusable Objects .toolbook. a customizable. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. JPEGs. without knowing code.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks . crosswords.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. and course player all in one software package.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.net ReadyGo .com/products/study mate.syberworks. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. Audio.com/learn_assistant.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. image hotspot activities.softchalk.E-Learning Objects . http://www.teknical.com/learn_assistant.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author. http://www.com/coursegen.com/ SumTotal .ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.com/product_sa.podia. http://www.

and Pahl. http://www. Montreal.webex.. Melia. and Ainsworth.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. T. http://www. http://www. P. Doctoral Dissertation. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. S.xstreamsoftware. Berlin: Springer. Northwestern University. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. E.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. http://www. De Bra. D. www. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.xplana. publish blogs.pdf Murray. C. or Network.com/services/webpresentation-svc. content conversion. and text.lectora. June 2005. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. http://workforceconnections. Government.oswego. Evanston.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. http://www.cs.dol. Illinois.co.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.Presentation Studio . http://www. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . CD.amazon.bloki.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. www. images.edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. and Riesbeck.westcliffdata.pdf Ramp.com/ US Government .brandonhall.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.funeducation.. McMullen. and rapid simulation.cs.com/Technology. http://www. Blessing.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. (2005). S. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.com/products/products _xwb. C.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .gov/ Webex . audio. video.time4you.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. (2005). Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.asp TrainVision . http://www. (2005). and wizards. Lin (2005). interactive and intelligent educational software. http://www. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages. and host online discussions. Healthcare.2-conformant objects and assessments. and Brusilovsky. L. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . templates. P.win.time4you GmbH .htm Zapatec .A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.oswego...uk/index. M.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. http://www.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.com/download _rb40eval.tue. E.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. http://www. http://www. (2003). right in their browser with no additional software required.trainvision.

W.learningcircuits.brandonhall. (2005).editlib.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.edu/~paws/publication s.learningcircuits. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Technical Univ. 2004. A. Learning Circuits. http://www. BC. Eindhoven.htm Tozman. Masters Thesis. http://www2. Sunnyvale. 2005.sis.htm Tozman. June 2005. Nov.com/publications/emerging/emerging. Reuben (2004). http://www. Gary (2005). AACE.s html Do not reproduce 51 .. NL. Learning Circuits. CA: Brandon Hall Research.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. October 2428. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. E. Reuben (2005).htm Woodill.org/index.pitt. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. http://www. Vancouver.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. http://www. The myth about tools. Canada.2005).

especially in gamebased learning activities. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. http://blogoehlert. games.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. http://www.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. Similarly. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.” Maldonado et al.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. for example. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. In the context of elearning. and generally simulates human activity. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. but in e-learning. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. in the broadest sense.Avatars Related terms Agents.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy.typepad. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. http://www. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.codebaby. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image.sculptoris.telsim. In some situations. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. the avatar may represent an actual human being.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.

knowledgeenvironments. and T.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. M.vcom3d.daden. (2005). The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. Aug.html 2005 . Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. D. J. (2004). C. Brave.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. offering a large number of supportive functions. Iwamura. S. modular application. Suthers.co. H. http://www.ac. and Nodder. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface.elearningguild. and Morishima. 25. http://www. users are represent-ed as avatars.W. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. A.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching..stanford. www. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. Ahad. (2005).pdf Jung. http://www.pdf Online Resources In Europe.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. Lee. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Try them at: http://www.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters... Y. Nakajima.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. http://www.tmmy. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.. 2003. Yamada.pdf Seth. eLearning Developers’ Journal. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. http://www.exodus. http://www. Raj (2003). Inc.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. C..” which are avatars that teach.co. R. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. K. Koschmann. http://isnm..pdf Maldonado. Nass.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. http://www.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor..oddcast.. Chan (Eds. H.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.Training Education & Education International Conference. 2005. In the toolkit. S. B.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. Nexus Media. In T. http://ww.naccq. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .redwoodelearning. New Zealand. and Weber.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

Do not reproduce

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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training the faculty member to use the software. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. The devices keep students alert and involved. 2006. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . http://www. clickers. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. costs can be an issue. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce.” In spite of the costs.einstruction. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. or clickers. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. However. corporate. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. integrated with other types of learning technologies. higher education.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. increasing their motivation to learn. the costs and headaches multiply. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. management. and military settings. Beatty. The use of clickers has several advantages. classroom communication systems. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. display. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. giving almost instant feedback.

7 things you should know about…Clickers. E-Learning Dialogue.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. http://www.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.gtcocalcomp. http://inside.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.Publishing textbook. including material on the use of classroom response systems. http://www.edu/articleprinter1.” http://www. 3. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). http://www. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems.com/index. http://www.aclearn.utexas. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.utexas.cisat. http://www. http://www. Upper Saddle River.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.active-learning-site.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. 272-275. http://www.ubc.com.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.optiontechnologies. Tom (2004).jmu. 2004. http://www. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.com/Default. Feb. http://www.net/display.smartroom. and Lederman. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www. July 7. Inside CUA. pdf Cassidy.physics. http://www. No. R. http://umperg.pdf Mazur. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.pearsonncs. Ian (2004).umass.elearning.com/news_issue.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.com/cps/index. 41(5).pdf Burnstein. Volume 2004.amazon.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.pearsoned.campustechnology.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. Research Bulletin.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. 3.com/products_int erwrite.learnstar. http://www.com/index.qwizdom.cua. NJ: Prentice Hall.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. 2006.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. Anne (2006).edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS. http://www. March 3. The Physics Teacher. Educause Learning Initiative.educause. https://sharepoint. Eric (1997). This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.h-itt. (2003). Q.

uq. Australia.pdf Do not reproduce 61 . http://www.itee.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.edu.Conference. Melbourne.

teamspace.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.com/virtualoffice/index. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.g.g. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.html?ad-main Annotea .html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. social bookmarking. e. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . and collaborating.zoho. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. collaborate.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. through brainstorming). Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.. http://www. doing. evaluation. it requires skill and experience. http://www. social networking building. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .g. organize. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task.advancedreality. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. and There are many different ways to collaborate.. clarification. The Institute for the Future.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. reduction. http://www.com/products/i ndex. many respond. organization.

com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . document versioning.jsp Engineering. version control.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. http://www. http://www.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . Includes document organization and sharing. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.com/microsites/eRoo m/index.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .citrix.globalchat.cisco. and communicate with others. jot down notes. collaborative file management.brightidea.bookmarks.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. markup of data.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic.backpackit.com/ Blenks – In-team .digite.emc.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. and searchable discussion threads.com/services/faq_basics .com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. http://www.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business. http://software. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Unified MeetingPlace .htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. Presence (see who’s online). with templates and workflows for product development.inteam. and instant messaging. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). http://www. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. non-profit.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .gotomeeting. and meeting manager.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). share files.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. http://www. http://www.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .courseforum.com/ourProduc t/index. http://www. intellectual property management. and individual users. http://www.centraldesktop. Web conferencing. share information.com/English/ps2/product s/product. office. http://www. discussion forum.com/ EMC² .Documentum eRoom . http://www. instant messaging.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.bantu. and instant access to the group workspace. and collaboration.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. alerts. and information technology adoption.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . voice and data collaboration. Features include IM.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources.com/ Cisco . expert location.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.comotivsystems.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. search. http://www. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.bluetie. http://www.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. http://www. education. robust document management. and communication. flexible workflow. calendar.avecomm.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. contacts.opencroquet.w3. and upload photos. recordable conferencing. http://www. project planning and reporting.

com/halo/index.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . http://groups. http://www.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple.shtml Hewlett Packard . invite workspace members.Live meetings and Web conferencing.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. http://www.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. software construction.google. http://www. and organizational process performance. It has tools for managing multiple teams. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.groupsupport.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . project management.epam-pmc.com/EN/products /GSII. Features include interactive data collaboration.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. and team management. snapshots.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. search. attach threaded discussions to files. http://www. allow members to update and edit files. and creating action plans. http://www. scheduling and using calendars. presentation tools. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. and corporate instant messaging.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) .grapevinesoftware.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. universal file viewer for MS office documents. and document management. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office.groove. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. interactive whiteboard. resource information sharing.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. powerful. product quality assurance. It provides working groups with simple. quantitative project management. easy to use online collaboration system. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. conducting surveys. data and process tracking. categorizing. http://www.flypaper. assign file editing rights and completion dates.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. and sending workflow tasks. including whiteboards.gordano. share files and documents. and images.forumone. cameras. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations.com/products/Collabor ation. desktop sharing.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy .exactamerica. http://www.gliffy. http://www. drawing tools. http://collaboration. Features include the following: Accessing documents. http://www. http://www. voting. tracking the status of assignments. The system streamlines project planning. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. http://www. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. secure. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.facilitate.ezmeeting.Halo Collaboration Studio .GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange.net/home/index. desktop sharing and remote desktop control.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. 2001. meeting. Web-based extranet tool. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. require-ment and risk management.hp.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration .features a project navigator.engineering.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. recording and playback.

versioning control. blogs (Weblogs).Jotspot Live.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. efficient.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.inquesttechnologies.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . and extensibility.hyperoffice. a Wiki. private interactive access or exchange of text.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . folders. contacts. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. and secure peer networking architecture. http://www. Integrated suite of multiuser. online calendar.uwc.hotComm .com/html/produ cts. instant messaging and presence indication. including versioning. Features include the following: Shared calendars.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. http://www. and more. http://www. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. scalable.com/products/docu ment_management/index. image libraries. realtime chat.interwoven. and Lotus Notes.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.com/hotComm. and customers on the Web. http://kgroups. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.com/ JotSpot . and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. a powerful. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. Customizable Web directory.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. http://www.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.com/ Interwoven . peer-to-peer. online contact management. online editor. and provides search. and Microsoft Outlook integration. customers. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. Features include the following: Business email. Functions include the following: Share documents.mayeticvillage. and shared documents. voice.hotcomm. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. and file commenting. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. http://www. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. Outlook.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point . and photos. http://www. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. http://www.com/ iLinc Communications . including file sharing.jotlive.jdhtech.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. task manager. http://www. partners. an interface to a mailing list server. security levels. link sharing). video. structured.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Features include the following: Document management.za/index.ibm. data.Lotus QuickPlace . online document management. podcasting.com/Smart Apps.microsoft. http://www. Web resources.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . calendars.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. http://www.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution.iceweb. search archiving. http://www.ac.com/ IBM .webofficepoint. integrates with MS Office.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.ilinc.kGroups provides a number of tools. http://www03. discussion forums.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .

http://myworldchat.com/terms. and MP3 audio recording.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.Microsoft – SharePoint .Corporate quality communications center. called an online community. and communicate.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions.near-time. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. and share data or applications while they are online.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . information.oracle. http://www. Enables individuals. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. audio and Webcam. http://www. processes.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall.opentext. see each other in real time using cameras.communityzero. calendaring.html Rallypoint . tasks.com/ Novell – Groupwise .com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. milestones.microsoft. real-time application sharing. http://www. providing the best of both worlds. instant messaging.rallypointhq. share knowledge. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . http://www. and presence management solutions. and contact and document management functions. http://www. http://www. Allows people to talk to each other. http://www. teams.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Community Zero .parlano.com – eStudio . MyWorldChat Communicator .A suite of persistent group messaging.performancesolutionstech.santacruznetworks. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.com/ Ramius .same-page. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. team events. text chat.com/collabsuite/index. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. resources.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. and files. organize and discover content through categories and tags. Workflow Automation. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. Within each area. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.com/ Same-Page. file transfer. http://www. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.novell.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. moderator functions. author and review pages individually and across the group. http://www. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. schedule and track events and activities.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.Rallypoint . task management. instant messaging.com/ Oracle .mspx Near-Time – Flow . Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. http://www. Document Management. http://www.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration.

and more. and breakout groups. collaboration. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.Collaboration software that includes document management. partners.com/ SiteScape . and prospects – without leaving their desks. interact.com/products /stcollab. and business relationships. http://www. collaboration.00. project teams.cyber-grad.25. and share. Use it out of the box. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . http://www.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. or use it to build a Web application.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.com/contentmanagem ent/0. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and other business communications. FTP server.com/company/news/press /2005. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. instant messaging.sharemethods. and use live audio.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. http://www.Forum ZX . http://www.viack. application sharing.trichys. Web conferencing server (in-house). and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. http://www.sumtotalsystems. http://www. productivity applications. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. voice and Web conferencing. search. and calendaring tools.2097. Designed specifically for the non-technical user.04. http://www. http://groups.solutions. chat server. e-mail server. expertise.seldensystems. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. http://www.com/content/default.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. http://www.tacit. documents.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. and business partners. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.webcrossing. live video.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .html Trichys – WorkZone .asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications . store files. http://www. Webbased whiteboarding. Includes VoIP. XML-RPC server. newsgroup server. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.stalker.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.sitescape.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.com/index. http://www.yahoo.webasyst.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased.com/product/ Vignette . and instant messaging. project. workflow and task management.Processes email.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. calendar sharing. threaded discussions. view and edit documents or images together.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . and information sharing. http://www.vignette.writely. desktop document folders. video.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .

axista. calendars. set user permissions. http://www.hp. http://education. identify and resolve potential problems.elluminate.0 .com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. http://www. private/group chat. and collaboration to timesheet management.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. project planning.Instant set-up.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . exit and help.Projistics .saba. custom stamps. http://www.Web event calendaring. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. navigation. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting . Works with Microsoft Project. scaleable.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and share documents.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . whiteboard pages. and data into a single storage area.caucus. data.com/ applications.nexprise. and payments.com/project. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. http://www. http://www.com Nagarro .teamdynamix.com/index.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. feedback. Access to the tool is also given to clients.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.opmcreator. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.projectdox. http://www. form to submit questions. http://www. annotation tools.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. online management for projects of any size and scope. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. attendee list. http://www. http://www. project tracking.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. affordable. and communicate with their project teams.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.Features include Hands up.project-open.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. connects peers.HP Virtual Classroom . Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. video. content button. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. http://www.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.nagarro.com/ HP . giving all team members constant online access to needed information. and Web pages.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . scheduling solutions.generation. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.brevient. assign tasks. Share multiple projects with multiple users.onproject. review button. applaud and meter. and save to disk icon. content. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. http://www.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla . invoicing." virtual collabor-ation. http://www.tomoye.com/ onProject – myonProject .peoplecube. print icon. simple.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. discussions. and e-mails. files.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.Intuitive project management software for work teams.

Allows holding live. http://www. online seminars. session reports. URL sharing.intralinks. visual. application sharing. For example. live demos. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . shared desktop.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. and collaboration features.Synchronous Webconferencing software.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. desktop sharing. and Webconferencing specialists. transparency tools. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.genesys. record and playback. attendee lists.glance. shared whiteboard and present-ation. polling and quizzes. instant messaging. broadcasts files. e-learning classrooms.LiveOffice provides Web-based. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities.elluminate. Features include shared documents. guest lectures. http://www.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . learning. Multilingual.com/ Linktivity Division. hand raising. Web. and videoconferencing. Webcasts. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. http://www.A secure. http://www.com/ internet_conferencing.liveoffice.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. and by whom.Delivers unlimited voice. teleconferencing.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. and meetings.net/site/getglance/exa mples. toll-free conference calling.horizonwimba. and more.convenos.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . including Web conferencing. and text chat. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. http://www.interwise. breakout rooms. http://www. and a change presenter ability. http://www.Photon Infotech – SPARK . Record classes or Webcasts.linktivity.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. sales presentations.communiqueconferencing. http://www.com/website2/events _imc. annotations. and Web conferencing with WebEx. video. synchronous online lectures.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. and content display.0 . http://www. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. keyboard and voice chat. office hours. how often. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.batipi.photoninfotech. virtual office hours. instant Do not reproduce 69 . e-mail invites. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.com/ iVocalize . private whiteboards for each participant.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.mixmeeting. http://www. integrated content management system. pre-recorded broadcasts. and collaborative content-building sessions. remote control.ivocalize.adobe. http://www. and real-time videoconferencing.com/ Intralinks . http://www. online classes. http://www.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. http://www. meeting management. video. notes. and phone use. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .

and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. http://www.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. http://www. http://carbon.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.netspoke.cudenver. or meeting. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room.Powers online meetings. surveys. and document collaboration. http://www. tour Web sites. http://www. Solutions include Web meetings. course. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. conference calling. show rich multimedia content and documents. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. discussion forums. http://www. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. and desktop videoconferencing services.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. Requires only a browser and a phone. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.Meeting One – Click&Share. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. and system management. set up labs and conduct quizzes. Web conferencing. audio.voxwire. Webinars. publishing. remote support. and into the enterprise. and moderation of Webcasts.Web and audio conferencing services.com/action.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.wave3software. and instant messaging capabilities.meetingone.radvision.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). http://www.com/bridgepoint.webex. teleconferencing. or an entire desktop.com/rndc/services/s ervices. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. send text messages.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . editing. present PowerPoint slideshows.To support large deployments.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 .telnetz.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . text messaging.vodium. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment.edufolio. The suite manages the creation.webtrain. http://www.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. http://www. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.edu/~bwilson/build ing. http://www. http://www.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . any application. the Internet. share other applications. e-learning.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.raindance.com/home/s_vmps.

ac. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. 2006. Maceió..collabtech. September. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. S. http://www. http://www.. Michaelides. 2002. Dalton. http://www. Collaborative Strategies.globalschoolnet.com/groupware/in dex. K. 2003. N..aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. Komzak. http://www. J.ecs. De Roure.diglib. http://www. March/April 2006.org/tools.usabilityfirst..htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). D. http://www.org/index.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. Eisenstadt. and Tate. also known as “groupware.htm Butler. http://collaboration. Sign up for free at: http://www.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.pdf Bonk.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. A.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.. 4. http://www.criticalmethods. Nov.. http://www.1:100250.soton. Page. J. S.org/collab/inde x. http://www. http://cde.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03.athabascau.uk/12081/ Beshears. D.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. Buckingham Shum. ChenBurger. Fred (2002)..txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. http://www.. (2003).collaborationloop.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. and Coleman. M.ctcevents. (2004). Curtis (2002).com/View. http://www.bruck. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. communities. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. Potter. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). Chief Learning Officer. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning. http://www. Creating an eCommunity.html Do not reproduce 71 . T.springerlink.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. Bill (2004). and businesses to provide collaborative educational.mitre.thinkofit. Brazil. Japan on July 13-14. Bryan (2006). Nov.. http://eprints. Web 2.com/writings.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck.writely.clomedia.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. http://www.kolabora. J.collaborate.. Shadbolt. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. 2002. Models of collaboration.htm Mitre Corporation.” http://www.educause.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. D. 41(2).com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. M.com/webconf/workspa ces.1 Bibliography Alexander. also has a great list of collaboration tools.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. Q2Learning White Paper. scientific.

html Kreijns. and Thomas. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Robin Good Blog.masternewmedia. Kirschner. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. London: Springer-Verlag. http://www.. 5(1). Luigi (2003a). Robin Good Blog. (2005).editlib. Proceedings.htm Canali De Rossi.cfm/files/pape r_12386. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.html Hurst. W. and Sharifi. 2003. June 5. http://www. Educational Technology & Society.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. August 2002. Luigi (2005). Carlsen.) (2003).pdf?fuseaction=Reader.. and Jochems. and Miller.. R. K.) (2004).editlib.athabascau.org/index. Robin Good Blog. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration. (Eds. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . Luigi (2004a)..pdf Strijbos.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing.Canali De Rossi. P. Educational Technology & Society. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. CMS Watch.. R. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott.html Institute for the Future (2005). The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. http://www..org/index.amazon. Findlay. D.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. http://ifets. (2002). June 22. 2004. http://www. Willis. J.cmswatch. (2004). Learning Circuits.. 5(1). University of Athabasca. e-Book.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es..rheingold. Collaboration First. Price. http://www. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.htm # Clapp. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. A. D.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Then Knowledge Management. R.masternewmedia. (2002).masternewmedia. Aavani. Soren (2002).. Robin Good Blog. A. http://www.zcu.htm Canali De Rossi.ca/online_book/ch8 . What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. June 30. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. (2002). P.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Palo Alto. CA. Technologies of Cooperation. Chesapeake.com/Feature/109 Elliot. J. J. 827-829). M.pdf Kaplan. http://www. VA: AACE. Luigi (2003b). (Eds. http://ifets. (2004). Sept. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise..org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan.ieee. and Forster. In Crawford.masternewmedia. January 21.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. I. J. J. J. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.. Luigi (2004b). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned.htm Canali De Rossi.ieee. R. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. C.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing. and Martens. Robin Good Blog. http://www. A.masternewmedia.N. Bjorn (Ed. http://cde.. 2565-2569.html Munkvold.. McFerrin. A.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. http://www. http://wscg. May 2. K. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. Gibson. Kirschner. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. http://www.).) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Live ELearning. D. Matthew (2004). Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. & Weber. http://www. 3.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. Fitzgerald.learningcircuits.htm Canali De Rossi. Institute for the Future White Paper. January 2005.

& Purnell.edu...cqu. Innovation and Development. Evaluation.Norwell. K. 1(2).php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . Callan. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. http://www. http://sleid. Nov. Studies in Learning. 24. G.au/include/getdoc.com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.amazon. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2004). J.

blogs.48. discussion groups. For Laurillard. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.71. and yet tailored and flexible.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.com.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. re-usable. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. For example.uk/deletacademictalk.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world.janison. UK.au/eq/default. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.editlib. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. messaging.org/index. instant messaging. Find her work at: http://64. telepresence.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. http://www. VoIP. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A.” http://goldenswamp.conversate. Hegarty et al. telephony. including communications tools. developed in Brazil. a process referred to as “text mentoring. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. whiteboards. discussion forums.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation.jisc. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. chat.google. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. It is being developed into a transportable. http://www. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. http://www. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. labs. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.ac.

Technologies of Online Learning. http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.ngfl. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . 2002. Aug. e-Book. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. M.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn. UK. > http://www. (2004). and Elliott.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt.formatex. Francis. University of Birmingham. http://cde.hbs. http://hbswk..com/wwwtools/m/2645. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. September 23.amazon.learningcircuits. Hegarty. J.htm Garner.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. and Collins. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.pdf LaCroix. R.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. D. http://safety. Sven (2002). http://www.fasfind.thinkofit. Komzak.org/index. Nick (2002). htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.elearningcentre. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. http://www.edu/item. University of Athabasca.co.htm http://www. F. http://www. James (2005). June. J. Computer Mediated Communication.. Learning Circuits.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. University of Warwick. Working Knowledge Newsletter.com/webconf/hostsite s..html Laurik.html Morgan. J. M.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Jan. London: Routledge.pdf Kadirire. Diana (1993). and Bortolozzi.ac.pdf Eleuterio.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.co.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.co. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. 2005 http://www.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. http://ewic. (2002).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com/cv/research/ rmed35.com Library.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. 31 (3).uk/schools/document . 2004. http://m. CAP e-Guide. S. (2004).editlib. and telephony tools. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. chat. and Wales. http://www2.elearningcentre. Developing a successful e-mail campaign.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool.jisc.warwick. S. http://www. (Mlearn 2002).athabascau. British Journal of Educational Technology.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6. J. 20-21.ca/online_book/ch5 . (2000). Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. (2005).ac. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. 13-20. distance-learning course at Keele University. CharityVillage. 31.bcs. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.charityvillage. JulySept. 2002.elearningcentre. Mark (2004).uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. 19. 199-212.html Laurillard. and Cerri.org/micte2005/4.gov. Bostock. International Journal on E-Learning. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www. E-Learning 1. I. Pattie (2005).

doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/papers/Stone_A.king. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). (2002). and Briggs. 2002. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. June. 20-21. A.ac. http://dircweb.Stone. J.

skills verification.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. David McClelland.itsc. https://launchpad. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. entering defined competencies into a matrix.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. competency-based training. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.org.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. W. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. organizational and personal goals are tied together. diagnose symptoms. see below) and performance or talent management systems. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this.” it started in 1950 with Dr. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. a Harvard psychologist. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 .org/competencies/in dex. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. Edwards Deming. 2000).Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. In 1973. performance appraisal. For a large list of competencies for physicians. and carry out proper procedures.imsproject. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. skills. Description According to Sanders (2001).net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. 2005). The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. go to: www. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. skills inventory. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one.

Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. activities.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. and development interventions.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. Benjamin (1956).amazon.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research .org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.htm Online Resources HRSG. Chief Learning Officer. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. objectives. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.hrsg.” http://www. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. htm Many companies have their own competency models. Competency and competency frameworks. Ken (2000). http://www.amazon. Clare (2005).matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.learnflex. regardless of industry or sector. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Sudipta (2005).S.cpgvision.com/article16. http://www.expresscomputeronline. a Canadian company.co.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. http://www. R.wmich.shtml Hogg.ncrel. measurement.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.ca/index.ibm. Josh (2006).com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. http://www.syberworks. For example. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: AMACOM. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.html The U. http://www.com/skillsman.cipd.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www. 2005.learningcircuits. See the list of competencies at: http://www. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. (1982). http://www. Express Computer. http://www.com/20 050425/technologylife01.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.oracle. April. Read their white paper at: http://www.E. Building a skills inventory. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.amazon. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.edu/paprog/clin_events. London: Wiley.desire2learn.clomedia. New York: David McKay. April 25..

Fall 2000. Competencies. Ethan (2001).pdf Rankin.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. and Hollyforde. http://www. E. 2nd ed. and Expertise. Creating a Culture of Competence.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. Learning Circuits. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.. Rankin. P. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Study 706. London: IRS. http://www. F. David.operitel. (2000).1/features/ewet te. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (2005). Gary (2004). http://www.) (2003).com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . http://www. Master's thesis. Michael.html Radsma. (1973).com/2. London: IRS. (Eds. S. (2003). Competency based learning management.amazon. Cambridge.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. Sanders. (2001). (1999). R.amazon.operitel. and Epstein. Ellen (2000). pp. London: IDS. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services.amazon. L.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.com Woodill.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. and Cahorn. April 30. N.htm Parkin.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.cipd. White paper. http://www.amazon. S. White paper from Operitel Corporation. Parkin’s Lot. P. http://www. Competency Frameworks.htm Whiddett. Godfrey (2005).28. 1-14. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. http://www. (2001). American Psychologist.collectionscanada.co. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.learningcircuits. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. The Psychology of Abilities. E-Learning Competencies. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner.html Sternberg. 2005. N. New York: John Wiley. (2004).blogspot. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Operitel Corporation. University of Toronto. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www. http://www.linezine. http://www. Miller.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. March 2001. Johanna. and Neathy. G. v. N. and Grigorenko. UK: Cambridge University Press. Rankin. (2001). http://parkinslot.

launching courses. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. in fact. According to its official Web site. manage. LCMS. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network.atutor.” As well. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. rather than complementary. to date. With the advent of learning objects. Repositories.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Unfortunately. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” http://drupal. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. and “topic maps. such as registering users. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. They have designed competitive. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. Learning objects. the standardized railway system still works while private. If you could afford it. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. and reporting.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. displaying a course catalogue. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. functionality to an ECM. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. http://www. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Today. First.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. 2006). “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. I feel that closed.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. you could hire a company to build a private.

http://travelinedman. Mashups.clomedia. http://www.asp Woodill. http://www. 18. George (2003).pdf Weigel. San Jose. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. Why content management software hasn’t worked. 2003. Content Management: our organized future. Educause Review.cmsmatrix. Budapest. New Thinking Blog.ca/mt/archive/000 689.org Leslie. 40(3). Retalis. http://sakaiproject. TravelinEdMan blog.. PA: Idea Group.author-it. 2003. and publish to multiple outputs.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. and Brantner.topicmaps.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er.html Cisco Corp.ntua.cisco.operitel. Strategies for managing scalable content.blogspot. Cisco Corporation White Paper.com/publications.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. Learning Solutions.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.) (2005). G. http://plone. 2006.com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. May 15. A.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.co. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 2003.gerrymcgovern.com/content/templat es/clo_article.topicmap. P.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.edtechpost. Dec. http://www.e-learningcentre. June 9.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. http://www.pdf Cohen. Curtis (2005).. http://www. S. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Ed.softlab.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. elearnspace blog. McGovern. Gerry (2003).com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. http://www.com http://www.educause. Jafari. and Carmean. January 23.html McGee. (2005).htm Siemens. http://www. (Eds. http://www. Scott (2005). “Monoliths. May/June. http://www. 2005. (2004).htm Simon. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. EdTechPost blog.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. March 2005. reuse in many places. C.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. http://www. (2003). B. March 3. http://www.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . S. Van (2005). 2005.elearnspace.uk Bibliography Bonk. and Oliveira. 2005. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. (2006). > > http://www. C. Hershey.

knowledge discovery. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. personalization methods. delivery models and infrastructure investment. 2001). Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. Luan and Willett. Consequently. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However.

) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. text mining. knowledge discovery. (1996). Smyth. G. and R. (2000). TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that.wfu. Samuel (Ed. (2006). K. Do not reproduce 83 .edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. http://www. P.html Bibliography De Veaux. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. Piatetsky-Shapiro. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. Thalheim.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.. AAAI Press/MIT Press.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. R.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. New York: Springer. pp. Grieser.icosystem.. Lange..ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. (cited in Luan and Willett. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.soul. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.convera.pdf Fayyad. 68(8). http://imej. Uthurusamy. http://www.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.kdnuggets.kent. B.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. and Web mining. Piatetsky. Both products are from Convera.kdnuggets. 1996. P. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining.uwaterloo. http://www.uwaterloo. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. K. by applying fuzzy logic.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. U. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.hkuspace.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning.usyd. http://www.pdf Jantke. Robert (2002). edited U. Long Beach. Feb. Data Mining: What’s New. M. http://pami.. http://www. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that.amstatonline. Data Mining in e-Learning. B. 13-16 http://asbointl. Australia.pdf Freitas.cs.edu.pdf Iskander.com/index. http://www. What’s Not. G. School Business Affairs. California. 1--34. G.html Hammouda. and Tschiedel. M Fayyad. 2001) http://www.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.. P. In Pierre. and Smyth. S. and Kamel.cs.au/%7Ekalina/inde x.ac. Grigoriev. New York: Springer. (2004).reeltwo. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. http://pami. http://www. Alex (2002). allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.

Maomi (2004). 3(1). and Yacef. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. Japan.computer. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.ccsd.open. 47-55. K. A. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. (2004).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. Vol 4.pdf Mor.cnrs. and Minguillon. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. Porto. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining.ejel. C.pdf Monk.editlib.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. E.pdf McCalla. A. Data Mining in e-Learning. Oct. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. Scholl. http://www. http://www2004. http://www. Yacef (2005). http://www.-Dec. http://www.cabrillo.aace. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. analyze for more adaptive teaching. and K.com/PaperInfo. M. RP Conference Presentation. In Proceedings. T.ac.asp Merceron. (2004).is.com/acatalog/1845 641523.org/index.pdf Loo. Austria. and Cheung.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. B. David (2005). Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. http://www. S. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.unisb.html Ueno.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . A. 319-346. http://www. MA: WIT Press. http://wwwjime. 39-40. 7(1). NYC. http://archiveedutice. Oliveira. http://csdl2. C.informatik. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.pdf Merceron. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). Innsbruck. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. 3(4).pdf Merceron. Feb..edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. http://dl. (2006). C..wfu. K. and Willett. Gord (2004). J.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. (2001). Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. 2006. 41-54.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Yacef (2004). store. Claus (2004).pdf Pahl. 52-59. A. (2006).unikiel. 15(4). Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. Train. and Ventura. Portugal. (2004). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). http://www.ags.. Advances in Management Information. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. and K. http://imej. International Journal on ELearning. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 13-16. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. Hiroshima. 238-241. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). and Ullrich.compmech. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron.actapress. Billerica.org/16915 Romero. 2004 (7).2004. J. May 17-22.

3) vote/prior-itize. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.hut.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).decisionarium.com/ Facilitate.tkk. http://www.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. http://www.sal.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.une.utoronto. 2) categorize. in their case study of medical education.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.bnhexpertsoft. and 6) document results.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.edu.facilitate. http://www. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. 4) develop an action plan.whichbook. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. http://www. http://www.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index.au/dss/grassgro/index . the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. For example.net/index. 5) carry out a survey. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. http://www. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . http://www. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.

Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.hut. http://www. Hawaii. 317-328. Information Systems for a Connected Society.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. B.hicss. Gerhard (2003). Lange. M. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.pdf Jantke. K. P. H.actapress.pdf Power. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2.dfki. Memmel.com/history/dsshistory .2004. http://www. Germany.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril.sal. 12(2-3). Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. C. Jan. (2004). and Tschiedel. http://dssresources. Jim (2002). Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 6-9.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. 2005.edu.pdf Jantke. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. see: http://www. August 16-18. http://science. Thalheim. R. M. 23(4). Dan (2003). books. Enn (2005).manchester. and Koskinen. http://www.html Scott.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. B. August. http://www. SIGGRAPH publication.dssresources. http://www. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Enn (2004).informatik. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.meetingworks..com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web.hawaii. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Online manuscript. Kauai.unikiel.bnhexpertsoft.. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. 101-110. Porto. White paper from BNH Expert Software.. B. Manchester.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. USA. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. http://www.site.. Grieser. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Rostanin.. 2004. http://damit. K. V..uottawa.pdf Frize. 238-241. and information on this area.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. June 20-24.ac. Hamalainen.is. Hawaii. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://www.” http://dmoz.hut. and Tschiedel. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. Raimo (2003). Grigoriev.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Thalheim. G. O. http://www.com/PaperInfo.pdf Ounapuu. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings.pdf Ehtamo.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. Kankana (2005).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. For newsletters. Theresa (1998).sal.pdf Knolmayer.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.mc. (2000). Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. http://www. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. (2003). In Proceedings. and Frasson. (2004). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. S..com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.siggraph. http://www. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . Portugal. Jay (2004). B.pdf Chakrabarty. Aachen.uniserve.html Hamalainen.html Rhyne. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.com/index.. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site.

de Carvaho. (2006).ideagroup. and Laurindo.com/books/details. http://science. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.the curriculum. Oct.edu. M.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . 9. CAL-laborate. Hershey.uniserve. PA: Idea Publishing. http://www. T.html Shimizu.. F. Vol. 2002.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.

ntera.Displays Related terms Digital ink. projectors. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.siliconlight. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book.co.html Promera is a hand-held computer. still/video camera. electronic paper. > > http://www. viewers see a floating midair image or video. In regards to digital paper. Electronic paper could change that some day.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.theregister. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. This can be a holographic image. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.com/about. http://www.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.ices. Finally. head mounted displays. http://www.cmu. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.edu/design/Camera. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens.” Selected Examples Samsung. big enough to be projected on large walls. lighting up theater size screens.com/technology/ overview NTERA. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners.io2technology. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. monitors. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.co. By stacking a second projector. intelligent interfaces.theregister. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. digital paper. In the near future.P rojector. For air displays. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. in cooperation with Sony. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. http://killer. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. Inc.

com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.unifreiburg.uk/index.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T.unifreiburg. A.. http://portal. Vancouver. State.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. 2005.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s. Dec. 3. and Ottmann..acm.provisionentertainment.informatik. http://www. http://thejournal. http://www. In G.firstmonday. (2005). and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).technorati.jisc. Government.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. M. See a demo at: http://www.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.. Pisano. (1996).). Tim (2005).org/citation.H.ac.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. In 2005.loaz. Whitton. E.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. H. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. http://ad.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. M. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . see: http://ad. Richards (Ed. Oct. K. Livingston. http://blog. London: Springer. S. Largest LCD and video projection. see: http://www. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.fogscreen. W. Garrett. Hirota. and Pizer.. G. For a list of his publications.E. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. pages 3053-3068.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies. Hamburg. 2005. Canada.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. To access the articles.com/timwang/index.pdf Wang. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.informatik. Healthcare. T. Germany.

org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0. http://www.pupilpages. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.ch/dyn/9.osportfolio. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.co. http://www.ac.educa. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.pebblelearning.com/products/ep ortfolio/default. maximum flexibility.co.com/college/portfolio s. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format.iwebfolio. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://www2.htm IMS. http://www.org/Articles/eportf olios.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.uk/default.elearningcentre.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. helping to transform education and training. http://www.chalkandwire.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios. My first report in this series. http://www.nottingham.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios. 2005). thus. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.angellearning.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. open source electronic portfolio.livetext. http://isle.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.foliotek.htm Educause. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. evaluation.imsglobal. http://www.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. http://www.elearnspace. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.paisley.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.educause.com/eportfolio/in dex. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. http://www. http://www.ac. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment. and simple usability.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.

Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.. Frederick (2005). Dublin.educause. Light. 28–37. http://www. (2005). Online paper.amazon. Dec. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. J. George (2004)..ac. vol. 37(2).edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. Dec.org/Articles/eportf olios.com/magazine/vault /A5260. an online resource on collaboration.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.educause.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 . Trinity College. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.pdf Lorenzo. and Haywood. Aalderink. Cook. Graham (2005)..cfm Dubinsky. G. P.pdf Conway. V. ePortfolios. http://ferl. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.alt. Love. Vol 27 No 4. University of Iowa. Fleming... 2005. Reflective learning. FD Learning White Paper. D. B. with many links. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. J.criticalmethods.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal.doc Banks. Online Paper. e-portfolios.educause.thejournal. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. Gary (2004).com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. Fall. 4.pdf Batson. D. An Overview of e-Portfolios. S.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001. Bob (2004). Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. Feijen. B.educause.campustechnology.. Trent (2002). 2004 http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224. no. College of Education http://www. Lee. (2003).. http://www.becta. G. (2005). http://www. (2002).pdf Greenberg. J.. and Werdmuller. 31(3). E. K. J.elearnspace.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. M. March. future thinking: digital repositories.com/article. and Ittelson. (2004).educause. J. Online. B. http://elgg. http://www. (Focus on Teaching).eradc. (2004). http://www. Business Communication Quarterly. http://connect. T. Bibliography Achrazoglou.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. http://www.. (2002). elearnspace. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. http://www.htm Tosh. Educause Quarterly.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape. W. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. Educause Review. and Wade. July/ August 2004. and McKean.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper... (2005). Harvey. April 1.asp?id=6984 Cohn.. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning.amazon. http://www.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. http://www. G.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. has a section on e-portfolios. Bryde.org.. 16. THE Journal Online.org/collab/v. 39. Educause Quarterly. and Hibbitts. D. J.

and portfolios. 144-169.cjlt.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1.ca/content/vol31.http://www.ht ml Young. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. C. 2(2).A.A.citejournal. (2002). research. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.. & Figgins.3/tosh. http://www.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . M.

com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. games. Marc Prensky (2003).microsoft. Dr. edit. complex problem solving. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. play.com/ In 2005.thinkingworlds. 2005). identity work.com/ http://www. from the University of Wisconsin. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. as such. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. and learning (Amory. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. http://www.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. create. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com http://us. writing about “first person shooter games. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www.com/ http://www.com/ http://www.hive7. http://www. serious games.com.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.” says that “in the mod world. The toolset. There is a free 30-day trial version. Constance Steinkuehler.secondlife. Cyworld. and Second Life.freescale. Facebook. http://www.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. 2003). Examples include Hive7. simulations.myspace. helping speed up the game creation process. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. This game allows users to play. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. http://www.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. For a brief review of these tools. MySpace. see: http://news. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.com/xna/ Softimage.facebook.clickteam. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. dubbed XNA Studio.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results.cyworld. allows members of a game development team to work together. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.

Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.com/zone 8/index.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.seriousgamessummit.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers.siggraph.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. See the selection of games at: http://www.com/news/548 http://www.magnetargames.htm Dr. http://it.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.softimage.” Read her research at: http://website. along with their Web sites.org. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.nasaga.com/ Thiagi. Many of their learning games resources are free.” http://www. http://www. Inc. http://www. http://www.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research . researchers.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. Sign up at: http://www. You can read about them at Pluginz.org/index2. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.it-c.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.dk/people/sen/public. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.uk/index2.coe.mpjgaBKQ dAe. Canada.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.education. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.aspx urces. For example. Started in North America.futureplay.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.for the Xbox.muzzylane.com/solutions/g ames/default.gdconf. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.pluginz.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. http://www.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. > > http://www.digiplay. http://www. http://www. implementation.uga.org/?14@33.seriousgames. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. produces educational games for training.wisc.ucalgary.htm Dr. Review them at: http://esub.programmersheaven.

simulations and microworlds. and Swamy. and Michael. 2005.xplanazine. Constance (2005). Oct. and Inform. http://website. Lloyd (2005). NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. March 10. G.ukzn. 2003. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.itc.iicm. (2005). Clifton Park. R. D.. Learning on Demand Bulletin.php Reynolds. http://www. 2006.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www. http://www. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. Hawaii.xplanazine.. Rob (2006a). University of Wisconsin Madison. http://www. http://www. June. pdf Reynolds.. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces.teachableagents. Games and Education = Oil and Water.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. C.uwf. 19. Beers.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. D. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. January 2.pdf Prensky. Montreal.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Jan. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. and Maurer. http://www. Train. Multimedia learning in games. New York: Cambridge University Press.pdf Guetl. Rob (2006b). Chapter 33. http://www.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging .. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. http://www.amazon. Language Learning and Technology. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. http://www. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. Marc (2003). (2006).pdf Do not reproduce 95 . Gupta. Doctoral dissertation. Williams. http://llt.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. IT-University Copenhagen. Honolulu.cambridge. (2005). In Richard E. 9(1). 2005. Developing Serious Games. N. J. Fourth Quarter. H. Xplanazine.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Gaming. 2005. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. see: http://www. Bob (2005).com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Mayer (Ed. S. 17-22. Gamasutra.php Rieber. 2006. June 25-28.uwf.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. N. Technology Trends for the Year. Xplanazine.Bibliography Amory.marcprensky. C. (2005). Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.pdf Swamy. and Biswas. Alan (2003).ac.amazon. Dreher. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Simon (2005). R.education.pdf Michael. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.amazon.wisc. and Chen. (2005). http://www.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.pdf Bergeron. http://jason. 549-567.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_.msu. Serious Games: Games That Educate. Clifton Park. Bryan (2006). http://www.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. H. 2003. SRI-BI.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. S. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan.

http://woz.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .commtechlab.msu.Tye.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. Jason (2004). Michigan State University. 2004. Masters Thesis. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.

Report No..nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research.elearningguild. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. 2008. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. artificial intelligence. 18. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. was held in Southampton.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.ecs. Artificial intelligence techniques. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. March.” http://mplab..fg2006. April 10-12 2006. Lombardi. (2005). http://www.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. UK. FG2008. F. FG2006.ac. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. Nicole (2001).cybernet. at the University of California. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.html Research by Dr. affective computing.ucsd. and robotics in elearning. Ludwig-Maximilians University. Michael (2003).pdf Beringer.soton. Porta.smartkom.tudelft. Munich. Aug.fg2008. haptics. such as Markov models. looking for particular sequences. http://www. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface.pdf Borghi. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.org/reports/ReportNR-03. 3. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . M.com/~ccohen/gesture .com/pdf/2/081 803DES. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. 2003. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. L. London. For a list of papers: http://www. including identifying commercial products. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. http://www. http://www.

pdf Ou. A. 19(7). (1997). An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. H. A.884693 Chen. Sept. Canada http://cims.. IEEE Transactions.clayton. and Wong. July 22-27. Pittsburg. (2005). and Carreira. L. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).676 http://lcv. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.pdf Corradini. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. 2004. In Proceedings.recveb.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci.cse. http://portal. Communications of the ACM. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Park. Wong. C.. J. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.actapress. Chen. IEEE Transactions. A. and Koike. D.. Computer vision in the interface.... Gao.Computer Communication. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .research.xml&DOI=10.com/PaperInfo. Korea.ogi.ieeecomputersociety. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.fsu. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. http://www. http://cbcl. 47(1). Lai.iscslp2006.. 884 – 900. M. October 14-16. Y. January. M. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning.ucsb.rutgers.edu/mas963/enh encedwall.2005.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. W.pdf Loi. and Poggio.pdf Ebert. Y. 57-64. In Proceedings. J..org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027.acm. and Bobick. P.F (1999). British Columbia.org/10. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Face and gesture recognition: overview. September 2002. (2005). L.2000. J. Visualization. X.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. 191-196.edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Sato. P. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. C.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Michael (2004). http://www. July 1997. G. 442-446. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Wesson. Shi-Kuo (2000).D. Y. 1999. and Bender.1 50 Nakanishi. 27-30.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. (1997). Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.mit. Vancouver. http://www. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. C.html Chang. and Ma. J. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. (2004).org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. J. C. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. http://doi. J. http://www. 2000. http://csdl2. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Lee. (2004). In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. (2003). and Kim. http://www.actapress.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. http://www. and Yang. T. S. 21(9).stat. http://interact. (2002). R.pdf Daugman..org/citation.1109/ICALT.. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). and Cohen.pdf Peixoto. Setlock. Y.. Deller.mit.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. S. Geiger. Fussell.media. Las Vegas. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. 675 .com/PaperInfo. and Chang. T. (2005)..pdf Wilson. A. http://www. M.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004.ercim. Proceedings.pdf Lee. PA.. (2000). Nevada. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. 242-245. (2002).computer.110 9/CMPSAC.

Journal on Applied Signal Processing. http://www.com/GetPDF. 2533–2543. 2004:16.illumination variations.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .hindawi.

visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www.2. rendering. post-production. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. interactive creation. and in his recent 2006 book. Designing Web-Based Training. Download a copy: http://www.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research . e-Learning By Design. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems.com/software/soft_t/gshar p.autodesk. and playback.acdamerica.corel. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. animation.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.html Blender . the same principles apply to user interface design. Nevertheless.avs.Graphics Tools Related terms Design.org/cms/Home.techillustrator.com/TechIllustrator. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.broderbund.adobe. In acquiring Macromedia.blender3d.0. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.com/ Canvas Professional http://www. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.

Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.editlib. http://www.ibm. http://www. (2005).IBM CATIA http://www306. http://www.).com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. In P.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. Tools Usage Survey Results. Germany.uk/index.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.co.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.carto. Tokyo.pdf McConnell. http://esub. New York: John Wiley.com/index. Japan · Sept 7-10. X. Kommers & G.com/ToolsSurveyResults04. Designing WebBased Training. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . Gloria (2004).com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. e-Learning by Design. Fu-Kwan (2004).indiana.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.elearningcentre. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). William (2006).pdf Qiu. The most listings are for 3-D software. June 1-3.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. and Uyar. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.smartdraw.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.ucs.amazon. S.co. Potsdam. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. A.com.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market. Do not reproduce 101 . Proceedings.xaraxtreme.microsoft. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.itedo.stcphoenix.amazon. Pheonix. Pallickara. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. http://www.com/E/1335. http://www.com SmartDraw http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. A.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.amazon.3dlinks. http://www.. http://www.siggraph.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. (2004). Richards (Eds.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. William (1991). One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.google.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. ED-Media Conference. http://www.org/index.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. William (2000). http://grids.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.uk/index.co. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC).org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList. http://www. NY: John Wiley.

CT: Graphics Press.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.stc. STC.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Edward (1990).org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. http://www. Carolina Chapter. Cheshire. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. http://www. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. http://www. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.pdf Tufte.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . Envisioning Information.amazon. Frances (2004). http://www. CT: Graphics.amazon. Cheshire. Edward (1997). 2nd Ed. Edward (2001). CT: Graphics Press.

forcedimension.handshakeinteractive. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.immersion.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom.html http://www.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .mpbtechnologies. including pens. http://haptex. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.sensable.miralab.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www. gloves. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation.” http://www. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. Do not reproduce 103 .unige. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. > > http://wwwpercro.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning.se/index. When used approp-riately. Finally.asp Body-based devices include gloves.it/projects/pureform.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. http://www. http://www. joysticks/ joypads.sssup. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. http://www. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. suits.sensegraphics.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. Haptic devices come in many forms. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.pureform. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. and force-feedback mice. Read the press release at: http://www.

Y.. 2005..isfh. http://www.cim. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. Technology and Haptics. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Research report. Nakamura.pdf Hespanha. Deliverable D4.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. http://www. Upper Saddle River. and Ichitsubo.. (2005).ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. S.usc.ht ml Kushner. M.net/article-7304.ra. M. 917-921. Wired News.phptr. and Essl.matr. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.S. Centre for Intelligent Machines. G. J.ethz. http://csdl. Reaching through the net to touch. Blindness. 2004. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.digicult. Oct.informatik. Sukhatme.. Japan. http://www.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.html Ross. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference.pdf Ó hAnluain. (2002). and Jaskowiak. http://csdl2.pdf O’Modhrain.unige.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. David (2003).au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138.unipi.S. Proceedings. Prentice Hall online article.piaggio. D. (1997). C..media. R.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. L. and Hughes. N. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.miralab. 22.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. A. professional. A.html O’Malley. CA. Santa Clara. McGill University.smh. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).1109/ICALT. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. McLaughlin. M. Vincent (2005). Proceedings. Dobreva. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). July 3. M.. Shahabi.pdf Rowell. http://www.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. M. 3-5 June 2004.mcgill. http://www.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. McHugh.unitrier.pdf O’Modhrain. Italy in March.xml&DOI=10. G. Daithí (2003). Laurie (2004). Report delivered January 15.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. M. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.ccii. Haptics Laboratory. New York Times (Online). July 31.com. (2000). VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. (2003). Chapter on Haptics..html Levesque. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.pdf McLaughlin. (2004). M. and Gillespie. Matsubara. (2005).2005. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).info/downloads/TWR3lowres..edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.1_release-public. G.. http://www. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis.1.” http://www. M. S. http://haptex. April.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa.. G. Reality bytes. J.B. M.com/title/0130650978 Inoue. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. and Sukhatume. 2003.computer.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.. Medioni. Iwane. http://www.roblesdelatorre. http://web. 2003.mit.. and Rusbridge. M. NJ: Prentice-Hall.” http://www. The Haptic Museum. Donnelly.computer. 2005. Abbott.haptics-e. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.

Kaneko.com/articles/printerfrie ndly.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 . 250a. (2001).journalofvision.informit. & Uchikawa... K. http://www. 1(3). Journal of Vision. Y.asp?p=345621 Sakano.http://www. H. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.

whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. gesture recognition. http://www. Writing will require special digital pens. However.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. electronic paper. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink. input devices. wearable computing.” http://www. head mounted displays.eink. experience computing.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. In 2005. Philips.com/b/archives/00 2571. For a review.media.ices. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication." http://web. and some. Now in the research and development phase.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01. tangible computing.html Sony.cmu. like digital ink and paper.html http://killer.html Description For humans to use a computer.buffalo. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. see: http://www. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).mit. > > http://killer.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. digital paper. human-computer interaction. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. textures.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . handwriting recognition.com/technology/howitwork s.ices.edu/design/Digita link. haptics. projectors. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. monitors. see: http://www.dottocomu. they must interact with it through an interface device.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush.cmu. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. display technologies. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.fujitsu. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. Called Librié.

ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. and 5) build. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. See their advice and resources at: http://www. http://www.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.wired.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.edu. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.net/display. 3) throw.swan.co. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. consisting of a pen and a charger.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards. These methods are 1) touch. http://www.ac.com whiteboards. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. http://www. http://www.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.logitech.usask.thewirelessdirectory.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.edfacilities. 4) bend.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. Although this technology has been around for a few years.thegrid.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. http://www. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. 2) roll.com/wired/archive/5 .smarttech.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.edna.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. http://www. http://www. Following are three such articles: > http://www. http://www. and graphic.channelnewsasia.com/index.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years. http://whiteboards.becta.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.lifehacker. human computer interaction. it is constantly being improved and updated.org.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .wacom.elearningcentre.sony. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.devx.aclearn.05/ff_digitalink_pr.cs.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.au/edna/page4588.org.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. http://www.cs.

http://education. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. and Ottmann. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model.> > http://www. http://ad. Will (2004).org/16321 Read.informatik.08/epapers. (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0. Jan. HCI2005. April 7. Indurkhya. http://www. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .10577.wired.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC. Julie (2002).. (2003). and Ottmann.com/article.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. M. NewScientist Magazine (Online). K.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop. http://www. 257-269.pdf Mohamed. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors.00.devx. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. Australia. Edinburgh.guardian. Phil (2004).html In G. Kato. 15(3). Oct. 2003. with its use of digital ink.uk/elearning/ story/0. Alan (2004). eSchool News Online. Chalk one up to the whiteboard.com/wired/archive/9 . Fri. (2006).co. Vancouver. Tablet PC Developer. University of London. 26.00.10577.virtuallearning..html http://www.pdf Revell. http://ad. Y.ac. Scotland. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. is described in a 2002 press release. 2004. http://www.pdf Cross.unifreiburg.com/news/showst ory.).pdf Otsuki. and Nakagawa. Springer. B. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Adelaide. December 22. 2004. Dal-RI. Richards (Ed. http://www. J. King’s College. H. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. 2006. http://www.04/anoto.1116483.informatik.co. Michael (2005). 6.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink.html Wong.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. J. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. F. (2005).. Haag. Jan.aace.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.org. http://education.1585516.newscientist.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Guardian Unlimited.guardian. T.uclan. (2005). 2004.html eSchool News.htm Zeichick. The Mercury News. Guardian Unlimited. Nicole (2006). 2006. http://dl. June 1. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. S.anoto.eschoolnews. Bandoh.com/wired/archive/8 .unifreiburg.mercurynews. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. K.wired. The most flexible paper yet revealed. N.mspx Bibliography Cogill. C. Peltason. http://www. http://www. January 6.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. T.microsoft... New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. 2005.. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.

Whenever possible. elearning portals. Content management. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. 2005). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. Course Management Systems (CMS). There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS).. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. conversation.e. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems.

a leading open source learning management system.com/ IBM .geolearning.net/index. more control over their own data For faculty. more control over the learning environment For institutions. in alphabetical order.compendiumcorp.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book.com/ Compendium Corporation .Training Partner http://www. which has the following aims: > > > > For students.KnowledgeHub http://www.avilar. and other academic services. . and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications..com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.gyrus.php EVE. . .GeoMaestro http://www.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. a communic-ation platform. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.com/ Frontline Data Solutions.academici. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. http://opensourceschools.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.allencomm. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. roles. one of the LMS vendors listed below.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. To quote the developers.elementk.” http://elgg. is available as a free download. a search engine. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www. content-driven forums run by experts. http://www. .gen21.trainingpartner. groups. The LMS companies.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).cornerstoneondemand.fldata.g. . Inc. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). instructors and resources creating communities of learning. a contact management system. The roles.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.ieee.WebMentor LMS http://www.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.com/ GeoLearning Inc. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.com/ Element K .TrainingMine http://www.com Gyrus .Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.

com/ Intellinex LLC.com/ MaxIT .plateau.sumtotalsystems.cfm TEDS Inc.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.vuepoint.com/ Vuepoint .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.TotalLMS http://www.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.SAP Learning Solution http://www. . .CourseMill LMS http://www. .com/products/saba/learni ng/index.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.iPerform http://www.oracle.com/ SSE .IntraLearn XE http://www.com/overview. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.com LearnSomething Inc.com .saba.net/trackerinfo.Net http://www.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.OnTracker LMS http://www.ca/en/default.com/flashhom e.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.html Trivantis Corporation .LMSLive http://www. .outstart.ssaglobal.trivantis.risc-inc.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp. .jsp Operitel Corporation .LearnCenter http://www.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.mgen.com/ WBT Systems .teralearn. TrainingOffice Audit http://www.com/isnm2005/in dex.wbtsystems.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.html Plateau Systems .aspx RISC .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.TM SIGAL http://www.com/ Technomedia Training Inc. .mGen Enterprise http://www.SSElearn Portal http://www.com/ Strategia .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01. – TEDS http://www. .epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.intralearn.ttg-inc.com/ Syntrio .Plateau Learning Management System http://www.html IntraLearn Software Corp.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.technomedia.Intellinex LMS http://www.teds. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.Ed Training Platform http://www.LearnFlex LMS http://www.com/ NetDimensions . .com/redbooks.meridianksi.com/portal/index.http://www.syntrio.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.ibm. .vbtrain. .html?Open InfoSource Inc.sap.isnewmedia.InfoSource http://www.websoft.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .com Inc.html OutStart Inc.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.netdimensions.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.intellinex.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.strategia.novasys-corp.com/index.LearnerWeb http://www.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.htm SAP .DOTS .knowledgeplanet.com/ Integrated Performance Systems.oracle.aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/ TeraLearn.sselearn.Oracle Learning http://www. .redbooks.com/2004/index.com/ mGen Inc.wizdom.maxit.Isoph Blue http://www. .learnsomething.howtomaster.TopClass LMS http://www. Tracker. .webraven.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.com/ Saba .com Websoft Systems Inc.ips-inc.operitel.asp Learn.learn.SSA Learning Management http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .

D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.mq. University of Birmingham.eun. Sam (2005). http://www. http://www. June 20-21. http://www.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. Pierre (2000).jisc. A.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. 21.thelearningmanager. http://www. L.Xtention Learning Management System http://www.htm Bouras.com/ from the JISC in the UK. http://www. 2006.info/static.pdf Dalziel. UK.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.com/ Xtention Inc. . (Online edition).science.com XStream Software Inc. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).The Learning Manager http://www. James (2003). 2005.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7.ac. Building educational virtual environments.edu. http://www.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.ac. Incorporated Subversion. James (2005).building new education strategies for schools.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.brandonhall. Learning Circuits. http://www. .cetis.nxtbook.uk Teresa A. A.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). (2006).e-learningcentre. and Tsiatsos. http://lttf. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems.xstreamsoftware. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems. and Trifonova.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. Proceedings. Workshop on virtual learning environments. Ronchetti. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium . see the recent article in Learning Circuits. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.” and open source course and learning content management systems. . Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.PDF Farmer.org/eun.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS.melcoe.48. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.pdf Cohen. Virtual Learning Environments. M. http://incsub.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. (2002).unitn. August.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www.71.pdf Dillenbourg.ieee.A possible future for online learning.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. Jan.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.learningcircuits. ICALT2002 Conference.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo. by Sam Adkins." http://www.co. http://www.edutools.uk/index. October.learningcircuits. C.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).xtention. Chief Learning Officer.. T.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. http://www. (2002). Molinari. Ed.

November 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE).manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. http://www. WSCG Conference 2005.ac. M. A. Maomi (2005).uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.org/newdl/index. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Derek (2004). 31-Feb..au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. May-June. Report published by UCISA. Van (2005). Healthcare. and Sharifi.pdf Sadeghi.pdf Ueno.. Educause Review. http://www. J. 5(2). and Walker. Vancouver.pdf Morrison. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.bath. 4.. Proceedings of ALT-C. Aavani.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. (2006). Proceedings. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut.unimelb. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Czech Republic. Plzen.pdf Tsinakos. Exeter. http://tojde. T.zcu. http://www. Government.anadolu. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .cfm?fuse action=Reader. and Quealy. 2005.aace. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.ac.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. 2005.edu. L. http://www.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. Report for the Melbourne.pdf Wise.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .ucisa.educause. 40(3). Jan. Avgoustos (2004). Browne. October 2005. May 2006 http://www.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. April.edu. R. J. http://wscg. M (2005). and Higher Education 2005. LMS Governance Project Report.infodiv. (2005).

This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. SCORM. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research .” such as a graph.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. As online educational materials are produced. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. However. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. culture.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. They are emulations of “software objects. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. sharable content objects (SCOs). This idea is based on older. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. At the simplest level.” This use has been more successful. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. of learning objects. 2004. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. curriculum.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Learning objects have several uses. rapid learning. computer-use practices. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. Wiley. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). intelligent tutoring. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. The acronym SCORM. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. learning object model (LOM). reusable learning objects (RLOs). Rather.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Beyond that. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. 2006). learning object repository (LOR). Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. a well-known standard for learning objects. usually referred to as “learning object repositories.

http://ideas. http://www.mcli.uvic.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. with almost 15. http://web. http://www.utoronto. indexes.dist.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.maricopa.org/Home.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.cdlib.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. http://www. and distributes digital research material.unsw.edu/DesktopDefault. with a focus on information literacy.llearn. http://www.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. http://lester.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.downes. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.000 items.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.lrc3. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.rice.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.wisconsin. resources for grades K-12.lolaexchange. http://www.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.sir. http://nsdl. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.thegateway.profetic. http://www.merlot. and they can be general or subject specific.fedora.uwaterloo. http://www.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://dspace.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.goenc. http://mlor.org/index. preserves. http://www.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://www. http://www. http://dlist.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor). http://www. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.net/project.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://learnware. stores.arizona.educanext.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository.oise. http://www.koha. http://www.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .edu.

J.uniroma1. (2004).html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.irrodl. A. http://www. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies. (2000).org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.publiclibraryofscience. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. (2004). http://www. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.cancore. B.itdl. Celentano. http://portal. 2(4). http://www. T.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. and Anderson.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. and Alderman. http://dl.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b.org/blog/archives/ 002089. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. M.html Edusource (2003).org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.ca/mt/archive/000 681.html http://www. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. A.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.htm Collis.elearnspace. Online paper. Bibliography Barritt. M. March.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. C. authored by Rachel Smith.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. http://www. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects.uwm.nmc.uis.org/ci/en/ev. is available at: http://www. http://www. http://www.org/guidelines/index.aace. Online document. Stephen. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 2(1).cisco. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. F. http://www.dis. (2003).unesco.org/eng/scientifiques. EdTechPost.doc Christiansen.ca/implementing_proje cts. http://www.lornet.9. Software Architecture Document.edtechpost.1/downes .pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects.it/~lhci/002.uwm.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. 5-16. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.org/14190 Downes. International Journal on E-Learning. & Strijker.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. 1(3).” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.L.org/content/v2.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. And Longo. http://www.amazon.dicole.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex.jcdl..edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.html For a highly critical view of learning objects. http://www. (2004).html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. CANCORE.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. Version ..

Paper presented. Paquette. Anderson.9%2015-11-03. April 2002. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Rory (Ed. Richards. Mattson. http://www. March. Harrigan. http://www.. Downes. N. Elizabeth (2004).blogs.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.cfm/files/pape r_11841. S. Online paper.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.bath. Learning Material Repositories . http://www.ac.http://www. Learning Circuits.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. Rossano. Do not reproduce 117 . http://www..bath. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. http://www.Rafts or Battleships? . http://www.learninglab.cancore. G.ca/protocols_en. http://www.. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. A Primer on Learning Objects.pdf Richards. MacLeod. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.informingscience.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. (2004).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal.. March.. T. Learning Circuits. Final Project Report. R.. June..org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.org. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.itdl. (2004). Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. Babin.html Leeder. March. D.pdf Krauss.learningcircuits. Research Report. http://proceedings.html McGreal. 1(3). T. Aug. M.p df Roselli. Roberts. S. D. Wolfgang (2004). EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. S.ca/implementing_proje cts..itdl.org/index. and Morales. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.html Heery.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. M.amazon. 7(1). INTERACT 2005. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.Part 2.eduserv.usq.htm Morrison.learningcircuits. and Freisen.. http://www. http://www. R. K.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. V.doc Fiaidhi.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. and Schafer. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. http://www. 2004.cancore. Norm (2006). Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. G. G.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03...org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. Derek (2004b). and Mohammed. (2002).html Friesen. Norm (2005). http://www. Lori (2002).. March. 2004. InSITE conference. London: Falmer. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 14.kth. Hatala. G. 12.) (2004).Rafts or Battleships? .php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. Warren (2000). http://www. Learning Material Repositories .. Fredinand (2004).. (2005). McGreal. 1 (3). E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Derek (2004a). July 14.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. M.org/mar2000/p rimer. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.editlib. http://ideas. Rachel (2006). J. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). http://www. Jan. Friesen. (2004).edu. Online Education Using Learning Objects. and Pragnell. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. T.htm Nejdl.Part 1.htm Friesen. Online.html Murphy. R. N.ac. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. 2004. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.edusource.

org/docs/dissertation. M.co. (2000). Brigham Young University. White paper for Fastrak Consulting.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf http://www.pdf Santally.p df Wiley. David A. RIP-ing on Learning Objects.org/read/ Wiley. (2006).uniroma1..dis.dis.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. http://www. http://opencontent. 9. http://www.). Govinda. (2000). Jan. Doctoral dissertation. M.fastrakconsulting. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. and Senteni. David A. http://opencontent. : http://reusability.htm Shepherd. Online. (Ed. David A. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. 1(7). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects.> > http://www. (2002). Objects of Interest. (2004).uniroma1. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Iterating Toward Openness. A.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper.htm Wiley. Clive.itdl.

or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information.com/ Clark Labs . location-based systems are found in museums. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.S. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. http://www. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.esri.com/ Intergraph .http://www. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. findability. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. laptops. However. including privacy concerns. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.org/ ESRI. geocaching.clarklabs. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . Department of Defense. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. users will be able to use a variety of devices. gaming consoles.http://www. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector.com/ MapInfo . including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.intergraph. Do not reproduce 119 . proximity tools.frappr. as with any new technology.http://www. more demands for a person’s attention. including cell phones. PDAs.cadcorp.mapinfo.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. and security issues. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.http://www. galleries. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. navigation.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content.http://www. galleries. and wearable computers. personal media players.

at: http://www.bham. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.state. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them.ac. http://mvz.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.ac.fi/english/page.searchable from a database.confluence.smm.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. http://earth.5372.greatestplaces. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. http://portal.google.pangonetworks.000 archaeological sites in the state. http://www. http://www.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. http://www. as well as papers on trends in GIS.museum.geog.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. http://www.edu.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. http://www.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.” http://www. http://local. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.esri.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. http://www.chimer. http://platial. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. See their complete range of products. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.com/index. http://www. http://www.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.cetadl. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.google.asp?path= 500.leeds.il. http://www.google. http://earth.live. While not very useful for most people. it is a great tool for teaching science.biogeomancer.org/index. http://www.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations. create. similar to what a GIS system uses.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.berkeley. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data.google.

com/ Bibliography Benford. January.. Jan 2004.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.learningcircuits. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. G. (2003).1642288. http://pngis.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05.html Ross. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. (2005). and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.com/geo/ Cardinali.ca/ Geotags. J. Arnaoutoglou.geography..pdf Tsirliganis. http://www. IBM Systems Journal.. Earth. http://education.eoscenter. Koutsoudis. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store.ibm.jisc. IEEE Report. A. Future LocationBased Experiences. 15. N. Nov. C. Online article.co. Issue 6.http://www. and Location-Based industry professionals. Eva (2004).pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). McHugh. Abbott. and Rusbridge. F. Information in places. CAD.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. and visualize spatial information.ordnancesurvey. A. enthusiasts. http://www.research.bc.edu/sco/gis/his tory.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies.intelresearch. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile.ac. http://www. 2005. Pavlidis. Learning Circuits.wisc. Dec. Fabrizio (2005). Guardian Unlimited.. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://www.info/index. http://www. G.com/gis4mt/index.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. Chapter on Location Based Devices.C.intergraph.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. 38(4). and students. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. 1999.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www. M. S. DigiCULT Newsletter.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.opensourcegis.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. http://elearningeuropa.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. 2005.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. and Chamzas...directionsmag. http://www. Heather (2005). http://www.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2..pdf Do not reproduce 121 . D.htm McLean. Dobreva. A. and Borriello.ac. M.co.digicult. (1999). see: http://www. J. Donnelly.com http://geotags.gees. (2001). 2003. manipulate.uk/oswebsit e/education/index. Part II.guardian.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.geocomm.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. > > http://geotags..00.. http://www. Steve (2005). Mapping. http://www.digicult.uk/elearning/ story/0. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.pdf Spohrer.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. We learning: social software and e-learning.

or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions.. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. document management.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol.” Using SOAP. composite applications. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. Similarly. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. at the same time. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. 2004). hybrid applications. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Programs can be “stand alone. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. or through “Web services. also called “object interoperability.” that is. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. API clouds. Mashups are constructed in several ways. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. For two or more programs to talk to each other. to a lesser extent. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. A “mashup. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. all expressed in binary code. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. such as those for collaboration. communications. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. tag clouds. providing an informal collaborative environment.Mashups. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. integration. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. in schools and universities. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules.” then. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. personalized. etc. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. run all by themselves. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. of how to communicate with each other. or protocol. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. For example. Many of these objects are software programs. the rules for sending files across the Internet.

Vol. January 2004 http://lttf. Paul (2002). and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Dec. 6.0 APIs. Douglas (2004). including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. http://www.icio. 2002..com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. http://www. Enterprise mashups. Mix. J. http://www.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. http://ww6. Dodero. http://en. David (2006).com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. http://www.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1.html Warlick. May 15. and mutate.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. 2005.us.html Rob Hof.” It has many examples of mashups.programmableweb. 6. G. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. techLEARNING. http://www. Learning Technology newsletter. 6. Infoworld. January 2004 http://lttf.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. March 6. SOAP. a writer for Business Week.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.mashupfeed.org/resources/web services. July 28. Mashups.bctechnology. 2006. Galen (2006). online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. match. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. (2004).com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. 2006.infoworld. As Warlick (2006) has noted.com/ http://www.wikipedia.pdf Seimens.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. C.elearnspace.programmableweb.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602.businessweek. George (undated).htm Siviter. Vol.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.htm Torres. Elearnspace.emilychang. http://blogs. Robert (2005).us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. (2006).operitel.com/products/print_fr iendly.businessweek. http://www. http://del. Issue 1. Learning Technology newsletter.ieee. and Padron. Many have educational value. and Oliveira. http://www. July 25.com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.com/publications. C. Curriculum as Mashup. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. Issue 1.pdf Stacey.ieee. J.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004.icio. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.html Hof.deitel. Bibliography Gruman. Learning Solutions. Business Week Online. 2006.html Woodill.techlearning. Web Services. > > http://www.

http://ebiquity.php?id=25 Chen. C. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. http://libraries. Ohio. and institutional stores. http://dublincore. http://simile. community. search engines.ifets. metadata. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. http://www. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. to develop metadata standards. A. http://metadata. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.html Description At the same time that learning objects.. (2004). which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. 7(4)..xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. http://iiscs.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.educause. H. Finin. 98-111. F.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. June 2004.. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. http://www. Boston. (2004). A. http://www.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). Perich.cetis.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. An ontology. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. Benayache. Lenne. D. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways..do?tm =O4E. and Joshi.info/issues.wssu.mit. In Proceedings.cancore. M. and Chaput.umbc. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services.ac. MA.edu/o4e/viewhome.edu/content.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . T. http://www. Moulin.pdf Delphi Group (2004). and artificial intelligence are being developed. B. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. C. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.mit. Delphi Group report.Metadata. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. Barry.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects.edu/get/a/publication /105. in the context of information technology. Bibliography Abel. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. repositories.imsglobal. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. and services. pervasive computing... This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy..org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.

(2003). October-December. TagOntology .adammathes.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).learningcircuits.delphigroup. October 29. http://www. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. April 9. http://www. 2004.pdf Friesen.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. and Godby. April 18. http://www. Defining “taxonomy”.org/10614 Mathes.boxesandarrows.blogsome.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.tagcamp. J. D. International Journal on E-Learning.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.htm Weibel. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. BoxesAndArrows. N.niso. http://www. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. 2006.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. 2005.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. NISO Press. http://www. Christian (2004). 82-97. 11(7/8). P.. B. 26-28. W. M. http://www. D-Lib Magazine. A. Reuben (2004). and Shao. Understanding Metadata. Norm (2005). Patrick (2006).ca/editors.cancore.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Thomas (2005b). http://infotangle. http://www.php?id=25 Kroski. May 22. Infotangle. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. N.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.ppt Ricci. Adam (2004). Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata.htm Gruber. Norway.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. A. Thomas (2005a).. (2004). and Diaz. 2002. G. http://www.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel. (2003). Chen. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.boxesandarrows. Do not reproduce 125 . I.dlib. http://www. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang.. 2003. and Poulymenakou. http://www. http://tomgruber. Dolog. (2004). Ellyssa (2005).boxesandarrows. University of Illinois graduate paper. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). November. BoxesAndArrows.pdf Henze.html Gruber. P. and Nejdl. J.greenchameleon. and Mosoiu. Lytras. April 21. Christina (2002).org/.. (2004).php?id=25 Tozman. Nov.. A. Pouloudi. Wagner. M.ecdl2003.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata. Dec.http://www. Learning Circuits. http://www. 2004.aace. http://dl. Online article. 2005. http://tomgruber. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. http://www. Building a Metadata-Based Website. Presentation to Tag Camp.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. 2002. Green Chameleon. S.info/issues.info/issues.ifets. http://www. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. BoxesAndArrows. Stuart (2005). Trondheim. 7..org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.html Wodtke.ifets. 7(4). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.pdf Oin. July/August. (2002). 7(4).

http://www. 7(4).info/issues. 70-81.ifets.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research .Journal of Educational Technology and Society.

personalization. multimedia. it is predicted that there will be 2. conversational learning. rich interaction. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). wearable computing. video) and distributed databases. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. Do not reproduce 127 . and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. powerful support for effective learning. podcasting. instant messaging (text.” Two years ago. communicative skills and community building. and mentoring. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). brokerage. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. such as increased computer literacy. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. there were estimated to be 1. tablet PCs. Cited in Prensky. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. pervasive computing. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. location-dependence. time and space. in Japan. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits.6 billion units in operation by that year.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. collaborative learning. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. tablets.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. Essentially. using ambient intelligence. mLearning. 2004). laptops. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. 2003). strong search capabilities. cell phones. personalization. personal digital assistants (PDA). cellular telephones. location based technologies. MP3 players. (2004). compared to only 50 percent of computer users. improved identity creation. However. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009.

movies.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.pdf location-specific text.cs.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. http://www.beta80group. Israel.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. applications. Australia.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research .ccu.knowledgepulse.” and a “bird watching learning system. http://gseacademic.edu.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.cs.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.” > > > http://www. http://www. http://spotlight-mobile.cs. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.edu.stockholmchallenge. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.ccu. and a glossary.bbc. resources.fasfind.ccu. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. including issues.htm Jari Laru.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.fasfind.com/home_en.co.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.harvard.telus. http://www. pictures.” a “butterflywatching learning system.se/projectd ata.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students. technologies. Learn more at: http://www. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.” > > > http://m.elearningcentre.mobilelearning. http://www.co.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. audio. http://csdl2.edu.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final. and pre-service teachers. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.fasfind.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://urbantapestries.computer. of the University of Oulu in Finland. http://news.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.mobilearn.” They have a “firefly watching system.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. http://www.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird. activities. or a combination of media.pdf http://www.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums. http://www3.pdf http://www.com/wwwtools/m/271 7. US. links.com/wwwtools/m/890 7.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK. http://urbantapestries.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.

pdf Colazzo.pdf Bibliography Alexander. http://www.94. Jill (2005).232.pdf Jasola. (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 129 .uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. http://llt. 39. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. September 2005.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Sept. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Report.ccu.pdf Geddes.pdf Anderson.idi. of Birmingham http://www. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners. http://www.bham..edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.ac. A. http://www. Univ. Gaming. 9(1). http://213.flexiblelearning. For example. (2003).ntnu. Ronchetti.jisc. and Trifonova.kaywa. 17-22 http://llt. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. No. http://mobile.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.org/micte2005/4.html Chen. Paul (2005). and Pagani.6. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. and Sheu.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. http://www.msu. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education.ac.html Grew. http://www.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. R.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Ireland.html Kadirire. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice.eee. M.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. No.msu.. http://www. Emerging technologies: Messaging.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. EDUCAUSE Review. T.135/ipodined/news.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04. http://www. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary.uk/handler/public ations.jisc.au /edition06/download/geddes.ac. and Sharma. Language Learning and Technology. http://www. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.net. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 19. 5. A. JISC Guide. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.formatex. E.htm JISC (2005).m-learning. Gaming. Bob (2005). http://www. http://knowledgetree.unitn. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Bryan (2004). P. James (2005). Molinari. Y. Vol. (2005).pdf Attewell. S. 2006 in Dublin.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.edu. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. 2(9).J.itdl. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.cs. (2002). (2004). 347-359. January 2005. B. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. J. http://www.uk/eli_practice.educause.iadis.science.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. L. Kao.pdf Godwin-Jones..

J. http://kn.1039222 McLean. Greece.htm#Implications Prensky. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.1490476. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chan. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Sweden. A. D. E. A theory of learning for the mobile age. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.acm..digicult. http://www. M. http://www.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. (2005). E. Neil (2003). MA: HRD Press. M.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. Brisbane. August 29-30. http://www. Understanding.pdf Thomas. http://www. and Nischelwitzer. and. Pigozzi. Vecchietti. T. computer-aided..educause. Cinotti. S.2002. 2004..pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Michael (2005). A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. M. http://www. Malavasi.. A.asp Liu. Conference on Virtual reality. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning..pdf Sharples.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Växjö.org/10.110 9/WMTE. Archeology.. http://21st. T. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). May/June 2005.open. Feb. Budapest. and Dobreva.ieeecomputersociety. Teleborg Campus.ac.century. http://www. Amherst. T. Proceedings. and Yang. Presented at WMTE 2002. Christopher (2005).cfm?doc umentfileid=7298.org. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.ac.pdf Mellow. Växjö University.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.ox. Ellen (2005). Galasso.doc Meisenberger. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. Australia. http://doi.uk/public/getfile. April 2005. 2002. Romagnoli... June/July 2005. Coralini. Glyfada. multimediabased learning application.amazon. and Vavoula.guardian. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. (2002)..eee. Liang.. Roffia.com/content/templat es/clo_article. 40-53. 2005. http://www.uk/elearning/ comment/0. E-Learning on the move. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning.pdf Scagliarini. http://drei.clomedia. Proceedings. Taylor.fhjoanneum. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. June 27.bham.innovateonline. Peter (2005). Chief Learning Officer.org/citation. Wang. H.2. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. Enabling Mobile Learning.pdf Metcalf. 2005.. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. (2001).info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Guardian Unlimited. Marc (2004). Draft paper submitted for publication. and Sforza. J. S. http://www..com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.com/news/article 2490. 40(3). http://education. Mike (2005). http://www.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Ann (2005). Kristóf (2002).co.ascilite..uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. UsabilityNews.fil. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. EDUCAUSE Review. M.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.usabilitynews.Light. 2005. (2004). http://portal. Learning in the Mobile Age. J. http://www. M. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.html von Koschembahr. G.phil-inst. and Cultural Heritage. L.info/index. Hungary. May 23.oucs. M.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Donnelly. 1(5).ac. F. David (2006).. Feb.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning.00. (2005).

http://eduforge. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. speech synthesis. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. (2004). Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. http://dmoz.ac.ldc. (2005a. http://www. Lee et al. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. research.elsnet.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.york. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.lexxe. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. (2004). http://wwwusers. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages..translating one natural language into another.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://www. Do not reproduce 131 .org/aitopics/html/natlang. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.” See also Jordan et al.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.it/index.e. speech recognition.upenn..uk/~silvia/litReview. rather than just returning Web pages. natural language understanding. tools.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. natural language generation. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. http://www. http://tcc.com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). Di Eugenio. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.aaai.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.cs.org/softwaremap/trove_list . and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).itc. i. et al. and standards. http://www.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. Kim (2000). machine translation. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. learning management systems. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. Individualization in an LMS is weak.uk/ilogbook/d efault. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. chat. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. Secondly. social environments. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. To practice real-world situations. work places. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. learners need to be in real-world situations. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. as learners move between institutions..aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . without an offline client to the LMS. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. In many cases. and social bookmarking sites. and through a variety of technologies. etc. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. e-portfolios. but these are only available to members of the course. for the learner. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). Running on the learner's PC. and review his or her learning activity. A PLE is structured by the learner. libraries. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. discussion forums. manage.). Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. there can be no electronic interaction. (Cortlett et al. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. This requires support over time. http://portal. often only for the purposes of the course. Technology needs to be situated. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. such as search engines. and. it helps the user plan.cetadl.bham.ac.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. whiteboard). wikis. A PLE must support lifelong learning. track. amongst institutions. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. blogs.

.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.za/CD/papers/Corle tt. M.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. http://www. Chan. http://www.jisc.mlearn.cetis.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.uk/index. Sharples.ac. http://elgg. http://www. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.org. Terry (2006). http://www. James (2006). A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.ac.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan.ac.ac. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.jisc.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.cetis. 22-27 July 2005. Ting. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. J. (2005).ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog..ac.elearning. UK. Las Vegas. http://incsub. January 9. Jan.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. O.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. T. http://terrya. http://www. Nevada. http://www.bath. 11. D. Online case study paper. Colin (2005). PLE Reference Model.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).pdf Farmer.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .ac. Incorporated Subversion. 2006. 2006.edublogs. Edinburgh. and Westmancott.

etc. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. and/or presentation of materials. learning environments. However. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. PDAs). describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e.. (Filippini-Fantoni. collaborative filtering. rule-based filtering. or it can be an implicit model.g.ac. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. etc. through a questionnaire). http://www. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . 2005) Once the user data has been collected... Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. Keenoy et al.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. These techniques include content-based filtering. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. the personalization can be applied to content. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. navigation.ed. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. artificial intelligence.org/en/index. Furthermore. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. Often. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.g. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs.g. picture. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.elenaproject. http://www. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.hcrc.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly.uk/ilex/final. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). 2005).” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour.).

gla..arces. Ler.(2001). http://adiret. Cozzolongo. J. and Nuguid.metmuseum. S.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. http://www. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). (2004).org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .unibo. A. Ngo.net/home. S. http://www.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.ac.pdf Calimera Project (2005). > > http://www.ecdc. Online paper. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. Pizzutilo.pdf Callaway. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. PowerPoint presentation.org. http://www. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Melbourne. Online paper.umuai. A demo is available at: http://www. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.calimera. University of Glasgow.firstmonday.pdf m/index.virtualmuseum.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright..ascilite. W.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. (2005). Kay. D.html http://www. http://smart.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.cognitive traits. C.. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. (2004). The Future of Access (or. and FilippiniFantoni. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.org/pdf/cs. J. http://www.unimagdeburg.calimera. A. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. http://www.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. A. and Cook J. G.beta80group. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.org/default. T. http://www. with a particular focus on the museum sector. HATII. https://www.arts. K. wireless networks.ca/English/Pers onal/index. Borda. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. and Kuflik.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. http://www.noekaleidoscope.pdf Beler..aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.. De Carolis.directa. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.emarcon.pdf Cavalluzzi.. William Niu. A. Daisy (2002).CY/0409055 Boyle T. A.. B. (2005).au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet. http://www. dynamic user profiling techniques.org/ Bibliography Abbott.cs..hatii. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. Bowen.. http://www.pdf Bright. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. http://arxiv.

Rudd. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Bowen.. X. http://www. Personalization and Digital Technologies.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09.org. N.uniba. P.24_Conlan. 3(1). (2004).uniud. University of Sydney (2004). http://www...semanticweb..org/proceedings/doc s/2p170.tcd. and Boavida. T. FutureLab. S. Rocchi. Online paper. http://lrnlab. C.p df Green.. Ecole du Louvre. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. New York. and Verdaguer. I. V. http://www.edfac. (2005). Issue 7. http://www. Personalization through IT in museums. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. 2004.di. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. FutureLab report. May 25.usyd. S. Silvia (2003).Information Access. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. (2004). Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1.pdf Eirinaki. https://www. Gallipoli. S. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. May 2002. science centres and galleries. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. T. and Numerico.. Montreal. Online paper.pdf Giroux. M.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference..org/10. (2005). (2003). Comparison of museum/city tour guides.it/papers/gorenbar2005.ie/Owen..) (2002). (2003). http://iswc2002. http://tmtfactory. and Cardinalli.pdf Ceccaroni. D.. D. Subramaniam (Ed. Hershey.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. and Zancanaro. http://w5. DigiCULT . M. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. (AVI 2004).. Málaga.. A. P. Dagger. Dillon.com/pub/evsc05b.. (2002). G.pdf Heckmann.it/intint/people/papers /aims04.nestafuturelab. and Paddeu.pdf Conlan. Spain. Graziola.futurelab.edu.cs.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . L. (2002).com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. Wade.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. and Sintek.p df Filippini-Fantoni. M.pdf Copa. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. Soro. February. (2005). and Humphreys. F. 1–27. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.www2004. K. Kuflik..designshare. 2004. F. Web mining for web personalization.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. P. N. Barcelona. In R. PEACH http://peach. Sanna.ichim. T. In Mizzaro. Facer.com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. May 2004. J. Magical Mirror: multimedia. Paris. and Tasso. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Moulin.cs. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. Gallipoli. W.. May 25. interactive services in home automation. 2005 www. Pianesi.acm.1145/643477. http://www. http://www. C. URL: http://doi.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.learnexact.. O.pdf Goren-Bar. PA: Idea Group Publishing. O.jpbowen.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. April 2004. http://www.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Henze. C. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. M. (Eds. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.Info. R. and Vazirgiannis.dimi. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training.itc. M. Roy (2004). Personalization in distributed elearning environments.pdf Fuschi.. Dominik (2003). (2004). D. Italy. September 2002. H.2004-1213. Nejdl.. (AVI 2004). Stock.pdf Dolog. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference.org/posters/ moulin. http://www.htm Hawkey.ppt Correia. Italy. George (2005).

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. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002). Y. Kuzuoka.org/comp/proceedin gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. K.media. and Hirose.ch/subpages/life plus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised. Ando..miralab. and Ioannidis. Chicago. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004). IL. Proceedings.unige. A.. T. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. April 17-20. V.pdf Vlahakis.. Wang.. T.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . Boston. Demiris. Yamashita.mit. M. IEEE Computer Society. Flavia (2002).Sparacino.computer. H. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. M. USA. Yoshida. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums.edu/~flavia/Paper s/flavia_mw2002. N. Online paper. 2002. 27-31 March 2004. J. Pliakas. http://alumni.. http://www.pdf Tanikawa... (2004). (2003).. http://csdl2. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous.

corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . Knowledge Management. instructorled.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .Portals Related terms Collaboration.elearningeuropa. http://www. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . collaborative environment. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. which form a dynamic user profile. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. vendors.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. As of early 2006. the portal offered information on more than 20. 2001). while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. In the business world. learning management systems. content management.

learningcircuits. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.com/article. instant messaging. (2003). and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. http://blogs. Campbell. http://www.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. (Eds.fathom.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. and universities.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. 2004. http://www.com/home. http://www. museums. You’ve come a long way.Education.asp Element K – Access to over 2.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. interactive discussion groups. category.executrain. school administrators. http://www.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.000 lesson plans http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www. e-mail distribution lists.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. online meetings with text.cyberu.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .000 online courses http://www.microsoft.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.teach-nology.htm Brockbank. R. K. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. Ron (2004). Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers.trainingregistry.students. and shared lists for tasks. http://knowledgemanagement. Heidi (2001). M. Hershey.www2.000 publishers worldwide http://www. May 2000. and schedules. http://www. A. March 1.700 online courses http://www. In Jafari. Campus Technology Magazine. baby! E-learning portals.proquest.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. students.saba.microsoft. and Sheehan.elementk.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.tamtam. go to: http://www. instructors. administrators.ittoolbox.campustechnology.amazon. Tom (2000).com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. New York: AMACOM.hp..nl/mart/CategoryView.worldwidelearn. including educational uses. Learning Circuits. Bray (2001). news and announcements.amazon.asp?id=9028 Barron.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.300 online courses http://www. A Portrait of Learning Portals. http://h20219. document management information. audio and/or video. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. calendars.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458. and Aucoin.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.

Collins. A. http://www. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. PA: Information Science Publishing. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. http://www. September 2000.. Richard & Associates (2002). (Eds. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Cornelia (2000). C. New York: AMACOM.asp Terra.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. J.educause. (2003).com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. and Gordon. Enterprise Knowledge Portals.amazon.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006. http://www. http://www.) (2003).educause. M. Heidi (2003). Reviewed at: http://www. Hershey.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113.htm Do not reproduce 147 . Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.amazon.asp Katz.learningcircuits. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. and Sheehan.

Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. virtual classrooms. http://www. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge.elluminate.edu/TEAL). See the TEAL Project at MIT. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. While it is expensive.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. http://www. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. the word “lecturing” means “to read. Online presentations can be very boring.” In the Middle Ages. when experts are not readily available. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. in partnership with Dreamworks. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.lsc. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. In fact. although many are trying to change this practice. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom.masternewmedia. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. Skypecasting.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. web conferencing. webinars Consequently.com/site/index.mit. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. http://www. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.macromedia. webcasting. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.replayhq. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. http://icampus.com Hewlett-Packard. However.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. http://www. Experience them at: http://www.

and whiteboarding.kolabora.hp.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.ccimeet. http://buyersguide.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos. Breeze. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. Web conferencing. > > http://www. virtual teams.380 0005416. Do not reproduce 149 .lsc.co.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning. a columnist at InfoWorld. http://www. and e-learning.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.com/publications/lel/lel.edu.com/udell/200 5/01/22. and Flash. although it does not have to be.eweek.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe.athabascau. Dreamweaver.39155030. Authorware.adelaide.com/eweek/web conferencing. social software for online collaboration.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25.htm http://www.infoworld. videoconferencing.elearningcentre. http://www.com/webconf/index.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. http://www. Web seminars.humanresourceWebinars.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. Webcasts. intranets.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.elearningcentre.silicon. Coursebuilder.kolabora. independent listing of Webinars.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.com/news_radars /web_presentations. and seminars relating to the field of human resources. online meetings. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.elearningcentre.e-learningcentre. videoconferencing. http://www. instant messaging.com/udell/200 5/02/25.html#a1185 http://weblog.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart. and kidneys.00.com/cxoextra/0. brain.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live.acue.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.co.htm http://www.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning. Captivate. http://www.” > http://www.infoworld. http://cde.co. groupware. http://www. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting. virtual classrooms. online communities.thinkofit.brandonhall.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.> > http://www. http://ajax.htm http://www.co. http://www. > > http://weblog.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. forums and message boards.co. presentation and streaming presentation tools.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free. and Web presentations. virtual meetings.

http://www.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. April 30. http://www. Robin Good Blog.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus.htm Duckworth. July. http://www. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. K. 3.masternewmedia.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. http://labnol.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. (2002). and Quick. http://www.htm Hofman.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.asp McNally.russellmcnally. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Russ (2004).com/Breeze Part1. Luigi (2003b).com/product /software/795/index. (in two parts) > > http://www.html Canali De Rossi. http://www. Christine (2001).fasfind. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International.russellmcnally. (2004). 150 © Brandon Hall Research .org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. http://www. http://www.learningcircuits.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types.com/downloads/sear ch. Sept. July 26. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.http://www. http://www. Sept. K. Armit (2005).programjunction. P. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. 2003.com/software/present ation. July 8. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.presentations. 2005.blogspot.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus.com/wwwtools/m/21593. http://www. Jennifer (2004).org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.htm Canali De Rossi. Robin Good Blog. 7(3).pdf http://www. May 15.aln. P. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.masternewmedia. http://m. 2003. Live ELearning.com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). Digital Inspiration.01. Luigi (2003c).amazon.timelyweb.downloadjunction. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Live and Online!: tips.filesland. http://www. Luigi (2003a).html Using Apreso software. http://www..org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. 2003.pdf Scott.com/presentatio ns/index. and Furr.apreso.masterviews.. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.com/Breeze Part2. 2004.aace. Belinda (2003). Learning Circuits. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.

L.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.html Zielinski. http://www. Dave (2002).uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. Choices are great.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. http://www. Feb. and Winfield. but… Presentations Magazine. (2003).presentations.amazon.ac. and Equipment. Start Saving Time and Money Today. http://www.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. Choose your presentation tools carefully. AMACOM. 11. 2005. Choose the Right Vendors.infoworld.open.pdf Spielman.http://kmi.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . S.. Dec. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. Software. InfoWorld.

Instructional design built in. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. 2003).does not require any plug-ins. Advanced features. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. simple. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. including tools and templates. just-intime e-learning. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Tools for rapid e-learning are. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . virtual classroom.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible.automatically assures that all navigation works. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. microlearning > down pages. by necessity. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. programming. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. graphics. Assign SMEs who are committed. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge.e. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. In the second sense of the term. are built in. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. manage the content and the users. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. In the first case. Does not require any advanced skills. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. such as creating links. or HTML knowledge.versus high-interaction). and communicate deliverable expectations. glossary.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. For example. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. but not always good for you. Deploys easily . easy to use. usually when it is needed (Brodsky.. It is best suited to text-based materials. extreme e-learning. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Reduce the number of development vendors. According to Ready Go!. 2003). Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Navigation built in . or where the online information frequently changes. tests. It can refer to learning something quickly. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. learning objects. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. low. FAQ. Standardize approaches. and clip art is straight forward and supported .

and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. 2006.access to a clear project plan. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. http://www.scate.” Find out more: http://www.jsp?id=59278 Cooper.readygo.com/content/templat es/clo_article.elearningmag.microlearning. http://www.raptivity. Learning Solutions.ltimagazine. J. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. July 2. Tips and Techniques.com/studio.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Making rapid e-learning work. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. January 23. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries.pdf Brodsky. http://www. http://www. http://www. See a demo at: http://www. computer games. and Publish. schedule and due dates. Lane (2002). centrally located files. 2004. http://www.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. conferences. See sample templates at: http://www.clomedia.elearningguild. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05.meetingone. June.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. July 2004. August 2004. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. tools. Clark (2005). J. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. http://www.transformmag. Transform Magazine. LTI Newsline.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1. Mark (2003).htm Bersin.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon.com/showArticle. Chief Learning Officer.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Paper. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Reusability.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. Chief Learning Officer. (2004).pdf Aldrich. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.asp Bersin.learningcircuits. June 30. version control protocols. Josh (2004).com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h.amazon. Dianne (2005). http://www. Bill (2005). and other good stuff. Josh (2005). April.pdf Crosman.elearningguild. http://www.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.clomedia. Templates. Edit.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. http://www. 2004). January.elearningcentre.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. Enhance. http://www. Do not reproduce 153 .com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Kendrick (2006). which contains information on resources.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.htm Bibliography Abell. LTI Newsline. Jay (2005). Penny (2004). Jennifer (2004). E-Learning for short attention spans. Larstan Business Reports.masie. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. Learning Circuits. http://www. http://www.bersin. http://www. Future-Proofing. and Bersin.co.org Web site.articulate.

e-Learning Crop Circles. (2004b). http://www. Learning Circuits.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1. Macromedia White Paper.com/articles/abs tracts/index. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. February 2005.pdf Macromedia Inc. Joe (2005). 2006.clomedia.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. http://www.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.trainingpressreleases. Mobile and Device Based Learning.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Macromedia White Paper. http://www. Vignettes for Training White Paper.clomedia.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . January 2003. Nick (2005).com/articles /default. 2005. Jan. Eric (2003).asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. http://www. 10.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry.elearningguild. June 2004.ltimagazine.pdf Jimenez.elearningguru.adobe.trainingfoundation. 9.macromedia. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www.com/new sstory. Kevin (2002). LTI Newsline. January 16. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Ray (2005). 2006. The Training Foundation online article.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. http://www.jsp?id=150619 Hess. 2006. Learning Solutions. http://www. Chief Learning Officer.macromedia.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Rapid Intake White Paper. Simulation.pdf Shepherd. 2002. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. Ed (2004). http://www.pdf Gustafson. Press release. Stephanie (2006). http://download. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.learningcircuits. Nov. http://vftraining.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Garin (2004). Ray (2006). Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.pdf Mayberry.pdf Jimenez. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. April 20. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. Clive (2006). http://download.clomedia. Learning Solutions. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. (2004a).elearningguild.e-learning programs in weeks. http://www.htm Masie Center (2005). Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Mar. http://www.

This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 155 . for underwater exploration.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.edurobot. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. simulation > http://www.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. one child at a time.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.whmsi. and math.gov.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. http://robotics. engineering. technology.nasa. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.edu/index.botball.ife. http://www. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.org/aboutbotball/overview. http://mindstorms. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. http://www. Inc.euron. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. engineering.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. and mathematics.evolution. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.ri.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. > http://www.com/r_home. technology. http://www. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children.cmu. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.lego.active-robots.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.aad.rec.

ac.kipr. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.amazon. http://www.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference..pdf Papert..andrew.cmu. http://dangermouse.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him.eng.nasa. (1980).amazon.jp/ Blank.cs. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. M. (2004).uml. Germany.ed. L..edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.. H.org/article. New York. and Wagner. and Mataric. http://www.profetic. (2004). Mindstorms: Children. and vocal tics.l3s. Proceedings.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Ferrari. and Yanco.cuny. S. and Meeden. I. It features news. (2005). Keating. K..net/ Run by NASA.pdf Boersch.. http://www.. http://www.. D. P. Heinsohn. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. http://robotics.. D. M. http://www. (2004). M.atr. Basic Books. (1999).pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics.l3s. D.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. Computers. G. D. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. New York: Syngress Publishing.pdf http://www.sci.pdf Nourbakhsh. and Hempel.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto.ams. and Dautenhahn. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. (2004). Artificial Intelligence Conf. (2001).technology.osaka-u. Lathan.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr. H. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.tools for accessible education..com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . Paper at the American Assoc. particularly robotics.brynmawr. http://www. and Powerful Ideas. http://zeus.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. W.edu/~sklar/er /edu. Miller. J.microworlds.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. By donning motion sensors.pdf Cooper.php Bibliography Blank.pdf Ferrari. November. L. Düsseldorf. D.com/solutions/mw exrobotics. Kumar. D. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. I.jp/ See also: http://www. Harwin. Kumar. links. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.wtec. R. Mr. go to: http://www. http://www. and Loose. U.gov/rcc/index.brooklyn. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. and other information on robotics. http://robothaven.irc. Robots in the classroom . Sept. Meeden. June. Germany. Find out more about this group at: http://www. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. AAATE Conference 1999.. Yanco. H. http://www.fhbrandenburg. B. lip movements. Hohmann. C. > > http://www.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster.

ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education... Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. M.pdf Stewart. Dobreva.. A.digicult. Donnelly. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Abbott. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. R. D. Sept.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . Ontario. 28-30. S.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. M. McHugh.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. http://www. T. Ottawa. (2001). and Rusbridge.ccmlab. http://rob. (2005). A.. and West.

while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. Meta–search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. which submit queries. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. They bring into the equation user preferences. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. data mining. Web directories. each with their own defining feature sets. 2004). While search engines have improved over the past several years.examples are early yahoo.com and Alta Vista. such as Google and Altavista. a rich user experience. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. information retrieval. collective intelligence. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . One is the problem of finding relevant.so they take the structure of the Web into account. search engine optimization. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. dependable information. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . Ezzy (2006a. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. for a variety of reasons. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. federated search. But. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. meta-search engines. such as Yahoo. collaboration. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. in parallel. One new approach is called “federated searching. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. resource discovery. as this section of the report shows. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. Examples are Google and Overture.

com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.gravee. get answers http://www.umich.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.google. http://www.ask.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.gada.netscape. rather than just returning Web pages.aeiwi.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. http://www.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings. http://www. http://www.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.umdl.com/ Gravee . and text.grokker.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. http://www.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. http://www.mooter. and the Web.com/search/defa ult. http://search. http://www. http://www. http://www.com Gada. http://www.answers. http://www.alltheweb.lexxe. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network.msn. http://www.com’s search service http://a9. then fill in the search box.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.about.looksmart.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.aol.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://dmoz.gnod.hotbot.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.com About.jookster.convera. blogs. video.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://channels.icerocket. http://www.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine. http://www. http://www.gigablast.faganfinder. http://www.otavo. http://search. http://www.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. http://search.altavista. http://www.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.com/ Answers.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item. http://oaister. http://getoutfoxed.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.alexa. http://www. http://www.

edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://www. Yahooligans.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research .yahoo.qelix. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.imdb.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://qube.eurekster.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . Much of this information is hidden from view.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. http://froogle.imdb.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.Clusters results. http://vivisimo.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. http://infomine.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.blinkx.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.gov/ http://www. http://books.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. http://icerocket. http://kids.ai.pubsub.ucr. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.google. ArtKIDSRule.gnoosic. http://www. http://www.gpoaccess.acronymfinder. http://www. and movies. FactMonster.psu.squidoo. http://www.com/ Wink – Using social networking.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.com/v2/index.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. users tag their favorite results and block spam.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. & KidsClick!.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. > > http://firstgov. reviews. http://citeseer. http://swicki.sri.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://scholar. http://www.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://www. reviews.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.stumbleupon. http://www. AolKIDS.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.koders.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://www. AwesomeLibrary.healthfinder.ujiko. http://rollyo.govmine. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://www.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. books.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://www. http://www. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids.google. http://tagjag.com/v2a/flash.ithaki.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.wink.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.ist. cast lists and theatre schedules.google. http://www. Wink then diplays the results.topic appears. http://www.

edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://lawcrawler.rrzn.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).ibm.com/ MediaFinder . http://www.omgili.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature. http://www. http://portal.searchedu. http://wwwqbic.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www.cmp.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. http://www.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.uni-hannover.f cgi QBIC .” Content-based search engines for pictures.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.org/ Omgili .com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.ist.krugle.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.columbia. http://wang16. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www. http://www.pandora.ee. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.A legal search engine. http://www.columbia. http://smealsearch1.technorati.4 billion links. http://www.liveplasma.Krugle – A search engine for developers.gov/entrez/query.convera.truveo.htm Do not reproduce 161 .last.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites. http://www. http://techsearch.nlm.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics.nih.searchking.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.org/citation. http://www. http://www.soundspotter. http://www.merl.seekport.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.com/ Last.rawsugar.com/ LitLinker .Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. http://www.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. as of this writing.psu.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.cfm?doid=10 56808. http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. http://www.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.columbia.ee.scirus.findlaw.ee.ncbi.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. http://www. http://www.fm/ LawCrawler .fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes.almaden.acm.psu.

or federated searching. dating and personals.uk/ SearchTools. is a valuable resource for researchers. classifieds. movies.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. Unlike other search engines. maps/directions. http://a9. tickets.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. news sources.ixquick. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.intute. http://vivisimo. bookmarks.zoominfo.zapmeta. pictures. weather. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www. http://nlp. http://www.researchbuzz. apartment rentals.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://clusty.com/ clusters.bolton.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. and tracks a user's search history. http://www. http://www. jobs. and links the clusters.ac.ithaki. http://searchenginewatch.ac. therefore.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. http://www.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.kartoo. http://www.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK.nyu. health information sources. and their relationships. city guides. flights.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. yellow pages.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. http://www. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. focused searches on topics they care about. Known as “meta-search” engines. and Web mail for the topic entered.dogpile.inria. white pages.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.searchtools.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://www-rocq.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.copernic.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.com/ Info – Searches reference works. games. shopping sites.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. http://www. http://www. hotels. http://www.net/indexu. http://www. and notes. http://www. video. http://www.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.info.search. lottery results.xcavator.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. audio. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. companies.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. greeting cards. http://www.trovando.cs.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. eBay. the user's community has total control over the results.

No. http://swicki. 7-12.citysearch. Resource Discovery . With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. http://www. No. S. and Apprato. http://www.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. F..gov/ http://www. Ebrahim (2006). http://www.gov/ http://www. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. http://www.eurekster. First Monday. DigiCULT Thematic Report.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.gpoaccess.tveyes. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.readwriteweb. Search 2.html Battelle. Frank. can be published on the user's site. Exchanging. 6. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr. or swicki. Guntram (2004).ucr. New York: Portfolio. July 20. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing.amazon.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. 2004. June. (2005). Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).htm Ezzy. http://www. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.just as a search engine is used for text. http://www. International Journal on e-Learning. http://www.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. 6. and Shoham.php Geser. 10(12).editlib.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. http://infomine.php Ezzy.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. Y.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. This search engine. 2006. July 25. Read/Write Web. July-Sept.co..com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. June 2004. A.pdf Ensor.readwriteweb.ac. and Searching in eLearning Systems.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. (2004).elearning.netmasters.digicult.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. December. or topic .org/index. http://www. phrase. http://www.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. Users can also browse by subject category. Pat (2005). Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.searchenginecolossus.0 vs. Part 2.com/ Stephen Downes. is against the idea of federated searches.ala. O. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. For example. http://www. Do not reproduce 163 . Traditional Search. John (2005).firstmonday. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.. > > http://firstgov. Ebrahim (2006). Part 1.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. Search 2. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Read/Write Web. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.downes. 2006. Traditional Search.0 vs.

infoworld.ac.isnoldenburg. Bob (2005).useit. Mimkes. 2005. April 28. and Hilf.digicult. Doctoral dissertation. Major Search Engines and Directories.1759.eweek. 149-166. J. 15. Oct.ed. http://dl.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. Mittal. html Porco. (2005). eWeek.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores.com/alertbox/20030630. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. InfoWorld. http://www. http://www. Kashyap. eSchool News.ht m Pratt. 4(1). http://bobwyman. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox.pdf Murray.http://www.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.infoworld. http://www. E.eschoolnews. 2004.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I.prescientdigital.ischool. Mike (2004).com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. Carmine (2006). SearchEngineWatch. 10.asp Wyman.html Heck. Richard (2004). Parts I and II. http://www. 2005.pdf Gincel. White paper. InfoWorld. http://searchenginewatch.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. 2003. Corey (2005). Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials.htm Part II: http://www.com/links/article .18 69408. S.uk/boon/delos200 5.washington. http://homepages. and Gupta.php/2156221 Vaas.pubsub. J. Prescient Digital Media.prescientdigital. Oct. (2004). P. Danny (2004). (2000). A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.com/article2/0. Lisa (2005).pdf Sullivan. 15.00. Part I: http://www.pdf Schlenker.com. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. May 8. International Journal on E-Learning. B..com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. It’s Gada. http://www. W. June 30.html Kumar. 2004. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. Oct. 2005. Search engines don’t suck. Simple advice for complex search solutions. S.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Stanford University. and MacColl. http://www.org/16955 Low. 2004. A. Oct.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. http://www. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 .aace..de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. M.com/news/showS toryts. (2005).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Jakob (2003). 2004. 3. Refining enterprise search.. they’re just limited.

Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). Selected Examples In Europe. are now falling short of earlier promises. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Abbas et al. near Boston. Like it or not. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). http://www. founder of the World Wide Web. ontologies. but it will not be in general use for some time.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. It has both its advocates and its critics.org/en/index. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. semantic grid. search. metadata. taxonomies. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers.elenaproject.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. microformats. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate.alphaworks. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. such Do not reproduce 165 .Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. 2003).aktors.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. http://www.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. (2005) note that “historically.ibm. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. http://www. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). producing metadata always implies a particular worldview.

Ali.. Z.. Markus. O.ac. (2004).info/issues. MA: MIT.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. semantic infrastructural services. http://www. A. http://www. Web Services. A Semantic Web Primer. and van Harmelen (2004).dit.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. May 9-12. http://www. H..ifets...com/downloads/samples/JSWIS.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. http://www-jime. and Smith. Z.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. L. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. S. Wahlster.ideagroup.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.seco. http://arxiv. Forward. J.hp. and Zillinger. May 29 June 1. http://www.amazon. xi... Simon.net/ Bibliography Abbas. G.. May 2001. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. http://www-jime. Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. http://kaon.. The first issue is free..open.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou. McClatchey. S.ifets.jxta. Hendler.. and Lassila. (Eds. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. and Ahmed. G. Olmedilla. (2001). S.pdf Daconta. http://www. D. T. http://www.es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. (2003). http://www.com/article..) (2003).. B.tkk.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051..as semantic portals for end-users. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. (2005). S.. http://www. M. and Hendler. 2005. and Whitelock. http://edutella..pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. and Knowledge Management.aimatshape.open.de/html/ Aguirre. Umer.hpl. Sobernig. Cambridge. In Fensel. http://www.pdf Anderson. Salvachua. (1). D.semanticweb.amazon. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. (2005). W. Huber.amazon. Miklos. http://jungla. New York: Wiley.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler.. J. Mark (2005). M. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Tim (2003). K.sciam.upm. F.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. Obrst. Lieberman. implementing. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. The semantic web.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. Mozo. T.php?http://www . http://www. Brantner.. M. J.ac.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research . Odeh. T. A.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. Scientific American. D. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). R.info/index. Greece.personal-reader.

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reviewed simulations as an online content format.calt. http://cave. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. but information about it remains on the Web.insead.insead. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 . It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations. http://www. microworlds.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network. According to High (2004). http://www.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.ncsa. http://sos. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.noaa. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.calt.arcscience. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. learn.e. participants will be motivated to evaluate.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.calt.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. games. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems.insead.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others. http://www. role-playing. 2005).com/omni. http://www. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. i.insead.calt.gov/ Winters et al.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.uiuc. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.calt. especially ones set by themselves. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www. http://www.insead.” My first report in this series. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. It was decommissioned in 2005.icherubini.

intermezzon.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. For example.calt.miami.geo. http://www. pulse rate. http://www. go to: http://www.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things. http://www. and murmurs.edu/ http://um3d.stt-global.net/ Biographix .experiencebuilders. http://www.. http://www.com/broadcastoverview. http://www." http://www.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.net/celestia/index.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.virtualfishtank.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.edu/geowall/ind ex. with many examples to try. they are only available for Macintosh computers.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. heart sounds. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.adobe.sdsu." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. without programming knowledge. > > http://geowall.berkeley. and Mac OS X.dc.ht m Intermezzon . breathing.umich.lsa. Mass. http://www.edcenter. Linux. It runs on Windows.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.atghome. to play in a virtual fishtank.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . http://crme.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www.assima.fsl.umich.http://www. http://www.shatters.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.forio.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index.com/ Forio .Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.biographix. http://www. However. http://www.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.noaa.edcenter.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.ISLE . A guide’s voice prompts the employee. http://www.adobe. http://thinkertools.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.med.edu/harvey_about.soe.making-history. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.html weather forecasting.sdsu.insead.

com/ MaxIT . http://www.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www. create courses specifically on using computer software.knowledgeplanet. http://www.learning2005. including simulations.com/ Knowledge Planet .elearningcentre.com/portal/index. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. Integrates with many media types.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.stottlerhenke.icherubini.com/3dTraining. http://www.bc.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index. http://www.maxit. http://www.com/products/sim.stagecast. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required. http://coe.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.” http://www. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .com/product_r pe.knowledgepresenter. http://www. http://www. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.reusableobjects.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.maxit.knowledge-director.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.teds. http://www.virtualcontrolroom.percepsys.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.com/ Reusable Objects .qarbon. http://www.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.co. http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.nexlearn.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training. Do not reproduce 171 .knowledgequest.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.sdsu. http://www.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/ MaxIT . which can then be used to build simulations.xstreamsoftware.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/products /firefly.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. http://www.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.com/ Kookaburra Studios . develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes. http://www.jibc.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.outstart.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. http://www.the click of a mouse.KnowledgePresenter Simulator . http://www.

T.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.learningcircuits. B. http://www. Montréal. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www. (2001). A.html Linser. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich.ht m Sloman. J. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Les (2004).pdf DeVries. and Bostan. A. and McCloughlin. In Interaction Design and Children. http://www.ac. Implementation and Evaluation. (2004).org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich. Chief Learning Officer. (2002). Rasmussen.uva.. and Hou. http://www. October 15-19. Jennifer (2004). M. Learning Circuits.simplay. 8. http://itdl.htm eSchool News (2004). http://www.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. P.html Sobeih. AACE conference. http://www. Learning Circuits. http://www. September.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. http://www.PDF Blikstein. Online report. H.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. A.. A. Computer simulations in distance education. Aaron (2005). and Wilensky.blikstein. J. Laser. M.amazon. October 2004.html Learning Circuits. Clark (2004). Feb. Bjorn (2004).case studies.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. http://www. Learning Circuits. T.medialabeurope. computer games.learningcircuits. F. Gash.projects.http://www. eSchool News..org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. Paper presented at Robocup conference. A. Sept.ncassr. 2004. San Francisco: Pfieffer. L. p. Six criteria of an educational simulation. Holland. http://www. Making the most of software simulations. 2004. Shannon (2004). Financial Times. Department of Computer Science. October. 1(10).asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. http://www. Viswanathan. How playing power drives lessons home..org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. Mazloumian.ac.eschoolnews.net/papers/ELearning.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. http://www. International Workshop. Aug. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.com/news/showS tory. R.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.clomedia. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. J.learningcircuits. (2004). Kamau (2004). The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. A. Simjour. http://www. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.bbk. and Ip.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. & de Jong. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign..pdf Cherubini..uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. (2005). July.for Philosophers and Engineers.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. September. Taghiyareh. 12.. 2002.html Lunce. Simulation levels in software training. 2004. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .pdf Swaak. (2002). Utrecht.htm Aldrich. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005).cs. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. and Sund Martin.html Karrer.science. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. U.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. A.htm High. (2001).. http://www.learningcircuits.ft. June. Clark (2005). The promise of online simulations. 4.bham.

pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. Mar. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. http://www. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. Fort Lauderdale. C. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. Online paper at: http://lsm.org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.prospect.pdf Turkle. and Strohecker.. 284-294. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .. The American Prospect.icherubini.html Winters.protonmedia. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. (2003).pdf Tjaden. http://www. M. 1997.uc. April. USA. Sherry (1997). N.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper.knowledge.-Apr. 8(31). Florida.dei. Gary (2003). 17. Cherubini.. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. In Association for Computing Machinery.

ala. http://cnm. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. For a full discussion of this issue.iu.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.edu/102605_meal. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.ac. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. 2005).open. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.org/Template.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.checkpointsystems. optical tags. grease.” http://vis. http://uitspress. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. RFID technology is developing rapidly. especially for tagging retail items in stores.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. therefore. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. They are programmable and. http://www. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. While controversial. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). which transmits over short distances. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. especially in museums and for outdoor education.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.edu/index. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. infrared (IR) tags. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. easily changed. or water. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.com/default . ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.iu.

2005 . (2004). Aparna (2004).com/monthly/articl e.csmonitor.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www.pdf Robinton. http://www. (2005).com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. 5. adoption and innovation. and Yano.rfidnews. & Kondo. TD Monthly.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. http://www.msu. Shibuya. C. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc..xml&DOI=10.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.digicult..pdf Osawa et al. A. eSchool News Online.. R. S.asp?id=1222 Ross.cfm?fuse action=Reader.toydirectory. K. RFID: frequency.66 Ward.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. http://www.. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students. standards. Noda..cfm?fuseaction=Reader. A.eschoolnews. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.). http://www. http://www. Proceedings. Technology Watch Report 1. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.toydirectory. http://csdl2. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism..uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602.msu. van Kranenburg.. January 1. Michigan State University.digicult. http://www.org/news/showsto ry. (2006). http://www. Andrew (2005).edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. G. G.jisc. Oct. in a 2005 online article. and Backhouse. Corey (2004)..html?s=feature Heining.aace. In Kommers.. Y. March. Tsukagoshi. (2005). K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . T. M.org/newdl/index.pdf Salcedo. http://www.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www. Y. 4(3). and Dobreva. 2005. 261-263. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). M. S. 2004. Noma. http://www.org/ Bibliography Borck. Ando. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags.pdf Murray. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. Masters Thesis.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. Infoworld.infoworld.. 2004. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. H.1109/WMTE.html Osawa. 276-283. James (2006).. June 27.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. http://www. (2003).pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. April 13.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton.computer. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. Donnelly. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.com/monthly/articl e.. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. P. M. http://www. & Richards. and Case. (Eds. Ogata. R.ac. N.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.aace.

and search for a specific user's Blinks.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. http://www.connotea. For example. get inspired. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. share their stories.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites.icio. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. or distributed in e-mails. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content.First. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. connect with others. share references with colleagues. while users of the del. Flickr held over 100 million images. Fifth. As of April 2006. Second. describe. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. http://blogmarks. Also. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. For instance. search.A free service to help academics share. printouts. researchers at all levels (students. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media.net/ CiteULike .metafilter. and organize the academic papers they are reading. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. no matter their location or timing. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. and Web links. http://www. The result is something called a tag cloud. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. http://www. They can save references.us Web site (http://del. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.” However. http://www. faculty. http://ask. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. they act as an “outboard memory. or check out what everyone wants to do. Blink also provides tools to sort. as each member can upload resources discovered.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. store.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations.com/ Blinklist .blinklist. Third. and to share them. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. Fourth.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. music. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. users can see what others are Blinking. Students. tagging.43things.citeulike.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.us) post their favorite Web sites. and books. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries….icio. in turn.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. metadata. search others’ references. ontologies.

feedmarker. http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.A free. http://www. http://www.us/ Digg .A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking. http://projectpad. http://www. RSS.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. http://www. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage. based on what is happening in the news media.northwestern.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. the users decide.digg.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.kaboodle.gnolia.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.eu/products/networ k_menus. http://www.com Clipmarks . http://consumating.Consumating . and/or books and find them again.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. and discover relevant links.pageflakes.memeorandum.com/ Project Pad . or enter new items and tag them. updated in near real time.com/archives/beta_up date/index. share.clipmarks.linkroll.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.com/ Simpy – Search tags. sort. http://myweb2.shadows. search.netscape.html Linkroll . http://ma. and share photos with others.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.com/ Jots .com/ Del.eventful.net/ Jookster .jookster. http://www. http://www.icio. users submit stories for review.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. Also retrieve it easily.edu/ppad2/ index. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. blogging. http://blog.com/ Kaboodle .com/ Flickr – Store.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.search. similar to Digg. http://www. http://www. and non-hierarchical editorial control. http://flickr.us .icio.org/news.com/ Furl .netvouz.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. http://jots. With digg.networkltd.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. Tags can be shared or kept private.furl. http://www. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.yahoo. http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free.com/ Magnolia .com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://www. but. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.simpy. http://del. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://www. music.rojo.

com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.” > > http://magazines.veotag. Web 2. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.us.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.net/ Suprglu .html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. a technology columnist for InfoWorld. and social bookmarking. http://weblog.com/index. and share it with others. Bryan (2006). tags.zvents.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.com/wwwtool s/m/7172.icio.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.fasfind. and Digg. http://www.wink.us.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. 41(2). http://upcoming.smugmug.S.com/udell/gems/d elicious. http://www.infoworld.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.html http://www.yelp.suprglu. http://www.fasfind. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.” http://www.spurl. Flickr.quickonlinetips.com/ about how tagging works with del.educause.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. March/April 2006.tagzania. http://www. http://www.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. http://tabblo.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. http://www.quickonlinetips.peterme. http://www.wists. http://www.com Wists – A social shopping site.com/archives/000 558.A.icio. If a city is not there.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander.com/wwwtool s/m/6350.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.html http://atomiq. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . Online Resources Jon Udell. http://swik. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.com/ SWiK .quickonlinetips.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story. http://unalog. with contributions from users.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. > http://www.html http://tagsonomy. http://www.

edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. HP Labs Report. Jan.org/teachersource/learning . T.org.pdf Mejias.ht ml Mejias. and Huberman. Liz (2005).shtml Golder.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. 11(4).html Coates. 2006.289142. 11(4). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. http://www. and Scott. Andy (2006). 2.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. B. 2.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es.isi. 2005.html Lawley.pdf Gurber. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Lund. Jon (2005). D-Lib Magazine. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. Tag mania sweeps the Web.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious.. http://tomgruber.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Will (2005). J. Ideant. Shamus (2006). Aug. B. http://searchcio. Adam (2004). 2006.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. M. The New School of Ontologies.http://www.dlib.typepad.. (2005).typepad.00. 20.sid19_gci1195182.html Udell. (2005). Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. 2004. Trusted Sources.hp.htm Hammond. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. April 2005. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.plasticbag. http://www. July 20. Many2Many.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd.infoworld. (2005).php Lund. Tom. August 20. InfoWorld.educause. http://www. B. Tom (2005). T.adammathes.infoworld. Flack. D-Lib Magazine.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. http://www.pdf Richardson.. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.com/originalCo ntent/0. Online Paper.weblogged. Online paper. http://www. Keynote address. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. http://ideant. 2005. 2005.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin. T.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. April 2005. http://www. Sept. Collaborative knowledge gardening.ejournal. Tags vs. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. and Hannay. InfoWorld.techtarget. S.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. http://dlib.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 2005. (2005).html Mote.html McGillicuddy. Nicholas (2004). http://www.html Do not reproduce 179 . http://many. May 5.html Mathes. Hannay. Plasticbag.corante. Ulises (2005).ascc. SearchCIO. Jon (2004). Social consequences of social tagging. T. 2005.pbs.hpl.com. May 20. June 21.. Ulises (2004).com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. Webblogg-ed. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.. http://www.. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. Hammond. http://www. http://ideant.

shared link libraries such as del.al. etc. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration.com. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. communities of practice. photo sharing sites.) Relationship Management (Orkut.” that is. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Friendster. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. work.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research .us. My first report in this series. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. dating sites. photo albums. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. etc. etc. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. tagging. social software. http://www. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. etc. shared links. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. social networking sites such as Friendster. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. online personals such as Match. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. family. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM.com.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. and the military. SMS.) Experience Sharing (blogs. e-mail. reviewed social networking as an online content format. 2005).icio. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.classmates. e-mail.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates.

esnips. http://www. Share it with others if desired. Users share their writings and meet each other. and geographic regions.com/ Orkut . https://www. http://www. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.facebook.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. as a blog.faceparty. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. List who a person knows and find out who others know.orgnet.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.yahoo.orkut. or as a social network. upload photos.com/ Live Journal . http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. in associations. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.linkedin. Facebook has networks for colleges. http://www.last. and files and then make them available to others. high schools.com/signin/index. and within “communities of interest.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. http://www.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. http://www. http://www. https://www. http://www.analytictech. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. video.com Platial – A site to create social maps. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.com/inflow3. http://www.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. audio.stumbleupon. which is then open to other readers. http://www. http://www.diaryland. http://platial.spartasocialnetworks.html Last.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.” http://www.myspace. http://360.netminer.xanga. photos.my-diary. http://www.freeopendiary. http://www.friendster.codeville.com/introNetwor ks. http://www. http://www.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.com/reg/sample.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. workplaces. It costs several thousand dollars. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 . documents. http://www.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.intronetworks.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. http://www.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.livejournal.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.com/ucinet.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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A. Naeve.) (2000). Nils (2000).advanced. and Naeve. as well as news.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. J.berkeley.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society. http://messenger.pdf Knudsen.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. http://gaim. http://get. http://www-142. On the Internet. the CAVE. 6.percro. A.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . In Soldek. Ken (Ed.ietf.com/index. Online memo.advanced.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.net/ Jabber – An open." http://www.txt Knudsen.networkworld. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. and Pejas.ibm. http://kmr. and Handberg.org/rfc/rfc2779. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.fakespace. http://www. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.hig.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.org/teleimmersio n2. history.sourceforge. http://www. http://www. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. (2001). secure. Cambridge. http://www.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. MacOS X. Hubert (2001). (Eds. J.pd f Fontana. John (2004). http://www.kth. http://www2. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. The driver sits in a box.nada. Sept. > > http://www.“Simultaneous Presence.live. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software. C.org/teleimmersio n.org Bibliography Dreyfus.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. and Windows. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.acs. C. BSD.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.yahoo.jabber.html Goldberg.no/at/nmm/enlund.. 2004.ebuddy. L. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room.aim.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat. http://www. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. London: Routledge. MA: MIT Press.virtual-presence. http://laimuz. (2002). http://www. Network World.unizar. 44-49.ieor.com/software/swlotus/products/product3.amazon.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. http://www.html http://www. Network Working Group (2000).com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. http://www. Presence applications poised for takeoff. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.

Banff.. January 2005. (Eds.) (2003).nada. Jan. McHugh. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. In Hoyer.wired.Learning.modes.650 64-0. and Rusbridge. (Eds. http://www.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.pdf Lynn. InfoWorld. Being There: Concepts. M.. http://www. (2001). effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. F..pdf Sponberg. H. A. Knudsen. W. Regina (2004). Abbott. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Jon (2005). 2002. H.swedishlearninglab. A. (2005). http://cid.infoworld... http://www..org/docume nts/Sponberg. Calgary.se/pdf/CID-206. September 24.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. S.com/news/culture/0. L. Alberta.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Germany: Hagen.html Riva. Ins and outs of teledildonics. June 1. Dobreva. http://www. 28. http://www. and IJsselsteijn. et al. G.kth. and Handberg. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. M.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1. When time-shifting and telepresence collide.pdf Udell. C. Wired News. Donnelly.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . D.digicult.amazon. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Davide.

My first report in this series. tlearning. streaming video. television. Once video goes on the Internet. IPTV. 2005). Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. videocasting. Do not reproduce 189 . screencasting. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. BT. vodcasting. video blogging. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. in all its formats. Further. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. PDAs. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. Video blogging has become common. However. according to Foroohar (2006). IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. In spite of the limitations. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. even a video plug-in for Skype. 2002). Britain's largest telecom firm. amateur and professional video cameras. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. telepresence. A new version of television. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. cell phones. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). the largest Internet telephone service. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. bandwidth becomes an issue. reviewed video as an online content format. As the following examples show.

com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ At YouTube.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.youtube.com/index_about.dmeurope.addictingclips.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype.org/ In 1999. improves the satisfaction of the client. http://www. http://www. http://www.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. the “triple play” of video. whether dial-up.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www.ourmedia.bittorrent. employees.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software. the Internet telephone service. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. and maintains loyalty. a three-minute videoblog.dfilm.bittorrent. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.com/default.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. and divide them into chapters or segments.com/pressrelea ses.veotag. http://www. See samples at: http://www. with IPTV.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.on2. http://www. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. tag them.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.com For an example of a video blog.uk/index.apple.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. http://www. PDA.rocketboom. http://video.brightcove. see Rocketboom.medialogic.com/ BitTorrent. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos. low bandwidth video stream.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.” Users can upload video clips for free. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.google. http://www.axor.xstreamengine. or set-top box.ar/iptv_en. voice.google. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends. desktop. http://www. http://www. cellular.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. It is still going strong at: http://www. See examples at: http://www. and multimedia content to customers.com/nara. http://www. partners. or students through a high quality.html Dialcom Networks. http://www. video.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. See the current selection at: http://video.concord.com.rocketboom. http://participatoryculture.co. http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. http://vpb.

http://eduscapes.com/seeds/index.” http://www.masternewmedia. http://www.educause.hpc.mefeedia.elearnspace.co.com/webconf/video.navy. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.” http://www. and Bates.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. Dec. http://www.co.masternewmedia.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the.mil/index.dvguru. Pradeep (2004). (2003). http://www. http://www.com/ http://www. Wi-Fi.lsda. and by tags. D. For example.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. http://www.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.masternewmedia.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. Wi-Max. Peter (2003).iptv-industry. 2005.uk/tlearning/contents.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 . 1.” http://www. read “Ten video sharing services compared. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.com/article. http://www.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. Beyond Wireless Broadband. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. Luigi (2005b).uk/files/pdf/1443. The site already contains nearly 6.org. termed “mobile television.500 vlogs organized by popularity. which users can submit.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.elearningcentre.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.” http://knowledge.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. P.veoh. video. Robin Good Blog.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.” Bibliography Atwere. www.pdf Bardia. t-learning Study .spider.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. but business models are fuzzy. by alphabet. Luigi (2005a).thinkofit.pjb. and visual resources. https://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.upenn.edu/articl e.masternewmedia. http://www. Online article at: http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.org/doing/media.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. http://www. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.wharton.streamingmedia.ht m Canali De Rossi.

pdf Klass. and Swenson.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. Brian (2005). P.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. Campus Technology. (Ed. Nov. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Peter (2005). http://www-rcf. L.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .apple. http://www1.pdf Thornhill. Networking Pipeline. 2.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. http://www2. http://www. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. June 6. S. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project. http://www.networkingpipeline. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. Manchester. Brian (2002). 417-419). Robin Good Blog.bcr. discussions and implications.com/article. Changing Channels.ibm. 2005. G. http://edmarketing.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. 8-9. (2005).campustechnology. http://www.) (2002). In Richards.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. 7.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. (Eds.php Taplin. Mon. Feb. 2005.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . April 26. http://www. Newsweek (International Ed. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Tom (2005).msn. Durham. pdf Nolle. The IPTV Revolution.msnbc. Dec.masternewmedia. 2005.. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.).ac. Rana (2005). NC: Duke University.htm Curtis.umist. (2003).com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman.aace. Online paper.asp?id=7769 Meng. University of Missouri. http://www.XMax Goes The Distance.org/newdl/index. Matthew (2005). and Young.usc. 2005.cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://www. http://www. 2005. Jonathan. IBM Institute for Business Value study.com/showAr ticle. IAT Services White Paper.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. M. Asensio. C. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.amazon.

People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. http://solipsis.net/wiki2/index. http://www.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. Depending on the level of realism achieved.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. skin color.equator. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent. By using aspects of game play. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.org/highlights/augur. designers. http://www1. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. and storytellers. Near Eastern. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Shape has developed the augurscope.ca/index. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. Exploration and discovery are enabled.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. interaction. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. Creed. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.cs.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. augmented virtuality. http://www.netofpeers.org.shapedc. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.futurelab.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. http://ancient.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. distributed virtual environments. Videoconferencing is not required. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.ac. http://www.ubc. desktop virtual reality. and Religious Studies department. http://www. and the aim of the virtual experience. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life.kahootz. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity.columbia. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. simulation. mixed reality.arts. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. exchange enabling. inventors. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. To do this.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.

maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.campustechnology. 2006. 175-199.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.cti.secondlife.healthdatamanagement.coe. including education.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. 24. For example.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 . and Tsiatsos.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. and Tsiatsos. T.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Research report.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.com/edu/index..asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . https://www.ahds.ahds. Journal of Network and Computer Applications..navy. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.ch/About/about_index. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.informationinplace. Campus Technology..ac. http://vrlab.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. Technology Area . The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. Luigi (2004).ergonetz.html The U.com http://www. C.ecu. http://ru6. Hornig. East Carolina University. G.ac. > http://vads. http://www. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. and Tsiatsos.cti.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).cti.com/article. (2001). http://www. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. http://ru6. (2006).pdf Bouras. http://www.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34. Philopoulos. > > http://www. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).opencroquet. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. T. C. T.S.html Bibliography Bouras.pdf Bouras. A.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany.mil/index.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. http://www. Triantafillou. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. C.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research .epfl.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. http://vr.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. http://ru6.spider. http://www. Paper presented at ICALT 2001. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.hpc.activeworlds.edu/vrel. V.org/index.intuition-eunetwork. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. (2001). http://www. August 9.

(2004).unihannover. January 2005.. E.org/htmleng/english.com/PaperInfo. D.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www.ie/Owen.com/Reference.icc2005. Guardian Unlimited. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. 2005..co. G. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.htm Katterfeld. R. A.. Stephen (2004). Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. S. (2005). Istanbul. 2004.00.1314022. and Mangina. 2004. Conlan. International Archives of Photogrammetry. http://www. Eva (2004). No. http://www.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.masternewmedia.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. La Coruna/Spain. http://www.eng. http://www.guardian. M. J.cs. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. https://www. Gerard (2002). ISPRS.actapress.digicult. Proceedings.uk/elearning/ story/0. M.. F. Bertolotto.actapress. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.learningcircuits. http://courseweb. http://www. Sept. Dobreva. P. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Learning Circuits.pdf Katterfeld. 27. M.actapress..org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning.ikg. http://education. http://www. (Section on Virtual Reality). and Hicks.html Jones. 1(2). P. M. 1. Vol. Web-based Education 2005 conference.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. (2005). World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. (2004). Abbott. http://www. G.pdf Ross.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . & Sester. and Rusbridge.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld.tcd.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. Sept.pdf Hoare.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. Monahan.html Liarokapis. http://www.pdf McArdle. Ekaterina (2005)..oln. T.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. Web Based Education 2005 conference.unt. July 9-16. 35.edu. F.. McHugh. O.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. http://www. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. and Sester.monash. A. M.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. M.elearning. Petridis. C. (2002).org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning.htm Dickey. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments.Good Blog. (2005). Dec. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.com/PaperInfo. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Proceedings. C. and Seyedarabi. Lister. 2004. http://www. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE).p df Prasolova-Førland.unibo. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. 2004. Donnelly. Trend: augmented reality check. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.10577. Michelle (2003). DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. (2005).Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. and White. 28.

For an example. reviewed visualization as an online content format. allowing for innovation or new understandings.semagix. pattern recognition.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. The educational advantages of visualization are many. http://www. mapping.inxight. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. GIS.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.net/omnigator/models/ index. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. data filtering. Finally. On the other hand. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. location based systems. graphics.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. and data rendering. images. such as a blog.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. visualization can represent alternative points of view. http://www. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. geographical information systems. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. 2005). My first report in this series. http://www. dynamic displays.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. which showcases their potential.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.dpc. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www.com/solutions.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research .ontopia. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. see ZoomClouds. http://www. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users.zoomclouds. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. See some amazing demos at: http://www. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Flash.unifiedfield. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. cybercartography. 2003). et al.ucar. data mapping. cognitive collage.

Sample the collection at: http://svs.ac.nih. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.mit. http://www.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.cs.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. http://www. http://www.alice.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.”’ BBC News.vista. See: http://www.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.lecielestbleu.vrco.esrin.in English or Spanish. http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www. http://www. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.org/timeformations/ intro. 2004.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch. http://www. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.nlm. Museum Edition.ddd.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. http://news.media. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.medibolt.” http://richie. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.idc.nixlog.gsfc. delivery. Be sure to explore the “zoo.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. VR.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.com/VBody. It has images of space and the earth from space.esa.html For a practical application of visualization.marumushi.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.nasa.gov/index. http://esapub. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines.” http://www. and visualization applications.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.edu/ Paul Nixon.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.bbc.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.edu/index. http://www. http://chatcircles. http://www.tmm.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.0 authoring system.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.ubc. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.co. April 7th.bham.utexas.com Web site in Tokyo. Free demo at: http://www.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . a young graphic designer.ul.skyscraper. and display (without glasses!).typorganism. http://www.medtropolis.

http://www. anatomically detailed.unifiedfield.com/index.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.ibm.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. http://www.vicodi.gfdl. one million items.at: http://www.com/applicati on. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.at/home. See this technology in action. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland. http://makingmaps. for example. http://www.owu. http://www.com/omni. http://www.ambientdevices.com/solutions.idashboards.com/cat/dashb oard/index. retrieval.html XCelsius http://www.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.microsoft. http://clustrmaps.edu/postcartoaag06.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.net/omnigator/models/ index.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. in the U.spotfire.html Top Tier http://www.semagix.cs.S. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. http://www.arcscience.mccrackendesign.vrvis.nih. and information presentation.com/index.feedtank.xcelsius.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation. See their tool set and examples of their work.amnh. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.nlm.ontopia.corda. http://www.cs.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.indiana.noaa.com CenterView http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://www.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.org/about.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries. http://www.umd.com WorkPlace http://www. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.htm How do users visualize very large data sets. http://research.

trends.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity. for 3-D modeling. http://www. and anomalies in data. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.timemap. Try a demo at: http://www.softill. http://www. http://www. and rendering software. for 3-D data visualization. Clicking a related term extends the process.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. for thematic and analytical mapping. Grapher.S.com/vc/index.” http://www. for 3-D landscaping and animation. http://www.musanim. including the following: Voxler. for 2-D and 3-D graphing. http://www.okino.formz. http://www. Strater. animation.oziexplorer. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.media. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. http://tangible. http://www.golden. networks. and rendering.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. http://www. http://www.microsoft.accurender.topozone. http://www.visualcomplexity. many of which are unique.esri.mapinfo. http://www. modeling.intergraph.visualthesaurus.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations.advizorsolutions.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. http://www. Carrara.daz3d. http://www. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . http://research.com Pixologic is 2.visualanalytics.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. They have worked with the U.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. MapViewer.mit.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.pixologic.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.goes far beyond static JPG map images.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. associations. Didger. including the following: Bryce.5-D modeling and rendering software. for well log and borehole plotting. http://www. and.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. http://www.com/mam/mam. http://www.

edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.gatech.net/printRec. http://www.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.edu/eet/ Ell. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. The Semiology of Graphics. http://www. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.topicmaps. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. and Shneiderman. les cartes.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill. (2003). Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. http://acg. 14(1).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Paier.ubc. Jacques (1967).topicmap.) (1999). > > http://acg.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.media. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.sdsu.pdf Bergmann. les réseaux.. Proceedings.. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. He finished his PhD. Following are two: > > http://graphics.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. Madison: University of Wisconsin.com/ http://www.org/index.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. is available online. together with their estimated depth of influence. J.fakespace.liveplasma.agocg. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d. EXYSTENCE network. P.gatech.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. J. > http://www. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www.mit.ualbert a.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool. A. Mackinlay.editlib. (Eds. and Woodill.media. B.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.mit. both visualization companies. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.pdf Bertin. K.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.gvu.vrco. http://coe.masternewmedia. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. > > http://www.. M.edu/research/r esearch.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. http://www. Jacques (1983).org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.com/ Bibliography Alpert.stanford.cs. Working Paper.complexityscience. J.edwardtufte. http://www.edu/index.” http://vis.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research .infovis.gvu. and Resetarits. Sherman (2003).ac.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. http://www. G.iu. http://www. Paris: La Haye.complexityandeducation. 31-49 http://www.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.

(1998). C.cfm/files/pape r_5994. L. January 2005. 16(4). Arns. Reading. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.. Mike and Rogers. G.. and Woolsey. Siggraph. Abbott. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. September.amazon.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. Switzerland: University of Lugano.siggraph.html Madhavan.pdf Shneiderman.digicult. http://www. Luca (2003). 1-34. (2006). Campus Technology. No. http://www.asp?id=11222 Metros. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. 4th Edition.. 2005. A. J.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. Durham. 2. 17-30. Vol. (1992). A. (2005).slis. K. http://www. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. (2005).K... Luca (2005). (2005). eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. and Pagalthivarthi..ac. M. S. Theresa (1998). McHugh. G. 3(1). P. available online at http://www.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. EDUCAUSE Review. (2001). NC: Duke University. 45. K.indiana.usilu. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. and Bertoline.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. http://www. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.org/dl/index.pdf Scaife. and Knezek. Brent (2006). Lugano.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. 41(3). M. 46: 461-488. http://www.editlib. (2004). Morales.org/index. 42. Educational Media International. pp. August 11. Harlow. August. Spence. Information Visualization. Ruth (2003). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. S.campustechnology.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.istituti. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. http://createdrealities. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. http://www.fr/CanJ/CanJ. Donnelly.aace. No. Brian (2002). http://www. A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Vol. Dobreva. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.agocg.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. 69-82.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 329-351. http://www.ht m O'Regan.asp Mittal.html Rhyne. B. D. J.amazon.com/article.com/articles/abs tracts/index. June 1. International Journal on E-Learning.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.html Ross. K. (2005). 4(1). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction.pdf Goldfarb.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. England: AddisonWesley. http://nivea.amazon. http://www.psycho. 185–213 http://www. May/June. Robert.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 .univparis5. pp. http://www. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Yvonne (1996). Canadian Journal of Psychology.elearningguild. (Section on Visualization).educause. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. 3. and Rusbridge. http://itdl.com/publications.

Edward (1997). Edward (2001).org/threshold Tufte. Matt (2002). http://www.com/tufte/index Ware. 2nd Edition. Cheshire. Colin.edwardtufte. Sharpe. http://www. CT: Graphics Press. http://www.edwardtufte.edwardtufte. M. Visualization.amazon. Cheshire. http://www.amazon. 2nd Ed. evidence and narrative. David (2005). Edward (1990). http://www.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . CT: Graphics Press. Envisioning Information. From multimedia to multisensory education. Threshold. http://www.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon. Fall. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. David (2002).com/tufte/index Tufte.E.ciconline.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. Computers. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Digital Information Graphics.com/tufte/index Tufte. Cheshire. Amsterdam: Elsevier. CT: Graphics Press. (2004). http://www. Information Visualization: perception for design.

bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. http://www.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.infoworld.spectrum. Internet telephony.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Geraldine (2005). in remote communities. http://www.avaya. requiring an Internet hookup. http://www. http://www. headphones or speakers. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning.envisioninc. 1996). An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.ac. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.cogs. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. http://www. http://www.org Bibliography Cherry. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter.voipreview. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service.co. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone.skype.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.elearningcentre. http://www. Internet telephony is relatively simple.jajah. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. http://www.ieee.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. In the near future. but it is rapidly improving. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. communications tools.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Join the discussion at: http://voip.susx.html Do not reproduce 203 . Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. and a microphone.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. IEEE Spectrum Online. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.weblogsinc. Steven (2005). http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. March 2005. Using VoIP.

msu. September.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Robert (2005).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . 9(3).pdf Ottoson. (2005). M. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Language Learning and Technology. I.nald. and O’Droma.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. http://www.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://llt. 9-12. http://ieeexplore.Ganchev. Stojanov.. Mobile distributed e-learning center. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Meredith (1996). S.

1998): 1.learnexact.co. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. Selected Examples In Europe. http://www. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. 6.sportbrain. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. weighs less than three pounds. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.cmu. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. http://killer.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing.pdf http://www.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.edu/design/VuMan. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. http://killer. anytime. managing.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. or repairing complex machines.cs. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. Do not reproduce 205 . thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.ices. including wearable computing. the automotive industry.hubuska.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning. training to do their jobs.ac. training. It is controllable by the user 5.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. http://www.com/Home/Home.cmu. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.checkpointelearning. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.ices. It is observable by the user 4. In January 2006. http://wearables. and other organizations involved in inspecting. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. For example.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry. including batteries. like a wristband or jewelry.edu/design/Ion. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. The entire system.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. especially for comercial airlines.bris.bbc. ubiquitous computing > http://www.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. http://news.

http://www.org/icwckeynote.edu/wearables/mithr il/index. March 8. M.org/index_graphical. http://www.wired. 1.media.com/read_arti cle. (2002).html The design of “smart clothing.wearable.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. C. M. http://www.ht ml http://www. VA.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.” including computers built into underwear. (2004).com/news/culture/0.eyetap. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.bham.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. and Niedzviecki. and Levene. Olga (2005). http://www.org/index. May 12-13. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). March 24. http://www. 2006.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. Fairfax.nasa.wired. See: > > > http://genesis. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.technologyreview. 2004.eecg.http://www.com/news/culture/0.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. Wired News. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Technology Review (Online).cs. http://www. Business Week Online.ac.businessweek.ethz. Steve (1998).ac. H.amazon. S. Simson (2004). Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. http://www.jisc. Toronto: Anchor Books.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. S.edu/ http://wearcam. (2003).eee. 2005.704 81-0.uk/index.pdf Kharif. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing.uk/wear-it http://www. and Lupisella. ICWC98.toronto. Dec. Wearable computers that you can slip into.toronto. especially in the area of wearable cameras.org is a rich source of references. http://about. http://isd. Wearable Computing for the Commons.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. What you’ll wear in 10 years. http://wearcam.eecg. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .ch/ Bibliography de Freitas.uoregon.mit.htm Mann.gsfc.html Garfinkel.edu/research/wear ables/index.704 81-0. http://www.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning. Mmoma (2006).

a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. and electronics. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices.net/dl. and Atom is the second.” as its content is changed by the author. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site.attensa.html 6. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Bloglet http://www.com/ 4.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.0 format). The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Here is a list of 48: 1. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. podcasts. and laptops.org/Aggie.com/ 8. To read content from a Web feed.brightcove. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. Amphetadesk http://www. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. blogs.bloglines. feeds. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed.com/productBlog Express. job searches.disobey. basic text format for quick review. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. with all the potential for viruses and spam. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. Awasu http://www. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. PDAs. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. BlogLines http://www.com 9. Attensa http://www. listings of the latest books. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).com/ampheta desk 3. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. Aggie http://bitworking. CDs. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators.com/ 5. TV guides. photo collections. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. and course offerings.bloglet.com/ 7. social bookmarking.html 2.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content.awasu. Brightcove http://www.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . > For learners and teachers. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. When changes are made to a Web site. each with its own features. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. including cell phones.

feedzilla.org/ 37. RSSCalendar http://www. Gregarius http://gregarius.sh tml 41. Project D. Thunderbird http://www.rssbandit. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.2 http://www.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.rss-to-javascript.feedburner.com 14.rojo.com/ 22. FeedReader http://www. EaZy RSS reader http://www.blogplanet.com/ 15. Sage http://sage.com/today/ 36. Rojo http://www.com/feedscout. Feedroll .feedreader.com/ 31.videora.ca/edurss02. Videora http://www.fuzzyd.com/ 43.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.com/ 46.puremis.bytescout.rssreader. Pluck http://www.sharpreader. FeedBurner http://www. RSS2Exchange http://www.hexamail. PubSub http://www. Feed-Directory http://www.feedpublish.com 28. Reader http://www. SharpReader http://www.rssreader.hebig.somee. including listings for various electronic devices.html 27.newsisfree.feedforall. FeedScout http://bytescout.h tm 12. FeedPublish http://www.newsgator.com/ 25.downes. Syndirella http://yole.http://www. FeedForAll http://www.com/ 42.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. RSSReader http://www.com/myrssto olbar.ht ml 20. RSS Bandit http://www.com/ 34. Edu_RSS 0. RSS Software http://www.feedster.feed-directory. My RSS Toolbar http://www.com/ 30. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .protopage. see: http://www.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.com 32.com/ 13.net/ 45. feedbeep http://feedbeep.com/ 16. RSS-to-Javascript http://www. StepNewz http://www.com/thunderbir d/ 48. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. Newsgator http://www.uk/rssreader / 23.net/index.com/ 19.com/ 29. OnFolio http://www. NewsIsFree http://www. LearningFeeds http://www.shtml 11.projectdu.co. To have a blog aggregated.topix.mozdev.pubsub.onfolio.com/ 21.pluck.org/ 44. Topix http://www.10.feedroll. Fuzzy Duck http://www.rsscalendar.com/rss/ 39.com/v2 33.com/ 17.com 18. Feedtier http://feedtier.net/ 24.php. RSS Orbit http://www.learningfeeds.com 40.U.mozilla. Protopage http://www.com/ For a list of more aggregators.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.net/ 26. Feedster http://www.

http://www. http://www. Version 1.Possible Future Evolution. Brian Lamb.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Do not reproduce 209 . http://www.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.ca/files/RSS_Educ.com/wiki/doku.. Eva (2004). and D’Arcy Norman. http://www.mcli. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. http://www. http://www.dist. http://www. Aug. http://www.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. B. maintains a long list of RSS resources.redjupiter. RSS could transform online communications.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. http://www. RSS: a learning technology. RSS Ideas for Educators. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Online paper.ubc.ca/files/RSS_Educ. 2005.learningcircuits. Luigi (2004). http://www.mcli. and Norman. Lamb.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. Robin Good Blog. Aug.wcc. http://www. Brian Lamb.elearningguild. Anh (2005).edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. 5-8. Learning Circuits. May 19.pdf Gannett.com/news/showS tory.org/2004/jun2 004/downes. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. Bill (2003). 2004. 2003. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. Vancouver. D.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. A.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject.downes.teachinghacks.htm Levine. June 2004.elearning. 3.vccs. eLearning Developers’ Journal. Dan (2004). eSchool News. a blog by Alan Levine. 1.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2.htm D’Sousa. http://careo.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.learningcircuits. BC. RSS: the next killer app for education.pdf Canali De Rossi.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. University of North Carolina. July/August 2003.lo. Online paper.eschoolnews.maricopa. Aug.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss.contentious. http://www.1.maricopa. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. 2004.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.htm Downes. Stephen (2004). Oct. Learning Circuits.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.ca/edu_rss. Stephen (2002).downes.php 2003. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites.ca/cgibin/wiki. Read his article written specifically for educators.dist. http://www. (2003). http://www.htm Harrsch.downes. Mary (2003).htm David.teachinghacks.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. USA Today (online). http://timyang.usatoday.masternewmedia. The Technology Source Archives. http://technologysource. May 2004.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. 31. Quentin (2006).

InfoWorld.Levine.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. 2005. http://www. Mihai (2006). Google Reader Blog.html Powers.html?page=1 Udell.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. http://www. 13.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper.mediathink. and Webb. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Sept.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. 2005. http://www. 2006.pdf Parparita.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. http://googlereader.oreillynet. Jenny (2005).blogspot. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Namespaced extensions in feeds. RSS: the next big thing online. Jon (2005). MediaThink White Paper. Using RSS for data integration. Alexandra (2005). 2005.html MediaThink (2004). http://www.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.infoworld.xml. (2006). Shelly (2005). http://www.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Otherwise Engaged.alexandrasamuel. The Shifted Librarian. July 7. T. June 18. March 23. 2006. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc.html Samuel.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index. http://www.theshiftedlibrarian.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. M. O’Reilly Network. Aug. 3.oreilly.

Do not reproduce 211 . Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. 4. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.net/features. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. and never finished. 3.com/cgibin/mb.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.org/index. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. See the progress at: http://edu. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.300. http://www. time-less.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki.wikipedia.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. With some basic instructions.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.” Essentially.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. My first report in this series. and projects.gilbane. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. 2005). Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. http://www. can be used by a team for joint writing.usemod. http://www. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site.com/artpdf/GR12. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. http://www. an image gallery. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. For wikis to work.10. There are now over 1. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.usemod.com/cgibin/wiki.sourceforge.sourcewatch. it is important to have several contributors. Anyone can add to it. features.seedwiki. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. and email notification. 2. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. http://wikipedia. custom permissions. Content is ego-less. is available for other applications.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.tikiwiki. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.org/tiki-index. RSS. http://www. http://www. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. the software used to run Wikipedia. approaches. http://www.schtuff.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools.

com/ Jon Udell.html Ciffolilli. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. Twiki.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.48.” http://tlc. A free trial is available. http://en. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. http://www.se/wikipaper. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. Phantom authority.” is a rich source of information on wikis. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar. Teaching and learning online with wikis.org has lots of resources on wikis.fasfind.different.dicole. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. http://m. 5-8.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. http://weblog.nu’s first nine months in service. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. W.com/wwwtools/m/25242. (2004). http://aronsson.shtml Brian Lamb. Andrea (2003). Swiki.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.co.com/udell/gems/u mlaut. First Monday.infoworld. (2002).Weblogs. http://64. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia.elearningcentre.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.html Augar.pbwiki. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. R.html Bibliography Aronsson.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.. http://www.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. http://www. including a section on wiki tools. is provided by David Mattison. http://www. His article. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools.ascilite. Dec. L.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. as well as an analysis of how they work. Raitman.elearning.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. http://www.ikiw. that she updates regularly. Perth.wikibooks. Dec.com/ WritingWiki. Australia.socialtext. N. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. http://whiplash. http://kairosnews. including wikis.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.org.ucalgary. “Quickiwiki.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model. http://flosse. http://radio. of the University of British Columbia.jot.learningwiki. Operation of a Large Scale.infotoday.71. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.ubc.” http://writingwiki. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. 8(12). and Zhou. http://www. http://www. http://careo.

pcmag. http://www. http://www.html Stafford. April 2004. The wiki way. Clark.oreillynet. Ariadne. (2004).uk/issue42/ Udell. Cossarin.zkm.. UniversityWiki. Twiki. Quickiwiki.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. Wiki Tools. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Why Wikis Work Not. and Rudolph. (2006). Educause Review. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. Lauren (2005).com/article2/0. L. W. Oct. Issue 42.Oct. http://www. Online article. 2004.ariadne.educause. 12(10). Profetic: dossiers pratiques.. Richard (2003). O’Reilly Network. (2001). http://Weblog. T.infoworld. http://www. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .pdf Fountain. 2005. Emma (2005).com/artpdf/GR12.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).usemod. http://www.. Online article at: http://www.profetic.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. Brian (2004). David (2003). 2006.4149. Bo & Cunnin.com. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.14 02872.pdf Kulisz. January. Online article at PCMag.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer. Anja (2004). 36-48. http://www. July 7.shtml Rubenking.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.org/content/v5.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz.10. http://container. Nov. http://www..pdf Do not reproduce 213 . 19.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. 2. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). S.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.00. Online article.irrodl. M. Swiki. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.amazon.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. InfoWorld. Wiki pedagogy. M.ac. International Journal of Information Ethics. http://www.asp Schmitt.1/technot e_xxvii. Renée (2005). http://gilbane.pdf Leuf. Jon (2004). Making the case for a wiki. and Webb.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. J. Sept. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.http://firstmonday. David (2004).html Tomkin. Neil (2003).infotoday. Online paper.com/cgibin/mb. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. http://c2. July.educause. Searcher. April 2003.html Wood.

there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which can then lead to inventions. CD-ROMS. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. After a product has been successfully launched. However. floppy disks. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. which. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research .Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. in turn. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products.

Further. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. mature. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. 2003). while others will last for decades. peak. in both formal and informal settings. ascend the curve. both in classrooms and online. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. But not all technologies will travel this road. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. some will never leave the development stage. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. this approach is now rapidly changing. means that they actually think differently. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. to the complex. For a variety of reasons. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. or may never become commercially viable. Ontologies. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. video games. However. in part. The experience of younger learners with television. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Some will die quickly. The technology of e-learning. In any field. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. This is due. and decline. and computers. change itself seems to be inevitable. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time.

were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. mind-altering drugs. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. For example. In North America.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. movie theaters. that is all about to change. 1994). the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. Their children. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. The children of the baby boomers. Then even more movement. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. libraries. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. and digital ink and electronic paper. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. the civil rights movement. It works for a time. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. But they are usually disap-pointed. touch and taste. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. huge data wall displays. The speed of change increases with each passing year. born in the 1970s. 2002. surprise. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. mobile phones. generally went to work earlier. the space race. we will see the restructuring of education and training. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. However. television. With feedback. digitization of smell. wearable computers. Within the next five years. In contrast. Generally. the baby boomers. results in an action by the other participant. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. video games. global warming. To keep our attention. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. terrorism. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the computer. Because of this. gaming consoles. In approaching electronic educational media.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. until we become habituated. the learner. commercials. 28). whereby the action of one participant. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. Once we master the art of reading. in a back-and-forth exchange. and personal digital assistants. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. p. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. designers of Sesame Street. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. For the older generation. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. sex.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. or violence is needed to keep our attention. ecological disasters.

com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. (2001).com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. New York: Collins. Texas. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. http://www. shortly. In the next wave. James (1994). Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. Gary (2006). technologies and services for the next 5 years. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Bob (2006). Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: McGraw-Hill. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. Two hundred years ago. Rushkoff.amazon. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. http://www. http://www. It is already a place for massively multiple player games.operitel. Likewise.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon. portfolios.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Guides are optional. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. or can be more bound up by the technologies. http://www. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback.amazon. Marc. and the mapping of everything. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. At the individual level. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Clayton (1997). Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out.amazon. http://www. http://www. creative products.amazon. Douglas (2005).com Bibliography Christensen. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. Digital Game-based Learning. May 2006. Dallas. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey.

auburn. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal .edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey. 27A 2º esq. Building 5.com/ WEBIST Av. New York.ailive.nngroup. Den Dolech 2 P.unige.de/link/affective_port al.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .51. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.webist.cs.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.bham. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. L69 7ZF. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . D.Portugal Tel. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.myself-proj.O.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.umu. 17th Floor.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. Box 513.media. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.org/ AiLive Inc. CA 94304 USA http://www. 3400 Hillview Avenue.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.informatik. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Manuel I.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.agentlink. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.se/~muse/hom e.ac.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Marc Schröder. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.net/ Auburn University Auburn. 1515 Broadway. UK http://www.mit.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.bartneck. Palo Alto.

edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.org.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.isi. Bloomington.com/ Apple Computer.adobe.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. L69 7ZF. W Toronto. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.W. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.indiana. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. P.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. Secretariat.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.codebaby. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.O. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. O.informatics. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. N. #1910.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. Box 5200. Box 2124 Menlo Park.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Suite 206 Boulder.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.apple.computer. 1900 East Tenth St.liv.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.csc.animationfactory.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Box 527. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 .educause.mindworkshop. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. Washington.animats. 10004-104 Avenue. Burlington. Huntsville.edu Extempo Systems. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www.com Alchemy Mindworks P.ascension-tech. Inc. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. Inc. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.ascilite.ac.extempo.au/index.O.redwoodelearning. Edmonton.rit.

pact.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.htm Macromedia.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.com/ NewTek.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.ucsb. Inc. Suite #480 Torrance.avid.com/pub/index.cs. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.aclweb. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. TN 38152 USA http://www.460. Inc. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. Avid Technology Park.cognitivesciencesociety. 190th Street. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. San Antonio. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www.com/home.autodesk.San Rafael.aaai.eitechnologygroup.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. Inc.siggraph. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.org AutoTutor c/o Dr.html Ulead Systems 970 W. 110 Cuba Mall.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd. Tel: +1.newtek.818.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology.org/ SWiSHzone. Suite 100 Menlo Park. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury.viewpoint. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .catoolkit.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.psych.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab.swishzone. Wellington. 5131 Beckwith Blvd. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.A.macromedia.com/index.com/ Avid Technology.org/home.cmu.asp EI Technology Group. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. PO Box 24478. Santa Barbara.com Pty Ltd The Basement. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.6450 http://www.massivesoftware.autotutor.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.S. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.

edu Quantum Simulations. u. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www. Inc. 100 Sherbrooke St.uquebec.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.ke-corp.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. Calgary. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.cis.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. CA .com/index.ucalgary.it.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd. Suite 360 San Mateo. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.teluq.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. Suite 1500 Montreal. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.W.cmu. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. H-1111 Budapest.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Suite K.wpi. Egry J.virtuelage. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.edu. Alberta. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. East Adelphi.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.eden-online.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.gemini.licef. 1.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 ..org/eden.com Do not reproduce 221 .edu.10th Street S.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.usyd.cs.unisa.W. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.cs. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.cs.umuc.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.brainbench.enel.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. West Montreal.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. Calgary.stottlerhenke. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. Chantilly.ca/eng/inde x.iit.

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suddenlysmart. 250 The Esplanade Toronto. Ste 202 Encinitas.thinkingcap.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. 4.co. Suite 1550 San Jose. Edmonton. Germany Tel. 323 Newbury Street Boston. SC.respondus.qarbon. Redmond.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.syberworks.83 01 616 http://www.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www. 76133 Karlsruhe. Inc. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.toolbook. CA 92101 USA http://www.com Trainersoft FunEducation.5709 http://www. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. 55 South Market St.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.funeducation.com/products/study mate.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.codebaby. Gandy Blvd. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.com DA Group The Lighthouse.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721. +49(0)721.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.xplana. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .com/coursegen.maxit.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.seminar. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.. Inc.4259 Fax: (760) 635. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.percepsys. Suite 200 Tampa. #1910.sensalearning.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www.time4you..uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.hunterstone. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.turbodemo. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www.

uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.oddcast.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.vcom3d. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . 11th Floor New York.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.mozilla. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.qelix. Inc. W Toronto.flock. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.redwoodelearning.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. P.html Knowledge Environments..com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.daden.knowledgeenvironments.blogburst. 6th Flr. CA 94608 USA http://www. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. Mumbai 10. Inc. Nesbit Rd..com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View.O..cramersweeney. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.com/v2/index.uk/chatbots. Mary Apts. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.co. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.telsim.com GTCO CalComp.opera. Mazgaon. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. INDIA. 219 Tampa.O. Birmingham. Inc.com Moorestown. Suite 900 Austin.com OmniWeb Omni Development.com WaveMarket. USA http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. B13 9SG.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. Dale Mabry Hwy. Moseley.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. Suite 260 Orlando.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.wavemarket. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.omnigroup. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.co. Ste.tmmy. Inc..active-learning-site. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.

Pleasant St.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. Draper. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.pearsoned.edu Batipi 11 St. Suite 522.optiontechnologies.bluetie.com Centra c/o Saba. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.qwizdom.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.smartroom. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.backpackit. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. Jospeh Street.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.avecomm.com BlueTie.944. 1192 East Draper Parkway. Inc.com Brightidea. Amherst.gtcocalcomp.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Ontario. Inc.umass.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home. Pittsford. NJ .batipi.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.Columbia.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Somerset.saba. Suite# 401. Inc.caucus. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. 6th Floor New York.adobe.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Puyallup. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.physics. Orlando.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.brevient. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.aspx Qwizdom.com 404 Fifth Avenue. Suite 101E Falls Church. Inc. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. SW. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.telnetz.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.com.inteam. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. 100 North Lake Avenue.bantu. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. 12617 Meridian E. #205 Pasadena.0162 http://www.brightidea. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Suite 103 Toronto.

795 Folsom Street.com Cisco Systems. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.cisco..com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Ontario. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.com Engineering. Suite 600 Ottawa.collaborationloop.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software.communiqueconferencing.communityzero.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton. 1034 N. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com Digi-Net Technologies. 6th Floor San Francisco.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. Suite 950 Portland.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Inc.com Digité. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. San Jose. Lauderdale. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .html Citrix Systems. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. 232 http://www. Inc. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.comotivsystems.citrix.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.same-page. Inc.epam-pmc. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. Sanibel FL.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 170 West Tasman Dr.edufolio.digi-net. 57th Street Gainesville.centraldesktop.engineering.com LLP PO Box 325. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. 82 Pioneer Way.courseforum. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.digite.emc.elluminate. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.W. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Suite 630 McLean.convenos.

CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.net GroupSupport. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Inc.flypaper. Suite 2300 New York.net Groove Networks.com Glance Networks. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www.com GoToMeeting. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.grapevinesoftware.glance. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. 395 Encinitas.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.horizonwimba.novell.V.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.hotcomm. El Camino Real. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. #115 Rockville. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.gordano.4517 http://www. Inc.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.hp.hyperoffice. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-.net Global School Net 132 N.forumone.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com c/o Citrix Systems. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.exactamerica.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.gotomeeting. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. ON.genesys.com Groupwise c/o Novell.globalschoolnet.groupsupport. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research . NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.com B. Ste.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. Inc.facilitate.groove. Suite 500 Markham. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.ezmeeting. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. Clevedon.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.

WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www.ibm. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive.iceweb. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.meetingone. Suite 412 Cambridge. Suite 1401 Denver. 1289 N.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. Inc. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Inc.http://www03. Suite 6500 Woburn. Suite #150 Herndon. 3 Wing Drive.near-time. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. Sunnyvale.ivocalize.liveoffice.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.com Near-Time. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com onProject. Fordham Blvd. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News.com Interwise. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson. Phoenix. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.intralinks.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.netspoke.ilinc.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.mayeticvillage.mitre.jdhtech.onproject.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. 11th floor New York.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.linktivity. 25 First Street. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.microsoft.org/tools. 44th St. Suite 300 Torrance. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.interwoven.com Do not reproduce 233 .com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www..inquesttechnologies.mspx LiveOffice.interwise.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www. Inc.

com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 210 Maynard. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway.com Photon Infotech Inc.com Selden Integrated Systems. Suite 440 San Jose. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.sitescape. Cactus Rd.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.com Raindance Communications. Inc.com/collabsuite/index. Inc.performancesolutionstech. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.photoninfotech.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.nagarro.raindance. Suite B. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. 17-17 State Highway 208.opentext.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. New No. Ste 275 Mill Valley. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.parlano. Suite 445 Scottsdale. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www.com RADVISION Inc.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.opmcreator.peoplecube. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. 1175 58th Avenue. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. Box 3325 York. Inc.com SpiderWeb Communications. Suite 1450 Chicago.projectdox. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www.sharemethods. 35. 51. Harbor.project-open. Suite 200 Greeley.microsoft. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.ht ml Parlano 10 S.cyber-grad. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .q2learning. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. Riverside Plaza.radvision. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.seldensystems.Adyar Chennai. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. 3679 Concord Road.O. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. P.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair.oracle.

CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www..com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.axista.usabilityfirst.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.O.com/groupware/in dex.teamware. P.stalker. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.sumtotalsystems. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda.com Do not reproduce 235 . TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.trichys.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.webasyst.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.webcrossing. Ontario M2N 6H8. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.teamdynamix.vodium. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. Kierland Blvd.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.tomoye.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.viack. Suite 100 Austin.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331.backpackit.net WebEx Communications. Inc.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.com Web Crossing.com/content/default.vignette. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.webtrain.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.webex.wave3software. Suite 100 Scottsdale. Suite 1050 Vancouver. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.txl Viack 14811 N.O. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. Suite 950 Washington. Inc. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.com Teamware P. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. Suite 810 Toronto.teamspace. Canada http://www.tacit. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.webofficepoint.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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239

Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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Suite 2200 Chicago.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. Chantilly. Glebe Road. Fifth Floor Montreal. Inc. 550 Queen St.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. Suite 260 Foxborough.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Suite 1280 San Francisco.isnewmedia. West.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.ca Do not reproduce 241 .LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.teralearn. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. St. Inc. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. LTD 671 N.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. East . IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.syntrio.com TEDS Inc. 500 West Madison. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.plateau. Louis.outstart. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.teds.oracle.oracle. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.com.ssaglobal.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.maxit.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Inc.saba.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.com mGen Enterprise mGen. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.technomedia. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. Suite 700 Arlington.meridianksi.wizdom. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.sselearn.sap. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.mgen.

com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.vbtrain.risc-inc. Suite 101 Houston.O. 122 West Way.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. 2280 St. Inc. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.sir. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .fldata. 240 Bay Street. Laurent Blvd. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond. Inc. Suite 200 Ottawa.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. Inc. Victoria.sumtotalsystems..info/index.xstreamsoftware.uwm.arizona. Suite # 105 Columbia.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.ttg-inc.edutools. 17041 El Camino Real.xtention. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.trainingpartner. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. Ontario.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. 4 Expressway Plaza. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. NY.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.com Tracker. Box 9752 Boulder.wbtsystems. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.cdlib. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc.avilar. Inc.vuepoint. 4th Floor Oakland.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.gyrus.

org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. AZ 85250 USA http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.esri.thegateway.llearn.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.cadcorp.merlot. SG1 2JY.ca ENC Learning Inc. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.O. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.edu.rice.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.unsw.edu/DesktopDefault. Fondren Library. AZ. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.lolaexchange.geocomm. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.goenc. Norton Road. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.O.lrc3. MS 44.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. P. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro.com/gis4mt/index. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. Suite 3100 San Francisco. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.lornet. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.cf m ESRI Suite 300. Hertfordshire.org/eng/scientifiques.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.eoscenter. Sterling Court.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.com Do not reproduce 243 . Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.4464 Markham Street Victoria. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West. Stevenage. Houston.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. CT 06459 USA http://www. ETRAC.maricopa.clarklabs. 5151 East Broadway.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .plos. Suite 1600 Tucson.dist. Box 3000 Boulder. Box 1892.netera. Rice University.mcli.

3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research . Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. of Geography. Suite 100 Menlo Park.com Metadata. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . Dept.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.org/ Spotlight Mobile. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.eee.imsglobal.berkeley.mobilearn.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.bham. 959 Concord Street.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.edu PanGo Networks. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.aaai. Suite 100 Framingham.intergraph. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. html ELSNET Trans 10. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. P.cancore.edu. Austria http://www. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.cetis.com MapInfo One Global View Troy.ac. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Suite 501 Portland.O.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. Box 240000 Huntsville.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.knowledgepulse.5372. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.asp?path= 500.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.stockholmchallenge. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.fi/english/page.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Inc.uk/handler/defaul t. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Electrical and Computer Engineering.mapinfo.ac.org/aitopics/html/natlang.com MOBILearn c/o Dr.pangonetworks.O. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.smm. Inc. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www. PMB #112 Lake Mary.

org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .advancedreality.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.ac. Suite 300. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. 19104-2653.itc.upenn.internet2.lockss.groove.stockholmchallenge. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.com Groove Networks. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. Inc.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.seti.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.llearn.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.cetis. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.overnet.sun.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.net internet2. NY. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.elsnet.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 10010 USA http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. Inc.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.com MoveDigital. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. PA. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.lexxe. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems. Whisman Road Mountain View. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. 1st Floor A . Deane Rd.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.elena-project.asianart. Italy http://tcc.ldc. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.it Victoria. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.org/site/pp. Inc.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.movedigital.

lsc.6526 http://www.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Eisenhower Parkway P.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.virtualmuseum. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. NE Calgary.presentations. Alberta. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.apreso.rmv. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. 3016 5th Ave.cyberu.elluminate.com Presentations. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .com/presentatio ns/index.org Macromedia. 15-4-A Gatineau. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com ProQuest 789 E.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.genesys. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.executrain.microsoft.proquest. Suite 600 Alpharetta.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. New York 10973 USA http://www.elearningeuropa. Ninth St. Box 172 1039 .O.trainingregistry.mit. Minneapolis.com Teachnology.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.saba.saba. 3333 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. Alberta. Inc. 3º 08021 Barcelona.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. Suite 225 Santa Monica.com Portals CyberU.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.elementk.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.teach-nology.17th Avenue SW Calgary.com 50 S. Inc.worldwidelearn. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.macromedia.ca Slate Hill.333.

org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.com ReadyGo Inc. Michigan. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www.cmu. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. Inc.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. CA 94040.readygo. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.botball. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.articulate. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.rec. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education. Radstock Somerset. Henrik I Christensen. Inc. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Ste. Lindsey Bldg. D.org Euron c/o Prof.org Evolution Robotics. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. 130 W.ri.ife. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.nasa.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic.aad. O. Union St. Chilcompton.active-robots.atr. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Redmond.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.html Norman.eng.com/halo/index. Box 2827.osaka-u. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.generalrobotics.gov.ams..euron. Centre for Autonmous Systems. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. SWEDEN. Pasadena.irc.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. Suite B Orion.ed.raptivity.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.ac. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www.hp.evolution. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .com Raptivity P.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.scate.whmsi.

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CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.tkk.biographix.com Flash c/o Macromedia.htm Yahoo! Inc.alphaworks. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.zoominfo. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Box 1558 New Canaan. Inc.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.elena-project. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.macromedia.experiencebuilders. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Yahoo http://www.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.forio.stt-global.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.ee. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.com Assima Ltd. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.personal-reader.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. Inc.O.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .macromedia.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. 10 Old Bailey.ibm. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.com Zoom Information Inc.yahoo.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.assima.New York.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. EC4M 7NG London.columbia. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research . 1st Floor A .1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.knowledgequest. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.atghome. GreenPark Reading.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. Ontario. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.Project Coordinator CSI . 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.seco.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.intermezzon.

com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www.ac. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.cs.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.stt-global.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. 2280 St. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.com MASIE Center.knowledgeplanet. Inc. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.. Suite 1550 San Jose.xstreamsoftware.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.bham. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Suite 240 Atlanta.learning2005. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Newburyport.qarbon. Taschereau Ouest.outstart.. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Inc.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.knowledgepresenter. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.com Stagecast Software.com NexLearn.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.muzzylane. Suite 360 San Mateo.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Laurent Blvd. Inc.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Suite 300 Wichita. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.net Do not reproduce 251 . ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Ontario.knowledge-director.assima. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.nexlearn.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.stagecast.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.. Light & Acoustics. B15 2TT. Suite 400. Schaumburg.maxit. England http://www. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. 1821 Walden Office Square. Québec.eduperformance. CA .fsl.stottlerhenke.virtualcontrolroom.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.teds. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa.com Softsim Outstart Studio.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul.noaa. LLC 100 South Main Street. 55 South Market St.com/English/t 6essai. Suite A-207 Brossard.

gnolia. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.networkltd. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. 101 Wolf Drive.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.icio. 795 Folsom St.zvents. WA 98055 USA http://www.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco..us Eventful c/o EVDB.com Social Bookmarking del.iu.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre. Thorofare. Inc. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. 655 High Street Palo Alto..socialtext. Inc.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.edu/index. 2001 Lind Ave.com FURL c/o LookSmart.checkpointsystems. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. CA 94105 USA http://www. Inc.classmates.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.com Spurl ehf. CA 94089 USA http://del.com Friendster. Morton Street.friendster.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. Inc. Suite 224 Bloomington. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.eu Rojo Networks. Menlo Park.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research . CA. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. Inc. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com Classmates Online. Ltd.analytictech.spurl. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Suite 500 Renton.O.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. Suite 125 San Diego. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.shadows.com/ mag.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.icio. Box 920089 Needham.tagzania.netscape. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Suite 900 Austin.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.rojo. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. SW. 625 Second Street San Francisco.furl.

html Jabber Software Foundation P. Box 1641 Denver. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.xstreamengine.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.futurelab.ergonetz. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. Inc.apple.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.veoh.O.hp. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.bittorrent. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Box 1641 Denver.spartasocialnetworks.percro.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.com iTunes Apple Computer.com/halo/index. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . New York.sociosite.spider.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.fakespace.brightcove.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach. 4th Floor Marshalltown. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.com Jabber Software Foundation P.O. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .net Sparta Social Networks.org Fakespace 11 E.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. Suite 900 San Francisco.1011 CM Amsterdam.jabber.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.activeworlds. CA 90028 USA http://www.jabber.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Inc. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.hpc. CA 92121 USA http://www.percro. Suite 115 San Diego.com Brightcove.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.com Do not reproduce 253 .com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.org Veoh Networks. 7220 Trade Street.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. VA 23461-1924 https://www.org. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Cupertino. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.dfilm.advanced.navy. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. CA 94105 USA http://www. Church Street.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.

com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.idashboards. Suite 110 Troy.formz.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions.com/ MapInfo One Global View. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Suite 317 San Diego. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education.501 North Morton Street. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.V.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.mapinfo. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. 350 South 400 West. Inc.bham. Suite 3 Brooklyn.daz3d.golden.accurender. Golden.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. 1333 Butterfield Rd. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.intergraph.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Suite 206 Bloomington.esri..com Intuition 9. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.feedtank.ambientdevices.intuition-eunetwork. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Draper.corda. Suite 280 Downers Grove. Cambridge.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.cs. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.coe. Suite 100 Lindon. Box 884. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.vista.com ESRI Suite 300.O. Danvers.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Inc.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab. Tracy. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. IC ISIM VRLAB.O. Williams Building College Park.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.ac.edu/vrel. Box 240000 Huntsville. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.ecu.advizorsolutions.xcelsius. Columbus. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Troy. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.informationinplace.umd. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. 809 14th Street.com Golden Software.epfl. Inc.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.

S.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Riga.spotfire. NY 10012 USA http://www. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www. Inc.com JAJAH Inc.okino.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.visualthesaurus. FL 34108 USA http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 . Suite 3A New York.ontopia.nlm. Unit A2 Naples. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. Inc.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. Unit # 1 Mississauga.net Pixologic.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.jajah.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.sportbrain. Ontario L4V 1T8. California.pixologic. A-1220 Vienna. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville.topozone.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.nih. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. Inc. 869 97th Ave N. 73 Princeton Street.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. 20010 Fisher Avenue. Inc.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.inxight. U.visualanalytics. CA 94712 USA http://www.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. Ltd. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. Donau-City-Strasse 1.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Unified Field.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.microsoft.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. ETZ H Electronics Lab. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www.unifiedfield.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.vicodi.vrvis.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. Suite 102 Mountain View. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. 155 Spring Street. MA 01863 USA http://www.skype.com Spotfire. 2513 Charleston Road.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. 94043 USA http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 9th floor New York. 3 East 28th St. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Inc. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive.softill.musanim. RIDemo Brivibas 183. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www.mccrackendesign.

Suite 900 Austin.ethz.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www.com PubSub Concepts.715135858 http://www. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Pacific Business Centre #101 ..O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Suite 100 Campbell. Suite 605 San Francisco. Estonia http://www. Valdeku 100. Inc. CA 95008 USA http://www. Hanover. Broadway.attensa. P. Inc. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www.com Brightcove. Suite 381 Vancouver. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Inc.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Nederland Tel: +31. South #358 St. First Floor. Switzerland http://www. 11211.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. Building K Mountain View. 200 2nd Ave.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.1001 W.ch Web Feeds Attensa.org JotSpot.feedzilla.pubsub.mozilla. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Inc.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 167 Hamilton Ave.feedburner. Inc.feedforall.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.. Suite 2260 Portland. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. San Francisco..feedster. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com Rojo Networks.com Feedster. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Tallinn.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.pluck. Coldbrook Business Corp.brightcove.feedreader.rojo. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Seventh Floor New York. Inc. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.onfolio.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research . MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.rssreader. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation.jot. Petersburg.microsoft.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. 116 New Montgomery Street.wearable. 3rd Floor Cambridge.V.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.bloglines. 64 Fulton Street.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. 795 Folsom St.

socialtext.com Do not reproduce 257 .Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

43. 180 Competency Tracking. 161. 45. 93. 15. 169. 117. 55. 52. 193. 192 Browsers. 196. 156. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 23. 63. 121. 94. 139. 70. 189. 16. 74. 78. 170. 139 assessment. 199 Architectures. 100. 211 Broadband. 145. 57. 171. 51. 58. 122. 13. 193. 46. 64. 88 cybercartography. 129. 110. 177. 125. 46. 203. 59. 69. 82. 201 Adaptive systems. 196 collaboration. 194. 169. 191. 54. 148. 199. 50.Index 3-D graphics. 123. 146. 85. 97. 160. 84 Adobe. 128. 83. 226 Authorware. 37. 207. 74. 78. 211. 74. 65. 31. 128. 196. 170. 231. 24. 67. 100. 50. 190. 101. 216 Affective computing. 85. 125. 44. 110. 15. 24. 150. 190. 127. 36. 44. 29. 203. 50. 74. 160. 27. 56. 23. 80. 136. 63. 181. 162. 36. 159. 59. 67. 72. 74. 83. 66. 18. 59. 196. 212 Boolean searches. 63. 140. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 211. 16. 28. 79 Complexity theory. 137. 4. 209. 181. 223. 193. 81. 29. 211 Communications Tools. 159. 195 Authoring tools. 97. 12. 72. 46. 23. 25. 184. 17. 196. 170. 137. 211. 149. 23. 50. 179. 165. 144. 209. 7. 75. 65. 35. 46. 196 cognitive maps. 69. 145. 203. 26. 180. 45. 39. 65. 80. 119. 21. 178. 71. 64. 127 Cooperation. 28. 2. 95. 34. 60 Clickers. 180. educational. 85. 174 Bayesian probability. 66. 66. 40. 91. 21. 165 Air display. 170. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 174. 91. 122. 66. 86. 72. 36. 67. 50. 93. 47. 127. 218 Agents. 46. 193. 6. 128. 4. 21. 90 Assessment. 174. 190. 101. 215 Communities of practice. 209. 52. 146. 90. 122. 132. 194. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 84. 145. 197. 141. 41. 27. 116. 74. 196 Dashboards. 69. 20. 39. 114. 80. 28. 177. 18. 140. 171. 93. 149. 43. 70. 145 Conversational learning. 35. 69. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 52. 191. 112. 217 Collaboration. 121. 193. 35. 122 Ambient computing. 67. 15. 30. 47. 16. 22. 93. 21. 200. 89. 93. 216 Computer based assessment. 137. 25. 45 Avatars. 209 Augmented reality. 198 Data mining. 138. 170. 48. 203. 196. 172 Audio. 18. 189. 18. 159. 39. 177. 24. 4. 100. 57. 197. 60 Cognition. 29. 21. 153. 27. 127. 69. 191. 47. 27. 171. 146. 198. 42. 22. 109. 49 AJAX. 65. 20. 81. 70. 194. 8. 135. 77. 46. 33. 5. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 116. 176 Cell phones. 62. 130. 23. 63. 180. 42. 47. 24. 26. 112. 48. 112. 27. 89. 35. 50. 85 Blogs. 109. 208. 94. 68. 207 Classroom response systems. 84. 71. 53 barcodes. 113. 118. 15. 66. 49. 160. 219. 165. 180. 5. 176. 165. 205 Animation. 26. 103. 127. 184. 109. 65. 91. 189. 48. 35 Content management. 70. 45. 57. 201 cognitive collage. 158. 127. 48. 11. 176.

201. 106 Haptics. 108. 23. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 217 Instant messaging. 7. 109. 100. 139. 52. 25. 4. 22. 26. 193. 3. 125. 183. 94. 9. 20. 137. 178. 103. 133. 89. 5. 121. 151. 88. 116. 65. 106. 205. 196 Graphics. 193. 94. 101. 86. 7.Decision support systems. 166. 122. 80. 169. 70. 5. 94. 80. 248 graphics. 114. 197. 3. 88. 163. 163 Findability. 196. 156. 196. 47. 158. 175. 106. 27. 203. 196. 23. 37. 239 Individualization. 200. 120. 59. 75. 6. 63. 60. 88. 196. 132. 21. 25. 219 Infrared tags. 162. 106. 180. 110. 124. 134. 193. 184. 106 Head mounted displays. 169. 45 dynamic displays. 35. 165 Handwriting recognition. 197. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 85 Extreme learning. 178. 90. 74. 17. 154. 106 Healthcare applications. 158. 119 FireFox. 70. 214 Human-centered computing. 23. 193. 93. 152. 134. 27. 158 Design. 24 e-Portfolios. 158 Informatics. 57. 8. 189. 152. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 15. 85. 16. 91. 47. 57. 110. 170. 137. 162 History. 124. 196 Immersive environments. 74. 103. 201 FrontPage. 81. 216. 199. 86. 205 Hybrid systems. 25. 72. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 4. 97. 19. 11. 215. 170. 134. 63. 164. 57 Flash. 26 Emotional design. 146. 100. 216 Director. 120. 15. 54. 169 Expert systems. 70. 187. 64. 55. 217. 122. 18. 123 Hype in e-learning. 172. 187. 95. 174. 121. 11. 162. 89. 127. 160. 215. 119. 84. 153. 173. 174. 16. 131. 202. 97. 16. 53. 26. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 201 Grid computing. 42. 109. 97. 64. 9. 155. 216 Distributed systems. 35. 25. 184 e-Science. 20. 45 Displays. 193. 119. 179. 120. 200. 215 Informal learning. 68. 169. 122. 238 Geocaching. 198. 194. 63. 45. 141. 127. 159. 79. 197. 26. 123. 13. 49. 11. 34. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 125. 85. 48. 74. 86 Deep Web. 176. 48. 197. 37. 170 Federated searches. 106. 46. 101. 33. 166. 34. 134. 32. 199. 51. 107. 93. 109. 104. 58. 5. 84. 119. 103. 80. 152. 60. 25. 24. 12. 88. 5. 26. 134. 204 Dreamweaver. 45. 11. 13. 20. 78. 149. 250 Folksonomies. 91. 52. e-learning. 67. 196 e-Commerce. 93. 35 Frameworks. 146. 88. 176. 26. 191 Games. 11. 152. 16. 27. 59. 66. 88. 13. 9. 167 evaluation. 149. 170. 186. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 30. 9. 210. 28. 47. 90 Experiential learning. 114. 98 GIF graphic format. 100. 158. 107. 162. 49 Google. 29. 89. 189. 69. 198. 153 Facial recognition. 119. 217 images. 107. 69. 180. 31. 161. 225. 49. 199 Gesture recogntion. 80. 33. 4. 30. 71. 8. 66. 196. 49. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 154. 190. 210 formative assessment. 83. 75.

146. 148. 139. 106. 129. 154. 54. 230. 21. 42. 23. 187. 124. 107. 69. 60. 45. 146. 120. 143. 114 learning object repository. 49. 80. 139. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 138. 45. 139. 124. 85. 180. 174. 63. 172. 190. 89. 135. 189. 15. 156 Legacy materials. 149. 35. 135. 141. 29. 6. 7. 186. 119. 59. 107. 246. 130. 124. 2. 34. 180. 6. 191. 65. 48. 130. 60. 30. 6. 90. 213. 152 Lecturing. 128. 146. 180. 80. 137. 22. 122. 34. 23. 165 Microlearning. 226. 176. 182. 26. 204. 176. 120. 97. 155. 165. 192. 111. 6. 129. 68. 192. 78. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 161. 43. 17. 166 Pervasive computing. 139 Personalization. 244 Motion Graphics. 246. 175. 20 Museums. 109. 124 iPod. 65. 159. 78. 246 Location based tools. 116. 64. 124. 80. 114. 190. 189. 15. 47. 176. 21. 145. 25. 152. 189. 36. 95. 244 Meta-search engines. 97 Ontologies. 141. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 127. 189. 44. 107. 115. 149. 216. 127. 178. 165. 153. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 162. 134. 120. 145. 143. 183. 128. 7. 7. 145. 152 Networks. 241 Learning Management Systems. 152 Libraries. 149. 241. 180. 16. 116. 128. 137. 174. 193. 147. 137. 196 Mashups. 65. 136. 26. 27. 249. 93. 114. 171. 66. 205 Macromedia. 140. 36. 110. 215. 125. 100. 134. 144 Navigation. 119. 65. 114. 121. 178. 134. 93. 62. 119. 122. 66. 255. 63. 193. 139. 161. 127. 165 pattern recognition. 131. 223 Portals. 45. 150. 143. 26. 127. 77. 76. 234. 46. 47. 160. 100. 91. 140. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 158. 42. 119. 54. 148. 20. 144. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 79. 26. 190. 103. 134. 191. 199 Neural networks. 116. 191. 183. 119. 65. 31. 171 M-learning. 142. 128. 32. 135. 169. 205. 70. 81. 80. 148. 199. 4. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 206. 80. 86. 240. 171 Metacognition. 26. 40. 85. 48. 134. 43. 57. 114. 112. 4. 82. 124. 18. 140. 77. 139. 62. 160. 191. 109. 25. 199. 111. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 49. 135. 101. 156. 127. 42. 5. 194. 123. 238. 250 mapping. 113. 237. 174. 242 learning object model. 125. 26. 11. 211 Knowledge management. 129. 7. 115. 35. 98. 68. 181. 110. 114 Learning Objects. 125. 47. 166 PowerPoint. 8. 69. 108. 48. 150. 53. 127 Podcasting. 23. 211 latent semantic analysis. 112. 54. 90. 178. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 47. 42. 137. 80. 125 Lab book wiki. 145. 138. 153 Microsoft. 163 Microformats. 114. 43. 166. 26 Metadata. 113. 42. 6. 220. 58. 121. 4. 122. 215 Interoperability. 145. 123 Medical applications. 81. 109. 127. 233. 24. 17. 45. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 122. 179 Optical tags. 196 Pedagogy. 45. 109. 170. 239. 256 Microworlds. 74. 165. 196. 46. 216.Interface devices. 146. 172. 140. 130 Mobile computing. 174.

174. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 64. 165. 122. 65. 175 Tag clouds. 178. 7. 30. 154. 183. 131. 172. 48. 21. 42. 36. 49. 124. 148 Smart labels and tags. 144. 47. 48. 175. 189. 47. 35. 86. 225. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 180.Presentation tools. 171. 119. 4. 62. 72. 189. 36. 106 Proximity tools. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 169. 177. 179. 120. 150. 57 T-Learning. 182. 47. 47. 148. 35 Symbology tags. 15. 46. 132 Streaming video. 9. 35. 188. 152. 177. 211 Skypecasting. 181. 122 sharable content objects. 34. 26. 122. 141. 110. 112. 184. 158. 156. 160. 227. 106. 247 Role-playing. 35 Semantic Web. 50. 156. 148. 66. 161. 94. 27. 169. 115. 119. 153. 46. 160. 167 reusable learning objects. 190. 90 Reusability. 48. 93. 93. 174 self-evaluation. 54. 81. 154. 116. 64 Telephony. 122 Tagging. 59. 4. 109. 125. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 197. 114 Repositories. 141. 50. 141. 62. 215. 125. 137. 176 Team management. 36. 181 Speech recognition. 119 quizzes. 9. 176. 199 Single-user wiki. 119. 54. 189 Television. 175 Rapid e-learning. 69. 177. 95. 77. 176. 109. 189. 150. 203 Telepresence. 159. 180. 57. 179. 189. 163. 185. 172. 97. 123 Simulations. 46. 16. 110. 116. 37. 203. 117. 47. 124. 186. 119. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 52. 57. 46. 74. 131. 174. 149. 82. 199 Taxonomies. 217 Translation. 9. 209. 93. 11. 174 Social bookmarking. 35. 35. 38. 114 Screencasting. 179. 84. 176. 87. 134. 54. 91. 135. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 177. 116. 174 Project management. 45. 125. 246 Privacy. 152 Projectors. 55. 91. 170. 205 Shockwave. 83. 94. 5. 168. 49. 167. 11. 54. 38. 139. 170. 5. 36. 114. 37. 27. 49. 189 Search engines. 8. 161. 178. 168 résumés. 175. 150. 88. 166. 9. 6. 138. 26. 114. 152 Thin clients. 11. 178. 52. 35. 191. 88. 40. 155. 166. 114 Robotics. 75. 173. 155. 163. 39. 174. 191 Tours (online). 159. 48. 247 rapid learning. 193. 191 summative assessment. 70 Radio. 158. 153. 141. 50. 124. 20. 134. 22. 48. 131. 118. 125. 114. 174. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 26. 215. 215. 89. 134. 47. 80. 124. 137. 68. 180. 199 Turing Test. 165. 169. 196 Serious games. 115. 170. 165. 174. 35 Quizzes. 71. 162. 211 Tags. 216 Tests. 74. 129. 207 Social networking. 133. 83. 74. 40. 189 Security. 191 Tangible computing. 171 Scenarios. 155. 26. 221 SCORM. 39. 171 Science.

67. 150. 154 Virtual learning environments. 137 Virtual reality. 74. 208. 57. 7. 197. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 124. 198. 9. 90. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 107. 164. 62. 145. 193. 192. 159. 148. 9. 187. 206. 88. 209. 106. 174. 109. 11. 211. 91. 255 Wearable computing. 189 virtual classroom. 49. 236. 5. 3. 189. 123. 69. 13. 215. 148. 148 Whiteboards.Ubiquitous computing. 209. 149. 68. 212 Wikis. 207. 200. 66. 108. 148. 4. 137. 46. 182. 98. 255 Web conferencing. 43. 74. 79. 194 Video. 216. 74. 176. 65. 213. 40. 182. 196. 216 Vlogs. 80. 44. 150 Webinars. 60. 106. 89. 205. Gary. 256 Webcasting. 211. 214. 45. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 106. 108. 210. 190. 203. 119. 239 Wikipedia. 256 Woodill. 200. 51. 177. 210. 177. 56. 205 Usability. 215. 130. 189 Vodcasting. 191. 121. 212. 81. 22. 187. 112. 193 Visualization. 253 Videocasting. 123. 199. 131. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 160. 100. 127. 113. 211. 64. 148 Virtual classrooms. 57. 217 Word. 165.

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