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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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and support at all points of my career. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. technology. Pamela Fragomeli. Amy Davey. Thanks. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. editing. Lise Bye. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. lists of online resources. Carlos Oliveira. None of this would have been possible if my wife. along with an index. Jennifer McDowell. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. This report. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. A third report. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Grant Hamilton. Operitel’s CEO.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. Karen Anderson. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Karen. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. will be available in early 2007. have supported this research from the beginning. The first report. Pierre Cahorn. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. the second in the series. and services. I have provided links to online learning examples. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years.

” The word comes from the Latin lectura. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Technologies are any technique. linear teaching techniques online. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool.” Starting in the first century AD. The modern classroom. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. They are. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. Medieval universities followed the same practice. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. material. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. class periods. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. that lecturing. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand.just the ability to follow an example.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. as books were scarce. Learning became standardized and linear. or “reader. many different ways to learn. still used in many institutions of higher education. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. and recess. detentions. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. A third way to learn is by seeing. Schools were started to teach accounting. the raising of hands. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. With these reforms. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. There are. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. is a 2000 year old “technology. Do not reproduce 3 . We tend to forget. “things that make us smart. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. even if the originator of the words is not present. and language for communication. with rows.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. in fact. or device that extends human abilities. the classroom became industrialized. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. for example. fire for warmth and cooking. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. to quote Donald Norman (1993).

it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. However. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. Like all new technologies. the early days of computer networking. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Rather than pages. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. and reciting. in 1876 someone at Western Union. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. as this is a non-technical guide. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. Eventually. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. it needs to adhere to architectures.Students in these schools learned by reading. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. For example. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. 2006). chairman of IBM. At the same time.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages.” Similarly. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets.” In 1970. Thomas Watson. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. memorizing. When a new technology is introduced. moving pictures (films). we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. and standards. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. When a new technology first comes into use. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars).” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. mashups can only be done using computer technology. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . 2006). and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. changing the practice of teaching. Sadly. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. frameworks.

In particular. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. 2005.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning.free.org) has a number of published documents that. There is authentication and authorization support at every level. For example.accessgrid.org).grid. Do not reproduce 5 . Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. php). Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. They provide location independence. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. Number 3.imsglobal. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. presentation and interactive environments.fr/publication. January. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time.

While packaged courses still have a place.ieee. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction.aicc. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. This is especially true for adult education.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . http://imsproject. reinforces this theme. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. http://sourceforge. http://www. http://ltsc.” In late 2005. Rather. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).taken together. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. They noted that “…in education.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. research. In Europe. http://www.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. and makes extensive use of XML. Major specifications for e-learning.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry.elframework. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. Instead of just providing courses.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. enabling the search for content. interactive learning components. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. At the same time. the new model of teaching involves facilitation. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. In business. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. “[a] pull economy . This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. Instead. Bollier says.oclc. and education administration.adlnet. http://purl.is based on open. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.

Bibliography Abbas. Bertolazzi. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. 12(10).. 19. March/April 2006. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described.amazon. David (2005). along with selected examples. Wales. (2002). and Conte.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti.. http://www. October.. the reader can approach any topic in any order.DC/0502051 Alexander. http://ewic. Likothanassis. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. (2005). ambient networks.. Montreal. M. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. Chrysostalis. 2006) has argued. http://arxiv.idi. From this.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. User-created content. Bryan (2006). servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. 2004. I hope you will find it useful. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. F. Z. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. M. Thus. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 .htm Bollier.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. http://www. The Long Tail. and McGinnis (2004). Web 2. Switzerland.1 0/tail. is becoming commonplace.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review..com/wired/archive/12. G. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. M.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. Reggiani. M. Lausanne. and Votis. and a bibliography. As Anderson (2004. Sept. 2005). All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies.pdf Bogonikolos. 41(2). 2004). Umer. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. http://www. K. R. N. M.ntnu..no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn.educause. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. McClatchey. R. K.. A. Moreover. S. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005..org/abs/cs. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. http://www.bcs.cscsi.. Zanichelli. and wearable computers. In the last chapter. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. Cardiff. For example. Chris (2004).pdf Anderson.wired. Italy. F.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. Wired Magazine. Weiss. Ahmad. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. Nov. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. online resources.. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).html Anderson.. mobile devices. Milan. http://www. M. Chris (2006). We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Odeh. June 2005. those learners are now keeping their own records. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. 16. New York: Hyperion. Ali. Five years ago. UK. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.. Giotopoulos. (2005). T. 2002. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots..” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals.

au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. Gregor (2005). C. and Zhang. Working paper.2005.S. Proceedings. G.ascilite.gmu. (2002). Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. E. C. http://www. Sept. Hao (2003)..org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.. WI. http://www.bcs.. I. 4-36.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc.au Limited. Stefano (2005). (2002). Sept. J. http://www. (2005). C. D.org/celda2005/index. J.pdf Knorr. Tsiatsos.act. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . J.asp Chatarji.pdf Cerri. (2005). Online.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1.com. April 18.ca/protocols_en. http://www. 2001. 1026-1032. Aug.iadis. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. A field guide to software as a service. International E-Learning Specifications. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. T.athabascau.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203.htm Hohpe. W. http://www.cti.pdf Millea. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. V. (2005).pdf Friesen. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. Jagadish (2004). NJ: Prentice-Hall. (2005).org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. 13. Athabasca University. USA. Dec..org. 2003. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . Erlanger.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. http://www.det.co m/docs/SOA_World. and Albert.html Kong.virtual.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.html Hagel. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). G. Perth. http://csdl2.. Porto.xml. (2001). Upper Saddle River. of Education and Training.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. for the Australian Dept.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. of Distance Education 10. J. Infoworld.. Oct. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . and Borck. http://www. 2004. January 2005.xml&DOI=10.xml.. pdf He. Norm (2006).au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.html Hockemeyer.johnhagel.ICALT 2001. Hornig. 14-16.. Education. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.computer. American Jrnl.edu/pdf/ajde. http://www.com/paper_pushpull.gov. Stephen (2004).gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .aspeninstitute. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. Portugal.5 6 Marshall. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. Triantafillou. ThoughtWorks White paper. T. http://www. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. 6-8. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology.Dev Shed. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. Switzerland.devshed. R. 13-16. and Brown. 2002 http://ewic. 2005.infoworld. Green. March 2002. 30.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa.cancore. L. and Putland. and McGreal.networking technology. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). http://www. http://cde. J. Web Services . 2. Centre for Distance Ed.amazon. Thomas (2004). http://ru6. N. Madison. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. (1996).1109/CIT. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). http://www.pdf Erl. Luo. Australia. http://www. Lausanne.

Library+information Show... Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Cook. M. Zhou et al.bcs. (2003).28 April 2004.ac. and Wade. 2006. and Geys.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. Research report. (2005).org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. and Jarke.unikarlsruhe.pdf Spaniol. Peter (2004). and Oliveira. V. Birmingham. MA: Perseus. R.): Proceedings. Cambridge.R. May 15. http://www. Klamma.aspx Yang. Germany. future thinking: digital repositories. Mashups.amazon.com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. C. 193–205. (2003). (Eds. http://www-i5. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. http://www..uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. http://www. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. and Ho.Neumann. http://ewic. Aalderink.astd. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities. UK. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.. Stuttgart. April 26-27. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology.edu. 27 .aifb.amazon. 2005. T. http://www. ICWL 2003. Dublin.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . and Vossen.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06.pdf Woodill.pdf Norman.alt.. Samuel (2006).uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. http://www.rwthaachen. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.operitel. In W.informatik.pdf Roberts. Feijen. Donald (1993).ac. W.acten. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. 2006. G. C. (2000). J. S. Harvey.. W. Trinity College. Hambrecht and Co. Rhonda (2006). J. http://www. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content.com/publications. C. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. R.pdf Pierre. http://www. (2006).sinica. G. 911-928. M.iis. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. http://www. ACTeN E-Content Report No. SCORM and the Learning Grid. (2004). H.pdf Urdan. G. V. and Weggen. Berlin: Springer. Learning Solutions. pp. Journal of Information Science and Engineering.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. 9. F.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. (2005).alt. Reflective learning. M.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2.pdf Werkhoven. http://www. e-portfolios. 21. April 1. Lee.

online resources to learn more about each technology.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. selected elearning related examples. and a bibliography for each section. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . Included are related terms.

2005). and to respond to them effectively. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. SRI Consulting (http://www. et al.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. In online therapy. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. including the ability to recognize and express emotions.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. speech patterns mainstream.html Do not reproduce 11 .convo.. too. posture. For example.” http://www.mit. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.co. or sad.myself-proj. security. emotional design.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. confused. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. Affective Computing. understand. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. facial recognition. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. and react to human emotions.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. keystroke patterns. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. in Italy.ac. 2005).cs. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. http://www. UK. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications.. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.media.” (Anolli. gestures. privacy. accuracy. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. emotions.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.sricbi. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.bham. Without the ability to understand emotions. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. and legality. http://www.

April 2-7. K. (2005). Salembier. (2005).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. B. Portland.edu/emotion. Isbister.org.bartneck. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. including studies of emotions in computers. (2005).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. Oregon. and Confalonieri (2005). CHI 2005 conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.. V. H.html Fallman.informatik. CHI 2005 conference.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. and Laaksolahti.pdf Cahour. http://emotion.1 2/love.. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Hatfield. B. Vescovo. Oregon. CHI 2005.unitrier. N.. 2005.doc Chateau. (2005). Realdon. and Zouinar. CHI 2005. http://www.unige... K.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports.. Brave. Joseph (2005). C. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.pdf Kaye.pdf Diamond. Pachoud.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman.pdf Maldonado. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. M. I. http://www. M. Balestra. April 2-7. bibliographies. Pianesi. P. The Love Machine: building computers that care.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. J. C. Oregon..aisb. 2005.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . Zurloni. J. Z. F. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. 2005. Nass. R. Oregon.nsma. F. Stock. are available online: http://www. http://www.doc Hook. http://www. David (2003). S. P. with many resources. and Waterworth. listing many links to interesting resources.. CHI 2005 conference...arizona.sics.uniroma1.dis. October 22-24.. Portland. Issue 11/12. http://www.. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. Y. Nakajima.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide.pdf Interfaces. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe. CHI 2005 conference. Wired Magazine. A. Nortillaro. 2005. D. Graziola. http://www. O.pdf Goren-Bar.sics. December. University of Hertfordshire.de/link/affective_port al. (2005). Dr.. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Agliati. April 2-7. http://www. D. April 2-7.com/wired/archive/11. http://www. Oregon. C. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Lee. Vermersch.. Portland. http://emotion-research. Portland. and Morishima.it/~lhci/009. H.wired. J.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. A.. Portland.. 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Brassac. O. 2005 http://www.sics. Oregon. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005. J. and Merisol. Portland.sics.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.sics.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. M. Mantovani. (2005). April 2-7.sics.. K. China.. Rocchi..se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. Iwamura. L. M. April 12-15. I Like It . and Zancanaro. http://www.html In Germany.. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. September 13. UK. Yamada. Bouraoui. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. April 2-7.

Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. E-book http://www. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. China. Portland. 2005. http://www. http://www. University of Birmingham. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. Erlbaum. MA: MIT. http://www.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. 22. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2004).se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. 2002. 2005.de/emeocomp/co ntent. M.elearningreviews. Portland. J. ACII 2005. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. Oregon.bham.ac. Ian (1997).stanford. April 2-7. 35(2).sics.pdf Do not reproduce 13 .ac. J. http://www. Charlotte (2005).amazon. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. 2005. T. October 22-24. Rosalind (1997). Affective Computing vs. Regan (2005). Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. April 2-7. and Picard. April 2-7. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Tan. (2005). (2005).pdf Norman.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. Donald A. Oregon. http://www. and Steele. CHI 2005.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. Gerd (1998).com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado.pdf Masum. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. http://www.htm Tao.sics. (2005). http://www. R.t. S. Emotional Agents. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. Doctoral Dissertation. Cambridge.amazon.sics.HTM Steele. (2002).pdf Mandryk. NJ. and Daily. CHI 2005. L. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Affective Computing. Helena (2005).cs. May 26.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. S. Portland.doc Wright. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. OR. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. New York: Basic. Portland.pdf Mentis. R. 2005. Miami.ruebenstrunk.uk/research/cogaff /Wright.thesis.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard. http://www. Beijing.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning.pdf Ruebenstrunk. http://www. Dec.miv.iste.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. M. Berlin: Springer. CHI 2005 conference.sics.utokyo. and Ishizuka. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

see the paper by Far et al.informatik. Fourth. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. 2005. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). For example. Dick Stenmark. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. 2004).htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears.gu. useful in educational simulations. veracity. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. However. and both may be found in the same http://w3. 1999). An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. but Do not reproduce 15 . Third. In such situations. and. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. She made mistakes. 2004) and are. First. Katzlberger. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong.. autonomous agents. Mentor. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). 1999). 2005). (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. In this context. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. proactive (goal directed). rationality.se/~dixi/agent/clas s.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Agents have beliefs. therefore. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. not only about environments. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. Second. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. avatars. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. and the students had to continue to teach her. learning/adaptation. and many of them can actually learn. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. Viswanath. intelligent agents program (for example. benevolence. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. A second agent in the simulation. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. et al.

They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. They are available as adaptive coaches. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.csc. 2. http://www. User Profile Agent. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). acting against other teams of agents. Massaro et al.fsu. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. go to: http://ritl. and expert guides. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .stanford.liv.extempo.editlib. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen.codebaby.old. Skills Manager Agent 3.redwoodelearning. See the article by Williams et al. http://www.ira. http://www. (2004): http://www. Learning Paths Agent 5. Therefore.ac. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7.org/index.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.netobjectdays.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. (1998) developed a conversational agent. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. http://liinwww. expert role-players.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. Student Assistant Agent 4. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable.also about other agents. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623. http://www. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. 2000). go to: http://ldt. Content Agent 6.uka.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. uses seven different types of agents: 1.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. For details see: www.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. Even though each agent acts independently.com/ CodeBaby Corp.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching. Baldi. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.

and Ho. (2002).org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004.educause.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. A. Koono. Ng.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. http://www. Clarebout. Norfolk. L..old.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. Nashville. E-Learning 2003.pdf Lin. and Tsang.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor. VA: AACE. 2005.. and Shaw.netobjectdays. (2005). G. http://www. Do not reproduce 17 . Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.org/index. July. (2003).. Vanderbilt University. & Kim. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.editlib. 28(2). 11(3). Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. In Proceedings.org/index. Y. http://www. Johnson.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S. G. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Ali (2002). 10 (3). Hershey. Doctoral Dissertation. TN. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. www.pdf Guessoum.org/index..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2003). (2000). 306-311).editlib. Tennessee. (2005). E-Learning 2003. International Journal on E-Learning. (2005). http://www.editlib. and Telecommunications 2003. G. Proceedings.pdf Clarebout. & Johnson. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. 4(1).ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. A. Paper presented.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 1503-1506. http://www. (2002).pdf Kim. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. 75-80.editlib. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. B. http://www. Hypermedia.. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. In Richards. J. Zahia (2004). 267-286 http://www.org/index.org/index. http://www.editlib. J. (1999).). 21-38. L. W. Sun. Y. 3. (Ed..ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. Vanderbilt University. A. E. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. Y.cfm?fuse action=Reader.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. Jrnl.pdf Kao. 1659-1666. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Hypermedia.teachableagents. & Bengu.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. No. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. 1353-1356. 5(7).org/index. Thomas (2005). http://www. (2003). Educause Quarterly.. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. http://csdl. G. C. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). Krittaya (2005).org/16948 Leelawong.org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623.. and Palopoli. http://www. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. & Lin.. M. G. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. e-Learning 2005.aace. 459-462. 275-285.. (2002).teachableagents.aace.org/index. P. & Ebbers. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. Erfurt. Large Complex Systems.pdf Jafari. Learning by Teaching Agents..ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. http://www. Nashville. Fuhua Oscar (2005). C. S.educause. http://dl. Germany.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. S.editlib. Z. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay.. Elan. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. Educause Quarterly.isi.University of Southern California.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. S.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. W. & El-Khouly. Inter-active Learning Res.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Doctoral Dissertation..org/newdl/index. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. In Proceedings. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.computer.

Proceedings. Doctoral dissertation. L. V. Doctoral Dissertation.org/newdl/index. http://www.edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. Pittsburgh.. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. (2005). D. 1632. V.lib.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). http://dl.cs.uni-karlsruhe. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. M.. M. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://scholar.indiana. ED-MEDIA 2005. and Winikoff. Proceedings.. In Proceedings. G. http://www. R.. and Stucky. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. (1999). Richards (Eds. O. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. H. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).ogi.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. (1999)..editlib. http://www. ED. B. IFIP WG12. http://www. S.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.amazon.editlib.aace. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. & Leelawong. ED-MEDIA. 143-162.. W. (Ed. L. http://www. & Lim. Adebiyi. 14(1). D. and Núñeza. (2004). http://www. S. 47-59. 61-65. Sandel. G. (1999).utexas.informatics. Ferat (2000).K.pdf Menczer.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.pdf Perez.de/BIK/vpa/109. Finland. and Solomon. PA.html Shim. 1415-1420. Government.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung.editlib.amazon. http://www. http://cslu. In Richards. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. June 1-4. R.org/16968 Sahin. M. In P..org/index.. M. 3169-3176. A. and Ferneley. 1999. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.org/index.. 18 © Brandon Hall Research . E.. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Daniel.).com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. K. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Biswas. (2005).psu. August. Russia.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. Peter (1998). and Higher Education 2004.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Carnegie Mellon University. and Cole. 194-201.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. http://www.org/index.edu/fil/ Padgham. (2004). (2004). J. (2005). K. http://www. Toulouse.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.editlib. (2006). Kommers & G. G. 17(2). A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems.vt. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).ist. S. 10 (3). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. L. Petersburg. J. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. R.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood.cse. Doctoral Dissertation.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://citeseer. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. Wesley.). U.. of California. Beskow. & Booth. 1999. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. Cohen.org/index.editlib.. France. Healthcare. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath. Atreya. www.org/index. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems.aace.aifb. St.Media 2005. 321333.edu/565321.

April 18-21. http://research. ED-MEDIA 2004.html Yan. Gilbert. Chun.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X.editlib. In Proceedings. & Madsen. Paper at CLAG2004. http://www...org/index.org/papers/15 8bis. J. Michael (2002).teachableagents. (2004). M. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge.ac. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.http://www. (2004).pdf Williams. 2004. 3000-3002. New York: John Wiley & Sons.edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. N.upc.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.wiley. http://ca.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . Chicago.

Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations.. 2003) Finally. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.0 http://www. Given that. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. However. The results of many experiments have been mixed. motion graphics depiction. animations may even prejudice learning. producing animations can be very costly. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. coupled with imagining how something worked. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. produced the best learning results.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. al. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. Rather. However.htm For a selection of over 400.05 http://www.com/alchemy/gi fcon. Also.animationfactory.topshareware.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. like pictures in a flip book. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. (2003). Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s.topshareware. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences.mindworkshop. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. et. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. a static diagram.Animation Software Related terms Flash.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.” (Huk. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture.000 pre-built animated GIFs.

http://www.com Maya is a high-end modeling.autodesk. http://faraday. http://www. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe.html CAT .com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI . To use ActionScript. For information on Flash. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. go to: http://macromedia. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary. http://www. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. animation. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars.Softimage Co.softimage.eitechnologygroup.animats.” http://www. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. effects. 2004).com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).animationonline.com/gallery/default. a high-end editing and visual effects suite.com/pub/products/e nliven. For a free demo.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max. It is part of Final Cut Studio. and rendering tool.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. Inc. Version 9 is available: http://www. http://www. http://www.com/dynamics/demov ersion. the built-in programming language.physics.. animating. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers. It animates fall stunts.massivesoftware. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. go to: http://www.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.com Enliven .viewpoint.html Falling Bodies .Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 . http://www.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium.com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.swishzone.macromedia.newtek..com/products/aftereffec ts/main. go to: http://www. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. For more information on Shockwave.adobe.apple.utoronto.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. their 3-D character creation environment. a subsidiary of Avid Technology.catoolkit. http://www.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq.

325–360. Flash Interactive Session.. (2003). S. S. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.allworldsoft. (2002).org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. and Hess.pdf Hess. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research .org/2003/aug2 003/toth. Phillips (Eds. http://projekte.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. ASCILITE Conference. C. Hancock. S. Learning Circuits.ascension-tech. C. July 2004. http://dl. 1046-1048. http://www.org.unihannover. (2003).Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves.sjsu. 14(1).de/pub/bscw. Lehi. R. (2004). http://www2.. G. http://www. (2003). and Hancock. never too much.htm Huk. Cognition and Instruction. and Floto. (2004). go to AllWorldSoft. July 18. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference..rapidintake. and Moreno. G. 87-99. and Hancock. M. Steinke. McBeath. Kriz.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. http://www.ucsb. Animation and learning: value for money? In R.ascilite. R.htm Hegarty.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. FreeDownloads Center. R. C.learningcircuits. S. http://www.freedownloadscenter. T. T. M. (1). Learning Circuits.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. Animation – just enough. D.learninglab.. 2003.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.htm Bibliography Castillo.psych.com/books_catalog .org/12937 Mayer. and Cate. http://www. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. 21(4). http://esub. G. http://www.html Malheiro.aace.. S. Educational Psychology Review.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.htm Hess. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.K. Learning Circuits.pdf Toth.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. (2004).learningcircuits.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities.com.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. Thomas (2003). Atkinson.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003.learningcircuits. July. http://www. Jonas-Dwyer & R.pdf Lowe. March 2002. (2004).siggraph.

personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. Nevertheless. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. AI. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. multiagent systems. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. So far. machine learning. data mining. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. intelligent tutoring. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. expert systems. agents. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . cognitive informatics. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems.

and Aist et al. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. including collaborative filtering. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing.learning. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. The reality is that. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. To seem humanlike. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). While many systems purport to be personalized.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence.” On the other hand. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. and the teacher. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. To achieve their goals. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. the subject matter expert. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. and data mining. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms.g. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. possibly undeliberate manner. (2003). Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. recommender systems. Moreover. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain.

edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. Talking Head Tutor vs. concepts. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al. gestures. http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . (2005a. http://lsa. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching.. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.cs.cs. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.” http://www.di.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. rather than using a single type of knowledge.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience.e. etc) and how they are interrelated..unito.uic. 2002).pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.” http://www.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. objects. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.colorado. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance.iit. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.

it. http://ariic.cs.iis.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. Aurora .html Founded in 1988. intelligent conflict resolution.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.com/index.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.” http://ctat. Task Tutor Toolkit .com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems. Stottler Henke Associates. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. Inc.cs.uc3m. Infrature.infrature. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. http://www.” http://www.enel.library. http://bach. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.kicinger.leaonline.edu.com/doi/pdf/10. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic .ucalgary. and INFOMAP. and multiagents. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.uregina. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al. As a result.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al. without programming.” http://www. http://www. http://www.colorado. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects. and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. including student monitoring.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. so that these systems become more realistic.pact.unsw. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. question answering (QA) techniques. challenging. see: http://lsa.edu.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready.cmu. and engaging. http://www.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.pdf Oguejiofor et al.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool. http://quantumsimulations.gast.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.sinica.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. e-commerce.

cs.its2006. with the next one in 2007.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.uquebec.cmu.licef.inf. http://www. and an interactive intelligent tutor.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. skill gaps.edu.uk/aiedsoc. and learning style. http://pact. http://www.cs. http://www.com/s10.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).stottlerhenke.teluq.learningcircuits.ucalgary.inf. see: http://www.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.enel.org/AITopics/html/tutor. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.cmu.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search. an adaptive testing algorithm. For more info: http://www2.ac.it. http://ctat.ac.htm Do not reproduce 27 . China.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.ca/eng/inde x.autotutor.usyd.aaai.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.pact.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. http://www.cs. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.ed. The AIED conferences are held every two years. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. http://aied.” http://www.org/cfp.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. http://www. http://aied. Taiwan.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning. preferred cadence.ed.” http://www.virtuelage.masternewmedia.org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web. http://www.org/2000/feb2 000/ong.ke-corp.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.wpi.gemini.

. http://www. Maceió.. Bibliography Aist. P. Paraguaçu (Eds.cs. and Frasson. R.pdf Baldoni.ri. and Schwarz. http://www.iit.pdf Barcena.. Brazil. 159-165. http://imlab.. I.) (2006).J. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. C. Lester.ht ml Aleven.B. C. V. In J. http://lingcog. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). http://dx. In Proceedings. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Chicago..org/10. E. R. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). 6(1).edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04.pitt. and Picard. Kort. and Read. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. PA: Idea. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.82 Bhatt. (2002). G.. Kobe.). V. 482-487. (2004). http://nth. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). 22: 3–39. (2004). (2004).html Barker. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society.ac. M. S. Artificial Intelligence Review.. McLaren. Paraguaçu (Eds. (2004).cmu.sbg. P. and Penstein Rosé. Mostow. Argamon. http://www.uregina.com/printer_f riendly_article. S. ITS 2004.edu. (2005). M.pdf Chaffar. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. and Douglas. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Hermann (2002). and F.pitt. S.wpi.ppt Butz. Ritter. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. C.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read.1109/ITCC.amazon. B. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) .pdf Brusilovsky. K. C. http://www2. (2004).aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. K. Peter (2000).at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. Reilly. and Evens.pdf Alkhalifa. (2004). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. C.di. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. V. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.nccu.technologyreview.. T.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. B.sis.eurodl. E. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research .unito. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. Vicari. In J.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv. http://www.pdf Aleven. http://www. M.edu/pubs/pub_4073.doi. (1997). Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. R.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. R.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. Roll...Volume I. J. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Eshaa (Ed. http://www. and Maguire. R. & F. S. http://www.cs. Baroglio. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. (2004). Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Lester.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Vicari.2005. S.html Brusilovsky.). Hershey. Hua. and Patti.Marvin Minsky. and Koedinger. C. M. http://www.

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The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. http://lttf.cs.wpi. Chicago. Norfolk.colorado. Doctoral Dissertation. Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Yujian (2000). http://www. http://www. and Pedrycz.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18895 Walonoski. Illinois Institute of Technology. Austria. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor.pdf Wiemer-Hastings. V. http://www. P. http://www. University of Colorado.com/gp/product/0262 691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Smid. July 20-24. 3rd Ed.. (2004). http://godel. L. Chicago.. Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. NZ.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-011106-070108/unrestricted/turnert. Cambridge. Masters Thesis.org/index. On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models. Doctoral Dissertation. David (2001). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. Clark. and Volf. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer. and Peters. Masters Thesis. http://nth.wpi.com/PaperInfo. The Sciences of the Artificial. Palmerston North.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/et d-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski. P. Devedzic. Chicago.actapress. T. 15 (4).edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.iit.pdf Yusko.aspx? PaperID=27013 Steinhart.com/gp/product/0262 700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Turner.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1.cs. (2005).edu/~circsim/documents/ jaydiss. http://www..Simon. Doctoral Dissertation.pdf Yang. Schultz. Worcester Polytechnic Institute.wpi.. Illinois Institute of Technology. Worchester Polytechnic Institute.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. http://www. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied Informatics. Kinshuk. B. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. S.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Maceió. E. Jay A. (2003). Svacek. Illinois Institute of Technology. a second-generation dialog-based tutor.. Maceió. VA: AACE. K. (2004). Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial. J. http://www. Doctoral dissertation.wpi.ppt Ureel. Brazil. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks. http://www. MA: MIT. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning.pdf Zhou. http://lsa. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. W. Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense.. Chris (2000). Sydney. Australia. (2002). pp.. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000).pdf Thornton.ieee. Brazil.edu/twiki/pub/Public/ SemlabPublications/aied-final.editlib. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Owen Bratt. Z.iit.amazon.stanford. http://nth. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003).pdf Vasilakos. Innsbruck. http://www. Cambridge.iit. Feng-Jen (2001).pdf Ueno.pdf Thomsen-Gray. Herbert (1996). Peter (2004).org/iwalt2000/slides/maomi _uno. Maomi (2000).pdf 34 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. 299-318. Terrence (2005).cs. MA: MIT Press. Jason (2005).

are already available. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. and output. the automated scoring of essays. We can expect that. When combined into a “360° evaluation. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. For example. which is usually much more reliable than human marking.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. making it hard to escape assess-ment. evaluation. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . eassessment. and psychomotor. and documents for assessors to use. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused.info/learni ng/solo. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. quizzes. or performance samples. rubrics.learningandteaching. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. In a business situation. for example.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). (2) instant feedback to students when desired. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. More sophisticated forms of automated. aptitudes. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. in the near future. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning. However. online assessment. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. 1956).htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. computer based assessment (CBA). The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. Assessment software can generate templates. self-evaluation. computer-based assessment tools. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. and (4) computer marking. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. once only done by a human assessor. quizzes. computer mediated assessment (CMA). These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. samples. affective.

the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.K. http://www.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting.questionmark. http://www.brainbench. http://www.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.org/english/index. a completely customizable report engine. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . multilingual support.com The Evaluator.redinq. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. from Resources Management Services in the U.com/wwwtools/magazines.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer.com/evaluator Testcraft.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. http://www. a customizable look and feel.ets.testcraft. personality. http://nt. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. For information on latent semantic analysis. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique. Review it at: http://www. Find them at: http://www.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. abilities.rmsuk. http://www. Diploma. surveys.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.pedagogue. http://www. http://www.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. preview pages for all question types. and adminis-tration features.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software).colorado.respondus.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. learning tools.epistema. see: http://lsa.” organized by academic discipline. institutional evaluation.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. and adaptive question branching.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry.vantagelearning.operitel. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. http://www. check out the Dialang web site.” http://www. See more at: http://www. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. skills.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. reporting. has recently won awards for its performance.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group.xstreamsoftware. and self-study.org/ ETS.dialang.horizonwimba.flaguide. and past work behaviors. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.fasfind. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. http://www. For details.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. http://www.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. and services useful for outcomes assessment. on its Web site. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.uc.. see: http://www.com/redinq/html/index.0.

ac. Freire.learnflex.learningandteaching. R.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. Gregory (1973). & Rodríguez.ira. M.rmcdenver.heacademy. E. London: Paladin. http://www. D..200 references. A.com/career_asses sment.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.3 Bateson.ac. Ortigosa.ifets. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.thinkinggear.tasainstitute. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy.tcet.com/useguide/asse ssme/online. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. (2005). Online paper.health.umuc.scit.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.pdf Atherton. http://www.000 different tests from its database. http://www.com/schrockguide/ assess.unt.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.. (2004).uka. http://www. http://www. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.org/research/re views/10_01. 8 (3). Obtain a copy at: http://www.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. Educational Technology & Society.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. 5365. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. is available from: http://liinwww. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning.edu.ulster.quintcareers. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. http://www..ac.discovery.htm Atkinson. http://www. James (2005).com/tools/rubrics.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www. http://www. P. Pérez.htm#2.ict4lt. http://www. with a list of 34 strategies.edu/dme/exams/ITQ.. Carro.uk/home.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.au/assessing learning/03/online. http://www.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.ac..com/029.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.info/journals/8_3/6.” http://www.html Bibliography Alfonseca.oir. and Davies.org/en/en_mod41. G.cshe. T.uiuc.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. http://school. with over 1.uk/cticomp/CAA. http://cba.economicsnetwork. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. http://www.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. M.nestafuturelab.unimelb.info/learni ng/solo. Do not reproduce 37 . Explore the links at: http://www.wlv.

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In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. http://www.pdf Hricko.htm Cebrian.amazon. (1999). Micheline.com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones.ac. N.gmu. E. L.msu. S. W. http://llt.msu. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). Online newsletter. Loughborough. May. http://mason.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. M. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. (2001). Howard (1993). (2004). EdMedia '99..edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault.nap. http://www. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. www. http://wwwpsych.html. Nathan. Howard. and Howell. http://www.iltaonline. S. http://www. (Eds. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. Online newsletter.soton..Hershey.amazon. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. n. Howell. 5. http://www.. (1999). H. Language Learning and Technology.edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Online paper. C. 5. v.html Davies. (Ed.Proceedings from a Workshop. P. M. 2: 77-93. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. (2001).) (2005). PA: Information Science. Davis. D. (2001).html Frase. P. D.htm. University of Tasmania. May.html Chalhoub-Deville.ecs..edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase.. Gardner. and Grellett.amazon. http://llt.edu. O’Reilly.softwaresecure. M.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. http://www. http://www. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". New York: Basic Books.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1. http://llt. C.. and Sclater.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. Laham. v.doc.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . Louis. National Research Council. In Proceedings. (1998). London: Falmer. 2. http://www. Seven technologies for assessment. (2002). Robert.hlc. B.msu.utas. Language Learning & Technology 2. St.edu. Chalhoub-Deville.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Foltz. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. No. The Student Assess-ment Handbook.au/worldcall/str5. Micheline. (2004). 2.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. Writing assessment: a position statement. http://eprints.nmsu. Lawrence. Board on Testing and Assessment.unimelb. T. K. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. and Parry. College Composition and Communication Online.) (1999). Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. (2005). Language testing and technology: past and future. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. n.ncte. Y.Carr.pdf Dunkel P. March 9. 4. & Landauer.com/pdf/Paper Tests. Morgan. Millard. W.

edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. (2005).) (2005). (1999). (2005). http://www. A. http://www. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. (2000). K. B. J. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. (2006). Measurement and Evaluations.proexam.. Reports from the Institute of Education. (1979).amazon. and Ward. May. R. and Skinner. Online Assessment. H. W. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. D. Discourse Processes.colorado. Y.. D. pp. S.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education.ed.pdf MacDonlad.. J. http://llt.pdf Kenyon.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Graham. http://www. and Hricko. and Watt. http://escholarship. Mahwah. and Malabonga. 259284.. and Ma. International Journal on E-Learning. K. Howard. G. 403-416.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.. Tim (2006). http://www.pdf Landauer. M. Journal of Technol. D. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. (Ed. DC: U.LSAintr o. M. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions. & Leacock. & Mason.pd f Weiner. Compiegne. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. (2001). and Gifford. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. France.html Khan. http://nces.gov/pubs2000/2000195. W.medianet. Howell.amazon. http://www. M. http://www. NY: Guilford Press.. and Assessment. R (2002). S.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. Hillsdale.amazon. N. M.. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts.edu/cgi/viewcontent . Learning.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. Potenza. & Laham.msu. Handbook of writing research.ed. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Fremer. 25. http://www. M. Information Science Publishing. University of Gothenburg. C.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis.. J. P. 5(2).amazon.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams.kent.. D. Washington. Foltz. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning.. http://eric. V.edu/papers/dp1. PA: Information Science. (2006). C. M. & J. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.Jones. New York. Government. National Center for Education Statistics. Hardas.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. Fitzgerald. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. J.amazon. and Writing. Language Learning and Technology. (Eds.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. (1998). http://lsa. Patrick (2000).com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. Self.) (2002).. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. http://www. (Eds.bc. T. McArthur.) (2000). Burstein. Hershey. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence.S.amazon. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer. In C. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. Weller. 4(6). The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . Problem Solving.

http://www.operitel. Operitel white paper.com Do not reproduce 41 .a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.

The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. Enables instructors to review training or lectures.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. podcasting. or by “streaming. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. compared with even a few years ago. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. which is gaining in popularity. Provides another channel for material review.. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. such as those for iPods. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. Provides feedback to learners. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and.. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors.5 megabytes. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. to personalized media). (i. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . in part. (i. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. Assists non-native speakers. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. For example. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. while it is playing.e. (2005). depending on the file size). is podcasting. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. According to Crofts et al.e. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. You can’t add your own notes. This frag-mentation is being fueled. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. the rest of the file has time to arrive. One audio application of interest to educators.

purdue. freeware.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas.envision. Microsoft Windows. It is available to download for Mac OS X.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. phrases.edupodder. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. or sentences from audio Web sites.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. including podcasting. and broadcasting are all found on this site.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . shareware.avsmedia.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.thepodcastnetwork.com/lipsync/ind ex.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. http://www.htm For a list of podcasting tools.48.podcasting-tools.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.co.apple.71. http://www. and other operating systems. http://www.rds.com/resources/dc_media. http://epnweb. http://www.automaticsync.masternewmedia. and utilities for conversion. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.com. http://sourceforge.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. go to: http://www. enhancing. http://www.ibritt. htm RECAP Ltd.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. including software to record and play podcasts. http://www. http://www. Audio and video software. recording. playback.ltd.com/scwmarapr05sonification. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.uk/podcasting/index.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www. tools. sound editing.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom. http://recap.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning.audiotoolsdirect. http://64.scientificcomputing. http://www.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. http://www. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. DJ mixing. GNU/Linux.com/blogs/doug/index. CD audio extraction.elearningcentre. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/AudioTools/inde x. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. open source software for recording and editing sounds. http://www.

P. May 20. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories..masternewmedia. C. Sound Sense. L.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. Doctoral Dissertation.com/products/audition/ main. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. B. April 2005. N. http://dl. pdf Noakes. Dilley.html Curtis. (2005).org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. Ray (2005).apple.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). http://recap. 2005. and Lomas.cakewalk.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. In G. Luigi (2005). S. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. Government. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. Dave (2005).edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. Fox. June 2005. Robin Good’s Blog.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. 417-419).learningcircuits. Podcasts. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). http://edmarketing. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. http://firstmonday. Brenda (2001). University of Nebraska. VA: AACE.uk/articles/podguide. September. and Higher Education 2003 (pp.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.html Girvan. July 2005.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Peter (2005).html Kaplan-Leiserson. Dion Cory (1999).htm Jobbings.educause. Chesapeake.scientificcomputing. http://www.multitrackstudio.h tml Canali De Rossi.sonicfoundry.editlib. http://www. Podcasting and Vodcasting. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio. First Monday.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. M. 10(9).com/home. A.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.. J. and Williams.com/scwmarapr05sonification. Healthcare. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).adobe. http://digitalcommons.org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.audiolink.bias-inc. http://www. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. and Swenson.org/index.aace. Scientific Computing World.. Eva (2005). Retsema. Richards (Ed.unl. http://www.ltd. 45-50.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www. http://www.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Learning Circuits.

Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. see: http://www. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. and Evaluation) processes. either directly or with third party tools.brandonhall. 2005). Further. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. rapid elearning.microsoft. in the end. please see http://www. No authoring tool does everything. Development. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. simulations. Design. (For details. For details on each Microsoft product. Implementation. As well. content development. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects.s html). Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. In this vein. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media.com/publications/emerging/emerging. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. and. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food).

de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product. go to: http://www.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www. http://www. Builds quizzes. http://www.elearningpowertools. http://www.com/ Counterpoint .co.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.atlanticlink. video.com/presenter. http://www. pop-up messages. video.com Agile . hotspots.com/eng/index. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. http://www.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .com/ Business Performance Technology .articulateglobal.composica. http://www. http://www.Content Point .co. pointers. http://www.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . XML. buttons.uk/contentpoint. visualization. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. http://presentation.com/ Acroservices . http://www.Thinkcap Studio .com/powerp oint-presentations-index. .com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.Media – Import 3-D Models. and images and turn them into 3-D training. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.ilessons.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.htm Bernard D&G . and PowerPoint slides.asp Bridge People and Technology .com Anark .CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow. http://www.turbodemo.com/index.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint.adobe.Designer’s Edge.brainshark.bridge-pt.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.Capture Station 2.accordent. http://www.htm ActiveSlide. http://www.thinkingcap. http://www.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.anark.allencomm.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. Integrates various media.htm Brainshark Inc.lersus.copycatsoftware. Flash.activeslide. rich text. htm Composica .Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. video.info/ Allen Communications .acroservices. music. www. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.Composica Enterprise .com/products/ Articulate .0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. and marketing applications.

com/ Eclipsys Corporation .epistema. http://www.dynamicpowertrainer.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.elementk. http://www. Post the characters on any Web site.com/inde x_eng. audio.elicitus. http://www.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. and animation.lecturnity. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.php e2train .e2train.ht ml E-Learning Consulting .com/ Hunter Stone . graphics.shtml Dynamic Media . HTML courses. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.WTDS-Web Training Development System .impatica.com imc AG .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool. http://www. http://www.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www.gen21.horizonwimba.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .com/products/forceten. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.e-learningconsulting.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.exe files.intecllc. http://www.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/index. http://www.digitalworkshop. stand alone .Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules.KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com Imaira Digital Media . creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. without programming knowledge.com/ka. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.eclipsys. http://www.Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. http://www.sculptoris.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview .hunterstone.com Element K . CD Rom.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work. video. http://www. http://www. http://www.Digital Workshop . http://www. http://www.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.com/products/ Pro.de/ Impatica . DVD-video.eedo.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. such as the following: Web.Development Kits – Create Flash courses.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.co. http://www. Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www. and installation files. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.seminar. http://www.uk/ INTEC .com/Solutions/Elearni ng.com/ Information Transfer .Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.experiencebuilders.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.

KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. centralized knowledge base.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.easyprof.mindiq.maxit. Ready-made button and navigation aids. http://www.com/flashhom e. http://www. http://www.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www.instant-demo.elearninginabox. .com/ NetPlay Software . http://www.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.asp Knowledge Quest .Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.customcourse.ipsinc.com/ OPTX International .knowledgepresenter. Built-in testing engine.authoring tool based on Flash templates.com . http://www.php MindOnSite . and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .htm MediaMaker .Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures.mckinnonmulherin.learn.com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure. Has its own built-in learning management system. with a built-in learning management system.knowledgequest. http://www. audio.co.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.maxit. Word.pdf Intuition .ie/software/publisher.com MyKnowledgeMap .mohive.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies. shtml Itaca . http://www.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .htm Kookaburra Studios . with no programming and no plugins. http://www.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.com/tbt/dac/index. http://www. http://www.jsp Knowledge Planet .com/home/home.knowledgextensions. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.com/ Learn. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.com/index.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. PowerPoint slides. combining multimedia content like video.EasyProf .Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www. graphics.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.intuition.mindonsite. Works with SAP Learning Solution. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.uk/ MindIQ .LEARNERLand – Text.com/prods erv. http://www. http://www. and animations with tests and interactivity.learnerland. http://www.com/learncenter.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming.knowledgeplanet. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions .

screenwatch.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.com Rapid Intake .com/ SumTotal .Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.net ReadyGo . http://www.podia.reusableobjects. matching games.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.students. image labeling. http://www.pointecast. http://www.com/ Qarbon .sensalearning. http://www.softchalk. http://www. and Flash. popups.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.htm Suddenly Smart .p hp?from=menu SumTotal .E-Learning Objects .A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses. image hotspot activities.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content. http://www.percepsys. http://www.In minutes.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. http://nuvvo.com/ Percepsys . Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.com/common/affili ateRefer. http://www.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/ Scribe Studio . password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.scribestudio.htm Do not reproduce 49 .readygo.techsmith.Publisher Professional .com/product_sa. crosswords.com/camtasia. interactive Flash presentations and online training. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.respondus.podiaOnDemand . French.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates. When content is developed. Courses can be posted. http://www.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author. and assessments. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.Nuvvo .com Respondus . http://www.teknical.net/ PointeCast .or SCORMcompliant.rapidintake. JPEGs. and course player all in one software package. kiosks. or Spanish.toolbook.teds.com/products/study mate. http://www.htm podia .com/products/lc. Audio. http://www. http://www.com/coursegen.com/learn_assistant. customizable flashcards.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games. http://www.com/learn_assistant.toolbook. course publisher.shtml Reusable Objects . GIFs.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.asp TEDS . and highly interactive elearning content.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. http://www. http://www.ht m Techsmith .ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.cfm Serco (technical) .Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.suddenlysmart.com/Products/elearnin g_objects. http://www. http://www.com/sensasoluti on.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://www.qarbon.com/ Savvica .Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. without knowing code. Microsoft PowerPoint.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. a customizable.syberworks.

Illinois.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. http://www. E. June 2005. right in their browser with no additional software required. and Brusilovsky.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author .com/products/products _xwb.xstreamsoftware.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages. http://www.htm Zapatec ..time4you. images. and Ainsworth.Presentation Studio .com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. Northwestern University.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge. www. (2005).IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.brandonhall. http://www. T. M. http://www. and host online discussions.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web.oswego.bloki.win.com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. and Pahl. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. and rapid simulation.asp TrainVision . Montreal.gov/ Webex .Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. http://www. http://workforceconnections. templates.oswego. P. (2005).2-conformant objects and assessments.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms. http://www. and Riesbeck. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. content conversion. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. McMullen. E.com/download _rb40eval. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive.uk/index. http://www.funeducation. Blessing. http://www. Evanston.lectora.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full. http://www. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning. C. P. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. or Network. Doctoral Dissertation.webex. L. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. S.html Westcliff – SCObuilder. http://www. and wizards.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. audio.westcliffdata. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. (2005).time4you GmbH . Melia.amazon. C. S.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu. interactive and intelligent educational software. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . Lin (2005). D. Government.cs. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.co.xplana. http://www.trainvision.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . video. publish blogs.com/ US Government .edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005.com/Technology. and text. http://www.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.. Healthcare.dol. CD.pdf Ramp.pdf Murray. (2003).htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. www.tue.com/services/webpresentation-svc... Berlin: Springer. De Bra.cs.

Reuben (2005).2005). June 2005. http://www.com/publications/emerging/emerging.s html Do not reproduce 51 .edu/~paws/publication s.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman.org/index.sis.pitt. Canada.editlib. Masters Thesis. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Gary (2005).org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.brandonhall. NL. http://www. Vancouver.learningcircuits.learningcircuits. http://www2. Nov. E. CA: Brandon Hall Research. The myth about tools. http://www.. Reuben (2004). AACE.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Learning Circuits. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.htm Woodill. Learning Circuits. Eindhoven. 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. A.htm Tozman. Sunnyvale. (2005). October 2428. BC. http://www. 2005. Technical Univ.htm Tozman. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. W.

In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .sculptoris.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. http://www. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. in the broadest sense. for example. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. and generally simulates human activity. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. the avatar may represent an actual human being.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Similarly. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. http://www. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.telsim. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. games.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning.Avatars Related terms Agents. In the context of elearning.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. In some situations.” Maldonado et al.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training.typepad.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. especially in gamebased learning activities. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. http://blogoehlert.codebaby.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. but in e-learning. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.

.exodus. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. J. New Zealand.pdf Jung. Suthers. Ahad.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H. S. http://www. and Morishima. and Weber. eLearning Developers’ Journal. (2005)..uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. K.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching.vcom3d. In the toolkit.pdf Seth.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc..gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar.co. Chan (Eds. offering a large number of supportive functions.tmmy.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. Try them at: http://www.pdf Maldonado. and T. B. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Aug. Nakajima.com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts.. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters.” which are avatars that teach. http://www.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor.. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. modular application. www. Koschmann.. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface..daden. (2005).naccq. users are represent-ed as avatars. Yamada. H. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. Nass.ac.knowledgeenvironments. http://www. Inc. and Nodder.stanford. http://www. In T. http://ww.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255.Training Education & Education International Conference. A. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .redwoodelearning. M.pdf Online Resources In Europe. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.html 2005 . Iwamura.de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI. Lee. C.oddcast.W. http://isnm. R. http://www.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. 25.. Raj (2003). Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. 2003. Y. 2005.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. C. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.. Nexus Media. http://www. S. Brave.co. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. http://www. D. H. (2004).elearningguild.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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However. 2006. classroom communication systems.” In spite of the costs. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. and military settings. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment.einstruction. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. http://www. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. integrated with other types of learning technologies. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. display. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. corporate. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. giving almost instant feedback. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. increasing their motivation to learn. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. the costs and headaches multiply. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. The use of clickers has several advantages. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. higher education. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. The devices keep students alert and involved.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . clickers.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. management. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. costs can be an issue. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. or clickers. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. Beatty. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. training the faculty member to use the software.

Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. Educause Learning Initiative. Ian (2004).pdf Burnstein. http://www. Research Bulletin.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.active-learning-site. 3. https://sharepoint.cisat. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. http://umperg. http://www. Inside CUA.cua.smartroom.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.jmu.com/news_issue.edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons. 2006.umass. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). including material on the use of classroom response systems. 272-275.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002.gtcocalcomp. http://www.aclearn.com/index.ubc.learnstar.pearsoned.com/index. Feb.physics.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.elearning. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Volume 2004. E-Learning Dialogue.net/display.com/products_int erwrite.educause. (2003).edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS.Publishing textbook.optiontechnologies.com/Default. 2004. http://www. http://www. 41(5). 7 things you should know about…Clickers. Anne (2006). http://inside. 3.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. http://www. and Lederman.h-itt. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems. http://www.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty.qwizdom. July 7.campustechnology. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.amazon. http://www. http://www. Eric (1997). R. NJ: Prentice Hall.pdf Mazur.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. http://www.com/cps/index.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.edu/articleprinter1. The Physics Teacher.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. http://www.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. http://www.pearsonncs. Upper Saddle River.utexas.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.com. http://www. No. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. pdf Cassidy. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. Q. Tom (2004). March 3. http://www.” http://www.utexas.

Melbourne.pdf Do not reproduce 61 . Australia.Conference.edu.uq. http://www.au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.itee.

many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests.com/products/i ndex. http://www. e. evaluation. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. doing. social networking building. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. organize. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. many respond.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD)..zoho.advancedreality. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. social bookmarking. reduction.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications..com/virtualoffice/index. collaborate.. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. and collaborating.g. http://www. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. it requires skill and experience.teamspace. and There are many different ways to collaborate. clarification. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding. through brainstorming).Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.g. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. http://www.html?ad-main Annotea .Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. organization. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . The Institute for the Future.g.

Web conferencing. Features include IM. robust document management.com/services/faq_basics .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. http://www.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. instant messaging. intellectual property management. share files.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access.com/English/ps2/product s/product. http://www.org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm . search. http://www.backpackit.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.bluetie. http://www. education.cisco.w3. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person.jsp Engineering. and searchable discussion threads.emc.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use. http://www. and meeting manager. collaborative file management. jot down notes.globalchat.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger .centraldesktop. and collaboration. http://www. project planning and reporting. voice and data collaboration. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. version control. share information. http://www. discussion forum. and information technology adoption.courseforum.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.citrix. and communicate with others. alerts. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.avecomm.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop . and individual users.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. markup of data. and communication. http://software. http://www. http://www. document versioning.com/ Blenks – In-team . expert location.com/microsites/eRoo m/index. office.inteam.bookmarks.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting .gotomeeting.com/ourProduc t/index.com/ Cisco .com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .Documentum eRoom . http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.comotivsystems.digite. Presence (see who’s online). desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook).com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . and upload photos.bantu.brightidea. non-profit. with templates and workflows for product development. and instant access to the group workspace.com/ EMC² . and instant messaging. Includes document organization and sharing.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. calendar. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Unified MeetingPlace .This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. contacts.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. flexible workflow. http://www.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.opencroquet.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. recordable conferencing. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel.

Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.google. http://www.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple.ezmeeting. Web-based extranet tool. including whiteboards. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. tracking the status of assignments.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing.epam-pmc. http://www. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.groove.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database.com/EN/products /GSII.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. http://www. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. http://www.engineering. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.forumone. product quality assurance. 2001. cameras. Features include the following: Accessing documents. Features include interactive data collaboration.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. attach threaded discussions to files. quantitative project management.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy .cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. http://groups. The system streamlines project planning. categorizing. invite workspace members. http://www.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration .com/ Google – Google Groups – Create.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. snapshots.com/halo/index. desktop sharing. assign file editing rights and completion dates.facilitate. universal file viewer for MS office documents. and corporate instant messaging. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. allow members to update and edit files. easy to use online collaboration system.net/home/index. and team management.gordano. http://www. require-ment and risk management. It provides working groups with simple.exactamerica. powerful.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . and sending workflow tasks. share files and documents. http://www. scheduling and using calendars. and document management.Live meetings and Web conferencing. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. and creating action plans. It has tools for managing multiple teams.groupsupport. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.Halo Collaboration Studio .com/products/Collabor ation.features a project navigator. software construction.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. conducting surveys.shtml Hewlett Packard .com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . and organizational process performance. resource information sharing. data and process tracking. drawing tools. project management. and images.hp. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.grapevinesoftware. recording and playback. search.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. http://collaboration.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting .gliffy. presentation tools. http://www. secure. http://www. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. http://www.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. voting.flypaper. interactive whiteboard. meeting. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office.

com/ Interwoven . discussion forums.uwc. partners.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . a Wiki.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .iceweb. private interactive access or exchange of text.ilinc. Features include the following: Business email. search archiving. instant messaging and presence indication. realtime chat. an interface to a mailing list server.hyperoffice.com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. podcasting.com/ iLinc Communications .com/Smart Apps.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses.interwoven. voice.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. integrates with MS Office. and more.Lotus QuickPlace .za/index.microsoft. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.com/ IBM . task manager. http://www. Integrated suite of multiuser. http://www. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection.com/hotComm.com/ JotSpot . customers. and Lotus Notes.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. calendars.hotcomm. http://www.ac.kGroups provides a number of tools. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. contacts.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. http://www. http://www.hotComm . peer-to-peer. security levels. Outlook.com/html/produ cts. http://www. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction.com/products/docu ment_management/index.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . including versioning. blogs (Weblogs). and photos. folders.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. http://www03. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. versioning control. http://www. Customizable Web directory. a powerful. and provides search. image libraries. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.ibm.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. data.jdhtech. Features include the following: Document management. http://www.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. http://kgroups.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. including file sharing. and secured fashion – up to 399 users.jotlive. online editor.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. online document management. http://www. video.webofficepoint. and file commenting. link sharing). Features include the following: Shared calendars. http://www.Jotspot Live.inquesttechnologies. Functions include the following: Share documents. and secure peer networking architecture. and customers on the Web. efficient. and Microsoft Outlook integration.mayeticvillage. and shared documents. online contact management. structured. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. and extensibility. scalable. Web resources. online calendar. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. http://www.

novell. Enables individuals. moderator functions. text chat.Corporate quality communications center. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.Community Zero .com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE .iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. teams. schedule and track events and activities.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. instant messaging. and presence management solutions. audio and Webcam. http://myworldchat. MyWorldChat Communicator .Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people. instant messaging. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. http://www. Document Management.com/ Oracle . calendaring. and communicate.A suite of persistent group messaging.same-page. author and review pages individually and across the group. and files. providing the best of both worlds.Rallypoint .Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. resources. http://www.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Microsoft – SharePoint . Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. http://www. and contact and document management functions. file transfer. tasks.santacruznetworks. http://www. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access.opentext. real-time application sharing.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com – eStudio . Create a NearTime space to share ideas.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. task management.html Rallypoint .communityzero. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. and MP3 audio recording.com/ Novell – Groupwise . and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.com/ Ramius . organize and discover content through categories and tags.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. http://www. http://www.com/terms. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.performancesolutionstech.mspx Near-Time – Flow . http://www.parlano. http://www.near-time. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .oracle. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction.rallypointhq.com/collabsuite/index. team events. share knowledge.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.com/ Santa Cruz Networks .com/ Same-Page. http://www. http://www.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. Within each area. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. Workflow Automation.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. see each other in real time using cameras.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. processes. information. milestones. called an online community. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. http://www. Allows people to talk to each other.microsoft. and share data or applications while they are online.

http://www.00. expertise. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training.com/ SiteScape .webasyst. newsgroup server. http://www. video.04.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. instant messaging.25. productivity applications.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .sitescape.solutions. workflow and task management.Forum ZX . WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus.yahoo.webcrossing.com/company/news/press /2005.com/content/default. http://www. http://www.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. Designed specifically for the non-technical user.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . http://www. and other business communications.2097. FTP server. and business partners. and calendaring tools.writely. partners. and share.com/product/ Vignette .cyber-grad. Use it out of the box.html Trichys – WorkZone .tacit. live video.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. chat server.seldensystems.trichys. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications . project. threaded discussions. http://groups.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. voice and Web conferencing. store files. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . and information sharing.1-1-1928-4149-19684491.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .viack.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.vignette. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. e-mail server. Includes VoIP. search. project teams. collaboration.Collaboration software that includes document management. desktop document folders. and breakout groups. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation.com/contentmanagem ent/0.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.com/index.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. view and edit documents or images together. documents. and business relationships. and use live audio.Processes email.sumtotalsystems. or use it to build a Web application. http://www. and prospects – without leaving their desks. interact. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. and more.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.com/products /stcollab.sharemethods.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. Web conferencing server (in-house). http://www. application sharing.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. calendar sharing. and instant messaging. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. XML-RPC server. Webbased whiteboarding.com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www.stalker. collaboration. http://www.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer.

review button.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. form to submit questions. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. identify and resolve potential problems. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal. http://www. http://www.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM. http://www.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt. online management for projects of any size and scope. print icon. and save to disk icon.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files.Features include Hands up.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.nagarro. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. Works with Microsoft Project. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. http://www.Projistics . feedback.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively. invoicing.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. attendee list.saba. video. custom stamps.com/project.com/index.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator .com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. http://www. set user permissions. and share documents. http://www. affordable.opmcreator. Share multiple projects with multiple users.onproject.0 . simple.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.elluminate. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. assign tasks.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . http://education. Access to the tool is also given to clients. project tracking.hp. and e-mails. content button. content.axista. whiteboard pages. exit and help. private/group chat. and collaboration to timesheet management. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. scaleable. annotation tools.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .nexprise. http://www.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.projectdox.com/ onProject – myonProject . and payments.generation.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. data. http://www.com/ HP .brevient. applaud and meter. http://www. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. http://www. and communicate with their project teams.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. scheduling solutions.tomoye. and data into a single storage area.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work.teamdynamix.caucus. http://www.com Nagarro .HP Virtual Classroom .com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . http://www.peoplecube. discussions.Intuitive project management software for work teams. files. and Web pages. calendars.Web event calendaring.com/ applications.project-open." virtual collabor-ation.Instant set-up.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting . http://www.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . connects peers. navigation.com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. project planning.

Record classes or Webcasts. and collaborative content-building sessions.ivocalize. shared desktop.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. sales presentations.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.net/site/getglance/exa mples.horizonwimba.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. http://www. online seminars. attendee lists. session reports. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. remote control.linktivity. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. and Web conferencing with WebEx.Delivers unlimited voice. video. and videoconferencing.Synchronous Webconferencing software. integrated content management system. and a change presenter ability. virtual office hours. instant messaging. Multilingual. http://www.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio.com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . guest lectures.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi .com/ Intralinks . quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos.com/website2/events _imc. record and playback. breakout rooms. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. private whiteboards for each participant. Allows holding live. and more. and by whom.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. and phone use.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . how often.photoninfotech. http://www. and meetings. annotations. pre-recorded broadcasts. Web.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. Webcasts.com/ Linktivity Division. http://www. http://www. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. and content display.genesys.glance. http://www. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. video.batipi. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www. e-learning classrooms.0 . synchronous online lectures. hand raising. polling and quizzes. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing .com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. http://www.A secure. instant Do not reproduce 69 .mixmeeting. http://www.communiqueconferencing. including Web conferencing. office hours.liveoffice.interwise.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . http://www. shared whiteboard and present-ation. desktop sharing. transparency tools. live demos.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7. notes. e-mail invites. and Webconferencing specialists. teleconferencing. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing. and collaboration features. application sharing. keyboard and voice chat.LiveOffice provides Web-based.Photon Infotech – SPARK . http://www. URL sharing. http://www.elluminate. Features include shared documents. http://www. For example.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. online classes. broadcasts files. and text chat.adobe.intralinks.com/ internet_conferencing. http://www. toll-free conference calling.convenos. meeting management. http://www. learning.com/ iVocalize . visual.

editing.Meeting One – Click&Share. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. http://www. Requires only a browser and a phone. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. share other applications.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room .com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.webtrain.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).com/home/s_vmps. http://www.To support large deployments.edufolio. audio.com/bridgepoint. Web conferencing. http://www. The suite manages the creation. http://www.cudenver. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.voxwire. http://www.Web and audio conferencing services. text messaging. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. http://www. or meeting. and document collaboration. any application.com/action. remote support. tour Web sites.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world.wave3software.vodium. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. or an entire desktop. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. and system management.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.meetingone. course.radvision. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.Powers online meetings. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.raindance.com/rndc/services/s ervices.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. Solutions include Web meetings. and into the enterprise.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.edu/~bwilson/build ing. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . http://www. http://www.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . conference calling. and instant messaging capabilities. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. http://www. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. teleconferencing. e-learning. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. and moderation of Webcasts. present PowerPoint slideshows.netspoke. http://carbon.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .webex.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 . surveys. publishing. discussion forums.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . set up labs and conduct quizzes.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . send text messages. Webinars. the Internet.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.telnetz.

ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.htm Mitre Corporation.com/writings.. T. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. S.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.com/View. K. communities.1 Bibliography Alexander.collaborate.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. Creating an eCommunity.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002..kolabora. Nov.org/index. J. Eisenstadt.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.collabtech.uk/12081/ Beshears.collaborationloop.. also has a great list of collaboration tools. J. Curtis (2002).html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. http://www. March/April 2006.diglib.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. Potter.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. scientific. S. M. 2002.1:100250. http://www.ctcevents.criticalmethods. Maceió.thinkofit.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). http://www. Dalton. http://www. and Tate.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration.springerlink. http://www. Komzak. http://www. http://www. Page. J.clomedia.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. Michaelides. http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 . (2004). Brazil.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. Shadbolt.. M.org/tools.org/collab/inde x. and Coleman. (2003). Q2Learning White Paper.com/webconf/workspa ces.htm Butler. also known as “groupware. http://www. 2002.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. D... 2003.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).usabilityfirst. ChenBurger.ac.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. De Roure. http://www. Bryan (2006).. Models of collaboration.” http://www. 4.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. Buckingham Shum. September. http://www. 2006. D.globalschoolnet. A. Nov.com/groupware/in dex. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest.writely.ecs. http://collaboration. http://cde.soton.pdf Bonk. Sign up for free at: http://www. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. Collaborative Strategies.mitre. Bill (2004).0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.. Web 2..bruck. N.. D. http://eprints.athabascau. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. Fred (2002).educause. 41(2). http://www. Chief Learning Officer. Japan on July 13-14.

CMS Watch. Carlsen. D. P. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. J. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning..cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. Then Knowledge Management.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan.learningcircuits. 5(1). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.. D.) (2003).masternewmedia.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing..ieee. Luigi (2005). Educational Technology & Society.pdf Strijbos. I...org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.athabascau.html Munkvold. http://www. CA. R. (2002).org/index.masternewmedia. http://www. R.ieee. J.zcu. June 5. Learning Circuits. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. M. McFerrin.com/Feature/109 Elliot. Palo Alto.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. Educational Technology & Society.htm Canali De Rossi.htm # Clapp. Kirschner.htm Canali De Rossi. Gibson. Willis. VA: AACE. Institute for the Future White Paper. May 2. Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.html Kreijns. http://www. January 2005. & Weber. (2002). Collaboration First. http://ifets.. 2565-2569.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. Robin Good Blog. Chesapeake. Robin Good Blog. D.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003a). Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. Bjorn (Ed. C.cmswatch. J. and Thomas. Aavani. Sept. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005.Canali De Rossi.) (2004).ca/online_book/ch8 . The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.N. and Sharifi.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise. A. June 22. Technologies of Cooperation. Robin Good Blog.).html Hurst. http://ifets. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. J. 5(1). J. http://www.. Price... R. Fitzgerald. http://www.masternewmedia. Proceedings. and Jochems. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. R. Soren (2002).html Institute for the Future (2005).Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. August 2002. Matthew (2004). A. K. January 21.rheingold. and Miller. (Eds. (2005). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. J. University of Athabasca. World Conference on Educational Multimedia.editlib.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports...masternewmedia.masternewmedia.cfm/files/pape r_12386. 2003. Luigi (2004b). http://www. Live ELearning..pdf Kaplan..amazon. (2004). (2002). http://wscg. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. e-Book. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . (2004). Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2003b). and Martens.org/index. A. http://cde. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. (Eds. 2004. In Crawford. W. Kirschner. A.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. and Forster. Luigi (2004a).com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. June 30. P. London: Springer-Verlag. http://www. Robin Good Blog. 827-829).editlib. http://www. Robin Good Blog. Findlay.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. 3. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. http://www. K. http://www.

J..edu. Innovation and Development. Studies in Learning. 24. K.Norwell.cqu. Nov. http://www.com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.amazon. 1(2).. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.au/include/getdoc. (2004). MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Evaluation. & Purnell. http://sleid.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 . Callan. G.

and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.48.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion.ac. chat. http://www. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. telepresence. telephony. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. including communications tools.conversate.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.editlib. messaging.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. a process referred to as “text mentoring. discussion forums. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. VoIP. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. It is being developed into a transportable. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. instant messaging.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. blogs. Hegarty et al.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.google. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.org/index. and yet tailored and flexible.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. Find her work at: http://64. labs.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. http://www.” http://goldenswamp. For Laurillard. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. developed in Brazil. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www.com. re-usable. For example.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.janison.71. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching.au/eq/default.uk/deletacademictalk. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging.jisc. whiteboards. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. discussion groups. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . UK. http://www. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq.

http://ewic. M. Technologies of Online Learning. http://www.com/cv/research/ rmed35. 2002. Computer Mediated Communication. 2002.org/micte2005/4. M. 199-212. http://www2.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. S. University of Warwick. (2004). International Journal on E-Learning.co. J.ac.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. Francis. British Journal of Educational Technology. Hegarty. Working Knowledge Newsletter.charityvillage. R. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference. J. UK.ac. 2005 http://www. Jan. Diana (1993). 31 (3).elearningcentre.html Laurik. http://www. http://m.jisc.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. and Wales. (2004). JulySept.edu/item.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn..fasfind.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. M.com/wwwtools/m/2645. June.ngfl. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im.formatex.org/index.uk/schools/document . Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. distance-learning course at Keele University. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail. Komzak.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. 13-20.pdf LaCroix. D. F.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool. and Cerri.learningcircuits.co.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.bcs. Nick (2002). In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. Learning Circuits. University of Athabasca.com/webconf/hostsite s. http://cde. London: Routledge. > http://www. CAP e-Guide..com Library. Bostock. http://safety. e-Book. and Collins. chat.elearningcentre. September 23.pdf Eleuterio.html Morgan. J. 19. CharityVillage. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www.co. Mark (2004).athabascau. S. http://www. University of Birmingham. Sven (2002). 20-21.cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.warwick. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. J. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . 2004.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.pdf Kadirire. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Pattie (2005).html Laurillard.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. (Mlearn 2002). and Bortolozzi. http://www.htm Garner.gov. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6. I.hbs.elearningcentre. http://hbswk.htm http://www.editlib. (2002).uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. Aug.amazon. James (2005). 31. E-Learning 1. and telephony tools. (2005). Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid.. http://www.ca/online_book/ch5 . (2000).thinkofit. and Elliott.

ac.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . June. and Briggs. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. 2002.uk/papers/Stone_A.Stone. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. J. (2002). http://dircweb. 20-21.king. A.

” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. Edwards Deming. performance appraisal. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. a Harvard psychologist. https://launchpad. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . skills verification.org/competencies/in dex. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. For a large list of competencies for physicians.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies.” it started in 1950 with Dr. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. organizational and personal goals are tied together.org.itsc. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. Description According to Sanders (2001). Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. skills inventory. diagnose symptoms. W. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries.imsproject. entering defined competencies into a matrix. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. In 1973. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. see below) and performance or talent management systems. competency-based training. skills. go to: www. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. 2005). Known in the early days as the “quality movement. David McClelland. and carry out proper procedures. 2000).

Chief Learning Officer.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System.E. and development interventions. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. activities. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose.com/content/templat es/clo_article.expresscomputeronline. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. For example.ibm.clomedia. http://www. April.edu/paprog/clin_events. Read their white paper at: http://www.cipd.com/skillsman. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. http://www.ca/index. Building a skills inventory.com/20 050425/technologylife01.htm Online Resources HRSG. April 25.hrsg. Ken (2000). Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. Express Computer. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.oracle. R.” http://www. http://www.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. http://www. measurement.amazon.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www.ncrel. Josh (2006).html The U. Sudipta (2005). has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees. http://www.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research .cpgvision. http://www.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.learnflex. Clare (2005).com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128.com/article16.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. Benjamin (1956).wmich.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. http://www.learningcircuits. (1982).amazon. The competent manager: a model for effective performance.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. htm Many companies have their own competency models. New York: David McKay.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. 2005.co.shtml Hogg. New York: AMACOM. London: Wiley. See the list of competencies at: http://www.. http://www. a Canadian company.desire2learn.amazon. regardless of industry or sector.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan. Competency and competency frameworks. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. objectives.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.syberworks.S.

2005. http://www. (1999).html Radsma. Michael. Ethan (2001). and Expertise.com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. 1-14.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk.amazon. London: IRS.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. Testing for competence rather than intelligence.html Sternberg. v. Competencies. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. N. Master's thesis. and Neathy.blogspot.htm Parkin. S. http://parkinslot. P. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. New York: John Wiley. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.1/features/ewet te. Sanders.) (2003).28. The Psychology of Abilities. pp. UK: Cambridge University Press. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. N. (2000). (2001). (2003).t/competnces/comptfrmwk. E-Learning Competencies. Operitel Corporation. White paper from Operitel Corporation. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Fall 2000.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.cipd. Cambridge.operitel. N. L.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . Learning Circuits.com/2.amazon. http://www. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. http://www. http://www. Competency based learning management. F. and Epstein. American Psychologist. (2001).pdf Rankin. Study 706.amazon. Godfrey (2005).com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www.collectionscanada. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. University of Toronto.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. G. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. http://www. March 2001. Gary (2004).. and Grigorenko. Rankin.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. S.co.learningcircuits. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. White paper. http://www. (2001). P.operitel. London: IDS. http://www.amazon. E. Johanna. (2004). (1973).linezine. Ellen (2000). David.htm Whiddett.com Woodill. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. and Cahorn. R. and Hollyforde. London: IRS. Miller. Competency Frameworks. Creating a Culture of Competence. (2005).org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. http://www. April 30. 2nd ed. http://www. (Eds. Rankin. Parkin’s Lot.

LCMS.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. launching courses. According to its official Web site. functionality to an ECM. to date.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability.atutor. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Today. 2006). not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. manage. you could hire a company to build a private.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. Repositories. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Unfortunately. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. They have designed competitive. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. such as registering users. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. and reporting. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge.” As well. in fact. If you could afford it. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. First. Learning objects.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. rather than complementary. I feel that closed. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” http://drupal. the standardized railway system still works while private.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. displaying a course catalogue. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. With the advent of learning objects. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. http://www. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. and “topic maps.

com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.e-learningcentre. Budapest. 2005. S. http://www. http://www. 2005. May 15. March 3. May/June. 18. EdTechPost blog.com http://www. Educause Review. Strategies for managing scalable content. and Carmean.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. Gerry (2003). Curtis (2005). http://travelinedman. TravelinEdMan blog. “Monoliths. Hershey. http://www. and publish to multiple outputs. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. Why content management software hasn’t worked.gerrymcgovern.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. Retalis.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms. http://www. http://www. G.educause. C. Van (2005). Jafari. New Thinking Blog. and Brantner.pdf Weigel.co. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. B. elearnspace blog. http://www. June 9.cmsmatrix. C. http://www. 2003.author-it. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. (2003). http://www. (2005). George (2003). Learning Solutions.org Leslie. http://www.softlab. Ed.cisco. 2003.html Cisco Corp. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. http://plone. Content Management: our organized future. (Eds. March 2005.ca/mt/archive/000 689.topicmap. Cisco Corporation White Paper. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. reuse in many places. > > http://www. P.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. S.topicmaps.htm Siemens.. Dec. Mashups. San Jose.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. and Oliveira.elearnspace.html McGee.blogspot. (2004). They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 .) (2005). http://www. http://www.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533.ntua.asp Woodill. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. 2005. A. http://sakaiproject. 2003.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. 2006. January 23. Scott (2005). 40(3).pdf Cohen.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source..com/publications. PA: Idea Group.operitel.htm Simon. McGovern.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement.uk Bibliography Bonk.edtechpost.clomedia. (2006). Chief Learning Officer Magazine.

it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). personalization methods. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. Luan and Willett. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. 2000. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . knowledge discovery. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. delivery models and infrastructure investment. 2001). Consequently.

au/%7Ekalina/inde x. http://www.cs. (2004).pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.pdf Iskander. http://www. Piatetsky-Shapiro. G. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.pdf Fayyad. and Web mining. M.. 13-16 http://asbointl. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. Uthurusamy. California. P. Smyth.org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. Australia. http://www. B.ac.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information.. P.kent. 2001) http://www. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. by applying fuzzy logic.icosystem.usyd. http://pami. http://www. (2006). New York: Springer. G. Feb. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. Do not reproduce 83 .kdnuggets. knowledge discovery. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data. Lange.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. http://imej. What’s Not. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. and Smyth.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. Grieser. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.html Hammouda.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. 1--34.soul. G.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. Robert (2002). which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. pp. M Fayyad. http://www..com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. and R. text mining.amstatonline. R.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart. Grigoriev. Samuel (Ed. Piatetsky.com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. In Pierre. B.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. (1996). K.com/index. School Business Affairs.uwaterloo. Data Mining: What’s New. edited U.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www. http://www. http://www. Both products are from Convera. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. can generate meaningful results for the teacher.hkuspace.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.edu.convera.cs. Alex (2002).uwaterloo.. 68(8). TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. Thalheim.. U.wfu.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. Data Mining in e-Learning..) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. K.pdf Freitas. Long Beach. P.reeltwo.pdf Jantke. (cited in Luan and Willett. (2000). http://pami.html Bibliography De Veaux. and Tschiedel. AAAI Press/MIT Press. New York: Springer. S. and Kamel. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.kdnuggets. 1996.

and Ventura. http://imej. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.pdf McCalla..org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. J. (2001).uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Japan.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. A. Gord (2004).cnrs. 3(1).pdf Pahl. http://www.-Dec. analyze for more adaptive teaching. In Proceedings. C. (2004).edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. Austria. David (2005). 52-59. S. C. Yacef (2005). Journal of Interactive Media in Education.informatik.pdf Merceron.2004. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining.pdf Mor. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. Yacef (2004). 13-16. store. http://dl. 39-40.org/16915 Romero. Porto.aace. RP Conference Presentation. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. and Cheung. Data Mining in e-Learning. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. Maomi (2004). M. Hiroshima.actapress. B. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.computer. May 17-22.unikiel. Innsbruck.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. J.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Advances in Management Information. http://www2004. http://www.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. and K. and Yacef.open. Billerica. http://www.. A.is. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).ac. Oliveira.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www. (2004). and K. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. C. and Minguillon.wfu.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 319-346.pdf Monk.editlib.cabrillo. 238-241. 47-55. NYC. 7(1).compmech. 15(4). E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. (2004). International Journal on ELearning.html Ueno.ags. 3(4). Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. Vol 4. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. http://www.com/acatalog/1845 641523. Feb. T. Portugal. and Ullrich.ejel.unisb. 2006.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. (2006). Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. (2006).pdf Loo.pdf Merceron. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.com/PaperInfo. http://archiveedutice. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). and Willett. Scholl. K. E. K. http://csdl2. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Oct. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).asp Merceron. http://www. 41-54. Claus (2004). Train. http://wwwjime. A. MA: WIT Press. A.ccsd.. 2004 (7).org/index.

http://www. http://www. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation. http://www. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.sal.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.utoronto.net/index. 4) develop an action plan. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. 3) vote/prior-itize.au/dss/grassgro/index . GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004). 2) categorize.une. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . For example.tkk.decisionarium.bnhexpertsoft. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.whichbook.com/ Facilitate. http://www.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. 5) carry out a survey. and 6) document results. http://www.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). http://www. in their case study of medical education.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support.edu. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs.hut.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index. The software then recommends books that you might like to read. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis.facilitate.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. http://www. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.

http://www. B. B. Manchester.uniserve. and Tschiedel. http://www. B. Information Systems for a Connected Society. http://www. R. June 20-24. 23(4). Kauai. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Jim (2002). White paper from BNH Expert Software. V. and Koskinen. Dan (2003). Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. books. Jay (2004). Lange.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. 317-328.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. M. K.” http://dmoz.unikiel. and Frasson. Online manuscript. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis.siggraph. Gerhard (2003).sal.. Germany. (2004).hut. and Tschiedel...): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.html Hamalainen. (2000). Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.2004. G.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Hawaii. http://www. Hamalainen. and information on this area.bnhexpertsoft.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. 12(2-3).pdf Ounapuu. Porto. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.com/index.. http://science.pdf Jantke.pdf Jantke.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. Rostanin.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools.com/history/dsshistory . 2005.pdf Power.mc. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 238-241.pdf Frize. O. August 16-18. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. B. USA.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.is.edu. Grigoriev.manchester. Thalheim.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. In Proceedings..hicss. http://www.meetingworks. K.html Rhyne. 2004. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. C. Enn (2005).dssresources.. Jan.actapress. Portugal. http://dssresources. Kankana (2005). Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. (2004).pdf Ehtamo.com/PaperInfo.html Scott. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. SIGGRAPH publication.ac. Memmel.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03. Enn (2004). Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. H. http://www.sal. http://www.hawaii. Aachen. see: http://www.hut.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Theresa (1998).ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. 6-9. S. http://www. Raimo (2003). http://www. M. For newsletters. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. P.de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT. Hawaii. http://damit. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. (2003).dfki.pdf Knolmayer..uottawa. Grieser. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. August.informatik.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. Thalheim.. 101-110.pdf Chakrabarty.site. http://www. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources.

CAL-laborate. PA: Idea Publishing. Oct. Hershey. (2006).. Vol.edu. 9.html Shimizu. F. http://science.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .uniserve.ideagroup. and Laurindo.the curriculum. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.com/books/details. http://www. 2002. T. de Carvaho.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott. M.

a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. digital paper. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. This can be a holographic image.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.ntera.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset.ices. lighting up theater size screens.theregister. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. viewers see a floating midair image or video. big enough to be projected on large walls.com/about.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog. Electronic paper could change that some day. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.Displays Related terms Digital ink. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. Inc. still/video camera.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. By stacking a second projector.co. monitors. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.html Promera is a hand-held computer.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. In the near future. is the leading enabler of electronic displays.io2technology.siliconlight. > > http://www. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. Finally.cmu. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online.edu/design/Camera.com/technology/ overview NTERA.co. electronic paper.P rojector. projectors. In regards to digital paper. in cooperation with Sony. http://www. For air displays. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. http://www. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly.theregister.” Selected Examples Samsung. intelligent interfaces. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. head mounted displays. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. http://killer. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen).

acm.technorati.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. K.informatik.loaz. Pisano. Germany.org/citation. http://ad. 3. Hirota.. Canada. 2005. Whitton. S. Dec. http://blog.ac.fogscreen. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. M. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. G.H.pdf Wang. In G. http://thejournal. Tim (2005).com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. and Pizer.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. Government. Largest LCD and video projection. E.provisionentertainment. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . H. To access the articles. (1996).firstmonday. 2005. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Garrett. For a list of his publications.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies.. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. http://portal.). T. M. Richards (Ed. Healthcare. and Ottmann.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. pages 3053-3068. see: http://ad. London: Springer.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.unifreiburg. State. http://www.com/timwang/index..cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. In 2005.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. W.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s.informatik.. (2005). Livingston. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.jisc. Hamburg. A.unifreiburg. Oct.. Vancouver. See a demo at: http://www. see: http://www. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.uk/index. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen..E. http://www.

entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.educause.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download. 2005).uk/default. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.ac. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and. http://www. My first report in this series.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www2. http://www. http://www.htm IMS. open source electronic portfolio.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.chalkandwire. http://www.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.paisley.ac.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.com/college/portfolio s.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .pupilpages. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://www.iwebfolio.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. and simple usability.educa. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.co. http://www.nottingham. evaluation.elearningcentre.co. maximum flexibility. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member.elearnspace. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.osportfolio.imsglobal.org/Articles/eportf olios.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. http://www.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary.pebblelearning. http://www.livetext.ch/dyn/9. http://isle.htm Educause. http://www.angellearning.foliotek. helping to transform education and training. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. thus.com/eportfolio/in dex.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.

Trinity College. 39. http://www. J.eradc. Bibliography Achrazoglou. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine.com/article. http://www. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper. July/ August 2004. http://www. and McKean. G. (2005). Dec. T. Online paper.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. J. Business Communication Quarterly. Cook. B.educause. B. Graham (2005).amazon. Online Paper. M. (2003).. and Haywood. Dublin. http://connect. (2004). March.. Gary (2004). ePortfolios. K. and Hibbitts. Reflective learning. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. Fall.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441.. Frederick (2005). and Werdmuller.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.htm Tosh.. G.campustechnology. Educause Quarterly. College of Education http://www.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. http://www. no. (2004).educause.. George (2004).uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. Trent (2002)..uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. and Ittelson. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. 28–37. http://www. Bryde. Educause Quarterly.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 .. with many links. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. (2005).criticalmethods.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001.elearnspace... http://www. G.ac. 2004 http://www. has a section on e-portfolios.. An Overview of e-Portfolios. Fleming. elearnspace.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.becta. THE Journal Online. Feijen. April 1.alt.pdf Batson. Lee. V.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. W. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios.org.doc Banks..edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. J. Bob (2004). J. http://www. an online resource on collaboration. D. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.pdf Conway. P. and Wade. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. 2005.educause. D. FD Learning White Paper. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. (2002). e-portfolios. D. Educause Review. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. (2005). University of Iowa. 37(2). Online.cfm Dubinsky. future thinking: digital repositories. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. Love.educause. J.org/collab/v. http://ferl.com/magazine/vault /A5260. Harvey. (2002).educause. http://elgg. 4.pdf Lorenzo. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. (Focus on Teaching). S.org/Articles/eportf olios. J. http://www. Dec. E.amazon.thejournal.. 16.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. Aalderink.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. http://www.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. B. Light. http://www.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Vol 27 No 4. vol..pdf Greenberg. 31(3).

citejournal.ca/content/vol31. (2002).http://www. & Figgins. 144-169.3/tosh. C. http://www.cjlt. M.ht ml Young.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1. and portfolios.. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.A.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. research.A. 2(2).

Cyworld.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082.com/ http://www.com/ http://www. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . edit. dubbed XNA Studio. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. from the University of Wisconsin. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. as such.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. Facebook. identity work. play.com http://us. Making such changes is part of what modding is about.com/xna/ Softimage. games.microsoft. see: http://news. Marc Prensky (2003). http://www. For a brief review of these tools.facebook. 2003).com. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. writing about “first person shooter games.clickteam. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. 2005). Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM).hive7. Examples include Hive7.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. http://www. and learning (Amory. simulations. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. create. http://www.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. complex problem solving. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies.” says that “in the mod world. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones.com/ http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. Dr.myspace. helping speed up the game creation process. This game allows users to play. The toolset. MySpace. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia.com/ In 2005. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam. Constance Steinkuehler. and Second Life. serious games. There is a free 30-day trial version.cyworld.thinkingworlds.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning.secondlife. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.freescale. allows members of a game development team to work together. http://www.

” Read her research at: http://website.magnetargames.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. http://www.com/solutions/g ames/default.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.” http://www. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.com/zone 8/index. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.nasaga.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.softimage. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.htm Dr.aspx urces.futureplay. produces educational games for training. Inc. implementation. http://www.org/?14@33. http://www.seriousgamessummit.wisc. http://www.org/index2.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.programmersheaven.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.siggraph.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site.org.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.mpjgaBKQ dAe.seriousgames.gdconf.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. Many of their learning games resources are free. researchers.dk/people/sen/public.htm Dr.muzzylane.education. along with their Web sites.com/ Thiagi.for the Xbox. > > http://www. Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail. For example. Sign up at: http://www.digiplay. http://www.coe.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. Review them at: http://esub. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. http://www. http://it.it-c. You can read about them at Pluginz.com/news/548 http://www.ucalgary. Canada.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. Started in North America.uk/index2.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi.pluginz. http://www.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. See the selection of games at: http://www.uga.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.

simulations and microworlds. Xplanazine.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Rob (2006a).php Rieber. University of Wisconsin Madison. 2005. http://www. Honolulu. http://www. In Richard E. 2006. H. and Biswas. see: http://www. C.xplanazine.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. 2005. D.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. http://www.pdf Godwin-Jones. 2005.pdf Swamy.pdf Prensky.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games.uwf. (2006).education.com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. http://jason.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. New York: Cambridge University Press.xplanazine.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.msu. http://www. Serious Games: Games That Educate. http://llt. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue. Williams.amazon.pdf Bergeron. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. 19.. http://www.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa. H. Learning on Demand Bulletin. and Inform. Xplanazine..pdf Guetl. January 2. Games and Education = Oil and Water.. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Multimedia learning in games.amazon. and Maurer. N. Oct. Gamasutra. 2003. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. and Michael. Dreher. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. (2005).teachableagents.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. Clifton Park. (2005). Mayer (Ed. (2005). and Swamy. 2003. Doctoral dissertation. March 10. http://www.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. Lloyd (2005). Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. N.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. June. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Train. Constance (2005). http://www. http://website.wisc. Bob (2005)..edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . Simon (2005). Jan. http://www. Language Learning and Technology. 9(1).pdf Michael.Bibliography Amory. (2005). Technology Trends for the Year. 17-22. Chapter 33.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. June 25-28. Gupta. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. http://www.marcprensky. Marc (2003).amazon.ukzn. Montreal. Hawaii. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. S. G. Developing Serious Games.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003.ac. R. S. 2006. Fourth Quarter. Rob (2006b).edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Beers.uwf. Clifton Park.itc. J. Gaming. IT-University Copenhagen. D. Bryan (2006). http://www. SRI-BI. 549-567. pdf Reynolds.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen.cambridge.iicm. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. and Chen. Alan (2003). R. http://www. C.php Reynolds.

Jason (2004).commtechlab.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . http://woz.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004. Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.msu.Tye. Masters Thesis.

Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. FG2006.ucsd. London. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. eLearning Developers’ Journal.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. Ludwig-Maximilians University.cybernet. http://www. Lombardi. March.elearningguild. and robotics in elearning.pdf Borghi.pdf Beringer. Report No. F. such as Markov models. Nicole (2001).fg2008. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. 2003. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. http://www. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. L.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. 3. haptics.smartkom. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 .fg2006. 18.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Michael (2003). Porta. Munich.html Research by Dr. Artificial intelligence techniques. affective computing. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions.. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13.ac.ecs. FG2008. was held in Southampton. For a list of papers: http://www. including identifying commercial products. M. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen..com/~ccohen/gesture . play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. UK. http://www.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate.tudelft.com/pdf/2/081 803DES.org/reports/ReportNR-03. at the University of California.” http://mplab. Aug. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.soton. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. looking for particular sequences. April 10-12 2006. (2005). artificial intelligence. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. 2008. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. http://www.

pdf Lee.actapress. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. M.. Pittsburg. 57-64.. http://doi. http://csdl2. P.html Chang. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.Computer Communication. J. and Cohen.. and Carreira. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. Wong. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). C.pdf Corradini. http://www. Michael (2004).stat. http://interact.ercim.. (1997). Las Vegas. Wesson. T.fsu. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. P. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). W.com/PaperInfo. Setlock.pdf Peixoto. Sato.pdf Daugman. (2004).edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Park. J.. S. January. Gao. and Kim. 1999. L.D. J. September 2002. A.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci. C. Lai. http://portal. Korea. http://www. and Ma. X. Lee. H. IEEE Transactions. and Bender.2000. (2005). 21(9). D.edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. British Columbia. 675 . Canada http://cims..edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. Deller. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).2005.actapress. (2005).ieeecomputersociety.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat.cse. (2005).recveb. Y.org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027.computer.. http://www. A. http://www. Vancouver. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. http://www.. Sept. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc.mit.org/citation.xml&DOI=10. and Koike. (2002).media.1109/ICALT.. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. G. and Chang. Fussell. and Yang. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.clayton. July 22-27. (2002). Y. Geiger. http://www. T.edu/mas963/enh encedwall. 47(1).. 19(7). (2000). October 14-16.. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. http://www. Shi-Kuo (2000).ogi.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.1 50 Nakanishi. M. Y. 27-30. Y. Nevada. J.. (2004). 884 – 900. IEEE Transactions. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. A.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Communications of the ACM. M.mit.pdf Wilson. C. Chen.pdf Ebert.com/PaperInfo. PA. (1997).. 442-446. and Bobick. 191-196.rutgers. July 1997.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. (2003). Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures.676 http://lcv. http://cbcl.F (1999). Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. L.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Visualization.pdf Loi. In Proceedings. R.884693 Chen. Computer vision in the interface. 242-245.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. S. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.ucsb. Proceedings. A. and Wong.110 9/CMPSAC.acm.iscslp2006.research. J. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. 2004. J. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. C. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. In Proceedings. 2000.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. and Poggio.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Face and gesture recognition: overview.org/10.pdf Ou.

com/GetPDF.hindawi. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2004:16. 2533–2543.illumination variations. http://www.

In acquiring Macromedia.corel. Nevertheless. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.blender3d. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools. animation. rendering. Designing Web-Based Training. e-Learning By Design.adobe.html Blender .h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. the same principles apply to user interface design.avs.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research .acdamerica.com/TechIllustrator.0.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.autodesk.com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. and playback. Download a copy: http://www.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.org/cms/Home. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www. interactive creation.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.techillustrator.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.com/software/soft_t/gshar p.broderbund. post-production. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. and in his recent 2006 book. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www.2.

S.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005.co. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. The most listings are for 3-D software. June 1-3. William (1991).3dlinks.IBM CATIA http://www306.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. http://www. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).com/ToolsSurveyResults04. http://www.siggraph.itedo. http://www. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. Potsdam. NY: John Wiley.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.indiana.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. Proceedings.amazon. http://www.ucs.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman.com/E/1335. http://www. e-Learning by Design. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. New York: John Wiley.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://grids.microsoft. Pheonix. Gloria (2004). Richards (Eds. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference.google.smartdraw. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.ibm. Kommers & G.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.elearningcentre. In P. A.carto.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.amazon.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. Tokyo. Fu-Kwan (2004).php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.amazon. Germany.com/index. (2004).org/index. Do not reproduce 101 . http://esub. http://www. Japan · Sept 7-10.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.com SmartDraw http://www.). ED-Media Conference. Pallickara.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.uk/index.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.com.pdf Qiu. http://www. A.co. Designing WebBased Training. Tools Usage Survey Results. and Uyar.pdf McConnell. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . William (2006).php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. William (2000).co. (2005). X.editlib.stcphoenix. http://www.xaraxtreme. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2.uk/index.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory..

Cheshire. Edward (2001). http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Frances (2004). Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. Carolina Chapter.amazon.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon.stc. Cheshire. Edward (1997). CT: Graphics Press.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.amazon. Edward (1990). 2nd Ed. CT: Graphics. http://www.org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. CT: Graphics Press. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte.blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire.pdf Tufte. http://www. STC. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Envisioning Information. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.

miralab.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).forcedimension.html http://www.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .sensegraphics.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .se/index. and force-feedback mice. Do not reproduce 103 . including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen.immersion. Finally.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. > > http://wwwpercro. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. Read the press release at: http://www. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. gloves. suits. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level.sssup.mpbtechnologies.it/projects/pureform. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures.” http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.sensable. Haptic devices come in many forms. http://www.unige.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom. including pens. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. http://haptex. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback. joysticks/ joypads.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects.asp Body-based devices include gloves.Haptics Related terms Force feedback.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. http://www. http://www.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.pureform.handshakeinteractive. When used approp-riately. http://www.

3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . Reality bytes.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. Centre for Intelligent Machines. Abbott. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. N.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. G.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics.html Ross. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. (2005). Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.S. M.mcgill.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://haptex. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). 3-5 June 2004. July 3. Matsubara. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. (2003). M.ht ml Kushner. Haptics Laboratory.piaggio. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression.xml&DOI=10.phptr. http://www. Reaching through the net to touch.pdf Ó hAnluain. M. Nakamura. and Hughes.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2. McLaughlin. Santa Clara. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. 917-921. NJ: Prentice-Hall.. Proceedings.pdf O’Modhrain.pdf O’Modhrain. Research report.html O’Malley. M. Report delivered January 15..” http://www. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). New York Times (Online). Dobreva.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. and Ichitsubo.unige. http://www.matr. G. Upper Saddle River. (2004). 2004. M. 2005. G.2005. and Gillespie.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. 2003. Shahabi.. http://www. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. McHugh.html Levesque. and Jaskowiak.usc.ccii. J.miralab.pdf McLaughlin.. 2005. Daithí (2003).1_release-public. July 31.unipi. CA. L. Chapter on Haptics. http://csdl.cim. Oct. 2003. http://web. http://www. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. Donnelly.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.1109/ICALT. (2000). Vincent (2005). Medioni..ethz.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.media. http://www. J. April.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. Japan. G. and Rusbridge.haptics-e. Proceedings. R. 22. M.smh.roblesdelatorre.. professional.B. S. D.computer. (2002). Iwane.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. C. Technology and Haptics. M.. http://www. M. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05)...com. http://www. and Sukhatume.computer.” http://www. Prentice Hall online article.isfh. (2005). Deliverable D4.. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.1. Wired News. David (2003). and Essl.mit.informatik. Laurie (2004).. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis.net/article-7304.ra. Y.unitrier. Blindness.digicult. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.pdf Rowell. A. http://www.S. McGill University. (1997). S.pdf Hespanha. M. M.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. http://csdl2. Italy in March. A. Sukhatme. The Haptic Museum.

& Uchikawa. Journal of Vision.journalofvision.. 1(3).http://www. (2001). 250a.. H. Kaneko. http://www. Y. K.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 .com/articles/printerfrie ndly.asp?p=345621 Sakano.informit. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.

Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. Now in the research and development phase.fujitsu. and some.ices. digital paper. In 2005. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer.cmu. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.dottocomu. haptics.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. they must interact with it through an interface device. > > http://killer.html http://killer. However. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs.eink. wearable computing. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. experience computing.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01.edu/design/Digita link. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. like digital ink and paper. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. head mounted displays. textures.buffalo. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. electronic paper.media.html Description For humans to use a computer.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.mit. see: http://www. Philips. tangible computing. input devices.html Sony. monitors.cmu. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. human-computer interaction.ices. see: http://www. handwriting recognition. display technologies.” http://www." http://web. gesture recognition.com/b/archives/00 2571. Writing will require special digital pens.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript. Called Librié. http://www.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. projectors. For a review.com/technology/howitwork s.

The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards.com/wired/archive/5 . http://www.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems.wired. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.edu. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. These methods are 1) touch.net/display.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. http://www.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.aclearn.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. http://www.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.edfacilities. and 5) build. Following are three such articles: > http://www.cs. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. 2) roll.channelnewsasia.thegrid. 3) throw.logitech.swan. consisting of a pen and a charger.thewirelessdirectory.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.wacom.org. http://whiteboards.au/edna/page4588. http://www. http://www.05/ff_digitalink_pr.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. http://www.edna. http://www.com/index.ac. http://www.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.cs. http://www. human computer interaction. http://www.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.sony.com whiteboards.smarttech. http://www.elearningcentre. http://www.org.lifehacker. it is constantly being improved and updated. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.usask. See their advice and resources at: http://www.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years. Although this technology has been around for a few years.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.becta.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. http://www. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.co.devx. and graphic. 4) bend.

Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. Richards (Ed.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.anoto.10577.ac. January 6. 2004. The most flexible paper yet revealed. T.uclan. Adelaide. http://www. http://www. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper..com/news/showst ory. http://ad.00. Springer..com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. Indurkhya. (2004). (2005). 2006. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . http://education. University of London. Guardian Unlimited.co.pdf Otsuki.informatik. http://www. with its use of digital ink.pdf Mohamed. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Kato. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. F. Fri. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Bandoh.08/epapers. 2004. H. 2006. 26. Jan.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. (2005)..informatik.co. 6. Guardian Unlimited. King’s College. J. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors.1116483.html Wong. 15(3).unifreiburg.org. http://www. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. M.mercurynews.. Y. 2003. HCI2005.org/16321 Read. June 1.htm Zeichick. December 22.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. N.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://ad. (2006). Scotland.eschoolnews. (2003).pdf Cross. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. K.pdf Revell. Julie (2002).aace.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight.html http://www. and Nakagawa. http://www.wired. T. 257-269. C.wired. NewScientist Magazine (Online). http://www. http://dl.> > http://www.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. and Ottmann. K.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed.. Tablet PC Developer. Will (2004).. Dal-RI. Jan.devx. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.newscientist.html eSchool News. is described in a 2002 press release. Peltason. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. Edinburgh. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Haag.guardian.1585516.).uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.unifreiburg.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.10577.microsoft. Phil (2004). 2004.com/article. and Ottmann. The Mercury News. Michael (2005). Oct. S.virtuallearning.com/wired/archive/9 .04/anoto. B. Alan (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0.00.com/wired/archive/8 . 2005.mspx Bibliography Cogill.guardian. Nicole (2006). http://education. J. eSchool News Online. Vancouver. April 7. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. Australia.com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.html In G. http://www.

Whenever possible. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 . 2005). they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. Course Management Systems (CMS). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. Content management.e. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. conversation. elearning portals. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i.

com/ Frontline Data Solutions. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. The roles.com/ Element K .com/ IBM .WebMentor LMS http://www.com/ GeoLearning Inc. a communic-ation platform. . a contact management system. a search engine.com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf.TrainingMine http://www.KnowledgeHub http://www. .cornerstoneondemand.compendiumcorp.allencomm.elementk.com/ Compendium Corporation .trainingpartner.” http://elgg.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. To quote the developers. http://opensourceschools. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. Inc. in alphabetical order. content-driven forums run by experts. is available as a free download.ieee.net/index. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. and other academic services. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network. http://www. The LMS companies.GeoMaestro http://www.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.Training Partner http://www.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.gyrus.php EVE.fldata. roles. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research .avilar. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS). more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. groups.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.g. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e. more control over their own data For faculty. . one of the LMS vendors listed below.geolearning. . more control over the learning environment For institutions. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle.academici.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.gen21.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book. a leading open source learning management system. .com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.com Gyrus .Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www..> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.

sap.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.cfm TEDS Inc.IntraLearn XE http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.html Plateau Systems .trivantis.vuepoint.Vuepoint Learning System http://www. – TEDS http://www.com/isnm2005/in dex. Tracker.com/ NetDimensions .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.http://www.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.SSA Learning Management http://www.TopClass LMS http://www.Intellinex LMS http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.asp SumTotal Systems Inc. .isnewmedia.LMSLive http://www.com Inc.wizdom.teralearn.com/ Saba .OnTracker LMS http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems. .CourseMill LMS http://www.InfoSource http://www.LearnerWeb http://www.html OutStart Inc.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/ SSE .Oracle Learning http://www.com/redbooks.ibm.intellinex.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.saba.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.com/2004/index.novasys-corp.DOTS .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.com/portal/index.iPerform http://www.wbtsystems.technomedia. .com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.SSElearn Portal http://www.Net http://www.outstart.jsp Operitel Corporation .html Trivantis Corporation . .Plateau Learning Management System http://www.strategia.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.ssaglobal.LearnCenter http://www.com Websoft Systems Inc. .learnsomething.Isoph Blue http://www.com/ Strategia .meridianksi. . TrainingOffice Audit http://www.mGen Enterprise http://www.websoft. .com/index.syntrio.com LearnSomething Inc.operitel.netdimensions.intralearn.com/flashhom e.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.mgen.oracle.asp Learn.com/ TeraLearn. . .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd.com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.aspx RISC .TM SIGAL http://www.oracle.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .com/overview.risc-inc.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.html?Open InfoSource Inc. .vbtrain.ca/en/default. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.plateau.SAP Learning Solution http://www.com/ Technomedia Training Inc.com .ips-inc.LearnFlex LMS http://www.teds.webraven.ttg-inc.net/trackerinfo.PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.maxit.TotalLMS http://www.com/ Vuepoint .aspx Oracle USA Inc.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.com/ Syntrio . – KnowledgeBridge http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .learn. .ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.com/ WBT Systems .com/ MaxIT .htm SAP .howtomaster.sumtotalsystems.com/ mGen Inc.redbooks. .html IntraLearn Software Corp.com/ Intellinex LLC.knowledgeplanet. .Ed Training Platform http://www.sselearn.

August.uk/index.e-learningcentre.learningcircuits.learningcircuits.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo..edutools.co.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.xtention. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. October. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS). http://lttf.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools.Xtention Learning Management System http://www. (2002).au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. and Tsiatsos.com/ from the JISC in the UK. UK. 2005.edu. (Online edition). T. .” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. Ed.com For a review of leading open source learning management systems.cetis.melcoe.com/ Xtention Inc.com XStream Software Inc.. http://www. C. (2002).48.pdf Dillenbourg. Learning Circuits. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. James (2003). (2006).org/eun. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Cohen. . Pierre (2000).PDF Farmer. University of Birmingham. Incorporated Subversion.nxtbook.eun. A. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . Workshop on virtual learning environments. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. http://www.jisc.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). 21. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments.The Learning Manager http://www. Virtual Learning Environments. http://www. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.unitn.htm Bouras.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. June 20-21. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64. http://www. Sam (2005). James (2005).info/static. http://incsub.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.uk Teresa A.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. http://www.thelearningmanager. .” and open source course and learning content management systems. ICALT2002 Conference. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. Building educational virtual environments. by Sam Adkins.brandonhall.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.pdf Dalziel.xstreamsoftware.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research . L. Proceedings.A possible future for online learning.science. Molinari. and Trifonova. M.ac.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.building new education strategies for schools. http://www. http://www." http://www.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. Ronchetti.ieee. Jan.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). 2006. Chief Learning Officer.ac. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .71. A. http://www. http://www.mq.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.

uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909.org/newdl/index. Czech Republic. Aavani.. 2005. http://tojde.ac. and Walker.aace.pdf Do not reproduce 113 . Browne. November 2004. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .educause. and Sharifi. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001.au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Proceedings. and Quealy.zcu.pdf Ueno. Government. May 2006 http://www. T.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE).ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. http://wscg.. 2005. L.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. http://www..pdf Sadeghi. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. http://www.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005.pdf Wise. (2006).edu. 4. R. 5(2).bath. Derek (2004). Proceedings of ALT-C. (2005).ucisa. M (2005). Exeter. Van (2005).cfm?fuse action=Reader. J. Report for the Melbourne.anadolu.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. Vancouver. LMS Governance Project Report.edu.unimelb. 31-Feb. M. A. Healthcare. Maomi (2005). WSCG Conference 2005. October 2005. May-June. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Avgoustos (2004). http://www.ac. http://www. Plzen. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments.pdf Morrison. Report published by UCISA. and Higher Education 2005.tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. 40(3). Educause Review. April.pdf Tsinakos. Jan.infodiv. J.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.

” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs). of learning objects. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. However. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. sharable content objects (SCOs). They are emulations of “software objects. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Wiley. 2006). While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. a well-known standard for learning objects. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. At the simplest level. Rather. curriculum. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. Learning objects have several uses. culture. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. computer-use practices.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. learning object repository (LOR). rapid learning.” such as a graph. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. learning object model (LOM). The acronym SCORM. This idea is based on older. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. reusable learning objects (RLOs).” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. As online educational materials are produced. SCORM. Beyond that. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. 2004.” This use has been more successful. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. intelligent tutoring. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects).

org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://ideas. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://www. resources for grades K-12.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education. http://web.fedora.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.uwaterloo.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12. http://www. stores. indexes.mcli.educanext. http://www. http://www.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://dlist.unsw. and distributes digital research material.net/project.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).000 items.dist.sir.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.cdlib. http://mlor. http://www. http://nsdl. preserves. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. with almost 15.goenc.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 . a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. http://www.oise. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.thegateway.llearn.edu/DesktopDefault.org/index.koha.wisconsin. with a focus on information literacy. http://www. http://learnware.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects.profetic.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions.edu.uvic. http://www.au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. http://lester. http://www.rice.maricopa. http://dspace. http://www. http://www. http://www.lrc3.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange. http://www.org/Home.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. and they can be general or subject specific.utoronto.downes.arizona.lolaexchange.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.merlot.

org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.irrodl..htm Collis.dis. http://www.lornet. March.org/blog/archives/ 002089.9. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. (2004).amazon.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. 2(1). (2000). Online document. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. see Teemu Leinonen’s article. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse.org/14190 Downes.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. http://www.aace. http://www.html http://www.org/content/v2. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.doc Christiansen.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. Software Architecture Document. http://portal.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.org/eng/scientifiques.html Edusource (2003). authored by Rachel Smith. http://www.dicole. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. http://www.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. Version .com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.publiclibraryofscience. J. 2(4). The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.cisco.uis. F.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.. (2003).edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. http://www. 5-16. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections.uwm. B. C.L.org/guidelines/index.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. 1(3).html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. T. http://www.org/ci/en/ev.jcdl.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects. http://www.uwm.elearnspace. International Journal on E-Learning. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. CANCORE. Online paper.it/~lhci/002.uniroma1. M. M.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. & Strijker. And Longo. EdTechPost. http://dl. is available at: http://www. A.itdl.org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.cancore. (2004).ca/implementing_proje cts. A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2004).ca/mt/archive/000 681.nmc.unesco. and Alderman.edtechpost. Bibliography Barritt. and Anderson.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. Stephen. Celentano. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.1/downes . http://www.

March.htm Morrison. S. Paquette. J. S.cancore. June.. http://www.. http://www. Elizabeth (2004).learningcircuits. Aug. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design.amazon. (2005). http://www..) (2004). T. V.edusource.ac. M.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.Rafts or Battleships? . http://www. G. Research Report.. 2004. Babin.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. Friesen.p df Roselli.. Learning Circuits. T.htm Nejdl.kth.itdl.pdf Krauss. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Hatala. R.edu. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. M. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2002). http://www. and Morales..ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.ca/implementing_proje cts. July 14. Fredinand (2004). Wolfgang (2004).. T. http://www. Rachel (2006). Paper presented.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content. March.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. 1(3).doc Fiaidhi.htm Friesen. N. Lori (2002). R.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. McGreal. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. Final Project Report. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. MacLeod.. http://www..pdf Richards. 1 (3).. G. March.9%2015-11-03.usq. 14. Learning Material Repositories . EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. INTERACT 2005.bath.org. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. Derek (2004a).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01. 2004. 12. Warren (2000)..org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer. G.learningcircuits. 7(1).bath. M. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. and Schafer.informingscience.learninglab.html Leeder. N. http://ideas. R. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. S. Harrigan.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. D. Jan. April 2002.html McGreal. 2004.org/mar2000/p rimer. Downes.ac.html Friesen. G.http://www.cfm/files/pape r_11841. (2004). Roberts.html Murphy. Online Education Using Learning Objects.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.Rafts or Battleships? . D. http://www.cancore.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.Part 2. Learning Circuits. Anderson.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.itdl. March.ca/protocols_en.. Online paper. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. InSITE conference. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Online. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. A Primer on Learning Objects. Norm (2006).. http://proceedings. and Pragnell. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. and Freisen.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Derek (2004b). (2004). Rory (Ed.org/index. http://www. K.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. http://www.Part 1.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. Do not reproduce 117 . London: Falmer. (2004). Rossano.editlib.html Heery. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.eduserv. Learning Material Repositories . Richards. Mattson.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. http://www. http://www. and Mohammed. http://www.blogs. Norm (2005).

pdf http://www. 1(7).> > http://www. A. David A. Jan.fastrakconsulting.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. M. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory..dis. (Ed. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects.uniroma1. (2006). (2000).org/docs/dissertation. (2000). Clive. Online.htm Wiley. : http://reusability. Govinda.itdl. Iterating Toward Openness. Doctoral dissertation. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. David A. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. David A..it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. and Senteni.org/read/ Wiley.pdf Santally. http://opencontent. M.dis. Objects of Interest. (2002). White paper for Fastrak Consulting.it/~lhci/rossa no-paper.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2.co. 9. Brigham Young University.).htm Shepherd.uniroma1. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. http://opencontent. (2004).p df Wiley.

Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.esri. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.com/ Intergraph .http://www. as with any new technology. Department of Defense. and security issues.http://www. proximity tools. Do not reproduce 119 . Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . including privacy concerns.http://www. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams.org/ ESRI. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies.http://www.mapinfo.com/ Clark Labs . Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. including cell phones.S. users will be able to use a variety of devices. findability. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. However. PDAs.clarklabs. and wearable computers. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. galleries.com/ MapInfo .intergraph.http://www. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.frappr. http://www. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. personal media players.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. geocaching. galleries. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information.cadcorp. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. more demands for a person’s attention. location-based systems are found in museums. navigation.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. laptops. gaming consoles. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.

A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.000 archaeological sites in the state. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.chimer. http://www. http://mvz.leeds. http://www.confluence.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. http://www.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. http://earth. While not very useful for most people.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.google.5372.cetadl. http://www. http://platial.com/index.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.” http://www.geog. it is a great tool for teaching science. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey.google. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .google.greatestplaces. http://www. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. at: http://www. http://portal.google.berkeley. similar to what a GIS system uses. as well as papers on trends in GIS.esri. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. See their complete range of products.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.org/ Platial enables anyone to find.ac. http://www.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps.asp?path= 500.live.searchable from a database.bham.fi/english/page.biogeomancer.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. http://www. http://www. http://www.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System. http://local. create. http://www.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.edu.state.pangonetworks.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars.org/index. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.il. the national mapping agency for Great Britain.smm. http://earth.museum.ac.

1642288.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45.. IBM Systems Journal. 2005. Nov. Jan 2004.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Eva (2004). 38(4). G. and visualize spatial information. (1999). http://www.geocomm. http://www.. Donnelly. Online article.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Pavlidis.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography..html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. http://www. D.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www. http://education.com/gis4mt/index. McHugh.ac. 15.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. January.jisc. and Chamzas. > > http://geotags.opensourcegis. Abbott. M. Part II. Learning Circuits.uk/oswebsit e/education/index. 2003.directionsmag. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum.pdf Tsirliganis. F.digicult. N.00. http://pngis.htm McLean. http://www.co. We learning: social software and e-learning. A. A.pdf Spohrer.uk/elearning/ story/0. (2005).guardian. IEEE Report.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. A. and Location-Based industry professionals.ordnancesurvey. CAD. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.ca/ Geotags.info/index.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031.com/ Bibliography Benford. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Arnaoutoglou.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. Future LocationBased Experiences. http://elearningeuropa.pdf Do not reproduce 121 . Earth. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. and students. 2005..geography..com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages.intelresearch.C.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.com http://geotags. http://www.edu/sco/gis/his tory. enthusiasts.http://www.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. C. Information in places.research. manipulate. Chapter on Location Based Devices. and Rusbridge.learningcircuits. see: http://www. (2003). http://www. Dobreva.com/geo/ Cardinali. Dec. Heather (2005).ibm. http://www. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. J. S.digicult.. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Fabrizio (2005).wisc.org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2. G.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.gees.. Guardian Unlimited.co.eoscenter. M. DigiCULT Newsletter. Koutsoudis. 1999. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. Steve (2005). http://www.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. and Borriello. J. Issue 6.ac.intergraph.. http://www.html Ross.. http://www.bc. Mapping. (2001).

SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures.. personalized. A “mashup. also called “object interoperability.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. For two or more programs to talk to each other. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. in schools and universities. at the same time. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. all expressed in binary code.” Using SOAP. such as those for collaboration. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. API clouds.” that is. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. to a lesser extent. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. providing an informal collaborative environment. Similarly. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. or through “Web services.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. run all by themselves. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. document management. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. For example. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service.Mashups. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). communications. of how to communicate with each other. Programs can be “stand alone. etc. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. the rules for sending files across the Internet. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. composite applications. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. tag clouds. integration.” then. Many of these objects are software programs. Mashups are constructed in several ways. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. hybrid applications. or protocol. 2004).

Vol. July 25. As Warlick (2006) has noted. January 2004 http://lttf. 2006.com/products/print_fr iendly. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. January 2004 http://lttf.infoworld.us. Infoworld. 2002. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine.icio. Learning Solutions.com/ http://www. a writer for Business Week. G. (2006).jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. and Oliveira.htm Torres. 6. Enterprise mashups. George (undated). March 6.deitel. http://www. and Padron.. http://www.pdf Stacey. http://del. Paul (2002).businessweek.wikipedia. http://www. Learning Technology newsletter. http://en. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.mashupfeed. > > http://www. Many have educational value.html Woodill. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. http://www. Issue 1.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . J.html Hof. Curriculum as Mashup.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links.icio.elearnspace.programmableweb.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.0 APIs. Web Services.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063.techlearning.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. C. http://www. Issue 1. http://blogs.com/publications. David (2006).com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.html Warlick. Douglas (2004).com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.emilychang. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. 2006. Business Week Online. J. SOAP. C. http://www.bctechnology. July 28.html Rob Hof.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.pdf Seimens. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. Mashups.businessweek. Galen (2006).ieee.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. Learning Technology newsletter. 6. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. Mix. Elearnspace. match.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. techLEARNING. Robert (2005).org/resources/web services.ieee. Vol. Bibliography Gruman.programmableweb. (2004). May 15.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. http://www. http://ww6.operitel.htm Siviter. and mutate. 2006.” It has many examples of mashups. 6. Dec. 2005. Dodero.

in the context of information technology. M.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research . http://iiscs. metadata.php?id=25 Chen. and services. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Boston. MA.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects..wssu. B.mit.umbc. http://www. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. and artificial intelligence are being developed.. http://dublincore. Finin. pervasive computing. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. June 2004. In Proceedings. community. http://metadata. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.. search engines.ifets. Lenne.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. Bibliography Abel. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. to develop metadata standards.. Delphi Group report. http://www.edu/content. repositories.Metadata. http://simile. (2004). C.imsglobal. A. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. Benayache. (2004). http://ebiquity. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. 98-111. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies.do?tm =O4E.pdf Delphi Group (2004). It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. 7(4).ac. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways.mit. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).. Moulin.edu/o4e/viewhome. A. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. T. and Chaput. http://libraries.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. C.info/issues. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.. H.html Description At the same time that learning objects.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. http://www. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area.educause. http://www. An ontology.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. Perich.. and institutional stores. and Joshi.edu/get/a/publication /105. Barry. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. Ohio. F. D.cetis.cancore. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies.

(2003).adammathes. 2003. BoxesAndArrows.pdf Oin. May 22. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Online article.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. and Shao. Infotangle. Do not reproduce 125 .cancore. Can Core: learning object metadata editors.boxesandarrows. http://www. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.tagcamp. Wagner.html Gruber. Norm (2005). Thomas (2005b). Norway. 2002. S. 82-97.boxesandarrows.boxesandarrows. Dec. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. Presentation to Tag Camp. April 21. April 9.ca/editors.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. N.. A. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. Thomas (2005a). Nov. BoxesAndArrows. 7(4).php?id=25 Kroski.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. B. (2002).ecdl2003.ifets. October-December. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. University of Illinois graduate paper. http://www. D. J. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Christina (2002). 2005. http://www. Lytras. http://www. http://tomgruber. 2006. (2003). and Godby. N. Green Chameleon.. http://www.niso. and Nejdl. (2004).. Dolog.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.dlib. October 29.info/issues. April 18.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. (2004).org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. Understanding Metadata.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning.html Wodtke. 2005. Christian (2004).org/10614 Mathes. http://tomgruber. 26-28. NISO Press.learningcircuits.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.http://www. A.pdf Friesen. BoxesAndArrows. and Poulymenakou. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider.ifets.info/issues.htm Gruber. Adam (2004).blogsome. and Mosoiu. July/August. W. http://dl. http://www. http://www.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). 7(4). Ellyssa (2005). P.htm Weibel. Pouloudi. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. http://www. Journal of Educational Technology and Society..org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel.greenchameleon.aace. A. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://infotangle. and Diaz. 2004. I.delphigroup. http://www. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). November. Building a Metadata-Based Website.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman..org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.ppt Ricci. D-Lib Magazine. http://www. 2002.org/. TagOntology . International Journal on E-Learning.pdf Henze. http://www. M. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. (2004). Defining “taxonomy”.php?id=25 Tozman. Reuben (2004). http://www. Stuart (2005). 2004.. Learning Circuits.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. M. Chen. 7. G. Patrick (2006). http://www. P. Trondheim. J. 11(7/8).

Journal of Educational Technology and Society.ifets. 7(4). http://www.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . 70-81.info/issues.

and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. location-dependence.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. 2004). compared to only 50 percent of computer users. Essentially. Cited in Prensky. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). location based technologies. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. mLearning. multimedia. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. strong search capabilities. communicative skills and community building. in Japan. there were estimated to be 1. improved identity creation. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. (2004). video) and distributed databases.6 billion units in operation by that year.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. However. time and space. tablet PCs. personal digital assistants (PDA). conversational learning. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. podcasting. brokerage. powerful support for effective learning.” Two years ago. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. 2003). Do not reproduce 127 . MP3 players. and mentoring. instant messaging (text. pervasive computing. it is predicted that there will be 2. personalization. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. tablets. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. such as increased computer literacy. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. personalization. collaborative learning. rich interaction. cellular telephones. cell phones. wearable computing. using ambient intelligence. laptops.

US.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual. links. http://gseacademic. http://www. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. or a combination of media.cs.pdf location-specific text. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.cs. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. movies. applications. http://urbantapestries.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.fasfind.elearningcentre.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index. http://spotlight-mobile. http://www.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.mobilelearning.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.fasfind. activities.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.” and a “bird watching learning system. http://news.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.mobilearn. Australia. http://www3.cs. http://urbantapestries.knowledgepulse.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m.” > > > http://www.beta80group. and pre-service teachers. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research .com/home_en.fasfind.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. including issues. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/271 7.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.ccu. http://www.pdf http://www.se/projectd ata.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255. http://www. of the University of Oulu in Finland.htm Jari Laru.” They have a “firefly watching system. http://csdl2.stockholmchallenge. Learn more at: http://www.edu.harvard.” a “butterflywatching learning system.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.com/wwwtools/m/890 7. and a glossary.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005. technologies.ccu. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.pdf http://www. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.edu.co.co. pictures.bbc. Israel.telus. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final. audio.edu.” > > > http://m.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. resources.computer.ccu.

uk/handler/public ations. No. 2(9). Ronchetti.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003.pdf Bibliography Alexander.232.kaywa. and Sharma. and Trifonova.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning. Univ.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).pdf Geddes.. http://llt. http://www. and Pagani. http://www. R.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www.. Molinari.m-learning. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. A.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Y. Gaming.formatex.bham. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. JISC Technology and Standards Watch.science. http://www.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451. http://mobile. For example.iadis.pdf Do not reproduce 129 . 9(1).94.. T. January 2005.msu.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. (2005). 19. 17-22 http://llt. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.6. L. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. (2005).org/micte2005/4.edu. Knowledge Tree e-Journal.flexiblelearning.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.pdf Colazzo. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Paul (2005). No.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Bob (2005).pdf Attewell. 39. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. B.itdl.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04.msu.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. Kao.ccu. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. (2002). Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.pdf Anderson. http://www.au /edition06/download/geddes. http://www. Gaming.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.pdf Jasola.html Kadirire.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.eee.com/mobile_learning/i ndex. Ireland. P. E. Bryan (2004).cs.jisc. http://213.J.html Grew. http://www. 5. Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. of Birmingham http://www. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. S. Language Learning and Technology. Jill (2005). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. (2003). JISC Guide.net. http://www. Vol. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.unitn.html Chen. September 2005. http://knowledgetree.ac. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. and Sheu. Report.htm JISC (2005). 2006 in Dublin.educause.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary. Sept.idi. 347-359. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. A. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.ac.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf.ntnu. http://www. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.135/ipodined/news. Emerging technologies: Messaging. http://www. EDUCAUSE Review.uk/eli_practice. (2004). J. James (2005). M.

pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . Galasso.info/index. Romagnoli. http://www. G. Coralini. (2005).uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning.2. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A.century. Malavasi. MA: HRD Press. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. J. Liang. Michael (2005).. http://portal.. http://drei.pdf Scagliarini. 40(3).educause. Feb. http://www. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Kristóf (2002). May 23. E.ox. Chan. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). M.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. and.00. T.fhjoanneum. S. Proceedings. Vecchietti.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri.innovateonline. 40-53. May/June 2005. http://kn.pdf Sharples. F.hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al.com/news/article 2490. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Mike (2005).uk/public/getfile. Budapest.htm#Implications Prensky.. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. David (2006).info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low. Glyfada.ac. multimediabased learning application. Feb. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. (2002). (2005). Guardian Unlimited. and Cultural Heritage. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age.. L. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.. and Sforza. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.doc Meisenberger. Hungary. J. http://doi. 2002. Chief Learning Officer. Neil (2003).usabilitynews. http://www.co. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile.uk/elearning/ comment/0. UsabilityNews. Australia. Donnelly.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation. M. and Nischelwitzer. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. Ellen (2005).ieeecomputersociety. T.pdf Metcalf. E-Learning on the move. Brisbane.html von Koschembahr. August 29-30. Växjö University. J.digicult.at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. 2005. Cinotti. M. Teleborg Campus. S. 2005. http://education. M. Draft paper submitted for publication.acm.open. Roffia.1490476. Taylor.bham.asp Liu.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532.au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross..phil-inst.oucs. http://www. (2001). Learning in the Mobile Age. http://www. http://21st. M. H. http://www. A. and Vavoula.fil.. 2004. EDUCAUSE Review. T. Presented at WMTE 2002.. ASCILITE2005 Conference. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. April 2005.. Peter (2005). http://www. Ann (2005). M..1039222 McLean. D.eee. and Dobreva. Greece.org/citation. http://www.org/10. Amherst.ac.org.pdf Thomas. Sweden. 1(5).amazon. Wang. Växjö.pdf Mellow.Light. June/July 2005. http://www.ascilite... Conference on Virtual reality. Understanding. computer-aided. Marc (2004). (2004).110 9/WMTE. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education. Enabling Mobile Learning.com/content/templat es/clo_article. A theory of learning for the mobile age.clomedia. Christopher (2005). http://www.guardian. 2005. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. E. Archeology...cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. June 27. and Yang. Proceedings.ac. Pigozzi.2002.

and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. (2004). tools. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.elsnet. Di Eugenio. (2004).html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.org/aitopics/html/natlang. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. rather than just returning Web pages.it/index.” See also Jordan et al.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing.. speech synthesis. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. Do not reproduce 131 . found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. http://www.lexxe. machine translation.uk/~silvia/litReview.upenn. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. http://eduforge. et al. natural language generation. (2005a.org/softwaremap/trove_list . speech recognition. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning.cs. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.aaai.. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. http://dmoz. http://www. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. http://tcc.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). http://wwwusers.ldc. http://www.e.york.translating one natural language into another. Lee et al. http://www.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations. and standards.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. natural language understanding. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). Kim (2000).itc.ac. i. research. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. a component of intelligent tutoring systems.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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Secondly. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. whiteboard). and through a variety of technologies. and. A PLE is structured by the learner. Running on the learner's PC.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility).uk/ilogbook/d efault.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . learning management systems. chat. and social bookmarking sites. Technology needs to be situated. learners need to be in real-world situations. In many cases. libraries. track.). social environments. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. Individualization in an LMS is weak. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. discussion forums. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation.cetadl. it helps the user plan. often only for the purposes of the course. but these are only available to members of the course. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner.. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. etc. blogs. work places. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. such as search engines. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. amongst institutions. A PLE must support lifelong learning. wikis. manage. there can be no electronic interaction. (Cortlett et al. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner.ac. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. as learners move between institutions. and review his or her learning activity. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. http://portal. without an offline client to the LMS. This requires support over time. To practice real-world situations. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. e-portfolios.bham. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. for the learner. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems.

22-27 July 2005.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).uk/index. http://www.edublogs. http://www. Nevada. J.ac. Las Vegas. Edinburgh. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference. Colin (2005). James (2006). T. M. (2005). Chan.elearning. Sharples. http://www.org. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. Terry (2006).org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. http://elgg. Incorporated Subversion. PLE Reference Model. http://www. Ting...ac.jisc. D.bath.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.ac..za/CD/papers/Corle tt. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.mlearn.net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. and Westmancott. 2006. UK.ac. http://www. Jan. O.ac.jisc.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson. 2006.ac. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. Online case study paper. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool.cetis.pdf Farmer.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan.cetis. http://incsub. 11. http://terrya.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. January 9. http://www.

) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. Furthermore.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .g.uk/ilex/final.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. rule-based filtering. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). http://www. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model. and/or presentation of materials. etc. or it can be an implicit model.org/en/index. However. navigation. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. through a questionnaire).hcrc. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. artificial intelligence. These techniques include content-based filtering.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.elenaproject. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . etc.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. the personalization can be applied to content..Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes.g. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.ac. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. PDAs). In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. http://www. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. (Filippini-Fantoni.). Keenoy et al. Often. picture. learning environments.g. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. collaborative filtering. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience.ed. 2005).

asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies.ca/English/Pers onal/index.org. Ngo. W.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. http://www.pdf Callaway.umuai. A. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user.gla. A. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.metmuseum. http://www. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites.arces. with a particular focus on the museum sector.... G. and Nuguid.html http://www.cs. D. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. Pizzutilo.ascilite. J.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www. A. (2005).pdf Beler. Calimera Guidelines: personalization. > > http://www.net/home.pdf Cavalluzzi. Daisy (2002). (2004). University of Glasgow. Kay. http://www..org/ Bibliography Abbott.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.calimera. and Kuflik.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.directa. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). wireless networks. http://adiret. and Cook J.pdf m/index.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. Borda. The Future of Access (or... http://arxiv. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. B. A.hatii..firstmonday.unibo. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.unimagdeburg. http://www.(2001).au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. A demo is available at: http://www. http://www. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. Online paper.. S.. J. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. http://www. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. HATII. William Niu.pdf Bright.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. Bowen. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.org/default. dynamic user profiling techniques.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.cognitive traits. C. http://www. A. Ler. https://www. and FilippiniFantoni. K.arts. (2005). Online paper.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs.beta80group.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.calimera.noekaleidoscope. http://www. Melbourne. De Carolis.ecdc. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. T. Cozzolongo.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05.CY/0409055 Boyle T. (2004). PowerPoint presentation.org/pdf/cs.ac.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .virtualmuseum. S.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. http://smart.emarcon.

. Bowen. K.uniba. (2005).. Soro.org/10. Barcelona. George (2005). Issue 7. Hershey. M.pdf Giroux.org/posters/ moulin.www2004. http://www. http://www. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.pdf Dolog.. 2004.24_Conlan. A. I. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. Nejdl.dimi. In Proceedings of WWW2004 .jpbowen. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. Magical Mirror: multimedia.semanticweb. X. W. Montreal. P. Dillon.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2.it/intint/people/papers /aims04. M. http://iswc2002. Henze. http://www. New York. and Vazirgiannis.org. S. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Gallipoli.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406. Roy (2004).edfac.uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. Málaga. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.acm. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects..au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. H.. http://w5.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. Spain.designshare..pdf Heckmann. Facer.pdf Fuschi. Online paper.uni- Do not reproduce 141 .learnexact. O. (2005).com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. and Boavida. September 2002.) (2002). Pianesi.futurelab. (2005). J. Online paper..The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. and Numerico. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.ppt Correia..nestafuturelab. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.. (2002). N. May 25. Personalization through IT in museums. Graziola. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. Ecole du Louvre. and Paddeu.Information Access. Kuflik. (2003). Dagger.p df Green. 2005 www. Stock. L. (2004).uniud. Sanna..pdf Copa.pdf Ceccaroni. science centres and galleries. D.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. (2004).cs. (AVI 2004). February. P. G.usyd. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. FutureLab report. Subramaniam (Ed.org/ichim03/PDF/070C.itc. interactive services in home automation.. and Zancanaro.pdf Eirinaki.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. PEACH http://peach. 1–27. and Humphreys. https://www. May 25. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. F. and Sintek.2004-1213. M. T. May 2002. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. (2002). (2003). FutureLab.. V.Info. http://www. http://www. and Cardinalli. Wade. (2004).htm Hawkey.ichim.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. and Verdaguer. C.it/papers/gorenbar2005. Paper presented at ELearn 2002. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. D. N. Italy. Silvia (2003). C. 2004. and Tasso.com/pub/evsc05b. P. (AVI 2004).pdf Conlan.pdf Goren-Bar. Dominik (2003). Moulin. T.tcd. 3(1). C. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference...) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. R. http://lrnlab. Gallipoli. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. D.edu.cs.. O.. PA: Idea Group Publishing. M. In R.p df Filippini-Fantoni. F. http://www. URL: http://doi.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09. S. http://www.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Rocchi. In Mizzaro. University of Sydney (2004). Paris. http://tmtfactory. May 2004. Rudd. Personalization and Digital Technologies.ie/Owen. (Eds. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. M. April 2004. Italy.1145/643477. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. T. S. DigiCULT . Web mining for web personalization. http://www.di.

D. (eds. P.bbk. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Italy. D.1. (2005).. (2005). M. Stock. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Proceedings of IIT..org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. W. pages 249-256.. http://www...ippr.pdf Henze. http://csdl2. W. P.uk/selene/reports/ Del22.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941... http://eprints.pdf Keenoy..ed.fiit.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. UK http://homepages. Brasher.. http://www. Martin (2004). and Okamoto. and Montandon.cs. A.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. Online paper. Gallipoli..p df Iwazaki. and Blažič. A. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. SeLeNe . Waycott. P.. de Freitas. Jaroslav. J. O. W. P. J. (2002).au/~piers/papers/ pums. T.cs. http://adiret.sb. Personis: A Server for User Models.. Busetta. P.PDF Kay.si/eng/ijceel.cs.dcs. P.pdf Keenoy. T. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. Lum.pdf Kuflik.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. T. Yokoi. Online paper. (2004).usyd.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02).edu. (2005). 2004 http://www. Callaway. LSC. 7(4):70-81. http://peach. L. Rocchi. (2002).pdf Henze. A. and Zancanaro. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. S.. and Lauder. Edinburgh. Kaszas.pdf Kay. 23-30 July 2005.computer. and Conejo. T. 2005. P.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. and Peterson. Nicola (2005). Brusilovsky.pdf Johnson. Educational Technology & Society. Kummerfeld. and Nejdl.ac.ac.itc. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks.2.ijs.. Online paper.stuba. C. October 2004..l3s. J. N. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. (2004). Turcsanyi-Szabo. Niu .. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. (2005). (2004).usyd. May 25.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums. http://www. K. and Niu.pdf Kay. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.bbk.. M. B. PIA Conference.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. J. http://w5.pdf Klobučar. M. M. Final Version. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.edu.pdf Kuflik. Levene. P. WP4 Deliverable 4. (2001). Yasuda. 2004.Self E-Learning Networks..pdf Kuruc. C. . editor. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. S.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. B.inf. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. R.it/papers/avi2004.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). and Lauder. T..ac.. K. (2004). Bratislava. K.pdf Kay. UM 2005. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).unimagdeburg.. http://www.uni-sb.. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. In Mária Bieliková.4. (2004).kbs. In: De Bra. IEEE Computer Society.. Jones.. B. Dolog. V. J. Online paper.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14. M. Levene. UK.. and Zancanaro.. Seničar.e5.cs. Penserini. Kummerfeld. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.unihannover. Goren-Bar.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1. http://www.

.ac. A Multi-Dimensional..pdf Schoonenboom.. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects.428-431. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. P. A. Barrios. V. Communications of the ACM. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. http://www. K. and Modritscher.pdf Martinez.sts. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. (2005). Paper presented at EDEN 2004.. R. (2004).edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor..gov. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.uk/trails Sehring.2. Montandon. http://www. Budapest. F.ecs. A. 2002. Flypad Report.. Online paper. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Kaszás. ACM Press. Pluhar.pdf Reeves..dcs.. Schmidt... January 2004.dimi. C. and Levene. http://www.nott. http://www.com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery...uniud.dcs.pdf Ng M. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems.ncsl. Hungary.uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. http://www.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.1.elearningguild. http://eprints. A. J-P.. 2004. New York.pdf Mobascher. (2004a). A.pdf Pivec. (2004). and Hemmje. L. M. May 25. B.soton. J. Y. Margaret (2002).de/~mehta/uuc m. J.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final. Spain. Maier P. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version).uk/trails Schoonenboom. Keenoy.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h. Jones. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. David. Bossung. J. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement.lsc. available from www. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning. http://www. C. and Tasso. Stuart. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century.utokyo. (2004b). Kaleidoscope deliverable D22.pdf Niederee. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS). Málaga. A. Armstrong R.www2004.bbk.http://senet. C. Preis.. (2000). S.org/proceedings/doc s/2p264. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. M.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. Winterhalter.mrl..... Malaga. David.fraunhofer. Muller. URL: http://maya.org. Jones. (2004).. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library.H. May 2002. Stewart. Gutl. Lejeune. M. Mehta. Montandon. 2004 http://www2... Diagne. Gallipoli. http://www. A. http://www. Turcsányi-Szabó. Goita.uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069. Hall W.) (2002).bbk. Italy. Kaszás. Ken (2000). Online paper. Turcsányi-Szabó. P.. (Eds. Lejeune.jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.pdf Mizzaro. Spain.. Keenoy. K. and Levene. J. C. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).learninginprocess. L.. Trummer. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning. Enric and Minguillon. Blake. H. A. (2005).html Schmidt. (2002). S..ac. pp... Z. M. Faure. C. H.tuharburg. J-P.pdf Sakamura. Julia (2004). B.2.ac.. May 7.pdf Do not reproduce 143 . http://www. available from www. M.depaul.. May 2004.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. C.iicm. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.uk/6832/01/ah 02. Cooley..ac..ac. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.2. August..ipsi. M.. and Srivastava.um. F..cs. 43(8):142–151. D.

IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004). A. Yamashita.. USA.edu/~flavia/Paper s/flavia_mw2002. V. Boston. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002). (2004). 2002. M. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous. Demiris. Wang.. Online paper. http://alumni.miralab.. Ando. N. (2003).Sparacino.ch/subpages/life plus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization.mit.. http://www. T. Yoshida. T. Proceedings. K.. Pliakas. and Ioannidis. IEEE Computer Society.. Y. 27-31 March 2004.. Chicago. Kuzuoka. and Hirose. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences.media.pdf Tanikawa.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research .org/comp/proceedin gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. M.pdf Vlahakis. H..computer. J. Flavia (2002). IL. April 17-20..unige. http://csdl2.

learning management systems. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.Portals Related terms Collaboration. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. instructorled. http://www. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. content management.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization . As of early 2006. vendors. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. 2001). which form a dynamic user profile. Knowledge Management.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 .elearningeuropa. collaborative environment. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. In the business world. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. the portal offered information on more than 20. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization.

e-mail distribution lists. May 2000.amazon.elementk. (Eds. Learning Circuits. interactive discussion groups.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. You’ve come a long way. calendars. http://www.students. New York: AMACOM. R. http://www. museums. instant messaging.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. A Portrait of Learning Portals.com/home. Hershey.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins..fathom. Bray (2001). and schedules. In Jafari. http://blogs. online meetings with text. PA: Information Science Publishing.microsoft. Campbell.www2. Ron (2004).com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. (2003).com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. Heidi (2001).learningcircuits.asp Element K – Access to over 2.700 online courses http://www.300 online courses http://www. category. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal. K.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27.campustechnology. baby! E-learning portals.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.cyberu.amazon.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. http://www. students.tamtam.saba.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. A. document management information. go to: http://www.executrain.worldwidelearn.trainingregistry. and Sheehan.proquest.hp. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. http://www.ittoolbox.Education. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint.asp?id=9028 Barron.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.000 lesson plans http://www. administrators. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning. audio and/or video. and universities. including educational uses.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121. and shared lists for tasks. 2004.000 online courses http://www.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. http://www. news and announcements. school administrators. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.nl/mart/CategoryView. http://knowledgemanagement. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. Campus Technology Magazine.000 publishers worldwide http://www. March 1. instructors. http://www. and Aucoin.org/2000/may 2000/Barron. Tom (2000). http://h20219.com/article. M.aspx Bibliography Ateshian.htm Brockbank.teach-nology.microsoft.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.

educause.asp Terra. M. http://www. A. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. J. Cornelia (2000). and Sheehan. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.amazon. PA: Information Science Publishing.asp Katz. September 2000. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. (2003).edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. Heidi (2003). http://www.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.Collins. C. Hershey. http://www. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success..amazon. and Gordon.learningcircuits.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. New York: AMACOM. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.htm Do not reproduce 147 . Richard & Associates (2002). San Francisco: JosseyBass.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari. http://www.) (2003). (Eds. Reviewed at: http://www.educause.

” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. the word “lecturing” means “to read. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo.lsc.mit. virtual classrooms.edu/TEAL). there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet.masternewmedia. http://www. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. While it is expensive. http://www.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet.com Hewlett-Packard. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. in partnership with Dreamworks. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . webcasting. http://www. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. although many are trying to change this practice. Experience them at: http://www. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.replayhq. http://icampus. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars.elluminate.org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place.macromedia.” In the Middle Ages. when experts are not readily available. web conferencing. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. webinars Consequently. Online presentations can be very boring. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. See the TEAL Project at MIT. In fact. http://www. Skypecasting.com/site/index. However.

org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos. > > http://weblog. Webcasts. http://ajax.com/eweek/web conferencing. and Web presentations.infoworld.380 0005416.elearningcentre.infoworld. and whiteboarding. and Flash. brain. http://www. Breeze. http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.elearningcentre.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.ccimeet. Authorware.00.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.acue.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.com/cxoextra/0. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley. instant messaging. virtual classrooms.thinkofit.com/webconf/index. Do not reproduce 149 .html#a1185 http://weblog. presentation and streaming presentation tools. social software for online collaboration.eweek.co.lsc.hp. > > http://www. and e-learning. Web conferencing. http://cde.” > http://www.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.000 software programs for business and presentation tools. a columnist at InfoWorld. forums and message boards.com/publications/lel/lel. Dreamweaver. online meetings.co.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.com/udell/200 5/02/25.elearningcentre.e-learningcentre.com/news_radars /web_presentations.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach.silicon. http://www. http://www.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. http://www.co.athabascau. intranets.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. although it does not have to be.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.htm http://www. online communities.elearningcentre. Captivate.com/udell/200 5/01/22.com/news_radars /web_conferencing.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. virtual teams.39155030. virtual meetings. Coursebuilder.adelaide.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.kolabora. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.co.edu. and kidneys.kolabora. http://buyersguide.co. videoconferencing.humanresourceWebinars. Web seminars.brandonhall.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. independent listing of Webinars. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.htm http://www. groupware.> > http://www.htm http://www. http://www. videoconferencing.

com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Digital Inspiration. July 8. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. (in two parts) > > http://www. http://m.htm Canali De Rossi.pdf http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. http://www. http://www.fasfind. Live and Online!: tips.programjunction.htm Hofman.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.masterviews. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.aace.com/Breeze Part2. 3.com/presentatio ns/index. K. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. Luigi (2003c).learningcircuits.presentations. May 15. 150 © Brandon Hall Research .blogspot.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1.com/downloads/sear ch. July 26. Luigi (2003b).htm Canali De Rossi. 2005. Sept. http://www. Live ELearning. July.com/software/present ation. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration.apreso.russellmcnally. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.http://www.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. P. Luigi (2003a).html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. Jennifer (2004).htm Duckworth. April 30. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/21593.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. http://www. http://labnol.filesland.html Using Apreso software. http://www.masternewmedia. http://www. Armit (2005). http://www. Russ (2004).com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. and Quick. http://www. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal. Sept.html Canali De Rossi.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. Belinda (2003). http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.downloadjunction. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.russellmcnally.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. http://www.com/product /software/795/index. (2002). Christine (2001)... 2003. 2004.asp McNally. Learning Circuits.timelyweb.com/Breeze Part1. Robin Good Blog. P. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. K. 2003.amazon. Robin Good Blog. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. and Furr. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.pdf Bibliography Agarwal. 7(3).pdf Scott. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.masternewmedia.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. (2004). http://www.01. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). 2003.

The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. http://www.amazon.ac. but… Presentations Magazine.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Choose the Right Vendors.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .pdf Spielman. L.open. Feb. 11.com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. (2003). and Equipment. Start Saving Time and Money Today.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1. InfoWorld. Software.presentations. Choices are great. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Dave (2002). http://www.com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. AMACOM.http://kmi. S. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting.infoworld. 2005.. Dec. http://www.html Zielinski. and Winfield.

” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes.. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. In the first case. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. Reduce the number of development vendors. Standardize approaches. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. a demand to produce online content very quickly. but not always good for you. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Navigation built in . including tools and templates. It is best suited to text-based materials. microlearning > down pages. manage the content and the users. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. by necessity. extreme e-learning. Deploys easily . In the second sense of the term. or where the online information frequently changes. are built in. FAQ. Assign SMEs who are committed.does not require any plug-ins. or HTML knowledge. easy to use. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. It can refer to learning something quickly. programming. graphics. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. simple. virtual classroom.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. Instructional design built in.versus high-interaction). The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. 2003). Bringing in learning objects such as Flash.e. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. For example. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. just-intime e-learning. Does not require any advanced skills. According to Ready Go!. low. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. 2003). such as creating links. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . glossary. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints.automatically assures that all navigation works. and communicate deliverable expectations. Advanced features. learning objects. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. tests. Tools for rapid e-learning are. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective.

elearningguild.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Learning Solutions. Making rapid e-learning work.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1.elearningguild. J.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.access to a clear project plan. http://www.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. Edit. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. Larstan Business Reports. (2004).microlearning.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Reusability. Penny (2004). software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.” Find out more: http://www. and Publish.htm Bibliography Abell.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. computer games. 2004). July 2. Jay (2005). http://www.elearningmag. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research. E-Learning for short attention spans. which contains information on resources. http://www.clomedia. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. http://www.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Jennifer (2004).articulate. April. J. Extreme Learning: Decision Games. January. Paper.pdf Aldrich. Do not reproduce 153 . June 30.scate.com/content/templat es/clo_article. LTI Newsline.clomedia.htm Bersin.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald. http://www.masie.asp Bersin.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. Bill (2005). See a demo at: http://www.pdf Crosman. schedule and due dates.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald.ltimagazine. 2006.pdf Brodsky.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.elearningcentre.com/showArticle.readygo. http://www.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Enhance.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.raptivity. http://www.meetingone. June.co.com/studio. and other good stuff. version control protocols. conferences. and Bersin.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Lane (2002). centrally located files. Josh (2004). Templates.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. Clark (2005).com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. Transform Magazine. http://www. Dianne (2005). LTI Newsline. Future-Proofing. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. Tips and Techniques. http://www. 2004. Chief Learning Officer. July 2004. http://www. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. Josh (2005). When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. Kendrick (2006).uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. Chief Learning Officer. August 2004.bersin.amazon. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. January 23.org Web site.learningcircuits. See sample templates at: http://www. http://www. tools. http://www. Learning Circuits. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Mark (2003). http://www. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. http://www.transformmag.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.

pdf Jimenez.e-learning programs in weeks. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www. Nov.pdf Mayberry.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. (2004b). LTI Newsline. Ray (2006). Nick (2005).ltimagazine. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Jan. Clive (2006). February 2005. http://www. http://download. http://download. Mobile and Device Based Learning. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.com/articles /default.jsp?id=150619 Hess.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. 10.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. http://www. Kevin (2002). E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business.macromedia. Press release.macromedia. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Macromedia White Paper. 2006. Stephanie (2006).learningcircuits.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning. e-Learning Crop Circles. http://www. Mar. Simulation. 2002.com/content/templat es/clo_article.elearningguild.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. http://www.adobe.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Eric (2003). A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Vignettes for Training White Paper. April 20. http://www. 2005.clomedia.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. 2006.com/new sstory. Rapid Intake White Paper. (2004a). 9. The Training Foundation online article. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.pdf Shepherd.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. http://www.pdf Macromedia Inc. June 2004.com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.pdf Jimenez.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Learning Solutions. January 16. Macromedia White Paper. Rapid e-learning gets the job done.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development.clomedia.elearningguild. http://www. Joe (2005). Ed (2004). Learning Circuits. January 2003.elearningguru. Learning Solutions. http://www.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.htm Masie Center (2005). http://vftraining. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.trainingfoundation. Ray (2005).trainingpressreleases.clomedia.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.pdf Gustafson. 2006. Garin (2004). Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming.

and mathematics.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. one child at a time.edu/index.aad. technology.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.com/r_home. for underwater exploration.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.whmsi. http://www. simulation > http://www.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.rec.ri.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration.botball.org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence. and math.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site.cmu. http://www. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems. Inc.evolution. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands.edurobot.lego. > http://www. technology. engineering.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education.nasa. http://mindstorms. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. engineering.ife.active-robots. http://www. http://www.org/aboutbotball/overview.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.euron.gov. http://robotics. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.

It features news. http://zeus. http://www. U. H.amazon.. P. http://www.org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. Computers. New York. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. B. (2001).atr. Paper at the American Assoc.andrew. (2004). New York: Syngress Publishing.amazon. http://www.. http://dangermouse. and Dautenhahn.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. D.. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Düsseldorf. Find out more about this group at: http://www. http://www. > > http://www. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. H. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. and Mataric. November. Lathan.. (2004). D. AAATE Conference 1999.pdf http://www.cmu. C. lip movements.pdf Cooper. Germany. Yanco.pdf Boersch. Miller. Kumar.. (2004). June.eng.technology.pdf Ferrari. Robots in the classroom .ed..de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics. H.jp/ See also: http://www. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.brooklyn. links. Sept. L. http://robothaven. http://www. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. M. D. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. Ferrari. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.org/article.cs.tools for accessible education. (2004). (1999).fhbrandenburg. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). Harwin.pdf Nourbakhsh.uml. Mindstorms: Children.irc.wtec. and Powerful Ideas. go to: http://www.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. and Yanco. Heinsohn.net/ Run by NASA. Kumar. D.profetic.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. Mr. http://www. Proceedings.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro.com/solutions/mw exrobotics.jp/ Blank.edu/~sklar/er /edu.l3s. R. G. (1980). W. Hohmann. Meeden.gov/rcc/index.sci.. Keating.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. and Wagner. and Meeden.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research . By donning motion sensors. Germany.. S.brynmawr. Artificial Intelligence Conf. D.. L. J. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics.l3s.nasa. http://www.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. I. and other information on robotics.de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F. particularly robotics. D. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.ams. (2005). and vocal tics.com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.. and Loose. I.php Bibliography Blank. M.pdf Papert.cuny. http://robotics.osaka-u. and Hempel. http://www.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. Basic Books. K. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. M.ac.kipr..microworlds.

pdf Do not reproduce 157 .. http://www. and West. http://rob.. S. T. D. Ottawa. Sept..digicult. A. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. Abbott. Donnelly.. McHugh.ccmlab. and Rusbridge. Ontario. 28-30. M.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. (2001).pdf Stewart.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. A. (2005). R. Dobreva. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. M.

as this section of the report shows.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. which submit queries. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices.com and Alta Vista. They bring into the equation user preferences. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . each with their own defining feature sets. Meta–search engines.examples are early yahoo. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. collective intelligence. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. But. Ezzy (2006a. such as Google and Altavista. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. search engine optimization. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. While search engines have improved over the past several years. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. Web directories. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. meta-search engines. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. such as Yahoo. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. One new approach is called “federated searching. dependable information.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. data mining. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. federated search. 2004). information retrieval. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. in parallel. One is the problem of finding relevant. for a variety of reasons. a rich user experience. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. resource discovery. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines.so they take the structure of the Web into account. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. collaboration. Examples are Google and Overture. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media.

grokker.aeiwi.looksmart. http://www.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.gravee. and the Web.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 .answers.gigablast.com/ Gravee .com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.altavista. http://www. http://www.umdl. video.about.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. and text. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.faganfinder.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www. http://www.convera.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries.alltheweb.com’s search service http://a9.google. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://www.gada.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results. http://www.netscape.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories. http://www.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.lexxe.aol.msn. http://search.jookster.icerocket. http://www. http://www. blogs. http://search.gnod.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.ask. http://www. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. http://www.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions.com/ IceRocket – Searches images. http://www.com/ Answers. http://search.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.mooter.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.umich.hotbot.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. http://dmoz. http://www. get answers http://www.otavo.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. then fill in the search box. http://www. http://channels.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate.com About.com Gada.com/search/defa ult. http://www.alexa. http://www.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://oaister. rather than just returning Web pages. http://www. http://getoutfoxed.General search engines: A9 – Amazon.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject. http://www.

wink. http://www.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. Wink then diplays the results.com/v2a/flash.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research .net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. books.com/v2/index.ucr.eurekster. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. http://kids. http://rollyo.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.healthfinder. reviews.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. http://www. http://swicki. http://www.Clusters results.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. http://icerocket. & KidsClick!.sri. http://tagjag.blinkx.google.govmine. http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www. Yahooligans.google. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. and movies.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. > > http://firstgov. http://vivisimo. http://www.acronymfinder.ist.ithaki.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Wink – Using social networking.imdb. http://infomine.koders.imdb. http://www.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. users tag their favorite results and block spam.ai.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.stumbleupon.topic appears.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government.gnoosic.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. Much of this information is hidden from view.gov/ http://www.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only.pubsub. ArtKIDSRule. AwesomeLibrary.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking. http://www.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. AolKIDS. http://www.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches. http://www.psu. http://www.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.squidoo.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. http://scholar. reviews.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . http://www. http://froogle.google. http://qube.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.ujiko.qelix. http://www.yahoo. http://www. http://citeseer.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine. FactMonster.gpoaccess.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results. http://books. cast lists and theatre schedules.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.

krugle. http://www.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.” Content-based search engines for pictures.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.seekport. as of this writing.org/ Omgili .de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.f cgi QBIC . http://www.com/ Last. http://techsearch.searchedu.last.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes. http://www.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://wwwqbic.ee.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.acm.truveo.convera. http://www.cmp.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.pandora.columbia.columbia.org/citation.fm/ LawCrawler .edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.nih. http://www.com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).A legal search engine.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu .com/ LitLinker .com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.omgili.ibm. http://lawcrawler.cfm?doid=10 56808.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.columbia.ist. http://www.com/ MediaFinder .A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs. http://www. http://www.technorati.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www.ee.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.Krugle – A search engine for developers.findlaw.liveplasma.rawsugar.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://www.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://www. http://wang16.scirus. http://portal.uni-hannover.gov/entrez/query.rrzn. http://www. http://www. http://www.searchking.psu. http://www. http://www. http://smealsearch1.psu.merl.nlm.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only.ncbi.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.4 billion links.soundspotter. http://www.ee.almaden.

weather.com/ clusters. apartment rentals.uk/ SearchTools. video. http://www.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.xcavator. http://www. therefore. http://www. the user's community has total control over the results. http://www.trovando. pictures.cs.ixquick.dogpile. http://www. and their relationships. and tracks a user's search history. city guides. jobs. http://www. maps/directions.copernic.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching.net/indexu. yellow pages.info. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content.searchtools. greeting cards.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. or federated searching.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. is a valuable resource for researchers. movies. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. bookmarks. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. companies.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.zapmeta.ac. games. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www-rocq. news sources. http://www. http://www. http://www. eBay.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. dating and personals. http://www.intute. http://nlp. http://www.inria.researchbuzz.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. and links the clusters.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.search.kartoo. flights. http://www. lottery results. white pages. hotels. shopping sites. http://www. http://a9.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. http://vivisimo.ac.com/ Info – Searches reference works.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories.nyu. http://clusty.bolton.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. and Web mail for the topic entered. classifieds. http://searchenginewatch.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. tickets. focused searches on topics they care about.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. Unlike other search engines.zoominfo. health information sources. http://www.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages.ithaki. and notes. audio.

. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert.php Ezzy. phrase. http://www. Find out why in this presentation: http://www.ac. Ebrahim (2006). Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. No. 2004. http://www.com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. 7-12.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries.html Battelle.com/ Stephen Downes.citysearch.gov/ http://www.ucr.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword. http://www.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. is against the idea of federated searches. Guntram (2004). Read/Write Web. and Apprato. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. (2004). Part 1.amazon. 10(12).firstmonday.org/index. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada. (2005). 6. July 20.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). http://swicki.tveyes. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. http://www.0 vs.readwriteweb.ala.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. New York: Portfolio. Traditional Search. Part 2. http://infomine. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). F.editlib. http://www.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. 2006. Exchanging. July 25. Users can also browse by subject category.downes. Frank. http://www. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. June 2004. For example. Y. Search 2. This search engine.. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. http://www.searchenginecolossus. or topic . and Searching in eLearning Systems. No.netmasters.0 vs. DigiCULT Thematic Report.. Ebrahim (2006). Traditional Search. > > http://firstgov. Do not reproduce 163 . See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. First Monday. S. Resource Discovery .readwriteweb.ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. June. 2006. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.digicult.eurekster.org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. December.gov/ http://www. International Journal on e-Learning. Read/Write Web.php Geser. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. can be published on the user's site. July-Sept. Pat (2005).ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro.htm Ezzy. O. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. and Shoham.just as a search engine is used for text. John (2005).pdf Ensor. DigiCULT Thematic Report.elearning. http://www. http://www. Search 2. or swicki.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. http://www. A.co.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.gpoaccess. 6.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.

http://www.pdf Gincel. Jakob (2003). M.ischool. E. White paper.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. Part I: http://www.http://www.html Heck. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. and MacColl. Richard (2004). Mike (2004). http://www. 2004. Stanford University.prescientdigital. P. Oct.infoworld.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research .eschoolnews. International Journal on E-Learning. June 30.pdf Sullivan. (2004).com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.eweek. Oct. http://www.uk/boon/delos200 5. 2005. 149-166. SearchEngineWatch.php/2156221 Vaas. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. 10. A. 15. May 8.digicult. Simple advice for complex search solutions.htm Part II: http://www. (2005). Bob (2005). Oct. http://bobwyman. 2003. Lisa (2005). http://searchenginewatch.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. S.pubsub. (2005).asp Wyman. April 28..pdf Schlenker.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. B. Corey (2005). they’re just limited. 15. (2000). Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. Danny (2004). Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . Major Search Engines and Directories.infoworld. Doctoral dissertation.aace. http://www.prescientdigital. eSchool News.ed.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. Mittal. J. http://dl.ac..com/alertbox/20030630. 2005. InfoWorld. eWeek. W.isnoldenburg.washington. InfoWorld.org/16955 Low. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. It’s Gada. http://homepages.18 69408.com/links/article .html Kumar. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. S. 2004. Search engines don’t suck. and Hilf.00. Carmine (2006).1759. 2004. 3. Prescient Digital Media. http://www. Parts I and II.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. http://www. Mimkes.com/news/showS toryts. Refining enterprise search.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox.useit.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1. and Gupta. 2004. html Porco. Oct.pdf Murray.com/article2/0. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload.. http://www. 4(1).com. J. 2005. Kashyap.ht m Pratt.

alphaworks. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. ontologies.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. near Boston.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments.ibm. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. Abbas et al. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. http://www. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. It has both its advocates and its critics. but it will not be in general use for some time. such Do not reproduce 165 . Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. (2005) note that “historically. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web.aktors. semantic grid. taxonomies. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. metadata. Selected Examples In Europe. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. Like it or not. search. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. microformats. are now falling short of earlier promises.elenaproject. 2003). founder of the World Wide Web. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee.org/en/index. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. http://www. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources.

http://www.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. B. A.ifets. G. S. Odeh.amazon. T.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. Markus.open. xi.. http://www. McClatchey. http://edutella. and Zillinger.upm.jxta. and Lassila..es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final.open. Mozo.as semantic portals for end-users.amazon. J. MA: MIT. Z. May 9-12. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. H.tkk. Umer. M. http://www. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web.. D. Forward. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. Salvachua.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou.pdf Daconta. L. semantic infrastructural services. MA: MIT Press. http://www-jime.net/ Bibliography Abbas. http://www.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. Hendler.amazon. http://jungla.de/html/ Aguirre. http://arxiv. W. A Semantic Web Primer. http://www. Z. The first issue is free..org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051.. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications. J. Miklos.ifets. and Smith.ideagroup. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Simon. J. Olmedilla. http://www.. and Ahmed. May 29 June 1. (2005).uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web. http://www-jime.hpl.. and Knowledge Management... Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Huber. In Fensel. R.. Cambridge.pdf Anderson. Mark (2005).pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. (2004). http://www. http://www. http://kaon. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. (2003). The semantic web. implementing. Brantner.com/article. (1).personal-reader.info/issues. G. and Hendler.) (2003)..info/index. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing.php?http://www . Greece. Lieberman. M. http://www. (2001). T. D. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). S.aimatshape.semanticweb. Sobernig. S. F.. May 2001. and Whitelock.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. Tim (2003).com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005.dit.hp.seco. M. Scientific American.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. S.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. A.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. D. O.sciam.ac. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation.. Obrst. (Eds. and van Harmelen (2004).. T. Wahlster. (2005). Web Services.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. http://www. Cambridge. Ali. 2005. New York: Wiley...ac... K.

. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. Paper presented at the GLS conference. Greenwich. http://www..pdf Downes. C. Sikora. PA: Information Science Publishing. (2005). E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. (2001). J. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. D. M. N. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. (2001).uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras.amazon. http://www. http://www. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. pdf Doctorow. and Naeve. Stephen (2005). Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . CETIS Online article. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web Technologies. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. Nicola (2005b). Lund. Syllogism. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. Rutledge..downes. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. A.html Haack. CT: Manning. 500-504. http://www. The Netherlands..ac. Jennings.pdf Nilsson.) (2005).org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin.com/ContraShirky. and Neagu. and Worldview”.com/article2/0.. Cory (2001).9/semgrid. L. and Shadbolt. 10. 2006. Hershey. Nicola (2005a). and Zetti. and Naeve. D. Sweden. Lieberman.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. Online article.asp Hatem. Palmer.cetis. Online article. DevSource.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. F.) (2003).amazon. http://www. D. Brian (2005). Semantic Networks and Social Networks. htm Dorai. and Hendler. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . France. May 27.scipub. M.unihannover. Thomas (2004). (2002). (Eds.pdf Henze. http://www. (2004).kbs. Oct. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report.semanticgrid..jisc. Paul (2003). Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). http://www2002. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web.devsource.ftrain.amazon. W.pdf Henze. Stephen’s Web.com/~doctorow/metacrap. Juan-les-Pins.189 5. Amsterdam. 18-22 July 2005. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. http://www.unihannover. http://www.. N.. Journal of Computer Science. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. http://www. http://www. Wahlster. (Eds.pdf Kraan. H. Mauthe. Nack.well. A. http://homepages.ca/cgibin/page.cwi.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05.kbs.ac. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. and Gouarderes. T. http://www.1961106. H. 2001.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf.us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504. 1(4). Phil (2006). Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. M. Cambridge. Wilbert (2005). Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web.. L. http://www. A. Oct.Some Architectural Guidelines.org/v1.De Roure.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. Ramadan. 2005. H. MA: MIT Press.00. M. G. http://www.

. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. USA. http://www. D.asp?source=/5/updegrove1.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12.cetis. New York. F. 7 (4).html Stojanovic.. Wagner.marketingprofs. 2628. 2005. Karenos. http://www. and Diaz.pdf Updegrove. http://www. (2003).ac. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. http://www. Scott (2005). G.981948. David (2002).com/login/sign up. H.darwinmag. and Worldview. C. CETIS Online article. (2004).fr/acacia/personnel/Liana.pdf Samaras. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. 2003.. G.w3. http://poorbuthappy. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference.ecs.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.co.10577.. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. (2004). http://eprints. June 14. (2003). Davis. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. E. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.pdf Sampson.ac. D. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.. A. 2005.sop. and Stumme. 2004. Andy (2005). Economics and Culture. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. http://www. Staab.aifb.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/selene/reports/ Del3.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Scott’s Workblog.com/read/swiftkick /column. Syllogism.. and Woukeu. 2003.shirky. A.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson. May 17–22. H. trust.html Van Dijck. http://www. Who said that? Metadata.org/proceedings/docs/2p 1.info/journals/7_4/5.. December 3. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. http://www.dcs.ifets. (2005). http://www. F. and Christodoulou. Millard. and Miller. http://education. (2001).guardian. D. Marketing Profs. August 2. Online article.soton.html Wilson.infoworld.uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. 7.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb.uk/elearning/ story/0.cetis.ac.com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.inria. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. http://www2004. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. M. (2005).. and Studer. and Davis. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. The Semantic Web. S. 2002.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast.ac.pdf Tao. P.pdf Tane. http://www. John (2004). http://ewic.bcs. Semantic Web. Peter (2003). Woukeu. January 17. Networks. K. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. B. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps. Lytras. http://www. L. Millard. InfoWorld.pdf Shirky. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. R. 2004. L. and the Semantic Web.asp Udell. New York. June 21.00.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). Online article. Nov. Clay (2003). J. Darwin.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism.p df Tao.bbk. G.. Scott (2002).unikarlsruhe. Schmitz.

calt. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.gov/ Winters et al. http://cave. http://www.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.noaa.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.calt.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.uiuc. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.insead.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). http://www. http://www. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. especially ones set by themselves. http://sos. games. i.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. learn.calt. http://www.insead. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. participants will be motivated to evaluate.arcscience. 2005). It was decommissioned in 2005.calt. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 .e.com/omni. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.icherubini. role-playing.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.” My first report in this series.calt. http://www.insead. http://www. but information about it remains on the Web. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.insead. microworlds. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. According to High (2004). entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.ncsa.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. reviewed simulations as an online content format.insead.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.

go to: http://www.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.lsa.soe.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. http://www." http://www.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.ISLE .com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate ..com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.miami.adobe.experiencebuilders. without programming knowledge. http://www. http://www. http://www.atghome. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.edcenter.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.intermezzon.com/broadcastoverview. breathing.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.assima. http://www. http://www.adobe. Linux. > > http://geowall. http://crme.noaa. http://www.fsl.making-history. http://www.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index. It runs on Windows. with many examples to try.com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.virtualfishtank. pulse rate. For example.html weather forecasting.biographix. and Mac OS X.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . http://www.umich.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics.net/ Biographix .edu/harvey_about.berkeley.geo.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.edu/geowall/ind ex.forio. http://www.insead.ht m Intermezzon .com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research .http://www.edcenter.sdsu. has issued "The Calm and The Storm.dc.stt-global. http://www. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. http://thinkertools. Mass.shatters. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. However.net/celestia/index.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments.sdsu. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions. heart sounds.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. and murmurs.med. http://www. they are only available for Macintosh computers.com/ Forio .umich.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.edu/ http://um3d. http://www.calt.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. to play in a virtual fishtank.

http://www. http://www.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.the click of a mouse. http://www.maxit. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. http://www.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming. create courses specifically on using computer software.ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.nexlearn. http://www.percepsys.outstart.com/3dTraining.com/products /firefly. which can then be used to build simulations.stottlerhenke.com/ Knowledge Planet .stagecast.” http://www.com/product_r pe. Do not reproduce 171 .Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.qarbon.com/ Kookaburra Studios .com/ MaxIT . http://www. http://www.knowledgepresenter. http://www. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.knowledge-director.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based. http://www. http://www.elearningcentre.com/portal/index. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.asp Knowledge Quest . http://www. including simulations.co.virtualcontrolroom.knowledgequest.it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index.sdsu.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation.learning2005.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software. http://www.xstreamsoftware. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .bc. http://coe.reusableobjects.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/products/sim.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.jibc.maxit.icherubini. Integrates with many media types.knowledgeplanet.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www.teds.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .com/ MaxIT .com/ Reusable Objects . http://www.

Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. Computer simulations in distance education.. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Montréal. (2001). T.amazon.org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. July. L. Department of Computer Science.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. September.htm High.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. http://www.bbk.html Lunce. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. Laser. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. 2004. & de Jong..uva. In Interaction Design and Children. Clark (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. B. F.cs. eSchool News. 2004. and Hou. and Sund Martin. AACE conference.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.bham. http://www.for Philosophers and Engineers. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. A. http://www. http://www. San Francisco: Pfieffer. A.pdf Swaak.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer..html Linser.net/papers/ELearning.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.clomedia. Kamau (2004).learningcircuits. http://www.blikstein. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. A. June.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. and Ip. Six criteria of an educational simulation.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.ft.. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) . (2001). (2004). p. International Workshop.PDF Blikstein. Mazloumian. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. computer games. 12. http://www..learningcircuits.pdf DeVries. Chief Learning Officer. October. Learning Circuits. Viswanathan.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook. A. 2002.projects. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.htm eSchool News (2004). R. October 2004. Sept. 1(10). Aaron (2005). http://www.html Learning Circuits. P. Taghiyareh. http://www. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -.simplay.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. A.eschoolnews.. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). J. Rasmussen.pdf Cherubini. Feb. and Bostan. Simulation levels in software training. Financial Times. http://www. http://www. September. (2002). Les (2004). Online report.learningcircuits. How playing power drives lessons home. Paper presented at Robocup conference.html Karrer. Holland. and Wilensky. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. The promise of online simulations. http://www. Aug. Simjour.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook.htm Aldrich. http://itdl. M.com/news/showS tory. Clark (2004).science. 4. J. Gash. Bjorn (2004). (2002).ac.ac. http://www. J. T. Character simulations make e-learning come alive.http://www.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. and McCloughlin. Utrecht.html Sobeih.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.. October 15-19. http://www. A.ncassr. Learning Circuits. 2004. Shannon (2004). M. Making the most of software simulations.case studies.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s. A. 8. (2005). U.medialabeurope.ht m Sloman. Implementation and Evaluation.learningcircuits.. Learning Circuits. Jennifer (2004). (2004). H.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich.

Fort Lauderdale. M. Online paper at: http://lsm.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper.prospect. http://www. In Association for Computing Machinery. 17. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.. and Strohecker.protonmedia.pdf Tjaden. N. Gary (2003). 284-294. 8(31).-Apr. April. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. 1997.pdf Turkle.. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC. (2003). C.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. http://www.dei. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. The American Prospect.icherubini. Sherry (1997).org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s.knowledge.uc. Cherubini. USA. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Florida.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations.html Winters. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings.pdf Do not reproduce 173 .. http://www. Mar.

Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research .org/Template. or water. easily changed. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader..checkpointsystems. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. grease. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. http://uitspress. 2005).uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02.open. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. For a full discussion of this issue.iu. RFID technology is developing rapidly. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). especially for tagging retail items in stores.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.” http://vis.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.edu/102605_meal. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag. therefore.edu/index. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. which transmits over short distances. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. infrared (IR) tags.iu. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.ac.com/default . http://cnm. optical tags. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. They are programmable and. While controversial. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.ala. http://www. especially in museums and for outdoor education.

G..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.eschoolnews.. Aparna (2004). Ando. (2006).aace. 276-283. http://www. 261-263.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x. Infoworld. In Kommers.asp?id=1222 Ross. & Richards. Ogata.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. 2004.. 5. and Dobreva.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. March. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. standards.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.. S.infoworld.. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. 2005. Y.pdf Murray.cfm?fuse action=Reader.).ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. S. K. James (2006). A. (2005). Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton..2005 . RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. Shibuya. April 13..ac. H.digicult. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. RFID: frequency. 2004. K. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations.com/monthly/articl e.jisc.computer. (Eds. Proceedings. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online).uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602. June 27. Masters Thesis. & Kondo.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn.toydirectory.org/ Bibliography Borck. Noda. A.pdf Robinton. and Yano. C.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://csdl2. P.rfidnews. T. 4(3). http://www.pdf Salcedo. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.digicult. http://www. Donnelly. Noma. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites.msu.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. http://www. (2004).66 Ward. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. R. Corey (2004). http://www. http://www. N.csmonitor. http://www. Andrew (2005). Technology Watch Report 1. and Backhouse.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. G.. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).pdf Osawa et al. adoption and innovation.1109/WMTE. van Kranenburg. http://www.toydirectory.msu. http://www.xml&DOI=10.org/news/showsto ry. Michigan State University.. Tsukagoshi. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. eSchool News Online. M. R.. in a 2005 online article.com/monthly/articl e. and Case..edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. M. January 1. TD Monthly.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.org/newdl/index.. http://www.html?s=feature Heining. Oct.aace. M. (2003). http://www.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. http://www. (2005). Y.html Osawa. http://www.

or check out what everyone wants to do. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. Blink also provides tools to sort. tagging. They can save references.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. http://www. and organize the academic papers they are reading. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. and books. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. printouts. Students. store. they act as an “outboard memory. http://www. http://ask. ontologies. http://www.43things. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.A free service to help academics share. share references with colleagues. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. For instance. Fourth.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. in turn. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. search others’ references. share their stories. or distributed in e-mails. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Also. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. while users of the del. For example. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. metadata. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. and search for a specific user's Blinks. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. and Web links.First. search. users can see what others are Blinking. no matter their location or timing.us Web site (http://del. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do.icio.net/ CiteULike . the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. Third. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective.us) post their favorite Web sites. The result is something called a tag cloud. Second.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. Fifth. researchers at all levels (students. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. http://www.com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. describe.citeulike.connotea. Flickr held over 100 million images. get inspired. and to share them. connect with others. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning.icio.metafilter. music. http://blogmarks.” However. faculty.com/ Blinklist .blinklist.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. As of April 2006.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. as each member can upload resources discovered. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.

and non-hierarchical editorial control.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.us/ Digg . http://www. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://consumating.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.icio.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications. updated in near real time.com/ Project Pad . but. http://ma. and discover relevant links.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://www.com/ Del. Also retrieve it easily.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.networkltd.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging.icio. http://www.com/archives/beta_up date/index.linkroll.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites. http://myweb2.simpy. and/or books and find them again. based on what is happening in the news media.html Linkroll . users submit stories for review.eu/products/networ k_menus.jookster. http://www.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.org/news. http://www.com/ Flickr – Store.eventful. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.yahoo. RSS.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages.netvouz.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://flickr. http://www.com/ Simpy – Search tags. http://www.net/ Jookster .feedmarker.digg.com/ Furl .furl.com Clipmarks .shadows.rojo. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://jots. or enter new items and tag them.netscape.com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.com/ Magnolia . blogging.clipmarks. similar to Digg.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. http://www.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://www. http://www. sort.northwestern. With digg.kaboodle. share.com/ Kaboodle .search.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. search. http://projectpad.edu/ppad2/ index. http://www.us . the users decide.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.com/ Jots .Consumating .A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. http://blog. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics. http://del. http://www. music.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click.com/ Do not reproduce 177 .pageflakes.A free. and share photos with others.gnolia.memeorandum.

com/wwwtool s/m/6350. http://www.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. http://www.infoworld. Bryan (2006).spurl. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities.net/ Suprglu . Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place.com/index. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched. If a city is not there.” http://www. http://www.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs. 41(2).quickonlinetips.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.com/udell/gems/d elicious.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. http://tabblo.html http://tagsonomy.suprglu.com Wists – A social shopping site.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.smugmug.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://swik.us. http://weblog. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.fasfind. http://unalog.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .com/archives/000 558. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.icio. with contributions from users. http://upcoming. Flickr.html http://atomiq.com/wwwtool s/m/7172. http://www. March/April 2006.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.educause. http://www.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. http://www.S. Online Resources Jon Udell.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.com/ SWiK .cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. http://www. Web 2.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www.quickonlinetips. http://www. and share it with others.us.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. > http://www. and Digg. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.zvents.quickonlinetips.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.icio.fasfind. tags. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. and social bookmarking.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup.A.wists.wink. http://www.veotag.” > > http://magazines.com/ about how tagging works with del.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.tagzania.yelp.peterme.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.html http://www.

May 20. SearchCIO. T. Tom. The New School of Ontologies. Nicholas (2004). Hammond.html McGillicuddy.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. April 2005. S.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.sid19_gci1195182. http://www.html Mathes.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell.00..289142.htm Hammond. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. D-Lib Magazine. Keynote address.infoworld.infoworld.isi. http://dlib. Collaborative knowledge gardening. InfoWorld.weblogged..pdf Gurber. 2005. Webblogg-ed. Ideant. 11(4).pdf Mejias. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. August 20. B. Jan. Liz (2005).typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. T.plasticbag. Social consequences of social tagging.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. and Hannay. http://www. (2005). http://www.html Mote. http://www. Plasticbag. http://tomgruber.html Do not reproduce 179 .shtml Golder. 11(4).net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. http://www.ejournal. Ulises (2004). Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. http://www.corante.. 2005.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. 2006.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. M. J.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd.com/originalCo ntent/0. Trusted Sources.ht ml Mejias.org. http://searchcio. Aug. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. June 21. Flack. 2005. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Sept. T.. Online paper.http://www. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.. Jon (2004). http://ideant.html Coates. Shamus (2006). Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. HP Labs Report. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. April 2005. T.. May 5.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. Tag mania sweeps the Web. 2004. (2005). Many2Many.typepad.ascc. Adam (2004). Ulises (2005). (2005).hpl.pdf Richardson.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd. Jon (2005). and Huberman. Tom (2005). 2005. Online Paper. Hannay. 2005. InfoWorld. http://www. Andy (2006).educause.pbs. D-Lib Magazine.php Lund.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Lund.adammathes. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University.org/teachersource/learning . Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. http://ideant. http://www. http://www. Tags vs. Will (2005).com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. 2. B.html Udell. http://many.com.org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. 2. (2005). July 20. 2006.techtarget. and Scott. B.hp.html Lawley. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. 20.dlib.

e-mail. Friendster. work. online personals such as Match. social software. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school.” that is.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . etc. photo albums. etc.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. etc. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. http://www. photo sharing sites. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. SMS. My first report in this series. reviewed social networking as an online content format. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. e-mail. shared links. communities of practice. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. 2005). family.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. dating sites. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. tagging. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. social networking sites such as Friendster. and the military. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. etc. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.classmates.) Relationship Management (Orkut. shared link libraries such as del.icio.com.al. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.) Experience Sharing (blogs. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals.com.us.

orgnet.faceparty.com/signin/index.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. http://www.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. upload photos.com/ Live Journal . NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. and geographic regions. and files and then make them available to others. audio.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis.facebook. http://platial.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. Facebook has networks for colleges. List who a person knows and find out who others know.intronetworks.freeopendiary.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis. http://www. If a user asks for the key players in an organization. high schools.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth.” http://www. http://www. http://www.netminer.com/ucinet.xanga.my-diary.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site. http://www. video. http://www. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. photos. which is then open to other readers. https://www.myspace. documents.friendster. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. workplaces. http://www. http://www.com/inflow3.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.html Last.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. and within “communities of interest. http://www.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal.orkut. or as a social network. http://www.esnips.stumbleupon. http://www.diaryland. http://www. Share it with others if desired.yahoo.spartasocialnetworks.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. https://www.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www.linkedin. in associations. as a blog. http://www.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. http://www.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.com/introNetwor ks. It costs several thousand dollars. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.analytictech.com/ Orkut .fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. http://360. Users share their writings and meet each other.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.com Platial – A site to create social maps.livejournal.com/reg/sample. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site.codeville.last. http://www.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. Network World.. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system. L. secure. http://www.no/at/nmm/enlund. http://www." http://www. J.acs. Ken (Ed.org/rfc/rfc2779. Sept. http://www-142. 6.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.html Goldberg.fakespace. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Nils (2000).amazon. Hubert (2001). On the Internet.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. Presence applications poised for takeoff. The driver sits in a box.nada. MA: MIT Press.html http://www.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.com/index. (2002). In Soldek. BSD.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 . ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. A. John (2004).es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://kmr. Telepresence and Virtual Presence. http://laimuz.percro. and Windows.ebuddy.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. http://get.sourceforge.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd. J.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver. http://www.ibm.jabber. http://messenger. Cambridge.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. and Naeve.com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society.ietf. Online memo.networkworld.virtual-presence.net/ Jabber – An open. (Eds. http://www2. (2001). C.kth.yahoo. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. 2004.“Simultaneous Presence.live.ieor.org/teleimmersio n2. http://www. Network Working Group (2000).advanced.pdf Knudsen. Naeve.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. 44-49. as well as news. C. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. The production of presence – distance techniques in education. http://www. the CAVE. http://www.txt Knudsen. and Pejas.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. http://www. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). > > http://www. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. history.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.advanced. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers.berkeley. and Handberg.) (2000).com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence.unizar.org/teleimmersio n.pd f Fontana.aim.org Bibliography Dreyfus. http://www. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. London: Routledge. http://www. MacOS X. http://gaim. A.hig.

Alberta. A. D. M. (2005). A. http://cid. Jan.org/docume nts/Sponberg. Jon (2005). Germany: Hagen. Knudsen. 28. et al. G. Ins and outs of teledildonics. W. and IJsselsteijn.digicult. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.amazon. M. and Rusbridge.. H. S. Regina (2004). Being There: Concepts.) (2003). (Eds. Wired News.html Riva. January 2005. In Hoyer.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Calgary. When time-shifting and telepresence collide..kth. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. http://www.infoworld.Banff.650 64-0.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. http://www.Learning. (Eds. Abbott..info/downloads/TWR3lowres. F. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. Amsterdam: IOS Press. and Handberg. InfoWorld. Donnelly. Dobreva.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .swedishlearninglab. June 1. http://www..com/news/culture/0. (2001). effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.pdf Sponberg.com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1..se/pdf/CID-206..pdf Udell. L. http://www. McHugh. H.nada. Davide. September 24.pdf Lynn.wired. http://www. 2002. C.modes.

PDAs. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. In spite of the limitations. 2005). and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. the largest Internet telephone service. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. Do not reproduce 189 . television. cell phones. bandwidth becomes an issue. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. However. in all its formats. As the following examples show. videocasting. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. My first report in this series. Once video goes on the Internet. streaming video. amateur and professional video cameras. Britain's largest telecom firm. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. according to Foroohar (2006). making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. A new version of television. 2002). games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. reviewed video as an online content format. even a video plug-in for Skype. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). BT. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). video on the Internet is not readily searchable. video blogging. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. tlearning. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. vodcasting. telepresence. IPTV. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Video blogging has become common. screencasting. Further.

org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. http://www. http://www.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. cellular.com/default. voice. http://www.google.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. tag them. low bandwidth video stream.bittorrent. partners. http://www.com. employees. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site. and divide them into chapters or segments.rocketboom. http://participatoryculture.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.axor.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research .com For an example of a video blog.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.concord. PDA.ourmedia.google. whether dial-up.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.on2.xstreamengine.dfilm. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. a three-minute videoblog. See examples at: http://www.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. the “triple play” of video. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program.youtube.veotag. See samples at: http://www. http://video. http://www. http://www.org/ At YouTube. or set-top box.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills.addictingclips.com/nara. or students through a high quality. desktop.brightcove.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.bittorrent.apple. http://www. http://vpb. video.dmeurope. http://www.medialogic. and data services increases the profits by subscriber.rocketboom.co. http://www.html Dialcom Networks. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web.uk/index.com/index_about. http://www.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. See the current selection at: http://video.” Users can upload video clips for free.ar/iptv_en.com/ BitTorrent. see Rocketboom. and maintains loyalty. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. with IPTV. http://www.org/ In 1999. the Internet telephone service. http://www.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. improves the satisfaction of the client.com/pressrelea ses. It is still going strong at: http://www. and multimedia content to customers.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.

http://www.org/doing/media.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. http://www.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.” http://www.” http://www.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent.com/ http://www.upenn. and Bates. Pradeep (2004).htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. Luigi (2005b).elearningcentre. read “Ten video sharing services compared.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.uk/files/pdf/1443.mil/index. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming. http://www.streamingmedia. termed “mobile television.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.ht m Canali De Rossi. Wi-Max.lsda. which users can submit. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.veoh.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.” http://knowledge. Dec. 1.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. and by tags.com/webconf/video.” http://www.elearnspace.mefeedia.pdf Bardia. Beyond Wireless Broadband.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.dvguru. http://www. http://www.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. and visual resources. t-learning Study .org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. https://www.educause. The site already contains nearly 6.masternewmedia. For example.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player.masternewmedia.com/seeds/index.iptv-industry.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.uk/tlearning/contents. Online article at: http://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video. 2005.co. video. Robin Good Blog.org.masternewmedia. http://www.pjb.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005. (2003).as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.wharton.navy.” Bibliography Atwere. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.hpc. http://www.500 vlogs organized by popularity.thinkofit.com/article.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.co.edu/articl e. http://www.masternewmedia.spider. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 . D. but business models are fuzzy. Luigi (2005a). Wi-Fi. http://eduscapes. P.htm Canali De Rossi. by alphabet.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. www. Peter (2003).A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report. http://www.

The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.XMax Goes The Distance. Campus Technology. 2. Dec. http://www. University of Missouri. IBM Institute for Business Value study. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.usc. 2005. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.amazon. G.campustechnology. 2005. Matthew (2005). In Richards. Feb. Durham.) (2002). http://edmarketing.ac.umist. http://www.com/showAr ticle. Brian (2005). Newsweek (International Ed. discussions and implications.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).com/article. IAT Services White Paper. Robin Good Blog. http://www. NC: Duke University.networkingpipeline. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. 7. (Ed.org/newdl/index. The IPTV Revolution. Jonathan. Changing Channels.htm Curtis.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. Online paper.masternewmedia.php Taplin. Mon. Nov.ibm. Manchester. P. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development.). 2005. Tom (2005). M. Brian (2002). June 6. L. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. April 26. (2003).com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 .bcr. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review. and Swenson. http://www-rcf.pdf Thornhill. Rana (2005).com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. http://www. http://www.edu/~jtaplin/IPTV.pdf Klass. Peter (2005). 8-9. Networking Pipeline. pdf Nolle. http://www. http://www1.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.apple. Asensio.msn.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full. C. 2005.msnbc. http://www2. 2005. 417-419). Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls.. http://www. (2005). Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.asp?id=7769 Meng.cfm?fuse action=Reader. and Young.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .). Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.aace. S. (Eds.

and re-experiencing or reusing past events. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. To do this.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. interaction.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. http://www.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. designers. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.shapedc. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. distributed virtual environments.arts.cs. http://www. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. and storytellers. mixed reality.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc.futurelab. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment.kahootz. augmented virtuality.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.netofpeers. Depending on the level of realism achieved. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. Near Eastern. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. http://ancient.ca/index. Exploration and discovery are enabled.org/highlights/augur. desktop virtual reality.columbia. and the aim of the virtual experience. Videoconferencing is not required. http://solipsis. inventors. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent. http://www. exchange enabling. By using aspects of game play. Creed.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 .org. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.ac. simulation. skin color. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. Shape has developed the augurscope. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. http://www1.ubc. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. and Religious Studies department. http://www.net/wiki2/index.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).equator.

T.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. http://www.epfl.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.ch/About/about_index.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads. C. > > http://www. http://www. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.intuition-eunetwork.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.com/edu/index..ac. http://www.campustechnology. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.S. 24. https://www.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. C.pdf Bouras. Triantafillou. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. and Tsiatsos. V. G.spider.com/article. For example. http://ru6. 175-199. August 9. (2006). and Tsiatsos.secondlife. A. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments. Technology Area .ahds. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 . http://www. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.activeworlds.ac.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. > http://vads.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7. Research report..Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). http://ru6. East Carolina University. http://ru6. Hornig. T. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory.ahds.ecu. 2006.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.cti. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.cti. T. Campus Technology. http://vrlab.informationinplace. http://www.com http://www. http://vr.mil/index.html The U.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research .ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. including education..opencroquet.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.cti. (2001).as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.org/index. http://www.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Philopoulos. C.coe.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. (2001).healthdatamanagement.pdf Bouras. Luigi (2004).hpc.navy.html Bibliography Bouras.ergonetz. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . and Tsiatsos.edu/vrel.

aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen. (Section on Virtual Reality). 1.unibo.eng..Good Blog.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. http://www. M.p df Prasolova-Førland.learningcircuits.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. http://www.pdf Hoare.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. M.guardian. Eva (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0. and White. http://www. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. No.1314022.digicult. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. http://education. McHugh.. (2002).10577.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds.html Liarokapis.. & Sester.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. 2004. http://www.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends..masternewmedia. A. 2004. http://courseweb.org/htmleng/english. (2004).pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. C.pdf Katterfeld. F.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . Proceedings. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences.. M. G.ikg.. Web-based Education 2005 conference. 2005. http://www. S. F. 2004. P. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Stephen (2004). M.ie/Owen. Trend: augmented reality check. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Learning Circuits. https://www. http://www.. July 9-16. Conlan. A. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning.actapress.pdf McArdle. Lister.unihannover. Dobreva.pdf Ross. M. and Mangina. Gerard (2002). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. http://www.monash.oln. Guardian Unlimited. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. and Hicks. J.unt. 1(2).de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. and Rusbridge.. 2004. R. Virtual teaching aids become a reality.cs.tcd. (2005). Sept.com/Reference. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 28.. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. D.00. G. and Sester.edu. O.actapress. http://www. (2004). C. Vol. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Sept. La Coruna/Spain.com/PaperInfo. P.htm Katterfeld.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. (2005). Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Ekaterina (2005).htm Dickey. (2005).html Jones. 35. Istanbul. Donnelly.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. ISPRS. Michelle (2003). 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. http://www. and Seyedarabi. January 2005. International Archives of Photogrammetry.elearning. Dec. (2005). Proceedings. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). Monahan. M. Bertolotto. Petridis. http://www.actapress.icc2005. T.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. 27. Abbott.com/PaperInfo. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.co. E. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments.

images. visualization can represent alternative points of view. The educational advantages of visualization are many.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. which showcases their potential. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.ontopia.dpc. dynamic displays. http://www.com/solutions. 2005).zoomclouds. data filtering. see ZoomClouds. For an example. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. mapping.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps.ucar.semagix. cybercartography. reviewed visualization as an online content format. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. http://www. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. http://www.unifiedfield.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. See some amazing demos at: http://www. GIS. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. such as a blog. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. Humans analyze visual information better than written text.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . On the other hand. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. Flash. pattern recognition. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. and data rendering. geographical information systems. cognitive collage. allowing for innovation or new understandings. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. graphics.com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. location based systems. data mapping. My first report in this series. Finally. http://www.inxight.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials.net/omnigator/models/ index. 2003). Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. et al.

http://chatcircles. Be sure to explore the “zoo.co. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. Free demo at: http://www. http://www.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.skyscraper.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. http://www.gov/index.in English or Spanish.bbc.alice.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.tmm. http://www.nasa.lecielestbleu. http://www.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles.nixlog. http://www.marumushi. See: http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.mit.bham.com/VBody. http://www.org/timeformations/ intro. and display (without glasses!). April 7th. Museum Edition. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . http://www.medibolt.media. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information.”’ BBC News. http://esapub. 2004.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.idc. http://news.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.vista.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles. It has images of space and the earth from space.medtropolis. http://www.html For a practical application of visualization.edu/ Paul Nixon.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.cs.esrin. VR.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.edu/index.esa.ul.com Web site in Tokyo.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385.” http://richie. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 . allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.utexas. a young graphic designer. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.” http://www.nlm.gsfc. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. http://www.nih.ac.typorganism.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. delivery.vrco. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.ddd.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.0 authoring system.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. Sample the collection at: http://svs.ubc. and visualization applications. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer.

arcscience. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland. retrieval. http://www. http://www.at/home. and information presentation. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content. anatomically detailed. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. http://research. http://www. http://www.nlm.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. http://www.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. http://www.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human. http://makingmaps.org/about. in the U.com WorkPlace http://www.noaa.corda. See this technology in action.com/index. http://www.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.idashboards.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.htm How do users visualize very large data sets. one million items.edu/postcartoaag06. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.semagix.S.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.cs.ibm.ontopia. http://www.xcelsius. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.com/cat/dashb oard/index.amnh.html Top Tier http://www.gfdl.vicodi. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.owu.feedtank.com/solutions.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.cs.at: http://www.indiana.nih. See their tool set and examples of their work.com CenterView http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.com/applicati on. http://www.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.spotfire.com/index. http://clustrmaps.umd. for example. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions.ambientdevices. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.html XCelsius http://www. http://www.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.com/omni. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .unifiedfield.mccrackendesign.microsoft.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.net/omnigator/models/ index. http://www.vrvis.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.

formz. http://www. http://www. and rendering software.” http://www. http://www.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. associations. for 3-D modeling.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. Grapher. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. http://www. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.visualanalytics. http://www.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.daz3d. and. and anomalies in data. for well log and borehole plotting. Didger.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. animation. They have worked with the U. http://research.goes far beyond static JPG map images.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation.musanim. MapViewer. networks. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. http://www. http://www.com/vc/index. for 3-D landscaping and animation.intergraph. http://www. http://www.pixologic.golden. Clicking a related term extends the process.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. and rendering. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. for 3-D data visualization. http://tangible. Strater. http://www.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data.5-D modeling and rendering software.softill.media.com Pixologic is 2. many of which are unique.advizorsolutions.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms.oziexplorer. http://www. http://www.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop.esri. http://www.com/mam/mam. for 2-D and 3-D graphing.okino. trends.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location. for digitizing and coordinate conversion.timemap. including the following: Voxler.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. http://www. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. including the following: Bryce.visualthesaurus.mit.S.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. Try a demo at: http://www. modeling.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.topozone.visualcomplexity.accurender.mapinfo.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. Carrara.microsoft. http://www.

edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. A.media.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. Madison: University of Wisconsin. (2003).mit. Jacques (1983).sdsu. > http://www.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. (Eds. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.liveplasma. and Shneiderman. Proceedings.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. both visualization companies.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.complexityandeducation. http://acg. http://www. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. G.mit.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin.org/index.. http://www. http://www.media. les réseaux.gatech.masternewmedia. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques.pdf Bertin.” http://vis. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field. les cartes.ualbert a.edu/eet/ Ell. Paris: La Haye. P. J. http://www.ac. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. B.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization. together with their estimated depth of influence.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card. > > http://www.edwardtufte. Following are two: > > http://graphics. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.gvu.complexityscience. Paier.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.edu/research/r esearch.gatech. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. http://coe.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. Sherman (2003).topicmap.vrco. http://www.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.cs.topicmaps.net/printRec.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry. EXYSTENCE network. M. Mackinlay. Working Paper.com/ http://www.iu.com/ Bibliography Alpert. Jacques (1967). J.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.agocg. http://www. K. http://www. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. and Resetarits. He finished his PhD. 31-49 http://www. J..) (1999).fakespace.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.infovis. is available online.ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill.stanford. 14(1). > > http://acg.edu/index.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web.gvu. and Woodill. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. The Semiology of Graphics.pdf Bergmann.editlib. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.ubc.

http://www. K. (1998). Arns. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.ht m O'Regan. No. S.aace. Abbott. 1-34. EDUCAUSE Review.educause. (2004). P. Reading. 185–213 http://www. G.html Ross. Siggraph. K.html Madhavan. http://www.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi.digicult. Robert. May/June.univparis5. K. 4th Edition. September. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. M. pp. pp. Ruth (2003). eLearning Developers’ Journal. L.. C. 41(3)..edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638.K.. (2005). 16(4).org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. J.org/index. http://www. (2005). August 11. http://www. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. Switzerland: University of Lugano.org/dl/index.ac. 46: 461-488.fr/CanJ/CanJ. available online at http://www.psycho. International Journal on E-Learning.asp?id=11222 Metros. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. England: AddisonWesley. B. 42.html Rhyne. http://createdrealities. J. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. and Knezek. and Rusbridge.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.com/articles/abs tracts/index.usilu. and Pagalthivarthi. 2005. Durham. McHugh. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Campus Technology. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. http://www.com/publications.cfm/files/pape r_5994. (1992). Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.pdf Goldfarb.pdf Scaife.pdf Shneiderman. Brian (2002). and Bertoline. Luca (2005). Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. http://itdl. Brent (2006). A. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. NC: Duke University. June 1.amazon. No. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. 45.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. 69-82. and Woolsey. (2001).indiana. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. A. http://www. 17-30. Canadian Journal of Psychology. http://www.com/article.campustechnology. 329-351.com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . (2005). S.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. http://www.. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition. Information Visualization. 4(1). (Section on Visualization). Theresa (1998). MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Vol.slis. Harlow. A. Yvonne (1996). (2005).Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. D.. 3.elearningguild. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark.. http://www. 3(1). Mike and Rogers.org/Journal/jan_06/article02. Luca (2003). January 2005. August. (2006).istituti. G.siggraph.amazon.amazon. Lugano. http://nivea. Donnelly. http://www. M. Dobreva. Educational Media International. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. http://www. Vol.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.agocg. 2. Morales. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.asp Mittal.editlib. Spence.

Edward (1997).amazon. http://www.amazon. David (2005).ciconline. David (2002). Edward (1990). Cheshire. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past.edwardtufte. http://www. Envisioning Information. 2nd Ed.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research .E. http://www. http://www.com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. (2004). M. Cheshire.edwardtufte. 2nd Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Threshold. http://www.amazon. CT: Graphics Press.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley.com/tufte/index Tufte. Sharpe. CT: Graphics Press.edwardtufte. Visualization.org/threshold Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Matt (2002). Information Visualization: perception for design. Colin.com/tufte/index Ware. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. evidence and narrative.com/tufte/index Tufte. Edward (2001). CT: Graphics Press. Digital Information Graphics. From multimedia to multisensory education. http://www. Fall. Computers. Cheshire. http://www. Visual Explanations: images and quantities.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley.

html Do not reproduce 203 .cogs. http://www. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.org Bibliography Cherry. and a microphone. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education.envisioninc. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.ieee. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. http://www. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. http://www.skype. Steven (2005).ac. http://www. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. IEEE Spectrum Online. headphones or speakers. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick. http://www. http://www.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. but it is rapidly improving. March 2005.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. Using VoIP. http://www. communications tools. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. in remote communities.avaya. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. requiring an Internet hookup.elearningcentre. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. Internet telephony is relatively simple. Join the discussion at: http://voip.weblogsinc. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. 1996).spectrum.co. In the near future. Geraldine (2005).susx.jajah. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach.infoworld.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Internet telephony.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05.voipreview. http://www. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.

(2005). Stojanov.ieee. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat.pdf Ottoson. and O’Droma.msu. Language Learning and Technology. Mobile distributed e-learning center. http://www.org/xpl/freeabs_all. M. September. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference.Ganchev. S. Robert (2005).js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://llt. Meredith (1996).edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging . 9-12.. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. http://ieeexplore. 9(3).pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research .nald. I.

and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. and other organizations involved in inspecting. The entire system. http://wearables.learnexact. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. In January 2006.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.uk/1/hi/business/4601 690.edu/design/VuMan.edu/design/Ion.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.ices. including batteries.hubuska.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. http://killer. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. training. especially for comercial airlines.ices. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann.checkpointelearning.co.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. http://news. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. or repairing complex machines. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. http://www. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means.pdf http://www.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. http://www. 1998): 1. It is controllable by the user 5. managing. training to do their jobs.com/Home/Home. For example. including wearable computing. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.bris.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.cmu.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. like a wristband or jewelry. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. Do not reproduce 205 . anytime. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. It is observable by the user 4. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. http://killer. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. Selected Examples In Europe.ac. weighs less than three pounds. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. the automotive industry.sportbrain. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.bbc.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.cmu. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job.cs. ubiquitous computing > http://www. 6.

Toronto: Anchor Books.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.html Garfinkel. What you’ll wear in 10 years. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . (2003).ethz.wired.wearable.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann.” including computers built into underwear. and Niedzviecki.eyetap. 1.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.businessweek.org/icwckeynote. http://www. M. Dec. http://www.ac. VA.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. Technology Review (Online). C.technologyreview. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. http://www. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.pdf Kharif. Fairfax. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.html The design of “smart clothing.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC. and Lupisella. 2005.nasa. especially in the area of wearable cameras.cs. http://isd. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. http://wearcam. See: > > > http://genesis.704 81-0. Wearable computers that you can slip into.org/index_graphical. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).uk/index.jisc.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. http://www. http://www. Olga (2005).http://www.eecg. Evaluating the development of wearable devices.704 81-0. S. ICWC98.ht ml http://www. Steve (1998). http://www.com/news/culture/0. (2004). Simson (2004).gsfc.edu/research/wear ables/index. Business Week Online.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.wired.uoregon. 2004. Wired News. H.edu/ http://wearcam.eee. S.org is a rich source of references.toronto.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.com/news/culture/0. 2006.amazon. Wearable Computing for the Commons.bham.uk/wear-it http://www. Mmoma (2006). M. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.toronto.media. March 8. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. http://www.com/read_arti cle.mit.htm Mann. May 12-13. http://www.org/index.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. March 24.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. http://about.ac. (2002).eecg. and Levene.

podcasts. and laptops.bloglet. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site. Attensa http://www. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. Awasu http://www. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. BlogLines http://www. basic text format for quick review.attensa. Here is a list of 48: 1.com/ 7. Amphetadesk http://www. Bloglet http://www.net/dl. feeds. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. To read content from a Web feed. CompleteRSS http://neosmart. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. and Atom is the second. Aggie http://bitworking.0 format). The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed.brightcove. and electronics. When changes are made to a Web site. Brightcove http://www.com/ 8.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . and course offerings. TV guides. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.awasu. social bookmarking. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators.Web Feeds Related terms Atom. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. with all the potential for viruses and spam.com/ 4. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. photo collections.” as its content is changed by the author. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. blogs. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. job searches. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. > For learners and teachers. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.com/productBlog Express. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).org/Aggie.disobey. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future.bloglines. including cell phones.com/ampheta desk 3. each with its own features. CDs. listings of the latest books. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).com/ 5.com 9.html 6.html 2. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. PDAs.

rsscalendar.2 http://www.learningfeeds.videora.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss. Fuzzy Duck http://www. FeedScout http://bytescout. Feedster http://www. PubSub http://www.ca/edurss02.com/ 29. StepNewz http://www. OnFolio http://www.com 28. RSS Software http://www. RSS2Exchange http://www.org/ 44.com/ 17. FeedForAll http://www.feed-directory.com/feedscout. Project D.U. My RSS Toolbar http://www. Reader http://www.hexamail. Feedroll .com/ 25. Feedtier http://feedtier.shtml 11.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47.rss-to-javascript.fuzzyd. Sage http://sage.10.puremis. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35.com/ 43.newsgator. RSSReader http://www. Newsgator http://www.onfolio.http://www.rssreader.feedreader. RSS Orbit http://www.com/v2 33.html 27.com/ For a list of more aggregators.bytescout.com/myrssto olbar.com/ 21.com/ 34.com/today/ 36.com/ 30.php.rssbandit. Thunderbird http://www.com 32. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .feedpublish. RSS-to-Javascript http://www. NewsIsFree http://www.newsisfree. EaZy RSS reader http://www.feedburner. see: http://www.com/ 22.com/ 42.hebig. Gregarius http://gregarius.com 40.com/ 46.feedroll. feedbeep http://feedbeep. Videora http://www. Protopage http://www.feedforall.com/thunderbir d/ 48.net/ 26.net/ 24.projectdu. Feed-Directory http://www.downes.com/ 15.protopage.somee. Syndirella http://yole.mozdev.pluck. FeedBurner http://www.com/rss/ 39. Pluck http://www.sharpreader.feedster. FeedPublish http://www. including listings for various electronic devices. Edu_RSS 0.uk/rssreader / 23.mozilla. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.topix.com/ 13.h tm 12.feedzilla.pubsub.ht ml 20.blogplanet.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877.com/ 19. LearningFeeds http://www.com/ 16.net/index. Rojo http://www. FeedReader http://www.org/ 37.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.sh tml 41.com 14.com/ 31. To have a blog aggregated.com 18. Topix http://www. RSSCalendar http://www.rojo.net/ 45.rssreader. RSS Bandit http://www.co. SharpReader http://www.

org/2004/jun2 004/downes.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. http://www. a blog by Alan Levine. RSS: the next killer app for education. 2005.downes.dist.downes.teachinghacks.com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.learningcircuits. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal.lo.contentious.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends.ca/files/RSS_Educ. BC. May 19.elearning. Stephen (2002).wcc.pdf Gannett. http://www. Aug. Brian Lamb.1.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.masternewmedia. and Norman.htm D’Sousa. A. 2004. Luigi (2004). http://www. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. The Technology Source Archives.com/news/showS tory. eLearning Developers’ Journal.com/wiki/doku. Aug. Vancouver.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://timyang. 3. University of North Carolina.vccs.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. Lamb. RSS: a learning technology.usatoday.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). 5-8. Robin Good Blog. Mary (2003). Dan (2004). Anh (2005).downes.htm Downes.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. eSchool News. http://www. Learning Circuits.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. 1.mcli.elearningguild. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research.. Brian Lamb. Online paper. RSS could transform online communications. http://www.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L. Bill (2003). http://www.htm David. USA Today (online).htm Harrsch. http://careo. http://www.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. (2003). D. http://www.eschoolnews.maricopa.maricopa.mcli.learningcircuits. Learning Circuits.ubc. B. http://www.redjupiter.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. http://www. Quentin (2006). and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. Aug. http://www.pdf Canali De Rossi. Oct. http://www. 31. July/August 2003.ca/files/RSS_Educ.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. Online paper.ca/edu_rss. RSS Ideas for Educators.teachinghacks.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. http://www. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. Eva (2004). Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.dist.htm Levine. Do not reproduce 209 .php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon.php 2003. http://technologysource.ca/cgibin/wiki. Version 1. Read his article written specifically for educators. May 2004. Stephen (2004). and D’Arcy Norman.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. 2004. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . June 2004. http://www. 2003.Possible Future Evolution. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. maintains a long list of RSS resources.

Namespaced extensions in feeds. T. 2005.infoworld. 2005. M.html Samuel.Levine.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. http://www.pdf Parparita. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.html Powers. InfoWorld. and Webb.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford.alexandrasamuel. Using RSS for data integration.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Google Reader Blog.mediathink. Aug. March 23. 13. 2006. Jon (2005). http://www.html MediaThink (2004). July 7. RSS: the next big thing online. Alexandra (2005). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Mihai (2006).com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. http://googlereader. http://www.oreillynet. http://www. Shelly (2005). 2006. MediaThink White Paper. Jenny (2005).blogspot.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. 3. http://www.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. Sept.oreilly. (2006).html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. 2005. The Shifted Librarian. http://www.html?page=1 Udell.theshiftedlibrarian.xml. Otherwise Engaged. O’Reilly Network. June 18.

Content is ego-less.gilbane. http://wikipedia. For wikis to work. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything.10. 2005). 2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. Anyone can add to it.usemod. it is important to have several contributors. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.org/index.org/tiki-index.com/artpdf/GR12. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. http://www.com/cgibin/mb.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. Do not reproduce 211 .tikiwiki. My first report in this series. There are now over 1. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. is available for other applications.seedwiki. and projects.usemod. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format.000 articles in English in Wikipedia. 4. custom permissions.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.net/features. http://www. See the progress at: http://edu.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. http://www. http://www. the software used to run Wikipedia. With some basic instructions. http://www.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. http://www. approaches. RSS. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. time-less. http://www. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. and email notification. and never finished.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. an image gallery.” Essentially. can be used by a team for joint writing. features. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.wikipedia. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group. 3.sourcewatch. it is a platform for open collaborative software development. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.sourceforge.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki.com/cgibin/wiki. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.schtuff.300.

html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. http://aronsson. Australia.” http://tlc. N.infoworld.html Augar.elearning. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.jot. His article.” http://writingwiki.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.fasfind. http://radio.71. Operation of a Large Scale. is provided by David Mattison.ascilite. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. http://64.Weblogs. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis. http://m. Swiki.48. http://flosse. Perth. Raitman. W. http://www.pbwiki. http://careo. http://weblog. that she updates regularly.html Ciffolilli.com/ Jon Udell. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.co.org has lots of resources on wikis. http://kairosnews.wikibooks. Dec. Phantom authority.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.nu’s first nine months in service.ucalgary.html Bibliography Aronsson. First Monday. L. 5-8. Andrea (2003). Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. including wikis. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. http://www. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. “Quickiwiki. R.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. http://whiplash. Twiki.” is a rich source of information on wikis.learningwiki.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16. http://www. http://www. http://www.. including a section on wiki tools.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. (2002). and Zhou.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis. http://www. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. Dec.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.socialtext.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.infotoday.ubc. A free trial is available. 8(12). as well as an analysis of how they work. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis. of the University of British Columbia. Teaching and learning online with wikis.com/wwwtools/m/25242.different.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.com/ WritingWiki.dicole.ikiw.org.se/wikipaper.elearningcentre.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. http://en. (2004).shtml Brian Lamb.

Richard (2003). Issue 42. Bo & Cunnin.com/artpdf/GR12.pdf Fountain. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. http://www. David (2003). Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.4149.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach. Cossarin.com/article2/0. Wiki Tools.zkm. Wiki pedagogy. David (2004). Renée (2005). July 7. http://www. UniversityWiki. InfoWorld.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. Brian (2004). 7 Things you should know about…Wikis... http://www.infoworld.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb. (2004). Online article at PCMag.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. Why Wikis Work Not.pcmag. Online paper. http://www. Making the case for a wiki. http://www.uk/issue42/ Udell.org/content/v5.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.1/technot e_xxvii. Online article at: http://www.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. http://c2. http://gilbane. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. April 2004.ariadne. 2005. Clark. January.shtml Rubenking. Neil (2003).10. M.educause. http://www.educause. 19. http://www. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www.pdf Leuf. (2001). Educause Review.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . April 2003. The wiki way. (2006). W.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. http://Weblog. Quickiwiki.usemod.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. and Rudolph. International Journal of Information Ethics. 2. Lauren (2005). O’Reilly Network. July. 12(10). Ariadne.irrodl. 36-48. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.14 02872. J.com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. T. Jon (2004). The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.http://firstmonday. M.oreillynet. Oct. 2004. Online article. http://www.html Tomkin.. Nov. and Webb.00. Emma (2005).org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer.com/cgibin/mb.Oct.html Stafford.amazon.com/udell/2004/1 0/19.pdf Kulisz. S.profetic.ac.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.infotoday. Online article. Searcher.asp Schmitt. Sept. http://container. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Swiki.. Zwiki and the Plone Wars . Anja (2004). 2006.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison. Twiki. L.com.html Wood.

Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. floppy disks. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. CD-ROMS. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. which can then lead to inventions. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. which. in turn. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . After a product has been successfully launched. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. However. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer.

it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. 2003). There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. Ontologies. video games. The experience of younger learners with television. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. But not all technologies will travel this road. or may never become commercially viable. while others will last for decades. However. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. both in classrooms and online. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. this approach is now rapidly changing. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. Further. Some will die quickly. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. and computers. peak. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. to the complex. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . mature. change itself seems to be inevitable. in part.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. in both formal and informal settings. and decline. This is due. The technology of e-learning. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. ascend the curve. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. In any field. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. some will never leave the development stage. means that they actually think differently. For a variety of reasons.

the civil rights movement. 2002. generally went to work earlier. Because of this. commercials. Their children. The children of the baby boomers. mind-altering drugs. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. To keep our attention. or violence is needed to keep our attention. and digital ink and electronic paper. Then even more movement. born in the 1970s. we will see the restructuring of education and training.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. terrorism.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. huge data wall displays. the computer. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . sex. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. For the older generation. In North America. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. But they are usually disap-pointed. movie theaters. 1994). For example. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. 28). and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. ecological disasters. the baby boomers. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. In approaching electronic educational media. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. touch and taste.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. video games. the space race. gaming consoles. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Once we master the art of reading. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. whereby the action of one participant. the learner. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. until we become habituated. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. p. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. television. The speed of change increases with each passing year. wearable computers. in a back-and-forth exchange. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. digitization of smell. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. mobile phones. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. results in an action by the other participant. Generally. With feedback. libraries. surprise. However. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. global warming. designers of Sesame Street. Within the next five years. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. that is all about to change. It works for a time. and personal digital assistants. In contrast.

the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Clayton (1997). creative products.amazon. At the individual level. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Rushkoff. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. Likewise. Gary (2006). In the next wave. Marc.amazon. portfolios.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. http://www. Digital Game-based Learning. Dallas. http://www. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. May 2006. http://www. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. and the mapping of everything. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Texas. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. http://www.operitel.com Bibliography Christensen.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. FutureHype: the myths of technology change.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Two hundred years ago. Guides are optional. http://www. Douglas (2005). Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. (2001). Bob (2006). shortly.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. New York: McGraw-Hill. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. technologies and services for the next 5 years.amazon. It is already a place for massively multiple player games.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. New York: Collins.amazon. http://www.amazon. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. James (1994). the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths.

O. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. L69 7ZF. 27A 2º esq.51. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .ailive. Marc Schröder. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. 2910-595 Setúbal . Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Box 513.myself-proj.umu. 3400 Hillview Avenue.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory.uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.mit. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.unige.informatik. UK http://www. 1515 Broadway.cs. Building 5.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. Palo Alto.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .bartneck.bham. D.media.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. CA 94304 USA http://www. Den Dolech 2 P.nngroup.org/ AiLive Inc.edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.webist. Manuel I. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. New York.com/ WEBIST Av.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken.auburn.net/ Auburn University Auburn.se/~muse/hom e.Portugal Tel. 17th Floor. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect.agentlink. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.de/link/affective_port al.ac.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.

extempo.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. Box 2124 Menlo Park.codebaby.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.O. Huntsville. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www. W Toronto.edu Extempo Systems. Inc.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. Inc. N.com/ Apple Computer. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. Box 527.org.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Secretariat.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.apple. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.au/index. Box 5200.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. L69 7ZF. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes.adobe.csc. Edmonton.animationfactory.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.rit.com Ascension Technology Corporation P.com Alchemy Mindworks P.informatics.animats. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.ascilite.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp.ac. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents.liv.redwoodelearning.mindworkshop. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. Bloomington.educause. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www.ascension-tech.isi.W. 1900 East Tenth St. Burlington.O.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. O. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.computer. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www. Washington.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.indiana. Suite 206 Boulder. #1910. P.

viewpoint. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www.com/index.massivesoftware. Inc.swishzone.org Cognitive Science Society Department of Psychology. TN 38152 USA http://www.cs. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA http://www. San Antonio. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.cognitivesciencesociety.org AutoTutor c/o Dr. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www.A.818.com/ Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www.6450 http://www.newtek.com/ NewTek. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.html Ulead Systems 970 W.pact. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Suite 108-414 San Antonio.edu 220 © Brandon Hall Research . University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Austin. Wellington.avid.460. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.com Pty Ltd The Basement.com/ Avid Technology.org/ SWiSHzone.San Rafael.org Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.ucsb. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. One Park West Tewksbury.cmu. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.htm Macromedia. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.autotutor.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. 190th Street. Inc. Avid Technology Park.aaai. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.com Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.com/pub/index.S.eitechnologygroup. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .com/home.edu/~hegarty/hegar tylab. Suite 100 Menlo Park. PO Box 24478. Tel: +1. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.catoolkit. Inc.aclweb. Santa Barbara. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 North.siggraph.autodesk. 110 Cuba Mall. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.org/home.com/ Character Animation Technologies Ltd.psych. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www.asp EI Technology Group.php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York.com/ SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley. Suite #480 Torrance.macromedia.

edu.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.eden-online. 1. Chantilly.ke-corp.edu Quantum Simulations.teluq.brainbench. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.W.com/index. West Montreal. H-1111 Budapest.wpi.uquebec. Alberta. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.iit. Calgary.com Do not reproduce 221 . CA .cis.virtuelage.enel. Egry J.W.usyd. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. Suite K. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.cmu. Inc. 100 Sherbrooke St.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.ucalgary. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.org/eden. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.cs. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.licef. Suite 360 San Mateo.it.gemini.ca/eng/inde x. Suite 1500 Montreal. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. u.10th Street S. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. Calgary.cs.edu. East Adelphi.umuc. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.cs.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.stottlerhenke.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.unisa.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www.

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seminar.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.5709 http://www. SC.suddenlysmart. Inc. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.hunterstone.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. 4. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.com/products/study mate. Gandy Blvd.qarbon. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.co. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research . Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. Suite 1550 San Jose. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.com DA Group The Lighthouse. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www. Inc.83 01 616 http://www..de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start. 76133 Karlsruhe.syberworks.respondus.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.xplana.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. CA 92101 USA http://www. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. +49(0)721. 55 South Market St.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G.thinkingcap. 250 The Esplanade Toronto. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.com Trainersoft FunEducation. Germany Tel. 10004-104 Avenue. Suite 200 Tampa.funeducation.4259 Fax: (760) 635. Edmonton.percepsys.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.sensalearning.codebaby. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.time4you. 323 Newbury Street Boston. #1910.com/coursegen.turbodemo.toolbook.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. Redmond.. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Ste 202 Encinitas.maxit.

com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Suite 900 Austin. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. 11th Floor New York.knowledgeenvironments.O. Ste. 6th Flr. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Mumbai 10. CA 94608 USA http://www.co. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.oddcast.uk/chatbots.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.co. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. B13 9SG.telsim.active-learning-site. Dale Mabry Hwy.. 219 Tampa. Birmingham.. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.qelix..html Knowledge Environments.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N.com WaveMarket. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.flock. Mazgaon.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. P.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . USA http://www.mozilla.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. INDIA. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www. Inc.vcom3d.redwoodelearning.tmmy.wavemarket. W Toronto. Inc. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.omnigroup.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Nesbit Rd. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.opera.cramersweeney. Moseley. Suite 260 Orlando.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.blogburst. Inc.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife.com GTCO CalComp. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www.com Moorestown.O. Inc.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www.com/v2/index.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.daden. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. Mary Apts.

bluetie. #205 Pasadena. Suite 522.backpackit.944. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www.edu Batipi 11 St. 1192 East Draper Parkway. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.telnetz. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.aspx Qwizdom.batipi. 6th Floor New York.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research .qwizdom. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. Amherst. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Suite# 401. Inc. Jospeh Street.caucus. 100 North Lake Avenue. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www.com 404 Fifth Avenue. Inc. Inc.Columbia.0162 http://www.optiontechnologies.smartroom.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Pleasant St. Draper. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www. Inc. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Inc. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.inteam. Suite 101E Falls Church.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.gtcocalcomp. 12617 Meridian E.pearsoned.bantu.com Brightidea.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Pittsford.saba. Ontario. SW. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta.brevient. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.brightidea. Suite 103 Toronto.physics.com Breeze c/o Macromedia.com Smartroom Learning Solutions.com Centra c/o Saba. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive. Somerset. NJ .com.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.avecomm. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr.umass.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Orlando. Puyallup.com BlueTie.adobe.

57th Street Gainesville. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.. Suite 630 McLean.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr.com Cisco Systems.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. Suite 305 Lawrenceville.courseforum.emc.com Engineering.W. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software. San Jose. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. Suite 600 Ottawa.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www.com LLP PO Box 325. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Ontario. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. 232 http://www. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.convenos.com eStudio c/o Same-Page. 1034 N.collaborationloop.engineering. Inc. Lauderdale. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www. Inc. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.communiqueconferencing.communityzero.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.edufolio. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. Suite 950 Portland. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.citrix.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.digite. 82 Pioneer Way. Inc.cisco.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta.epam-pmc.com Digi-Net Technologies. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . LLC 501 West Franklin Street.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. 795 Folsom Street. Sanibel FL.centraldesktop.digi-net. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.html Citrix Systems.elluminate.same-page. 6th Floor San Francisco.comotivsystems.com Digité. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. 170 West Tasman Dr.

Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.glance.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.genesys. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Clevedon. Suite 500 Markham. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. ON. Ste. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.forumone. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.globalschoolnet. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www. Inc.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.facilitate.hp. El Camino Real.gotomeeting.com Groupwise c/o Novell. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.com B.groupsupport. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.net Global School Net 132 N. Suite 2300 New York. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www.com c/o Citrix Systems. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.exactamerica.grapevinesoftware.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. Inc. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.V.hyperoffice.novell. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.com GoToMeeting.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.hotcomm.net GroupSupport. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.com Glance Networks.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco.groove.horizonwimba.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .gordano.ezmeeting.flypaper.4517 http://www. 395 Encinitas.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. #115 Rockville.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education. Inc.net Groove Networks.

. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls.inquesttechnologies.interwoven. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www.com Interwise.intralinks. Suite 100 Tucson. 3 Wing Drive.microsoft.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 6500 Woburn.iceweb.http://www03.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. 11th floor New York.jdhtech.onproject.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Sunnyvale. 25 First Street.ibm.com Do not reproduce 233 . Suite 1401 Denver. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.ivocalize.near-time.meetingone. Fordham Blvd. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. Inc.interwise.liveoffice.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com/uc/livemeeting/ default. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.netspoke.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.com Near-Time. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. Inc.mspx LiveOffice.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. Suite #150 Herndon. 1289 N. 44th St.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.mayeticvillage.org/tools. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.com onProject. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive.linktivity. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.ilinc. Inc. Suite 412 Cambridge. Phoenix.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.mitre. Suite 300 Torrance. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.

1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.cyber-grad.com/collabsuite/index.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www.radvision.performancesolutionstech. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Suite 440 San Jose. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.ht ml Parlano 10 S.microsoft.O.parlano.oracle.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. Cactus Rd.com Raindance Communications.peoplecube.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.sharemethods. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Inc. Riverside Plaza. Suite 1450 Chicago.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. 17-17 State Highway 208. 3679 Concord Road.com Selden Integrated Systems.com SpiderWeb Communications.sitescape.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157.nagarro.raindance.Adyar Chennai. Inc. Suite 445 Scottsdale. P.q2learning.photoninfotech. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.seldensystems. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. Box 3325 York. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. Suite B.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.com Photon Infotech Inc. Harbor.opmcreator.projectdox. Suite 210 Maynard. Inc. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. 35.com RADVISION Inc.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. New No.opentext. Suite 200 Greeley. 51. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . 1175 58th Avenue.project-open. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.

webcrossing.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www.viack. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.vodium. P.wave3software.stalker.O.webasyst. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. Suite 950 Washington.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www.com Web Crossing.com Do not reproduce 235 . Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331..trichys.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.axista. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Suite 100 Scottsdale.backpackit.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.com Teamware P.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite 100 Austin.webofficepoint. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver. Canada http://www.O.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.net WebEx Communications.teamspace.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www.teamware.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.tacit. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.webex.sumtotalsystems.com/content/default. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. Kierland Blvd. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.com/groupware/in dex. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.tomoye. Inc. Suite 810 Toronto.Box 2900 Alameda.vignette.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East.usabilityfirst.txl Viack 14811 N.teamdynamix.webtrain. Inc.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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Suite 2200 Chicago.maxit. 550 Queen St.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. Glebe Road. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.oracle. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.ca Do not reproduce 241 . West.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.plateau. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.ssaglobal. Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.sselearn. Suite 700 Arlington. LTD 671 N. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www. 100 Foxborough Blvd.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions.saba. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Louis. Chantilly.oracle. Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. 500 West Madison.sap.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.syntrio.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.outstart.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. Suite 260 Foxborough. Suite 1280 San Francisco. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd.teralearn. East .teds. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.isnewmedia. Fifth Floor Montreal.com. St.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn.wizdom.mgen. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.Suite 350 Toronto.com mGen Enterprise mGen.technomedia. Inc. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500.com TEDS Inc.meridianksi.

risc-inc.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. Victoria. Suite 401A Lake Jackson. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Ontario.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.avilar.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Inc.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. Box 9752 Boulder.sir.sumtotalsystems. 17041 El Camino Real. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View.gyrus.wbtsystems. 122 West Way. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.ttg-inc.com Tracker. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. NY.O. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 2280 St.info/index. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www.fldata.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www. 4 Expressway Plaza.vuepoint.uwm.com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Inc.edutools. Laurent Blvd.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.xtention. Inc. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.trainingpartner. 4th Floor Oakland.Total LMS c/o SumTotal. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research .com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.cdlib.. Suite 101 Houston. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.vbtrain. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. 240 Bay Street. Inc.arizona. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Suite # 105 Columbia. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc. Suite 200 Ottawa.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee.edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .xstreamsoftware. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www.

Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.eoscenter. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.lrc3. Stevenage. Suite 1600 Tucson.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. AZ 85250 USA http://www.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. Norton Road.thegateway.O.edu. 5151 East Broadway. SG1 2JY. Box 3000 Boulder.dist.4464 Markham Street Victoria.clarklabs.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. Sterling Court.edu/DesktopDefault.rice.plos.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co.com Do not reproduce 243 .org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd.lornet.ca ENC Learning Inc.goenc. Suite 3100 San Francisco.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown. Box 1892.geocomm.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. P.merlot.maricopa. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.unsw. Rice University. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www.cadcorp.cf m ESRI Suite 300. Houston.esri. CT 06459 USA http://www. ETRAC.org/eng/scientifiques.lolaexchange.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.O. AZ.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Fondren Library.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.llearn. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.mcli.netera.com/gis4mt/index. MS 44. Hertfordshire.

NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.intergraph. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.ac.org/ Spotlight Mobile. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Inc.com Metadata.imsglobal. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.uk/handler/defaul t. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .cancore. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.mobilearn.edu. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.cetis. Suite 100 Framingham.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www.O. PMB #112 Lake Mary.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. of Geography.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. Austria http://www. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.stockholmchallenge.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.asp?path= 500. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.berkeley.org/aitopics/html/natlang.fi/english/page. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Dept.eee.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center.ac.knowledgepulse. Inc. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen. Suite 501 Portland.edu PanGo Networks. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www.aaai.smm.mapinfo. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. html ELSNET Trans 10. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.com MOBILearn c/o Dr. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.O. Box 240000 Huntsville.bham. P.pangonetworks. 959 Concord Street.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www.5372. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.

Italy http://tcc.it Victoria.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.stockholmchallenge. Whisman Road Mountain View. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. Inc.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www.org/site/pp.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.elena-project.ldc.com Groove Networks. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www. PA.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.itc.ac.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. 1st Floor A . NY. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Oleg Liber University of Bolton.lexxe.cetis. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. 19104-2653. Inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.seti. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.upenn.sun. 10010 USA http://www.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.Project Coordinator CSI . Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Suite 300.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.overnet.edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive.groove.net internet2.lockss.advancedreality. Deane Rd.llearn. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.asianart.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.movedigital. Inc.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.elsnet.com MoveDigital.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc.internet2.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 .org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.

2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. 3333 http://www.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.com Portals CyberU.microsoft.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.saba. NE Calgary. Inc.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.virtualmuseum. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. New York 10973 USA http://www.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.genesys. Alberta.apreso. Inc. Eisenhower Parkway P.worldwidelearn. Minneapolis.6526 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.ca Slate Hill. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262.com 50 S. 15-4-A Gatineau.17th Avenue SW Calgary.com Teachnology. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.333.O. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .elearningeuropa. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Alberta. Box 172 1039 .rmv.com ProQuest 789 E.executrain. 3016 5th Ave. Suite 600 Alpharetta. Suite 225 Santa Monica.lsc.com World Wide Learn Suite 100. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona.elluminate.com/presentatio ns/index. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.cyberu.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.com Presentations. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.proquest. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.trainingregistry. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.macromedia.org Macromedia.mit.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.saba.presentations. Ninth St. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus.teach-nology.elementk.

com/halo/index.html Norman. Pasadena. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.botball.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.euron. O. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. D. Lindsey Bldg.ed. SWEDEN. CA 94040.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. Ste. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www. Radstock Somerset. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. Inc.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.osaka-u. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.articulate.com Raptivity P. Union St.. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www.eng. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.org Euron c/o Prof.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Centre for Autonmous Systems.ife.generalrobotics.ams. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.active-robots.whmsi.ac.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. 130 W. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.scate.com ReadyGo Inc. Michigan.evolution. Inc. Suite B Orion.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood.org Evolution Robotics.cmu.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.nasa.ri.rec. Box 2827.gov.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.atr.aad.raptivity.edu Woods Hole Marine Systems.irc. Redmond. Henrik I Christensen. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.readygo. Chilcompton.hp.

DC 20013-1133 http://www.gigablast. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www.kartoo.alexa.healthfinder.com Ask.info.ac.net Koders Inc.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. Suite 500 Oakland.O. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.intute. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www.gnod. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.ixquick.com Google (including Froogle.com Info. 42nd Floor New York. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace. Box 29141 San Francisco.icerocket.convera.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Box 1133 Washington. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.com Gada.findlaw.about. Google. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research . NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.excite.com Gnod. Suite 60 Quebec. Chicago.com excite. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.6100 http://www.copernic.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.koders. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.google.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www.net/ Healthfinder P.O.Search Engines About. Inc. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.dogpile.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.ask.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800.

Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.http://www. 7th floor.. Mary Apts..convera.org/citation.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.cfm?doid=10 56808. Mumbai 10. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. Suite 1200 Bellevue. New York. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.seekport. 601 108th Avenue NE. Inc.searchking. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.almaden. 64 Fulton Street. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 6th Flr. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. Suite 207 San Francisco. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. 360 22nd Street.lexxe.com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.netscape. Ltd. 17th Floor New York.1057022 LookSmart.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.pandora. 23rd Floor San Francisco. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. Inc.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. Inc.truveo.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. 2400 N.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal.82152 Martinsried http://www.edu/ PubSub Concepts. Inc.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.nyu. Nesbit Rd.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.acm.technorati.com Pandora Media.rawsugar.msn.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 . One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.com/v2/index.pubsub. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.looksmart.ibm. 23rd Oklahoma City.metacrawler.com LitLinker c/o ACM.W.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Seventh Floor New York.com/ Netscape AOL LLC.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace.qelix. NY 10003.krugle.lalisio. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.mooter.W.biz Truveo. Suite 211 Palo Alto . Mazgaon. INDIA. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com SearchKing.cs. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.

Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. 1st Floor A .net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.macromedia. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.columbia.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research .ee.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .alphaworks. Inc. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.htm Yahoo! Inc. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.stt-global.com Zoom Information Inc. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www.tkk.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .seco. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. Inc.com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg.personal-reader.zoominfo.com Assima Ltd. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. EC4M 7NG London. Box 1558 New Canaan.elena-project.knowledgequest.experiencebuilders.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road. 10 Old Bailey.macromedia. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.yahoo.forio. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.intermezzon.assima.biographix. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. GreenPark Reading. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.atghome. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com Flash c/o Macromedia. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Ontario.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.New York. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg.ibm.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.O. Yahoo http://www.Project Coordinator CSI .

learning2005.com Stagecast Software. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. 55 South Market St.bham.virtualcontrolroom.com/English/t 6essai. Suite 200 Ottawa. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.outstart. B15 2TT.com NexLearn.assima.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road. LLC 100 South Main Street.knowledge-director. Laurent Blvd. Ontario.com Softsim Outstart Studio.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Suite 1550 San Jose. Suite 300 Wichita.. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Suite 240 Atlanta. Newburyport. Light & Acoustics.stagecast.com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville.com MASIE Center.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Suite 400.eduperformance. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.net Do not reproduce 251 .stottlerhenke. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www..nexlearn. CA . Suite A-207 Brossard.qarbon.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc.ac. Inc.knowledgepresenter. Schaumburg. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.stt-global. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. Taschereau Ouest. England http://www.xstreamsoftware.maxit.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Québec.com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www. 1821 Walden Office Square. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.knowledgeplanet. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.noaa.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. Inc.teds.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.cs.fsl. 2280 St. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.muzzylane. Inc. Suite 360 San Mateo. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.

CA..com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. Inc.shadows. Box 920089 Needham. Inc.iu.networkltd. Inc. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. Morton Street.friendster. CA 94105 USA http://www. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful.com Spurl ehf. Suite 224 Bloomington. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .analytictech. 2001 Lind Ave.zvents. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.com Friendster. 795 Folsom St. Inc.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd. Suite 900 Austin. CA 94089 USA http://del. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.rojo.spurl.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge.edu/index. 568 Howard Street San Francisco..com FURL c/o LookSmart. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. SW. WA 98055 USA http://www.com/ mag.eu Rojo Networks.checkpointsystems.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.icio. 625 Second Street San Francisco..com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.icio.classmates. Menlo Park. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.tagzania.com Social Bookmarking del. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.O. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.us Eventful c/o EVDB. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. Suite 125 San Diego.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma. Ltd. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems. Inc.com Classmates Online. Thorofare. Suite 500 Renton.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.gnolia. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.us c/o Yahoo! Inc.netscape.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. 655 High Street Palo Alto.furl. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 101 Wolf Drive. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.

4th Floor Marshalltown. Suite 1001 Los Angeles.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.navy.com Brightcove.ergonetz. Box 1641 Denver.hp.com Jabber Software Foundation P.1011 CM Amsterdam.spider. Church Street.sociosite.org Fakespace 11 E.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.com iTunes Apple Computer.brightcove. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Inc.apple.O.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.org. Box 1641 Denver. Suite 900 San Francisco. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. CA 92121 USA http://www. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.O.com/halo/index.com Do not reproduce 253 .Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.activeworlds. Cupertino. Inc. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. 7220 Trade Street. 95 Parker Street Newburyport. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.fakespace.futurelab.xstreamengine.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .veoh. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .hpc. CA 94105 USA http://www. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.bittorrent.org Veoh Networks.net Sparta Social Networks. VA 23461-1924 https://www.jabber.percro. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .advanced. Inc 1 Infinite Loop.html Jabber Software Foundation P. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www. Suite 115 San Diego. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.percro. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.dfilm. CA 90028 USA http://www. New York. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville.spartasocialnetworks. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.jabber.

UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . Suite 110 Troy. Suite 3 Brooklyn.epfl. Cambridge.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.bham.intuition-eunetwork. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.cs. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www. Troy.esri.informationinplace.golden. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Columbus. Golden. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.com FeedTank 590 Grand St. Suite 280 Downers Grove.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Tracy.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.. Danvers.V. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.ecu.idashboards.vista. Suite 206 Bloomington.daz3d.feedtank.com Intuition 9.corda. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Inc. 1333 Butterfield Rd.accurender.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway.intergraph.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. 809 14th Street.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.edu/vrel.501 North Morton Street.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions. Suite 100 Lindon. 350 South 400 West. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.umd.com/ Intergraph Corporation P. Inc. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.O.com/ MapInfo One Global View.ambientdevices. Williams Building College Park.com Golden Software.xcelsius. Box 884. Box 240000 Huntsville.ac.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.mapinfo.advizorsolutions. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Draper. Inc.formz.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.coe. IC ISIM VRLAB. Suite 317 San Diego.O.com ESRI Suite 300. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www.

nlm.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. Suite 3A New York. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.musanim. Unit # 1 Mississauga.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.inxight. Inc. MA 01863 USA http://www. Inc. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Inc. NY 10012 USA http://www.vicodi.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.pixologic. ETZ H Electronics Lab.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.com Unified Field. 20010 Fisher Avenue.microsoft.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP. Suite 102 Mountain View.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.sportbrain.unifiedfield.softill.nih. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 869 97th Ave N.visualthesaurus. Ltd.net Pixologic. California.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc.visualanalytics.jajah.S. Inc. Riga.okino.com Spotfire. U. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. FL 34108 USA http://www.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.topozone. Unit A2 Naples.ontopia. 73 Princeton Street. Inc. 212 Elm Street Somerville.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. 9th floor New York. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .vrvis. 3 East 28th St. 2nd Floor Poolesville. A-1220 Vienna. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. 155 Spring Street. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. CA 94712 USA http://www.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.skype. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Donau-City-Strasse 1. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 2513 Charleston Road. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Ontario L4V 1T8.mccrackendesign.com JAJAH Inc.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software.spotfire.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. 94043 USA http://www.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.

CA 95008 USA http://www. San Francisco. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.com FeedForAll PO Box 296. South #358 St.1001 W.mozilla. Nederland Tel: +31. Valdeku 100. 11211. Inc. Pacific Business Centre #101 .com Rojo Networks.. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.bloglines. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. Tallinn.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Hanover. Estonia http://www.onfolio. Inc.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. Suite 381 Vancouver. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www.715135858 http://www.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Coldbrook Business Corp.jot. 795 Folsom St.wearable..brightcove. P. Inc.feedzilla. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .feedster. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Seventh Floor New York. Building K Mountain View.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.com Feedster. 3rd Floor Cambridge.feedburner. Suite 100 Campbell. 167 Hamilton Ave.V.com Brightcove.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.feedforall.microsoft.pluck.pubsub.ch Web Feeds Attensa. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 200 2nd Ave. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www. First Floor. Inc.rojo.rssreader. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Suite 2260 Portland.ethz.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.feedreader. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. Suite 605 San Francisco.org JotSpot. Inc.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. 116 New Montgomery Street. 64 Fulton Street.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. 111 SW Fifth Avenue.com PubSub Concepts. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Suite 900 Austin. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.attensa. Inc. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.. Broadway. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. Switzerland http://www. Petersburg.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext.com Do not reproduce 257 .

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

23. 23. 46. 46. 129. 21. 93. 85 Blogs. 231. 93. 193. 26. 160. 93. 48. 127. 27. 128. 191. 43. 18. 180. 123. 119. 24. 47. 219. 6. 190. 21. 33. 12. 25. 146. 74. 69. 190. 20. 144. 165. 39. 137. 66. 211. 90 Assessment. 27. 17. 127 Cooperation. 70. 71. 127. 18. educational. 159. 41. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 28. 169. 53 barcodes. 158. 90. 72. 85. 100. 46. 70. 70. 48. 112. 74. 171. 55. 180. 65. 50. 23. 212 Boolean searches. 199 Architectures. 74. 4. 29. 177. 121. 91. 122. 203. 15. 114. 199. 148. 113. 18. 42. 146. 205 Animation. 196. 63. 65. 95. 78. 16. 174. 7. 211. 93. 65. 57. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 8. 4. 39. 88 cybercartography. 203. 100. 184. 50. 50. 172 Audio. 13. 170. 196 cognitive maps. 4. 159. 85. 93. 66. 110. 226 Authorware. 169. 77. 54. 69. 16. 89. 191. 193. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 29. 156. 83. 35 Content management. 121. 139. 16. 21. 159. 117. 203. 81. 60 Clickers. 23. 139 assessment. 69. 46. 171. 201 Adaptive systems. 170. 81. 50. 56. 162. 83. 191. 145. 128. 44. 15. 43. 45. 138. 80. 64. 165. 25. 70. 196. 94. 11. 49 AJAX. 72. 23. 74. 145 Conversational learning. 194. 59. 84 Adobe. 5. 74. 52. 207. 176 Cell phones. 40. 2. 15. 97. 69. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 122. 189. 208. 135. 196 Dashboards. 22. 50. 127. 82. 58. 194. 31. 141. 63. 35. 36. 21. 48. 24. 193. 177. 48. 28. 63. 140. 49. 30. 112. 127. 132. 112. 125. 66. 67. 84. 176. 35. 160. 203. 193. 103. 75. 197.Index 3-D graphics. 170. 15. 24. 165. 101. 21. 122 Ambient computing. 170. 184. 161. 80. 145. 67. 215 Communities of practice. 196. 196 collaboration. 36. 128. 177. 45. 211. 216 Affective computing. 69. 42. 47. 196. 118. 122. 195 Authoring tools. 145. 22. 51. 74. 80. 86. 209. 146. 64. 28. 91. 27. 67. 66. 136. 89. 207 Classroom response systems. 44. 79 Complexity theory. 50. 178. 149. 110. 209. 27. 66. 179. 109. 68. 198. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 37. 137. 153. 27. 189. 46. 140. 36. 91. 174 Bayesian probability. 197. 100. 26. 127. 125. 180. 218 Agents. 67. 65. 201 cognitive collage. 171. 46. 192 Browsers. 116. 137. 20. 180 Competency Tracking. 47. 59. 109. 211 Communications Tools. 26. 52. 150. 170. 198 Data mining. 200. 34. 217 Collaboration. 109. 149. 84. 196. 65. 35. 216 Computer based assessment. 190. 85. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 47. 5. 181. 45 Avatars. 181. 72. 116. 62. 160. 193. 35. 176. 130. 101. 209. 57. 211 Broadband. 60 Cognition. 97. 63. 194. 59. 209 Augmented reality. 189. 29. 223. 24. 52. 165 Air display. 94. 78. 39. 45. 174. 18. 180. 57. 71.

158 Design. 26 Emotional design. 127. 9. 11. 152. 33. 204 Dreamweaver. 11. 169. 11. 27. 103. 90 Experiential learning. 3. 97. 108. 94. 193. 158 Informatics. 120. 225. 119. 26. 37. 29. 80. 197. 179. 120. 127. 33. 134. 158. 176. 97. 217 Instant messaging. 114. 201 FrontPage. 86 Deep Web. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 215 Informal learning. 63. 216 Director. 28. 132. 8. 149. 160. 80. 158. 109. 152. 66. 121. 219 Infrared tags. 18. 196. 178. 59. 16. 183. 98 GIF graphic format. 25. 196 e-Commerce. 250 Folksonomies. 25. 47. 55. 15. 165 Handwriting recognition. 4. 205. 13. 196. 146. 196 Graphics. 67. 93. 162. 16. 35 Frameworks. 201. 131. 134. 15. 154. 217 images. 94. 88. 119 FireFox. 70. 123. 170. 6. 200. 101. 45. 189. 199. 125. 83. 169 Expert systems. 106. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 4. 20. 216 Distributed systems. 9. 88. 35. 202. 162. 193. 174. 106. 215. 153. 65. 75. 24. 30. 30. 197. 106. 203. 103. 23. 149. 121. 155. 199. 196 Immersive environments. 170. 152. 194. 186. 20. 69. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 197. 104. 170 Federated searches. 100. 116. 84. 172. 48. 162 History. e-learning. 60. 163. 205 Hybrid systems. 141. 5. 169. 16. 63. 91. 193. 12. 151. 198. 180. 159. 134. 125. 17. 95. 106 Healthcare applications. 5. 199 Gesture recogntion. 109. 32. 166. 45. 71. 123 Hype in e-learning. 214 Human-centered computing. 7. 103. 248 graphics. 24 e-Portfolios. 3. 13. 187. 47. 90. 178. 51. 156. 175. 100. 9. 22. 5. 119. 164. 68. 180. 89. 120. 86. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 70. 210 formative assessment. 122. 114. 161. 176. 166. 215. 139. 25. 200. 57. 119. 66. 48. 23. 11. 110. 196. 137. 4. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 9. 49. 89. 85 Extreme learning. 19. 88. 173. 93. 37. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 27.Decision support systems. 88. 45 dynamic displays. 57 Flash. 26. 191 Games. 162. 25. 20. 216. 74. 106 Haptics. 190. 26. 201 Grid computing. 74. 184. 52. 101. 60. 197. 27. 69. 146. 193. 169. 91. 152. 196. 137. 167 evaluation. 80. 210. 25. 133. 81. 238 Geocaching. 122. 53. 187. 184 e-Science. 163 Findability. 70. 89. 46. 122. 42. 134. 110. 64. 49 Google. 84. 80. 72. 154. 8. 107. 86. 31. 124. 21. 93. 153 Facial recognition. 106 Head mounted displays. 34. 88. 64. 106. 11. 63. 196. 97. 54. 189. 134. 47. 107. 158. 75. 193. 88. 58. 124. 49. 94. 7. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 52. 74. 85. 49. 170. 59. 13. 100. 35. 119. 5. 107. 79. 16. 85. 57. 174. 45 Displays. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 109. 23. 34. 26. 239 Individualization. 26. 217. 78. 198.

150. 68. 166 PowerPoint. 149. 128. 45. 137. 122. 26 Metadata. 123 Medical applications. 101. 211 Knowledge management. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 183. 205. 80. 90. 143. 134. 42. 175. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 244 Meta-search engines. 114. 148. 137. 64. 129. 145. 98. 47. 199. 192. 129. 42. 23. 124. 130. 215. 40. 116. 103. 58. 120. 114. 44. 47. 125. 43. 143. 49. 43. 140. 70. 172. 111. 165 Microlearning. 171. 122. 36. 144 Navigation. 139. 15. 199 Neural networks. 153 Microsoft. 115. 2. 65. 114. 80. 119. 193. 180. 81. 53. 76. 45. 206. 80. 128. 127. 26. 106. 26. 42. 45. 174. 146. 149. 128. 179 Optical tags. 144. 20 Museums. 65. 6. 180. 190. 156 Legacy materials. 119. 49. 174. 141. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 47. 176. 47. 89. 63. 35. 25. 180. 48. 152 Lecturing. 127. 255. 23. 176. 176. 134. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 192. 182. 127. 65. 152. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 189. 155. 16. 148. 152 Networks. 60. 80. 122. 146. 234. 138. 110. 145. 90. 6. 127. 42. 230. 7. 146. 165 pattern recognition. 93. 216. 108. 135. 145. 125. 6. 242 learning object model. 60. 91. 111. 149. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 165. 139. 59. 145. 43. 109. 66. 116. 42. 137. 85. 160. 142. 128. 246 Location based tools. 24. 130. 194. 109. 82. 54. 6. 107. 34. 79. 130 Mobile computing. 26. 62. 121. 178. 159. 8. 29. 4. 140. 122. 15. 166. 199. 169. 226. 153. 189. 26. 191. 161. 54. 134. 45. 174. 134. 113. 114. 20. 141. 163 Microformats. 35. 241. 7. 95. 62. 150. 178. 186. 152 Libraries. 124. 171 M-learning. 138. 215 Interoperability. 171 Metacognition. 100. 124. 190. 124 iPod. 25. 119. 120. 137. 110. 85. 183. 196 Mashups. 68. 135. 114 Learning Objects. 22. 249. 240. 5. 30. 11. 121. 187. 256 Microworlds. 48. 48. 140. 191. 21. 127 Podcasting. 139 Personalization. 4. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 81. 131. 143. 180. 170. 161. 69. 93. 26. 27. 125. 174. 189. 223 Portals. 46. 193. 139. 178. 246. 162. 63. 120. 78. 78. 86. 65. 211 latent semantic analysis. 139. 69. 66. 135. 119. 165. 250 mapping. 109. 213. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 57. 36. 80. 32. 127. 140. 65. 166 Pervasive computing. 112. 123. 54.Interface devices. 145. 244 Motion Graphics. 114 learning object repository. 205 Macromedia. 97 Ontologies. 181. 113. 124. 17. 246. 233. 196. 45. 116. 189. 100. 172. 107. 191. 129. 191. 196 Pedagogy. 146. 239. 46. 77. 134. 204. 18. 119. 6. 139. 34. 124. 148. 21. 190. 23. 97. 7. 80. 7. 114. 241 Learning Management Systems. 125 Lab book wiki. 136. 147. 107. 109. 156. 77. 4. 216. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 237. 154. 115. 165. 160. 127. 238. 74. 135. 112. 31. 17. 26. 220. 158.

119. 55. 155. 139. 205 Shockwave. 180. 217 Translation. 11. 39. 116. 163. 35 Semantic Web. 169. 57. 64. 52. 116. 88. 114. 116. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 246 Privacy. 120. 52. 181 Speech recognition. 20. 35 Symbology tags. 47. 203 Telepresence. 125. 179. 106. 189. 141. 11. 119 quizzes. 6. 124. 35. 47. 89. 30. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 49. 109. 141. 42. 124. 176. 48. 137. 82. 87. 135. 174. 177. 119. 74. 93. 227. 5. 66. 141. 155. 9. 189 Search engines. 48. 36. 185. 45. 15. 171 Scenarios. 131. 167. 161. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 26. 91. 189. 124. 182. 95. 36. 47. 225. 47. 161. 26. 174. 171 Science. 46. 159. 115. 174 Social bookmarking. 175. 131. 177. 21. 129. 156. 106 Proximity tools. 134. 171. 189. 165. 65. 148. 180. 4. 197. 50. 35. 215. 48. 8. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 110. 158. 57 T-Learning. 181. 199 Taxonomies. 134. 137. 160. 132 Streaming video. 152. 94. 69. 211 Tags. 83. 156. 148. 114 Screencasting. 114. 37. 203. 174. 177. 35 Quizzes. 170. 122 sharable content objects. 176. 138. 178. 169. 37. 109. 77. 48. 207 Social networking. 191 Tours (online). 36. 155. 247 Role-playing. 9. 97. 36. 122. 50. 94. 191 summative assessment. 183. 175 Tag clouds. 191. 188. 168 résumés. 119. 247 rapid learning. 221 SCORM. 175 Rapid e-learning. 158. 211 Skypecasting. 9. 16. 117. 49. 186. 27. 179. 122 Tagging. 189 Security. 184. 11. 165. 9. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 54. 153. 54. 83. 47. 166. 110. 153. 7. 115. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 49. 168. 191 Tangible computing. 86. 196 Serious games. 62. 93. 4. 177. 54. 47. 162. 133. 152 Projectors. 165. 50. 114 Repositories. 122. 166. 91. 154. 125. 48. 215. 124. 123 Simulations. 64 Telephony. 62. 114. 75. 172.Presentation tools. 38. 39. 178. 70 Radio. 174. 175. 199 Turing Test. 179. 27. 176. 40. 154. 46. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 148 Smart labels and tags. 134. 150. 172. 178. 35. 169. 35. 160. 209. 118. 150. 190. 199 Single-user wiki. 72. 5. 46. 71. 163. 34. 114 Robotics. 215. 174 Project management. 26. 150. 40. 22. 180. 189. 35. 90 Reusability. 152 Thin clients. 173. 57. 216 Tests. 170. 125. 131. 159. 174. 38. 74. 174 self-evaluation. 26. 170. 144. 141. 119. 80. 112. 74. 46. 68. 176 Team management. 88. 125. 189 Television. 149. 93. 81. 167 reusable learning objects. 84. 54. 193. 59.

211. 121. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 196. 108. 3. 256 Woodill. 189 Vodcasting. 210. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 46. 100. 150. 74. 98. 57. 65. 112. 74. 211. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 187. 90. 256 Webcasting. 109. 9. 165. 209. 197. 124. 236. 200. 123. 203. 56. 44. 199. 107. 215. 182. 67. 193 Visualization. 207. 43. 213. 5. 187. 130. 68. 69. 11. 81. 91. 216. 74. 190. 108. 177. 208. 192. 137 Virtual reality. 80. 164. 13. 106. 113. 64. 137. 40. 253 Videocasting. 174. 191. 160. Gary. 66. 148. 123. 216 Vlogs. 89. 106. 57. 255 Wearable computing. 106. 51. 131. 148 Whiteboards. 177. 182. 217 Word. 211. 49. 189. 209. 148. 212 Wikis. 214. 198. 176. 60. 148 Virtual classrooms. 62. 239 Wikipedia. 206.Ubiquitous computing. 148. 215. 154 Virtual learning environments. 212. 79. 9. 4. 22. 45. 205 Usability. 88. 205. 255 Web conferencing. 149. 194 Video. 210. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 119. 200. 127. 150 Webinars. 159. 7. 145. 189 virtual classroom. 193.

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