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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. editing. along with an index. lists of online resources. Lise Bye. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Pamela Fragomeli. technology. The first report. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. and support at all points of my career. Carlos Oliveira. will be available in early 2007. Grant Hamilton. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. Karen. I have provided links to online learning examples. have supported this research from the beginning. Amy Davey. A third report. Jennifer McDowell. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. This report. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. Operitel’s CEO. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. Thanks. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Karen Anderson. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. and services. None of this would have been possible if my wife. the second in the series. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . Pierre Cahorn.

and recess. Medieval universities followed the same practice.just the ability to follow an example. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. and language for communication. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. or “reader. material. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. They are. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . in fact. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. Schools were started to teach accounting. Technologies are any technique. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. is a 2000 year old “technology. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. fire for warmth and cooking. as books were scarce. to quote Donald Norman (1993). or device that extends human abilities. Learning became standardized and linear. for example. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. A third way to learn is by seeing.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. still used in many institutions of higher education. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. many different ways to learn. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. class periods. that lecturing. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. the classroom became industrialized. We tend to forget. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. Do not reproduce 3 . the raising of hands. With these reforms. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. The modern classroom. even if the originator of the words is not present. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. “things that make us smart. But learning technologies have a much longer history. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers.” Starting in the first century AD. with rows. There are. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. detentions. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. linear teaching techniques online. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized.

24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. the early days of computer networking. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. 2006). the main telegraph company in the world at the time. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. frameworks. The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. For example. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. 2006). Eventually. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. memorizing. At the same time. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. mashups can only be done using computer technology. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. it needs to adhere to architectures. and standards. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . and reciting.” Similarly. When a new technology is introduced. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. Rather than pages. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). When a new technology first comes into use. chairman of IBM. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures.” In 1970. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. as this is a non-technical guide. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. Sadly. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. in 1876 someone at Western Union. However.Students in these schools learned by reading. Thomas Watson. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. moving pictures (films). changing the practice of teaching. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Like all new technologies. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . sometimes gathered from multiple sources.

org). Number 3. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: has a number of published documents that. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. presentation and interactive environments.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. January. php). There is authentication and authorization support at every level. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid.accessgrid. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays.grid. For Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.imsglobal. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. 2005. In With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. Do not reproduce 5 . They provide location independence. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs.

In business. At the same time. interactive learning components. This is especially true for adult education. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences.adlnet. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. In Europe. Instead. Instead of just providing courses. Major specifications for e-learning. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. enabling the search for content. and makes extensive use of XML. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. “[a] pull economy . Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.oclc.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . While packaged courses still have a place. research. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. reinforces this theme. could form the basis of a formal e-learning ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of http://www. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971).org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. Bollier says. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of based on open.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. They noted that “…in education. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. and education administration. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. http://www. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.taken together. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time.” In late IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). the new model of teaching involves facilitation. along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. Rather. http://ltsc. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. http://imsproject. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull.aicc.

Chris (2004). often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. and a bibliography. http://www. Switzerland. Bryan (2006)..htm Bollier. F. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.ntnu. McClatchey.. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Z. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. Five years ago. Wales. along with selected examples.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. 19. 2002. M. 2006) has argued. M. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . Weiss. Italy. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.. is becoming commonplace. Chrysostalis. N.bcs. K. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners.. Lausanne. Wired Magazine. March/April 2006. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor.DC/0502051 Alexander.pdf Bogonikolos. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. In the last chapter. For example.educause. (2005).com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. From this. (2005). Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. M. and wearable computers.idi. http://www. http://www. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. 16..wired. Thus. Bertolazzi. the reader can approach any topic in any order. 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. K. October. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).1 0/tail. http://www.. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. New York: Hyperion. June 2005. s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. As Anderson (2004. http://ewic.pdf Anderson. G. M. ambient networks. M. The Long Tail. Zanichelli. Ali. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Bibliography Abbas. David (2005). 41(2). (2002). those learners are now keeping their own records. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of erm0621. Likothanassis. 2005).0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Web 2. often placed in repositories as open source content or software.cscsi. http://arxiv... R. and McGinnis (2004).. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid.. R. ege/session1/paper1. 2004).. online resources. 2004. Montreal. UK. User-created content. Milan. Moreover. Nov. M. F. and Votis. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. 12(10). Reggiani. A.html Anderson. and Conte. S.. I hope you will find it useful. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. T. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. http://www. Chris (2006). mobile devices. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Giotopoulos.

Hao (2003). Athabasca 0/soa. J. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . m/docs/ /ec/product.5 6 Marshall. (2005). 13. and Putland. (2005). http://www. Proceedings.pdf Knorr. NJ: Prentice-Hall.gmu. http://www. 2004. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment.ICALT 2001. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World.Dev Shed. C. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.aspeninstitute. (2002). E. Lausanne. Porto. 8/16FEsasdirect_1. International E-Learning Specifications. (2005). and Borck. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. 14-16. (2001).org/celda2005/index..act. Thomas (2004).iadis. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. Green. April 18. pdf He. (2002). Triantafillou.html Hockemeyer. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web R110203. 4-36. G. and Zhang..athabascau.det.1109/CIT.asp Chatarji. http://www. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . (2005). of Education and Training. 2001.html Hagel. Centre for Distance Ed. Upper Saddle River. V. and Sept. http://csdl2. 2005.. http://www. American Jrnl. 1026-1032.pdf Erl. J. USA. W. Working paper. Dec. http://www. ege/session2/paper1. .devshed.2005. Hornig. Norm (2006). T. 2. http://ru6. 2003. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference.xml& January 2005. Gregor (2005).pdf Cerri. Switzerland.virtual. Australia. N. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Stefano (2005). Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of ergingtechnologies. J. 2002 http://ewic. J. http://www. Luo.johnhagel.htm Hohpe. Stephen (2004). Online. Oct. 6-8. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.infoworld. and McGreal. Erlanger. ThoughtWorks White paper.pdf Millea. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. L. Web Services .pdf Friesen. Madison. of Distance Education 10.. A field guide to software as a service. http://cde.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005).jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. http://www. http://www. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing J. th04/procs/pdf/marshall. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).cti. G. for the Australian Dept. T.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Education..networking Dede. D.xml. Sept. (1996). Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. http://www.. Portugal.xml. 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Jagadish (2004). http://www. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. R. and Albert. Perth. C. Tsiatsos. March 2002. http://www. Infoworld.html Kong.

Learning Solutions. Klamma.unikarlsruhe. April 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. (2003).pdf Roberts. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.pdf Urdan. Peter (2004). W. 21. http://www.R. (Eds. G. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities.. 9. V. Samuel (2006). Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. In s/ATLAS. ACTeN E-Content Report 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht. Hambrecht and Co.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . F.rwthaachen.informatik. Dublin.bcs. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Berlin: Springer. 2006. 2005. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence.pdf G. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. C. (2000). SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.aspx Yang. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://www-i5. H. 193–205. http://www. Aalderink. UK. C. pp. Zhou et al.operitel. Rhonda (2006). and Jarke. G. T. and Oliveira. Lee. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. W.pdf Pierre. Harvey. 0509_06.aifb. R. R. S.astd. (2004).sinica. http://www. 2006. and Ho. MA: Woodill. http://www. J. Donald (1993).de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://ewic. http://www. /experience_machines. M.pdf Werkhoven... (2003).ac. Reflective learning. 27 . M. (2005).uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture.alt. ege/session3/paper2. Library+information Show.pdf Norman. Mashups. Research report... Feijen. Trinity College.acten.28 April 2004. http://www. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine. Stuttgart.iis. 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. and Wade. Germany. April 1. future thinking: digital repositories. (2006). Cambridge. (2005). SCORM and the Learning Grid. May 15. and Weggen. J. and Geys. ICWL 2003.): Proceedings. Cook. and Vossen. http://www. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. 911-928.alt. http://www.

a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. Included are related terms. and a bibliography for each section. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. selected elearning related examples. 10 © Brandon Hall Research . allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. online resources to learn more about each technology.

Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.. or The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. confused. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. privacy. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. http://www.cs. in Italy. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. facial too. emotions.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. In online therapy. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. For example.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial /0-INDEX. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing.html Do not reproduce 11 . 2005). Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham. heads the MIT lab on affective computing. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications.sricbi.” (Anolli. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance emotional Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally.myself-proj. Affective Computing. 2005).co. security. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. and react to human emotions. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.” http://www. gestures. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. speech patterns mainstream. et” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress. including the ability to recognize and express emotions.convo. keystroke patterns. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. UK. Without the ability to understand emotions.bham. and legality.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. SRI Consulting (http://www. posture. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. http://www. accuracy. and to respond to them effectively.

C. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. F. and Merisol. 2005... O. Portland. Iwamura. (2005). Oregon. 2005 http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Balestra.doc Hook.. Bouraoui. 2005. Lee. http://www. http://www.. Nakajima. L. A. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. University of e_interfaces/Goren-Bar.unitrier. China. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Kaye.arizona. C. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. with many resources. (2005). AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces.. Oregon. Mantovani.. Brassac. April 2-7. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in http://www. e_interfaces/Cahour.sics. http://www. Issue 11/12. and Morishima. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. including studies of emotions in computers.pdf Diamond. September 13. April 2-7. Portland.. K. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Oregon. CHI 2005. S. Y.. Sensual Evaluation Instrument.. April 2-7.html In http://emotion. Pachoud. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. (2005). It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. J. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www.. P. K. Portland. Agliati.sics. P. April 2-7.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. listing many links to interesting resources. H.informatik.html Fallman.bartneck. and Zancanaro. e_interfaces/Hook. I Like It . J. K. 2005. A. O. N. D. (2005). Zurloni. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Oregon. CHI 2005. C.sics. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.. CHI 2005 conference. Dr. Yamada. UK. and Waterworth.dis. Vermersch. Brave... Portland. D. Nortillaro. (2005). 2005. CHI 2005 conference. April 2-7.pdf Cahour. B. Portland. F. http://emotion-research..The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. 2005. Stock.1 2/love. Vescovo.. Paper for Evaluating Affective (2005)..doc Chateau.. Salembier. and Confalonieri (2005). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Realdon. J. M.. e_interfaces/Kaye. The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. http://www. December.unige. The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Rocchi. I.nsma. dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.pdf Maldonado. October 22-24.. Oregon.wired.pdf Interfaces. http://www. Hatfield.pdf Goren-Bar. The Love Machine: building computers that care. M. Wired Magazine. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. B.sics. April 2-7. M. Oregon. David (2003). CHI 2005 conference. Z. and Laaksolahti. and Zouinar. Graziola. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. bibliographies. Joseph (2005).. e_interfaces/Fallman.. e_interfaces/Chateau. April 12-15. are available online: http://www. V. J. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.

CHI 2005. Affective Computing Picard. (2004). Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Mandryk. S. M. April 2-7.ruebenstrunk.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. OR. T. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. October 22-24. NJ. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. University of nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. CHI 2005 conference. New York: Basic.miv. and Steele.doc Wright. Helena (2005). April 2-7. 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.pdf Norman. Miami. Ian (1997). 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. http://www. http://www. Erlbaum. Oregon. ACII 2005.pdf Mentis. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Maldonado. http://www.sics. 2005. Charlotte (2005). http://www. /Wright. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. http://www.sics. http://www. R. CHI 2005. R. Berlin: Springer. (2005).sics.pdf Ruebenstrunk. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. Affective Computing. Cambridge. MA: MIT.htm Tao. April 2-7.elearningreviews. Gerd (1998). 35(2). Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Portland. and Daily. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological e_interfaces/Wiberg. Oregon.thesis. S. CHI 2005 conference.stanford. E-book http://www. (2005).jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. L. e_interfaces/Mandryk.t. 2005. 2002. Beijing. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. J. Regan (2005).HTM Steele.pdf e_interfaces/Mentis.utokyo. Portland. China. J. (2002). 2005.sics. (2005). Donald A.bham. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. and Picard. May 26. Emotional Agents. and Rosalind (1997).cs. 22. Doctoral Dissertation.iste. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. http://www. M. Oregon. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Paper for WEBIST 2005. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory.pdf Do not reproduce 13 .se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/ ntent. http://www.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

and many of them can actually learn.informatik. She made mistakes. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Katzlberger. However. 2004) and are. intelligent agents program (for example. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. avatars. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. For example. Agents have beliefs. and. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Dick Stenmark. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. and the students had to continue to teach her. proactive (goal directed). et al. autonomous agents. but Do not reproduce 15 .gu. Third. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. In this context. Fourth. not only about environments. learning/adaptation. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. First. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. benevolence.. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. see the paper by Far et al. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. useful in educational simulations. A second agent in the simulation. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Mentor. 2005. 1999). Sometimes multiple agents can work together. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. rationality. 2004).htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. Viswanath. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. 2005). of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. Second. In such situations. and both may be found in the same http://w3. therefore. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. veracity. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. 1999).se/~dixi/agent/clas s.

Therefore. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. Even though each agent acts independently. (1998) developed a conversational agent.codebaby. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people. Massaro et al. (2004): http://www. 2.stanford.ira.fsu. expert role-players.also about other agents. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen.extempo. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7. go to: http://ldt. Student Assistant Agent 4. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. http://www. uses seven different types of agents: The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. acting against other teams of agents. Amy Baylor and her colleagues. See the article by Williams et al.uka. and expert guides. 2000). they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. http://www. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Skills Manager Agent 3. For details see: www. Baldi.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters. They are available as adaptive coaches.redwoodelearning. Learning Paths Agent malceb/0623. go to: http://ritl. http://www. User Profile Agent.old. Content Agent 6.liv.editlib.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and CodeBaby Corp.cfm?fuseactio gents. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents.

W. G. http://www. Krittaya (2005). 5(7). Jrnl. In Richards. Clarebout. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning.cfm?fuseactio & Ebbers. Elan. (2005). International Journal on E-Learning. Zahia (2004). (2000).University of Southern m0523. & Kim.. and Shaw.pdf Kim. Johnson.aace. No.editlib. P..editlib. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. http://www. 75-80.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. In Proceedings. www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vanderbilt University. & Lin. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. S.. Sun. http://www. In Proceedings. 28(2).org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation. Do not reproduce 17 . Erfurt.pdf Guessoum.pdf Lin. Doctoral Dissertation.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. http://www. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.. (2005).aace. TN. 21-38. S. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. Vanderbilt University. (2003).educause. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. Ng. & n=Reader. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. 11(3).. Hypermedia. Y. E. and Palopoli. Hershey. IEEE Distributed Systems Online.pdf Jafari.editlib.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. J. 1353-1356.teachableagents.. http://www. A. Proceedings. 4(1).org/papers/krittayathesis-sp. Koono. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. 275-285. and Ho. J.educause. 10 (3). L. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.editlib. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. Fuhua Oscar (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. Y. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents. G. VA: AACE. L. S. http://www. C.. G. Hypermedia. Z.teachableagents. (2002). Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. and Tsang. Paper Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems.pdf Kao.editlib. Educause Nashville. Educause Quarterly. G. 306-311).org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004.isi.. Nashville. http://www. 267-286 http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (1999). 1503-1506. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. M. Inter-active Learning Res. 3. 1659-1666. http://dl. (2003).org/index. E-Learning 2003. Large Complex Systems. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using and Telecommunications 2003. http://www. www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. W. (2005). e-Learning 2005.pdf Clarebout.editlib. B. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). http://www. http://csdl. Thomas (2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 2005. Y.. July. A. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Bibliography Baylor. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Norfolk. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Germany. Learning by Teaching Agents.). Ali (2002).org/16948 Leelawong.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. C.. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002) apers/malceb/0623. (Ed. (2002). E-Learning 2003. & Johnson. A. G. & Bengu. Tennessee.cfm?fuse action=Reader. (2002). (2003).

A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents. (1999). 143-162. and Solomon. Richards (Eds.. td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. Russia. Doctoral Dissertation. Sandel. In P. 1999. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. 18 © Brandon Hall Research .org/index. (2004). J.. and Higher Education 2004. M. E. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.. ED-MEDIA. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. K. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Healthcare. 47-59.Media 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. http://www. 10 (3).edu/fil/ Padgham.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Daniel. http://scholar. (2004). 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Massaro.. PA. G. Toulouse. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www. 1415-1420. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Adebiyi. G. M. http://www. http://www. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).vt. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution. 1632.editlib. June 1-4..aifb. D. O.ogi. (2005). G. Carnegie Mellon University. & Booth. of California. and Cole. Atreya. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. www. Virginia Poytechnic and State University.. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems.cfm?fuseactio Sahin. In Richards. H. K. R. Pittsburgh. Proceedings.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.). Kommers & Doctoral Dissertation. Finland. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. L. J. L. 1999. and Núñeza.K. S.aace. & Lim. http://www.editlib. and Stucky. Cohen.editlib.html Shim. M.editlib. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. M. http://www. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. L.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. R.lib. 194-201. W. (2004). Peter (1998).pdf Perez. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).org/index. & Leelawong. Doctoral dissertation. Beskow. 17(2).org/ ssaroCole_WECC98. Wesley.informatics. IFIP WG12. St. France. (1999). Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius.. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. V. S. ( A.psu. (2006). 3169-3176. ED-MEDIA 2005. http://www.. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA). In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. http://www. Ferat (2000).cse.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://cslu. (1999).org/index. (2005). (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. and Ferneley..pdf Menczer. U.uni-karlsruhe.http://www. B.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. 321333. 14(1).editlib. In Proceedings. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study. D.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Winikoff. V. Biswas. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 http://citeseer.. August. (2005).. Government. Proceedings.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. Sung..cs.cfm?fuse action=Reader.aace. 61-65. http://www.

Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor.. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology.http://www. J. Michael (2002). N.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. (2004). http://www. Paper at 3000-3002..teachableagents.html Yan. Chun. 2004. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems.wiley. & Madsen. New York: John Wiley & Sons. M.ppt Do not reproduce 19 . ED-MEDIA http://research. April 18-21.cfm?fuseactio 8bis. Gilbert. http://ca. (2004).edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. In Proceedings. Chicago.upc. Agent Mediated Grid Services in oductCd-047149691X.editlib.pdf Williams.

This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn.topshareware. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference.htm For a selection of over 400. motion graphics depiction. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations.animationfactory. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. al. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above. Rather.mindworkshop. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. 2003) Finally. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.Animation Software Related terms Flash. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.0 http://www. Given that. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. producing animations can be very However.topshareware. et.000 pre-built animated GIFs. like pictures in a flip book. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. Also. produced the best learning results. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation fcon. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. coupled with imagining how something worked.” Lowe adds that “in some cases. animations may even prejudice learning. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.” (Huk. The results of many experiments have been mixed. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . However. (2003). a static diagram. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs..htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.05 http://www.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s.

swishzone. http://www. A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH. For information on Maya is a high-end modeling. http://www. To use ActionScript. go to: http://macromedia. It animates fall stunts.html Lightwave 3D is a Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Inc.massivesoftware. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages.Softimage Co.” http://www.softimage. the built-in programming Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. For a free demo. It is part of Final Cut Studio. http://www. http://faraday. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. For more information on Shockwave. 2004). and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques. ersion. A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa. Enliven .com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment. http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe). have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. http://www.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. using accurate dynamic simulation p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.macromedia. some knowledge of computer programming is nliven. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.html CAT . go to: http://www.adobe. effects.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .eitechnologygroup..animats.animationonline. a subsidiary of Avid Technology..Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web go to: ts/main.html Falling Bodies .catoolkit.viewpoint. http://www.autodesk. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. and rendering n/ SoftImage|XSI .utoronto.

(2004) For a comprehensive list of animation software.ascilite. M. Learning Circuits. go to AllWorldSoft.pdf Hess. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. S.aace. http://www. http://www. March 2002. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. Jonas-Dwyer & 04/hess.htm Hess. Thomas (2003).) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. C. (2003). 87-99. (2004). S. C. Utah: Rapid Intake Press.cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. R. ASCILITE Conference..html /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation.rapidintake. Atkinson.ascension-tech. never too much.ucsb. (2004). and Cate. R. Lehi.learningcircuits. and Hancock. http://www. (2004). M.. 20HKC. 21(4).siggraph. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. Steinke. ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. S. T.unihannover. Educational Psychology 003/toth. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. and Hess.allworldsoft. Phillips (Eds. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. and Moreno. http://www. lists almost 700 free tools: http://www. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference.learninglab. 1046-1048.. Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.learningcircuits.psych.htm C.sjsu. http://www2. Hancock. th04/procs/lowe-r. G. Animation and learning: value for money? In R.freedownloadscenter. (2003). http://dl. http://www. S. and Floto.pdf Lowe. D.learningcircuits. July.pdf Toth. Cognition and Instruction.. July media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. 325–360. July 18. Animation – just enough. S. G. Learning Circuits. 14(1).htm . FreeDownloads Center. http://www. http://projekte. (2003). You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. (2002). Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. R. Flash Interactive Session. Learning Circuits.htm Bibliography Castillo. (1). and 04/hess. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . G. Mayer.

Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. AI. agents. expert systems. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. multiagent systems. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. intelligent tutoring. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. data mining. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. cognitive informatics. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. Nevertheless. So far. machine learning. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test.

Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner.g. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. and Aist et al. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems. and data mining. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . Moreover. To seem humanlike. the subject matter expert. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. recommender systems.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand).” On the other hand.. (2003). Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. To achieve their goals. The reality is that. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. While many systems purport to be personalized. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. and the teacher.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. possibly undeliberate manner. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. including collaborative filtering.learning. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area.

cs.e. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most fydiss. concepts. objects. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. gestures. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. rather than using a single type of knowledge. etc) and how they are interrelated.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al.interactions with the system (see Smid et al. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. http://www.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .” http://www. 2002). http://lsa. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et ation..iit. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR.cs. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system. Talking Head Tutor vs. (2005a.

Task Tutor Toolkit . and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier. Inc. They propose using an approach called hierarchical Student Log Files – McLaren et al.library. http://www. and INFOMAP. challenging. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research .edu.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring ations/Gutier04b. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many Aurora .pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring http://www.” http://ctat. ers/LearningTheories. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.iis. intelligent conflict resolution. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. http://quantumsimulations.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. without programming. e-commerce.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al.cs. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.html Founded in Stottler Henke Associates. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . and engaging.kicinger. question answering (QA) designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. and multiagents.pdf Oguejiofor et al.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications.infrature.” s/wi04.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data. http://ariic.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. As a Bayesian Networks – Butz et Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text.unsw.colorado. including student monitoring.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.uc3m. Infrature.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring . http://www.sinica. so that these systems become more realistic. see: http://lsa.” http://www. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.

The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How. Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base. The AIED conferences are held every two years.” http://www.wpi. see: http://www.its2006.inf.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources. http://www.masternewmedia. and learning style. http://www.htm Do not reproduce 27 .ucalgary. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. preferred more information on Stottler Henke Associates.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.virtuelage.enel.teluq.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www.” http://www.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group 000/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two China. and an interactive intelligent tutor. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . The 2006 conference is in Taipei. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings. skill ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.uquebec. with the next one in 2007.licef. h/current_computer_science_education_re Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://aied.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every For more info: http://www2.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.cs.ed.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. http://www. http://www. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://www. http://ctat.

Artificial Intelligence Review. g-ITS04. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004.pdf Baldoni. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills.cs. In J..pdf Alkhalifa.eurodl. and Koedinger.pitt. and Evens. S. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. Paraguaçu (Eds.1109/ITCC. Lester. 22: 3–39..unito. C. (2004).iit.2005. (2004).. E. and & F. C. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Mostow. (2004). In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . E. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. R. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). a pioneer in artificial intelligence. R. and Schwarz.pdf Brusilovsky. http://lingcog. http://www. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. Maceió. S.doi. ml Aleven. S. Paraguaçu (Eds. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). B.82 Bhatt.ppt Butz. (2002).B.html Brusilovsky.uregina. 6(1).html Barker. (2004). M. M. P. V. Chicago. 159-165. s/wi04. and Patti. http://imlab. I.pitt. R. C.. C. and http://www. C. (2004). K. Baroglio. In J. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04).J. PA: Idea. http://www.) (2006). Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft. V. Bibliography 004/Barcena_Read. http://www. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. http://www. (1997). C. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. http://www. McLaren. and Maguire.cmu. Brazil. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. http://www2. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. and Read. R. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop. 482-487. 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner. and Penstein Rosé. S00inv. (2005).pdf Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. onsubmit.Volume I. Eshaa (Ed..ri. B..di. Reilly. J. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. Kort. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. http://nth. and F. T. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. (2004).aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. (2004) M. ITS 2004. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.pdf Barcena. and Picard.pdf Aleven. V. Lester. In Proceedings..Marvin Minsky. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Hershey. S. G. http://www.). Peter (2000).. Kobe. Hermann (2002).wpi. riendly_article.nccu. K. S.).technologyreview. Hua.sis. M.

S. Tainan. McNamara. B. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05.cs. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.enel. Illinois Inst. Di _331. D. ITS 2004. D. and Frasson.. and Glass.639.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez.1 27. M.est..pdf Frize. (2004).H. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems.enel.journal..pdf Freedman. M.pdf Chorfi. http://www. 40(4). Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. C. ink2000. D. Usage of artificial intelligence in education process.cs. Chiou. G.uic. and Sarmanova. 163-183. http://www. In ACL05.. (2005). and VanLehn. Ong. K. hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day.ips. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems. -e/theme05.findarticles. An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 . D. J.sinica.) Fasuga.pdf Davidovic. http://www. Haller. Haller. M (2005b). S. AutoTutor. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence. http://ltodi.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. Byung-In (2000). Fall. and iSTART. Vicarious Learning. C. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system. D. D. of Technology.iis.. Educational Psychologist. Yu. 23(4).pdf Di Eugenio. 1-5 Driscoll.cs.pdf Graesser. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.pdf Far. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning ecology. S. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. Proceedings.ucalgary. (2001). R. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning. B. B. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Yang.uottawa.cs.metapress. Pardo.library.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www. and Pedagogical Agents.Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.. B. C. W. Doctoral Dissertation.. and Hsu. 225-234 http://www. 11(3).ca/People/far/.. and Kloos. 13(2). http://www. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005). Fossati. Aleksandar (2001). Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. 2005. Taiwan. and Fred. aperapril.1 Cho. Reva (2000). (2006). of South Australia.iit. Fossati. A. 433-447. and Gholson.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query. H. http://www.. and Glass. ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. (2004).5.. 15(4).html Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013. 18-22 July. http://www. Netherlands. S. and Yu. Aug.editlib. (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=18900 Craig.unsw.linkingpublicationresul ts. Doctoral Dissertation. http://www.ucalgary. ICEIS'2001. J. (2005). http://ariic. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005).3296. M (2005a). bcdiss. (2004). DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education. (2000).niu. Univ.

pdf Kinshuk and 4NNV88MXQ49. Nikov A. Paraguaçu (Eds. Paraguaçu (Eds. and VanLehn. PA: Idea Group. In Z. (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. Person.cs... Brazil.cmu. P. Looi et al. Vicari. Paraguaçu (Eds.massey. (2004). S. (1997). Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference. Hershey. http://bach. McLaren. J. B.cs.ceid.. New Orleans. (2001).autotutor. Bollen. M. D. Proceedings. MAICS-2002. Johnson.. http://www. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring /PAPERS/wbies-book-pub. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. Evens. R. M. and F. 61-64. (ITS). (2004). http://www. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7293 Khan. & Pettenati. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.medianet.T. C. UK: Pace.iit. and ations/Gutier04b. Chicago.. (2005). International Conference on Web Intelligence. M. L.pact. A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. A. Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent Assistants.) Knowledge Transfer London.doc Jeschke. & Patel 4NNV88MXQ49. and Ma. Lester. C. /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.-K. Walker. In A. Hardas. http://ctat.. That's What I'd Do". Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue..pdf Khaled. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System. A. (ITS). (1999). Jackson. http://www. (2005).pdf Johnson. and F.). W. R. C.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.pitt. http://mmlab.iit.) F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. Chicago. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration. and Richter. Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation approach. Technologies.Hierarchical Graphs. (Eds. M. Makatchev.pdf Kinshuk. Empirical Results. Vicari. Applications. A.K. M.springerlink.mulf. M. In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference. Michael.). (2004). rs/hcii2001.pdf Kim. (2004). Lester. A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And Learning. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. O. J. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2005). Y.pdf Jordon. In C. and Graesser. http://infosys. Vanoirbeek.uc3m.Computer Interaction. August 5-10.). Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Systems.. In J. In J.upatras. and tionAIED05. Ahmed. pp. Doctoral Dissertation. In J. PA: IDEA Group. and Prentzas. http://home. G. M.editlib. Illinois Institute of Technology. P. Behrooz (Ed.cs. http://www.pdf Harrer.L.Hershey. Amsterdam. Y..L. Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor. http://prints. Maceió. (2005). Sewall. E. http://www.gast. yckmai02. T. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human. 30 © Brandon Hall Research . M. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. http://www. and F. J. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.pdf Hatzilygeroudis.springerlink.tu-berlin.) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. That's What I'd Do". (ITS). and Rizzo. I. Laroussi. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. http://www.kent. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts. J. 2001. Lester.pdf tions/ITS2004-workshop-Jackson-paperformatted. W. Ma (Ed. Vicari. and Future Directions.C.

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quizzes. 1956). We can expect that. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. in the near future. For example. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. self-evaluation. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. for example. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. the automated scoring of essays. online assessment. and output. or performance samples. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. However. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. samples. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. evaluation. Assessment software can generate templates. eassessment. affective. computer based assessment (CBA). and (4) computer marking. In a business situation. and documents for assessors to use. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. rubrics. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. 1998 for an introduction to LSA).learningandteaching. quizzes. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. aptitudes. are already available. computer mediated assessment (CMA). making it hard to escape assess-ment. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. computer-based assessment ng/solo. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . and psychomotor. once only done by a human assessor. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. More sophisticated forms of automated. When combined into a “360° evaluation. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous.” Bateson’s four levels of learning.

” organized by academic discipline. See more at: http://www. and services useful for outcomes assessment. and adminis-tration formance_analyzer2.vantagelearning.testcraft.pedagogue. preview pages for all question types. and Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.” http://www. check out the Dialang web site. http://www. on its Web site.K. abilities.redinq. tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006.flaguide. see: http://www. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.brainbench.epistema. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. multilingual support. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. and past work Testcraft.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming. http://nt. a completely customizable report The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team.dialang. and adaptive question branching. has recently won awards for its performance. http://www. surveys. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software) The Evaluator. Review it at: For an online assessment of your foreign language ability. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. http://www. Diploma. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s ETS. For details. Find them at: http://www. institutional evaluation.fasfind.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. Pedagogue Solutions has developed Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment see: http://lsa.respondus.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. from Resources Management Services in the U. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing.0. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. reporting. a customizable look and feel. For information on latent semantic analysis. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. http://www. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.. personality. learning tools.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms. http://www.uc. Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays. skills. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and /Entry. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.operitel.xstreamsoftware.rmsuk.

Do not reproduce 37 . Ortigosa. D. James (2005).rmcdenver. http://www.html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. London: Paladin. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July learning/03/ references.000 different tests from its database.ira. ssme/ Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment. R. Online Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment /arc/6too. T.cshe. Carro.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over /cba. 5365.thinkinggear.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use. http://www. Educational Technology & Society.learningandteaching. http://www. is available from: http://liinwww.. views/10_01. & Rodríguez. 8 (3). Gregory (1973). Obtain a copy at: http://www. The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. Freire. http://www. (2004). http://cba. M.” http://www.ulster. and Davies. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. http://www.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. E.scit.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.learnflex.tasainstitute. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions. (2005) Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.discovery.ifets.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.wlv.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Pérez.pdf Atherton. P.unimelb.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for assess. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Steps to an Ecology of ng/solo.uka. with a list of 34 strategies.3 ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.htm#2. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics. with over 1. http://www. Explore the links at: http://www. M.html Bibliography Alfonseca.unt.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.quintcareers.

NY: Macmillan. C. Educational Measurement. and Knight. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment. Jill. Acapulco. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Kevin (2003). B. Jill RC23. K. IEEE Intelligent Systems. 1. A. (1997). In the R. S. In S. Burstein. http://www.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. N. (1982).msu. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". Bloom. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language (2003). NJ: Lawrence Louis.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive.pdf Biggs. Jill.htm. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Arlington Heights. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.. In M. Ciravegna (Eds. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Martin. M. (2003). Rethink testing for future 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Inouye. 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. www. Mexico. and O'Hagan. T. June 22.. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO ursteinj. Daniel. and Chodorow. New York: Academic Press. (2003).amazon. D. In M. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. Shermis and J. Linn (Ed. Kaplan (Ed. S.eschoolnews. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. New York. 2005. Burstein ( toryts. Robert (2005). New York: McKay. Missouri. & Olsen. How to Assess Authentic Learning. August 2003. In R. L. http://www. Burstein.ets. and Hirschman. Brown. Marcu. http://www. http://www. 3rd Edition.. J. http://www. J. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.. (1989). New York: Oxford.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson..http://www. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Iwashita. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. B.assess. http://www.). (2001).htm Burstein. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. Burstein (Eds. Kay (1999). IL: Skylight. http://www. K.assess. Online paper. eSchool Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. (2002). (1956). Harabagiu and F. C.iltaonline. Daniel.pdf Brown J. (2001). & Leacock. St. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Jill. http://www. Shermis and J. J. and 38 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. and 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. McNamara.iltaonline. http://www.

W. Seven technologies for assessment. 4.) (2005).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.ncte. 5.unimelb. http://llt. C. K. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. National Research Council. Online newsletter. College Composition and Communication 9. M. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. category/write/ Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. PA: Information Science. Davis. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies.htm 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. May.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).iltaonline. v. and t.) (1999). (Ed.msu. O’Reilly. and Parry. http://eprints.. Robert. (2001). B. N. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. (1999) 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 . http://www. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". (2002). Cambridge: University of Cambridge.htm. St. March 9. http://www. Morgan. (1999). Chalhoub-Deville.pdf Dunkel P. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. S. P. Micheline.nmsu. Howell. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.ecs. 2. M. C. http://www. D. (2004). Laham. www.html Davies. & Landauer. 2. Micheline.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). Online newsletter. London: 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. T. Foltz. May. Louis. Lawrence. velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.soton... http://mason. and Howell. (2005). D.utas. n. No. v. Dunn. (2004).Proceedings from a Workshop. http://www. (1998). H.html Frase. E. 2: 77-93. L. (2001) html/1.pdf Hricko. http://www. P. 0Fall%2002/Frase.gmu. University of Tasmania. http://www. Board on Testing and Assessment.. n. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. Howard. Online paper. (Eds. http://wwwpsych. Language Learning and Technology.doc.Hershey. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. Language Learning and Technology. Howard (1993). S.. Millard. Language testing and technology: past and future.hlc. New York: Basic Books. (2001).amazon. and Grellett. http://llt.html Chalhoub-Deville. EdMedia '99. W. ault. http://www. ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA.softwaresecure. In Proceedings. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Language Learning & Technology 2. 5. Writing assessment: a position statement.

http://eric. C. http://www. and Gifford. http://www. and Malabonga.) (2000). Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. P..ed. In ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .msu. W. (2006). NY: Guilford Press. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms. Compiegne. . Y. May. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Reports from the Institute of Education. (2000). Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer.pd f Weiner.LSAintr o. 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance http://lsa. McArthur.bc. Online Assessment. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. Washington. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. D.. V. Howard. http://llt. J. 403-416. Hardas. and 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. (2001). (Eds. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.. and Skinner. Potenza. (Eds. D. http://www. Language Learning and Technology. & J. 5(2). Patrick (2000).. Handbook of writing research.. B. http://www. D.. Discourse Processes. J.. Hillsdale. http://www. Learning. R (2002). pp. Self. 25. H. M. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. & Laham. and Writing.. New York. & Leacock. 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. International Journal on E-Learning. University of /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.medianet. Graham. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based lt.colorado. and Ward. 4(6). and Hricko. K. DC: U. T.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis. (1999). http://nces. S. Tim (2006).) (2005). Hershey. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. M. A.S. and Assessment. PA: Information Science. & Mason. C. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. J. Weller. (2006). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. M.html Khan. (1998). D. Information Science Publishing. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. National Center for Education Statistics. and Watt. Burstein.pdf MacDonlad. Measurement and Evaluations. M. Problem Solving. K. (1979).Jones. Peer and Group Assessment in /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills.pdf Kenyon. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. 259284. Journal of Technol. 851901 United States Department of Education. 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Government. M. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.pdf Landauer. http://www. (Ed. http://escholarship. Mahwah. (2005). S. M.) (2002). http://www.ed.kent. J. (2005).

http://www.a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application.operitel. Operitel white Do not reproduce 41 .

one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. You can’t add your own notes. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. According to Crofts et al. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners.. Provides feedback to learners. The quality of online audio depends on many factors.. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. Assists non-native speakers. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. the rest of the file has time to arrive. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks.e. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. depending on the file size). Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. (i. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. such as those for iPods. (i.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. podcasting. which is gaining in popularity. For example. Provides another channel for material review. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. in part. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers.5 megabytes.e. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. (2005). to personalized media). or by “streaming. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. This frag-mentation is being fueled. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. while it is playing. One audio application of interest to educators. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). compared with even a few years ago. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. is podcasting. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as .

podcasting-tools. DJ mixing.ibritt.71. htm RECAP Ltd. enhancing. sound editing.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network. http://www. go to: http://www. CD audio extraction. tools. http://www.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. and utilities for 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.envision. A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at Audacity is free.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. open source software for recording and editing sounds. http://www.audiotoolsdirect. http://www.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. playback. http://www. phrases. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. It is available to download for Mac OS Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. Audio and video software.avsmedia. http://www. AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. including podcasting.htm For a list of podcasting SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. recording. http://64. x.thepodcastnetwork.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource und.automaticsync. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www. http://www. and broadcasting are all found on this site.purdue. or sentences from audio Web sites. Microsoft Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. and other operating systems. http://www. GNU/Linux. including software to record and play podcasts.scientificcomputing.rds.

pdf Bremmers Multitrack Studio 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories.htm Jobbings. J. (2003).adobe.bias-inc. Doctoral Dissertation.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. First Monday. P. and Higher Education 2003 (pp.html Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).. http://www. M. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). http://www. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Ray (2005).html Curtis. http://www.html Kaplan-Leiserson. http://edmarketing. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital rofts/index. Podcasting and Vodcasting. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). July 2005. and Swenson. 2005. Healthcare. 10(9).com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists.cfm?fuseactio s/AAI9929186 Crofts. Luigi (2005).com/home. main. Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. http://www. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices.cakewalk. September. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Dion Cory (1999). http://firstmonday. http://www. (2005).org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research . and Williams. May 20.. White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. N. Scientific Computing and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Podcasts. University of Nebraska. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. B. April 2005. Eva (2005). Sound Sense. June 2005. 417-419).” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Learning Circuits. S. Retsema. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. http://recap. Robin Good’s Blog. Dilley. C. In 005/0506_trends Meng. e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman. and Lomas. wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. Richards (Ed.h tml Canali De Rossi. VA: AACE.editlib. Dave (2005). Brenda (2001).ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. Peter (2005). Government. http://digitalcommons.

No authoring tool does everything.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. 2005). entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.brandonhall. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. (For Since its acquisition of and. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. see: http://www. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. simulations. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill.s html). and Evaluation) processes. either directly or with third party tools. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. As well. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. Implementation. Further. Development. please see http://www. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. rapid elearning. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. content development. in the end. Design. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. For details on each Microsoft product. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). In this Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 .

Media – Import 3-D Agile . hotspots.turbodemo.brainshark.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. Articulate .htm ActiveSlide. and images and turn them into 3-D training.adobe. Flash. pop-up messages. http://www. Integrates various media.ilessons. rich text.Composica Enterprise .Content Point .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. music.atlanticlink. http://www.lersus.accordent.bridge-pt.allencomm.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.copycatsoftware. Business Performance Technology . http://www.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.Capture Station products/ Allen Communications .de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. http://www.asp Bridge People and Technology http://www.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.htm Brainshark Inc. Counterpoint . buttons. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming Acroservices . . video.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides.activeslide. – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies. http://www. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.anark.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link . visualization.acroservices. http://www. and PowerPoint slides. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. XML. go to:’s Edge.htm Bernard D&G . Builds quizzes.composica.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. and marketing applications. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates.Thinkcap Studio . pointers.articulateglobal. http://www. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. http://www.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media oint-presentations-index. http://www. http://www. htm Composica . Anark . Element K . audio.WTDS-Web Training Development System .sculptoris. http://www. http://www.e2train.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . Import rich media and customize graphics. http://www.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools. without programming Impatica . http://www.lecturnity.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.epistema. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring ng.impatica.eclipsys. imc AG . such as the following: Web. http://www.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. http://www. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/index. http://www.Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. CD Rom. and animation.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development.Digital Workshop .htm Harbinger Knowledge Products Hunter Stone . or Macromedia Flash media ml E-Learning Consulting .com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word. http://www. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous Information Transfer . http://www. and installation files. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats. http://www. http://www.Enables courseware developers to create and publish Imaira Digital Media . http://www.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. http://www.elementk.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry INTEC .exe files.gen21. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software.asp Eedo Knowledgeware . Post the characters on any Web site. graphics. stand alone .digitalworkshop. http://www. http://www.shtml Dynamic Media . Has templates for authoring simulations without programming. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.php e2train Pro.Opus Pro – Rapid development x_eng. http://www.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. HTML courses. Eclipsys Corporation .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.

mindiq. http://www.Used to create presentations without programming MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills. Built-in testing engine. http://www. http://www. http://www.ipsinc. PowerPoint slides. http://www.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. http://www.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no dex.php MindOnSite . graphics.maxit.customcourse.mckinnonmulherin.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning. http://www.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint. Ready-made button and navigation aids. OPTX International . and animations with tests and MindIQ .KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning e.asp Knowledge Quest .pdf Intuition . shtml Itaca .EasyProf . http://www. with no programming and no plugins.knowledgextensions.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management http://www.elearninginabox.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/ Learn. KnowledgeXtensions . Producer – Records lectures.mindonsite.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. Word. with a built-in learning management system. Works with SAP Learning chure.knowledgeplanet.knowledgepresenter.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. centralized knowledge base.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios . http://www. http://www. combining multimedia content like video.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .ie/software/publisher.intuition. and PowerPoint into a set of templates. http://www.htm MediaMaker .com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. create courses specifically on how to use computer KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. .authoring tool based on Flash MyKnowledgeMap .NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. Has its own built-in learning management system.maxit. http://www. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia NetPlay Software . – Text. http://www. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.jsp Knowledge Planet .easyprof.

com Respondus . When content is developed. http://www.podia. JPEGs. and highly interactive elearning er-web/sb_author.htm podia .com/ Do not reproduce 49 .com/products/lc. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. PointeCast .asp TEDS .com/coursegen.softchalk. http://www.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. image Scribe Studio .CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects. Provides a course design template using Microsoft m Techsmith .htm Suddenly Smart . Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English. crosswords. French.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.respondus. http://www. without knowing code. http://www.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is mate. http://www.reusableobjects. http://www.techsmith. popups. matching games.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web.rapidintake. course publisher.podiaOnDemand . or Spanish. http://www.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. http://www. http://www.readygo.screenwatch. and assessments.Publisher Professional .htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.teknical. GIFs.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web Qarbon g_objects. and course player all in one software package.students.or SCORMcompliant. http://www. http://www. http://www.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.cfm Serco (technical) .E-Learning Objects .shtml Reusable Objects .com/ SumTotal .SNAP! Studio – A course builder. and Flash.toolbook. Courses can be posted. http://www. Audio.In minutes. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. image hotspot activities.toolbook. http://www. interactive Flash presentations and online training.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating Percepsys .scribestudio. customizable on. Microsoft PowerPoint.ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming ReadyGo . http://www. hp?from=menu SyberWorks .sensalearning.suddenlysmart.Nuvvo . kiosks. Savvica .ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant Rapid Intake . a customizable.p hp?from=menu SumTotal . http://www.percepsys.

Doctoral Dissertation. http://www. P.dol.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. and host online discussions. images. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. and Pahl. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made inersoft/trainersoft8. http://www. (2005). Lin (2005).cs. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. interactive and intelligent educational software. http://www.htm Zapatec .htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring.xplana. E. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA). M.bloki. E. http://www.asp TrainVision . June 2005. Illinois.. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. http://www. http://www. (2005). http://www. S.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. C. L. content conversion. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 US Government .co. (2003). and Brusilovsky.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM Webex . ime4you/ibt/en/start.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical Murray. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu.lectora.trainvision.2-conformant objects and assessments. Government. C. Blessing. or Network. CD.time4you GmbH .Presentation Studio . T. http://www.time4you. Evanston.brandonhall. Montreal. D.pdf Ramp. and wizards. S. Northwestern University.html Westcliff – publish blogs. and rapid _xwb. De Bra. Berlin: Springer. http://workforceconnections. http://www.oswego. http://www.oswego. and Riesbeck. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . www. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. Healthcare.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . and Ainsworth.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring _rb40eval.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to s/edmedia2005..funeducation. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. http://www.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. Melia. right in their browser with no additional software required. http://www. and text. (2005). Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.

Learning Circuits. 2004. Masters Thesis. NL. CA: Brandon Hall Research.htm Tozman. Eindhoven. (2005).pitt. BC. http://www. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp.2005).learningcircuits.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Reuben (2005).htm Woodill.s html Do not reproduce 51 . http://www. AACE.brandonhall.sis. Gary (2005).edu/~paws/publication s. 2005. Vancouver.htm Tozman. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Technical Univ. Sunnyvale. June 2005. October 2428. http://www. http://www2. W.editlib. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning 004/tozman. Reuben (2004). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. 005/tozman. Learning Circuits. The myth about tools. E..

sculptoris. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. http://www. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. for example. In the context of elearning. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar. but in e-learning. especially in gamebased learning activities. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. in the broadest sense. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. http://www. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of 2006/07/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. http://blogoehlert. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings.typepad. and generally simulates human activity.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.” Maldonado et al. the avatar may represent an actual human being.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.Avatars Related terms Agents.codebaby. Similarly. games. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. In some situations. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.

http://isnm. 2005. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. http://www. 2003.knowledgeenvironments.pdf Online Resources In Europe. Chan ( Maldonado. and Weber. K. offering a large number of supportive functions. A.exodus. Aug.. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching 2005 .Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. B.vcom3d. and Nodder. The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online. C. http://ww. Koschmann. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters..tmmy. Suthers. C.. D. S.. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. Iwamura. R. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. Ahad.Training Education & Education International Conference. J. (2005).. www. New York-based Oddcast Inc. edings_03/pdf/255.oddcast. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field.. in cooper-ation with a number of Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. Nass. New Zealand. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. Nakajima.W.pdf Seth. In T. Bibliography Deuchar. 503DES-H.pdf Jung. Nexus Media.. An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. H.” which are avatars that teach. Try them at: http://www.daden. In the toolkit.stanford. http://www. Raj (2003). and T. http://www. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. and Morishima.elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. (2004). users are represent-ed as avatars. ado. Brave. Inc. The system will be design-ed as a modular application. http://www. M. (2005).naccq.

Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the


However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the


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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > 26753.html ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs)

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at:

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs)

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique., July 14.,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. w.pdf

Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. m#feature


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Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. ( What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. ( The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >


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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. n/browsers_list.php3

Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/ m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch., July 30, 2006. 072900038.html?referrer=email


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This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . increasing their motivation to learn.einstruction. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. clickers. display. or clickers. http://www. Beatty. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. costs can be an issue. and military settings. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. The use of clickers has several advantages. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. giving almost instant feedback. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. corporate. the costs and headaches multiply. integrated with other types of learning technologies. management. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. The devices keep students alert and involved. classroom communication systems. higher education. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. However. 2006. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. training the faculty member to use the software.” In spite of the costs.

http://www. 7002.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. Eric (1997). ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. 2006.campustechnology. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki.h-itt.pearsoned. http://www. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that erwrite. 3.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 udienceResponseSystems/Home.learnstar.cisat. No. o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. http://inside. March 3.ubc.educause.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. http://www. es/cps/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. Tom (2004).umass. https://sharepoint.pdf The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems. http://www. Volume 2004.” http://www. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.Publishing 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Peer Instruction: a user’s ce-response-systems/index.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool. Educause Learning Initiative. 272-275. E-Learning Dialogue.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.jmu. Upper Saddle River. and Lederman. http://www. (2003).optiontechnologies.qwizdom.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.pdf ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. http://www. pdf Cassidy. CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. http://www. NJ: Prentice 60 © Brandon Hall Research . R.cua. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. http://www. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. Feb.pearsonncs. Anne (2006).aclearn. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. July 7. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. http://www. Inside CUA.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.elearning.physics. Research Bulletin. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response Ian (2004).com. The Physics The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on Q. http://www. including material on the use of classroom response 41(5).utexas.

uq.itee. Melbourne. 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .

html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. http://www. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace .. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led ndex. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. and There are many different ways to collaborate. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. e. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. doing. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. collaborate.advancedreality. http://www.g. social networking building..g.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). reduction.teamspace. http://www.g.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation. The Institute for the Future. social bookmarking. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community ( Advanced Reality – Jybe .. through brainstorming). This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. evaluation. many respond. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation.zoho. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . and collaborating.html?ad-main Annotea . Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. organization.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. it requires skill and experience. clarification.

A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. Central Desktop – Central Desktop . and instant messaging. expert EMC² . Features include IM. http://www. s/product.w3. share Blenks – In-team .com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. version control. and meeting ps5664/ps5669/index. Presence (see who’s online).html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . non-profit. markup of data. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of Digite – Digite Enterprise . http://www. http://www. contacts. robust document management.bookmarks. and communication. http://www. recordable conferencing. Web conferencing. and searchable discussion threads. http://www. http://www. discussion forum.brightidea. and individual users. instant messaging.globalchat. http://www. project planning and reporting.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.bluetie. http://www. alerts.digite.comotivsystems.Unified MeetingPlace . and instant access to the group workspace. jot down notes. and communicate with others. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. http://www.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://www.bantu. http://software.jsp Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. Includes document organization and sharing.Documentum eRoom . calendar. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.inteam.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates t/index. search.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. http://www.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently.avecomm. voice and data collaboration. http://www.asp?contentID=13976 https://www. share information.courseforum. document . and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. collaborative file management. and information technology adoption. intellectual property Bantu – Bantu Messenger Cisco .htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations with templates and workflows for product Atinav – aveComm . and upload m/index.citrix. and collaboration.centraldesktop. education. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . flexible workflow.

html 64 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. presentation tools. and corporate instant messaging. allow members to update and edit files.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. desktop sharing and remote desktop Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. software construction. recording and playback. secure.facilitate. require-ment and risk management.A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. Features include the following: Accessing documents. quantitative project management.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. and document management.features a project navigator. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet. and creating action plans. and sending workflow tasks. easy to use online collaboration system. http://www.epam-pmc. Features include interactive data collaboration. http://www. and images.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to /GSII. http://www.flypaper. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact. Web-based extranet tool. share files and documents. http://www. snapshots. http://www. interactive whiteboard. http://www. including Exact Software – e-Synergy . attach threaded discussions to files. /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser.groupsupport. The system streamlines project and team management. project management. and organizational process performance. meeting. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. voting. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange.A Webbased collaboration environment for software Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www. It provides working groups with simple. invite workspace ation. scheduling and using calendars. tracking the status of Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . resource information powerful.exactamerica. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.forumone. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.ezmeeting. http://groups.Halo Collaboration Studio .com/esynergy/ eZmeeting . search. categorizing.gliffy.grapevinesoftware. It has tools for managing multiple teams. desktop sharing.shtml Hewlett Packard .gordano. conducting surveys. Google – Google Groups – Create. http://www. http://collaboration.Live meetings and Web conferencing. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting. drawing tools. product quality assurance. cameras. assign file editing rights and completion dates. Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming. data and process Flypaper – Teamspace – Forum One – ProjectSpaces .groove. universal file viewer for MS office http://www.

and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. online document management. and file commenting.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution. link sharing).mayeticvillage. versioning control. and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a Apps. IBM .html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Web resources. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . a Wiki.Jotspot and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. an interface to a mailing list iLinc Communications . and secure peer networking architecture. http://www03. http://www. a lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. instant messaging and presence indication. integrates with MS Office. Interwoven . task manager. kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . online contact management. ment_management/index. and more. structured. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. and photos. http://www. discussion forums.uwc.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. Features include the following: Shared calendars. JotSpot .php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point . and Lotus Notes. and customers on the Web. Features include the following: Document management.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. realtime chat. voice. http://www. private interactive access or exchange of text. search archiving. Customizable Web eting/default. and extensibility. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. Integrated suite of multiuser. http://www.kGroups provides a number of cts.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. including http://www. online editor. peer-to-peer.jotlive. Features include the following: Business email.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. folders. and secured fashion – up to 399 Microsoft – Live Meeting . efficient. image libraries. http://kgroups.Lotus QuickPlace . http://www. blogs (Weblogs).A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. and provides search.interwoven. http://www. Outlook. and shared documents.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. http://www.mspx Do not reproduce 65 .inquesttechnologies.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Functions include the following: Share documents. customers.iceweb. online calendar. calendars. and Microsoft Outlook integration. security levels. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. partners. including file sharing.hotComm . video.

see each other in real time using cameras. and MP3 audio recording. audio and Webcam. instant messaging. instant messaging.html Rallypoint . http://www. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. Enables individuals. resources. MyWorldChat Communicator .com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance moderator functions. http://www. Document Management.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive Same-Page.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.santacruznetworks. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized. providing the best of both worlds. http://www. teams. and files.Microsoft – SharePoint . / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. Workflow Automation. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. organize and discover content through categories and Raissa Publishing – is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.A suite of persistent group 003/technologies/sharepoint/ Oracle .Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki.parlano. The iKE Office software includes Secure – eStudio . and share data or applications while they are online. http://www. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.rallypointhq. real-time application sharing.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect Selden Integrated Systems – iKE .com/ Novell – Groupwise . http://myworldchat. processes.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective schedule and track events and activities. called an online community. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. tasks.Rallypoint .near-time. milestones.opentext. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.mspx Near-Time – Flow . team events.Corporate quality communications center. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. share knowledge. http://www. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. Ramius .same-page. task Santa Cruz Networks . information. http://www.performancesolutionstech. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. http://www. calendaring. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research . Within each area.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. and contact and document management functions. http://www. text chat. file transfer. and presence management solutions.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages.Community Zero . and communicate. Allows people to talk to each other. ml Parlano – MindAlign . author and review pages individually and across the group. Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint.

and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution. chat server. http://www. XML-RPC Trichys – WorkZone . video. productivity applications.2097.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . search.04. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www.sharemethods.vignette.25. and prospects – without leaving their desks. http://www.trichys.webasyst. threaded discussions. and instant messaging.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication. and other business Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco .sitescape. and calendaring tools. Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.stalker. Designed specifically for the non-technical Vignette .com/products /stcollab.writely. store files.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all or use it to build a Web Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. newsgroup server. and information sharing. collaboration. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. interact. live video. documents.Vignette Collaboration – ShareMethods – ShareMethods . http://www. and business partners. and business relationships.sumtotalsystems. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software.cyber-grad. application sharing. desktop document folders.WebAsyst enables users to implement Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 .com SpiderWeb Communications .Collaboration software that includes document management.Processes email.webcrossing. and more.tacit. /2005. project. Web conferencing server (in-house) ent/0. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. Use it out of the box. http://www. and use live audio. http://www. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. instant messaging.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today.seldensystems. http://groups.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. view and edit documents or images together. http://www.viack. expertise. Webbased SiteScape . FTP server. http://www. calendar sharing. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . and share. workflow and task management. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and breakout groups.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . project teams. partners. e-mail server. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. Includes VoIP.Forum ZX . http://www. http://www. voice and Web conferencing.00.

com/project. http://www. online management for projects of any size and scope. review button. http://www.brevient. http://www.axista. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online Nagarro . affordable. scaleable. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single OPM Creator – OPMCreator . onProject – myonProject ." virtual collabor-ation. simple. whiteboard pages. Share multiple projects with multiple users. files. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. http://www. and save to disk icon.nagarro. connects peers. invoicing. content HP . http://www.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. navigation. project planning. form to submit nProducts/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. http://www. http://education.caucus. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software. and communicate with their project teams. and Web pages.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .project-open.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical.opmcreator.HP Virtual Classroom . identify and resolve potential problems. http://www. http://www. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. print Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .peoplecube. PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . Works with Microsoft 68 © Brandon Hall Research .generation.Intuitive project management software for work teams.onproject. project tracking. and data into a single storage area.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic software_development_project_manageme nt. private/group chat.Features include Hands up. attendee list. http://www. set user permissions. http://www.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. giving all team members constant online access to needed information. and share documents. http://www.Instant set-up. and payments.Projistics .nexprise.elluminate.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related .tomoye.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . scheduling solutions. video.In-house tool developed to assist in project management. annotation tools. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress. Access to the tool is also given to clients. discussions.teamdynamix. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. exit and help. and e-mails.Web event calendaring. assign tasks. and collaboration to timesheet management. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused.saba. calendars. feedback. custom stamps. applaud and meter. content.projectdox. http://www.

hand raising. synchronous online lectures. and Webconferencing specialists.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. http://www. notes. virtual office hours. http://www.Delivers unlimited voice. For Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.LiveOffice provides mples. and a change presenter ability. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.ivocalize. http://www. Record classes or Webcasts. session reports. online seminars. shared whiteboard and present-ation.Synchronous Webconferencing software. and Web conferencing with WebEx. guest lectures. and text chat. http://www. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. application sharing. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries. and real-time Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. Allows holding live. instant messaging.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.Photon Infotech – SPARK .com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . shared Intralinks . Batipi – Batipi .horizonwimba. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. remote control. http://www. e-learning classrooms.batipi. meeting management. and by whom. toll-free conference calling.photoninfotech. record and ew/16/108/ messaging. online classes. and Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . polling and quizzes. visual. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning Linktivity Division. and content display.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . _imc.linktivity.adobe. and more. how often.glance. including Web conferencing. http://www.convenos. integrated content management system. http://www. e-mail invites. http://www. annotations.liveoffice. http://www.0 . http://www. keyboard and voice chat. iVocalize . pre-recorded broadcasts.communiqueconferencing. Features include shared documents. and collaboration features.elluminate. Webcasts. and meetings. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. breakout rooms.genesys. and presentations to audiences spanning the Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple. transparency internet_conferencing. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. Web. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. desktop sharing.A secure. http://www. private whiteboards for each participant.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. sales presentations. and collaborative content-building sessions. and phone use. instant Do not reproduce 69 . http://www. video. eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect .Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. office hours. live demos. URL sharing.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. attendee lists. broadcasts Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.mixmeeting. learning. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. http://www. http://www.

radvision.webtrain.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. teleconferencing. With the convenience of online access through an individual Raindance Communications – Switch Tower . and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room.webex. surveys. http://www.voxwire. Solutions include Web meetings. http://www.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. http://www. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful.vodium. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. The suite manages the Radvision – Click to Meet .com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . show rich multimedia content and WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers. or meeting. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. e-learning. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. Web conferencing. remote support. or an entire ervices. present PowerPoint slideshows. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. and moderation of Webcasts.Meeting One – Click&Share. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities. http://www. Requires only a browser and a Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). text messaging.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .Web and audio conferencing services.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom.netspoke.Powers online meetings.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each WebTrain – Communicator 4 . any application. send text messages. publishing.raindance.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. tour Web sites. and document collaboration. http://www. and into the enterprise. http://www. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. set up labs and conduct quizzes. conference calling. editing.wave3software. Webinars. http://www.To support large deployments. http://www. and system management.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. http://www. audio. discussion forums. and desktop videoconferencing ing. http://carbon. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. http://www. share other applications. the Internet. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.cudenver.

D. J. communities.ecs. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning. March/April 2006.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. 4. Maceió. D.bruck.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments. 2006.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. Collaborative Strategies. http://cde. Shadbolt. J. Fred (2002). Web 2. http://www. Eisenstadt. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. and businesses to provide collaborative gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW). 2002..collaborate.. http://www. (2004).com/ Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community.. Q2Learning White David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments. (2003) The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.” http://www. 2002. De Roure. N..The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston.htm Mitre Corporation. http://collaboration. S. A. 41(2) wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. Sign up for free at: http://www.educause.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Page. Models of collaboration.1:100250. http://eprints. Nov. also has a great list of collaboration tools.mitre. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for es/ and Tate. http://www. D. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004). http://www. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. Brazil.ctcevents.htm Butler. Dalton.. K. T.thinkofit. also known as “groupware..html Do not reproduce 71 . M. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. J. Chief Learning Officer. http://www. Buckingham Shum.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. S. http://www.collabtech. erm0621. 2003. http://www. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. and ces.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Michaelides. ChenBurger. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum. http://www. Bryan (2006).asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in x.kolabora.pdf Bonk.athabascau. Creating an eCommunity. http://www. Bill (2004).org/forums/fall2002/ Japan on July 13-14. Curtis (2002). Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. http://www. http://www. scientific.springerlink.1 Bibliography Alexander. dex.soton. Beshears. M.

. D. Willis. Soren (2002).). Robin Good Blog.learningcircuits. http://www. R. Aavani. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp. http://www. http://www. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning.. J. J. http://www. http://www. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. & Weber. and Forster. A.htm # Clapp..zcu.pdf Strijbos. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. June 22. Collaboration First. and Sharifi. 2565-2569. and Jochems.pdf? Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Gibson. May Elliot.htm Canali De Rossi.cfm/files/pape r_12386. Fitzgerald. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. Robin Good Blog. June 5. http://ifets. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings.. VA: AACE.. http://www. Sept. Kirschner. Robin Good Blog. 2003.. Institute for the Future White Paper. June 30. http://ifets. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects hnology_of_cooperation. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. Findlay. Kirschner. J. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. Price. 5(1).org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. Bjorn (Ed. Luigi (2004a).editlib. University of Athabasca. Carlsen. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. (2002). McFerrin.cmswatch. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. and Martens. /kreijns. Robin Good ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports.htm Canali De Rossi. Luigi (2005). http://cde. Learning (2004). http://www. D..html Munkvold. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. 5(1). 72 © Brandon Hall Research . Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.masternewmedia. Educational Technology & 5/Poster/J03-full.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott.. Live ELearning. Luigi (2004b). .com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi.. R. Robin Good Blog.athabascau.htm Canali De Rossi.html Kreijns. (2005). (2004). W.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. A. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.htm Canali De Rossi. 2004. 827-829). D.html Hurst. J. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. CMS 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. R. (Eds. (2002). P. R. /ewing.) (2004). The State Of Collaboration Technologies. K. /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. (Eds. I. http://www. Proceedings. http://wscg. Luigi (2003b).masternewmedia. and Miller. M. A.rheingold. Matthew (2004). Luigi (2003a). A. http://www.N. 3. Educational Technology & Society. In Crawford. J. and Thomas.pdf /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. Palo Alto. August 2002.masternewmedia..html Institute for the Future (2005).) (2003). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. January 2005. Then Knowledge Management. London: Springer-Verlag. January 21. CA. Technologies of Cooperation... C.masternewmedia. (2002).

Norwell. Innovation and Development. Studies in Learning. http://sleid. K.. 1(2). (2004). 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. MA: Kluwer Academic Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .cqu. http://www. Callan. J. & Purnell. G.. 24.

chat. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. messaging. discussion forums. and yet tailored and UK.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Her influential Conversational Framework theory ( Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer.jisc.48. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. telepresence. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail. Hegarty et al.editlib. http://www. For example.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. developed in Brazil. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication.” http://goldenswamp. whiteboards. telephony.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. including communications tools.janison. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. instant messaging. VoIP. Create instant online discussion spaces with the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via ml The Learning Place in Queensland.71. Find her work at: http://64. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. a process referred to as “text mentoring. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. Selected Examples In It is being developed into a transportable. discussion groups. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. labs. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. For Laurillard.conversate.

University of and Collins. CAP e-Guide.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. International Journal on E-Learning. e-Book.html Laurillard. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. distance-learning course at Keele University. http://www. Pattie (2005).ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 .htm http://www.htm . M. esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ LaCroix. University of Athabasca.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.pdf Kadirire. Nick (2002). 31. F. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your JulySept. Komzak. 2002. D.. http://www. Mark (2004). .org/ 002/elearn. (2004).athabascau. E-Learning 1.learningcircuits. 2005 http://www.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of rmed35. Technologies of Online Learning. Francis. http://safety. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. and Cerri.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Diana (1993).uk/eclipse/Resource s/im. Laurik. Learning /sb%20cf%20tool. J. London: Eleuterio.formatex. (2002). http://m. CharityVillage. 13-20.jisc. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: Sven (2002). > http://www. 2002.elearningcentre. M. http://www2.html Morgan. Jan.fasfind. 2004. University of elegi/session1/ Library. S. I. Computer Mediated Communication. and telephony tools. 199-212.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley.elearningcentre. September 23. Hegarty. James (2005). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.charityvillage. J.hbs.bcs. (Mlearn 2002). and Bortolozzi. M. 31 (3). (2004). 19. S.warwick. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Working Knowledge Newsletter. (2005).cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within s/usingoutlook.. http://ewic. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. R. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new. June. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. (2000). Aug. J.editlib. s. British Journal of Educational Technology. http://www. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference..0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. J. and 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. and Elliott.

Stone. 2002. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. J. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002) A. June. ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. and Briggs.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/papers/Stone_A. (2002). 20-21. http://dircweb.

organizational and personal goals are tied together. Edwards Deming.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. skills verification. diagnose symptoms. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. go to: www. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring.” it started in 1950 with Dr. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. a Harvard psychologist.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. David McClelland. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action. and carry out proper procedures. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. abilities and behaviors of an excellent Physicians need to be able to gather data. Description According to Sanders (2001).” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. W. 2000). performance appraisal. For a large list of competencies for physicians.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system. 2005). Known in the early days as the “quality movement. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance.itsc. https://launchpad. hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. skills dex. In 1973. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. see below) and performance or talent management systems. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. competency-based training. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.imsproject.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. entering defined competencies into a /Competencies.

New York: Handbook I: The Cognitive es/ http://www.hrsg. Express 001/competencies. Read their white paper at: http://www. Chief Learning Officer. http://www.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research See the list of competencies at: n_resources/learning.shtml http://www. Sudipta (2005). Building a skills inventory.cipd. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper..html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. London: Wiley.htm Online Resources HRSG.html The 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 http://www. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. Josh (2006). For example.syberworks.clomedia. Benjamin (1956).php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. a Canadian company. http://www.ncrel. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most New York: David McKay.” http://www.cpgvision. http://www.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module ethods/assment/as7scans. http://www. Competency and competency frameworks. April 25. IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. activities. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: Oracle Learning Management System http://www.E.expresscomputeronline. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. Ken (2000). htm Many companies have their own competency 050425/technologylife01. R. 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. and development interventions. regardless of industry or sector. objectives. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach.desire2learn. Clare (2005). (1982).

http://www. Ellen (2000). F. Ethan (2001). Godfrey (2005). April 30. R.linezine. Competency Frameworks. pp. Study 706.collectionscanada. N. Learning Circuits. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. New York: John Wiley. v.html Radsma. S. and Grigorenko. (2004). (2000). http://www. G.cipd. Competencies.learningcircuits. http://www. http://www. (2003).co. Parkin’s Lot. Cambridge. London: IDS. http://www. White paper from Operitel Corporation. http://www.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. Master's thesis. Michael. (2001).amazon.. Emerging technology trends in e-learning. N.blogspot. Creating a Culture of Competence.htm /DispForm.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. (2001). Rankin. (1973).com/2.operitel. and Neathy. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. and Hollyforde. http://www. 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005.pdf Rankin. P. Johanna. The Psychology of Abilities. UK: Cambridge University Press. American ompetency-based-learningmanagement. Competency based learning management. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. (2005).htm Whiddett. (2001).html Sternberg. London: IRS. E-Learning Competencies. Fall 2000. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. 2005.operitel. 2nd ed. LineZine: Learning in the New 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Sanders. (Eds. Gary (2004). http://www. March 2001. and t/competnces/comptfrmwk. Operitel Corporation. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. and Expertise. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. E. http://parkinslot. and Cahorn. Miller.1/features/ewet te. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. University of Toronto. London: IRS. http://www.) (2003).com /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. S. White 001/competencies. (1999).htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Rankin. David. P.

to date.” http://drupal. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. Unfortunately.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. and reporting. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS. displaying a course catalogue. If you could afford it. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. in fact. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. According to its official Web site. http://www. They have designed competitive. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks.” As well. Learning objects. Today. I feel that closed. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems. manage. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. First. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. functionality to an ECM.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it.atutor. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the Drupal is an open source content management system. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. such as registering users. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). you could hire a company to build a private. 2006). the standardized railway system still works while private. rather than complementary. LCMS. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. launching 80 © Brandon Hall Research . and “topic maps. With the advent of learning objects. Repositories.

pdf Weigel.topicmaps. Retalis.html McGee.cmsmatrix.softlab.htm Siemens. 40(3). 2005. http://www. May/June. Curtis (2005).elearnspace. (2005).blogspot.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. Scott (2005).com/content/templat es/ S. and publish to multiple outputs.. George (2003). reuse in many Bibliography Bonk. http://www.topicmap. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. http://www. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. Van (2005). (2006). New Thinking Blog. S. Educause Review. PA: Idea Group. Budapest.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . Mashups. P. San Jose. Jafari.) (2005).” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. 2006. The So Sad and Silly State of the ntmanagement. March 2005. 2003. A. http://www. Chief Learning Officer 689. and Carmean. http://sakaiproject. Why content management software hasn’t worked. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems.e-learningcentre. http://www. Cisco Corporation White Paper. Learning Solutions. Gerry (2003).html Cisco Leslie. > > http://www. January 23.gerrymcgovern. Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. Ed. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. erm0533. http://www. http://www. atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. (2003). McGovern. ( Topic maps are an alternative to the present day AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source.educause. (2004). http://plone.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. 2005. EdTechPost blog. G.pdf Cohen.clomedia. June 9. http://www. May 15. 18. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. 2003.htm Simon. It allows training and e-learning providers to author http://www.asp Woodill. Strategies for managing scalable content. Hershey. Content Management: our organized future. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. 2003. 2005. elearnspace and Oliveira. March 3. “Monoliths. TravelinEdMan blog. http://www. C. and Brantner.

How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. 2000. delivery models and infrastructure investment. Luan and Willett. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. personalization methods. Consequently. knowledge discovery. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). As data mining tools and techniques evolve. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. 2001).

edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. http://www.kent. and Kamel. M Fayyad. and Web Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney.. http://www. (cited in Luan and Willett.html Bibliography De Veaux. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. by applying fuzzy logic. Feb. See a list of her research in this area at: U.. New York: Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining. Grigoriev. edited U. and Tschiedel. (2000) -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. G.cs.convera.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find roducts/product_profile/smart. New York: Springer. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.icosystem. B. and Smyth.kdnuggets. California. (2004). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. 1--34. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. http://www. What’s Not. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. Smyth.pdf Jantke. (1996).soul. Both products are from Convera.html Hammouda. Australia. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. pp.amstatonline. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Data Mining: What’s New. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured x..pdf Freitas. http://www. 1996. M. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. G. 13-16 http://asbointl. ted/Deveaux. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop. 2001) http://www. In entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages.uwaterloo. Data Mining in e-Learning. Robert (2002). knowledge discovery.usyd. Thalheim. K. P. text mining.. (2006). P. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. P.pdf Fayyad. Uthurusamy. Long Beach. G. Samuel (Ed. Do not reproduce 83 .classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. http://pami. and R. Piatetsky. Grieser.hkuspace. Lange. R. B. http://www. K. 68(8).ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. http://pami. http://www. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation.pdf Iskander. School Business Affairs.. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. Alex (2002). http://imej.

13-16. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Train. 39-40. A. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and and Yacef.pdf Pahl. Porto. E. http://imej. and Ullrich. May 17-22. Billerica. and Willett. Gord (2004). M. (2006). and Ventura. J. Hiroshima. (2001). http://www. and K. and Cheung. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. B. C. Scholl.. J. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. 641523. K. 7(1). Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). ports/dmkm. Vol 4. K. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational 84 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Yacef (2005).editlib. http://www2004. Elect-ronic Journal of David (2005). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.ccsd. International Journal on ELearning. C. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. (2006).pdf Mor. Claus (2004).cabrillo. A. S.ags.pdf Monk. http://www. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052. (2004).de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004.aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. 15(4). 52-59.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.asp Merceron. 47-55.pdf McCalla.wfu. 2004 (7). Advances in Management Information. Feb. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004).aace. MA: WIT Press. and Minguillon. Innsbruck. 3(4). In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). http://wwwjime. 319-346. DF/Merceron_Yacef. and Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications.2004. 3(1). Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. http://www.. Yacef (2004).ejel.-Dec. http://archiveedutice. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex. Romero. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. 238-241. analyze for more adaptive teaching. (2004). Japan. Oliveira. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.unikiel. http://csdl2. C. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About NYC. In Proceedings. Maomi (2004).html Ueno. 2006. 264. Data Mining in e-Learning. http://www. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.. (2004). T.pdf Merceron.unisb. 41-54. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.informatik.compmech. Portugal. http://www.pdf Loo. RP Conference Presentation.

The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support. http://www.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. http://www. http://www. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation sion_support_tool/index.decisionarium.utoronto.whichbook. http://www.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 . For example. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time. is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four The software then recommends books that you might like to . http://www. 4) develop an action plan.une.sal.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. 2) categorize. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation.bnhexpertsoft. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. 3) vote/prior-itize. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.hut. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for Facilitate. 5) carry out a survey. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. and 6) document in their case study of medical education.

In Proceedings. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. Theresa (1998). (2000). O.pdf Jantke.uottawa.informatik. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization.pdf Ounapuu. http://www. Aachen. E03DaMiT.meetingworks. http://www. Hawaii. http://www. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems /wshop10/ .pdf Ehtamo.. Germany. 317-328. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. Rostanin.” bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. August. and Tschiedel. (2003).. Enn (2004).manchester.html Rhyne. Hamalainen.html Hamalainen. H. 2004.actapress. White paper from BNH Expert Software. S. 101-110. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Jay (2004).pdf Jantke. June 20-24. B. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.pdf Chakrabarty. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . 23(4). http://damit. Information Systems for a Connected Society. Porto.hut.html Scott. Memmel. SIGGRAPH publication. and Tschiedel. and information on this SSpapers/CLNGL03.hut..dfki. Jan. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. 238-241. 12(2-3). Portugal.bnhexpertsoft. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.2004.. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. and Koskinen. http://www.siggraph.unikiel.uniserve. B. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. A Brief History of Decision Support Clinical and Investigative Medicine. http://www.. In Vladimir Uskov ( ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. C. M. B. Enn (2005). http://science. G. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education. R. (2004). Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment.hicss..sal.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. P. see: (2004). DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. http://www.pdf Raimo (2003). Kankana (2005).hawaii.. http://www.dssresources. Gerhard (2003).pdf Power. K. Thalheim. http://dssresources. Manchester. Online manuscript. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis.pdf Knolmayer.sal. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. For newsletters. Thalheim. Jim (2002). B. K. Grieser.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/ Lange.. August 2005. Hawaii. http://www. and Frasson. Dan (2003). books. Grigoriev. http://www.

. PA: Idea CAL-laborate. M.the /vol9/scott.uniserve. F. 9. 2002. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies.ideagroup. Oct. Hershey. http://science. (2006).asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . Vol. http://www.html T. de Carvaho. and Laurindo.

P rojector. In regards to digital paper.cmu. Electronic paper could change that some day. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. By stacking a second projector. intelligent interfaces. digital paper.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.theregister. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content set/homeframeset.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. monitors. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. head mounted For air displays.” Selected Examples Samsung. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. 88 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.siliconlight. projectors. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. still/video /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing.ntera. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. viewers see a floating midair image or video. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. http://www.theregister.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. electronic paper. Finally. This can be a holographic image.io2technology. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University. http://killer. http://www. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners.ices. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of overview NTERA.html Promera is a hand-held computer. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). lighting up theater size screens. Inc. in cooperation with Sony. big enough to be projected on large > > http://www. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies.Displays Related terms Digital ink. In the near future. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen.

(1996). To access the articles. G.E.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display First Monday is a journal on new technologies.informatik. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.firstmonday. K. See a demo at: http://www. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. Tim (2005).” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. Government.. For a list of his publications. Hamburg.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. Germany. Livingston. see: London: Springer. http://portal. M.unifreiburg.).cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs.. A. 3. py/2005-eLearn.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.technorati.provisionentertainment.. T. Whitton. Healthcare. http://www. and Ottmann. Oct.informatik. Richards ( Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.loaz. http://thejournal.acm. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper. Largest LCD and video projection. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. see: http://www. paper?start=0 T. H.. and Pizer. http://ad. 2005. Hirota. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. pages 3053-3068.jisc.. 2005. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. Canada. ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. E. (2005). http://www.pdf Wang. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). s. In 2005. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. M.H. In G. State. Vancouver. S..

htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a olios. http://www. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility My first report in this Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. 90 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.nottingham.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. http://www. http://www. the global consortium that sets standards for Educause. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.osportfolio. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning.foliotek. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college. http://www. http://www. open source electronic dex. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any 2005).uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) s. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www. http://www. helping to transform education and LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www.chalkandwire.elearnspace.educa. evaluation. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.livetext. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.educause.iwebfolio. maximum flexibility. http://www. and simple usability.angellearning. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. http://isle.htm IMS. http://www.pebblelearning. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model.pupilpages.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms ortfolio/ FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio.

elearnspace. P.pdf Batson.campustechnology. e-portfolios. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. J. http://elgg. D. m0441.. D.. ePortfolios. (2002). V. Dec. J. http://ferl. April 1. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. has a section on e-portfolios. J.criticalmethods.eradc. D. Bob (2004).asp?id=6984 Cohn. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in (2005). W. Educause Review. T. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. THE Journal Online. http://www. http://www. informal learning and ubiquitous esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. G. and Werdmuller.educause. Online paper. B.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.educause. Educause Do not reproduce 91 . March. Feijen. 28–37. 2004 http://www. Frederick (2005) 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. Fall. (2002).com/magazine/vault / m0224. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. future thinking: digital repositories. 2005. Harvey. 37(2). 39. University of Iowa. and Hibbitts. Lee.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. Creating new views on learning: M0441. Business Communication Quarterly.educause.. with many links. S.pdf Love. July/ August 2004. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. G. Bibliography Achrazoglou.htm Tosh. Educause Trent (2002). Cook.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Vol 27 No 4. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio Banks. G. J. Fleming. (2003). http://www.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. 16. B. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective. E. and Wade. vol. 3001. (2004). George (2004).becta. Aalderink. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.. and Haywood. College of Education dscape. Reflective learning. Online.cfm erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. Dec. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology.. http://www. M..pdf Greenberg.. Light. Trinity College.. J. http://www. Dublin. olios. 31(3). (Focus on Teaching). Online Paper.. ortfoliopaper. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. 4. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space..pdf ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. http://www. K. (2005). (2005). Gary (2004). http://connect. B.thejournal. an online resource on collaboration... no. FD Learning White Paper.alt. and McKean.educause. http://www. An Overview of e-Portfolios. Graham (2005). and Ittelson. (2004). elearnspace.

3/tosh. h/article1.. and portfolios.A.citejournal. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research 2(2). The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry.A. 144-169.http://www. & Figgins. http://www. ml Young. C. (2002). http://www.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. see: http://news. allows members of a game development team to work together. http://www. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive http://us. identity work. games. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). The toolset. from the University of Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. serious games. complex problem solving. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. and learning (Amory. play.” says that “in the mod Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community.freescale. dubbed XNA Studio. Examples include Hive7. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games.clickteam. helping speed up the game creation process. For a brief review of these tools.thinkingworlds. Cyworld. Constance Steinkuehler. 2003). One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. This game allows users to play. Marc Prensky (2003). Making such changes is part of what modding is http://www. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. /homepage. writing about “first person shooter games. Dr. 2005).microsoft.cyworld. There is a free 30-day trial version.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. as such. MySpace.facebook. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. create. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. Facebook. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . simulations. Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. and Second Life. http://www. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.myspace. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between In 2005. http://www.secondlife.

coe.aspx 8/index.htm Dr.for the hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. http://www. researchers. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player The former Game Technology Conference is now called or go directly to the Softimage Web Inc. Canada. and speakers on all aspects of Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.ucalgary. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: 94 © Brandon Hall Research .magnetargames. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. Many of their learning games resources are free.” Find his list of publications at: http://www. produces educational games for training. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.uga. > > http://www.mpjgaBKQ It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.” http://www.” Read her research at: http://website. http://www. You can read about them at Pluginz.programmersheaven. http://www. See the selection of games at: ames/default.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware).softimage. along with their Web Thiagi. http://www. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games. Some of their games are played by simply using The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.wisc. http://www. For example. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. Sign up at: http://www. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.htm Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. Review them at: The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. Started in North America. http://www.

pdf Swamy. N. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. New York: Cambridge University Press.php Reynolds. Dreher. 549-567.php Rieber. simulations and microworlds. S. Learning on Demand Bulletin. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler.iicm. Honolulu. R.uwf. R. C. Hawaii. and Inform. 2003. (2006).pdf Prensky. Developing Serious Games. http://www. Bryan (2006). Gamasutra. http://llt. 9(1).pdf Guetl. http://www. D.marcprensky. Language Learning and 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. pdf Reynolds. http://www. Oct. University of Wisconsin Madison. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. http://www. Gaming. G. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Chapter 33. 2005. Lloyd (2005) In Richard E. Mayer (Ed. H. ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Rob (2006b).. Serious Games: Games That Educate.uwf.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. /03/games_and_educa.xplanazine. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. http://www. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach.pdf Michael. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. Technology Trends for the Year. http://website. Games and Education = Oil and Water.Bibliography Amory.. http://www. ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. 2006. IT-University Copenhagen. 2005. June. S. see: http://www. 2003. Clifton Park. and Michael. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Marc (2003). 19. Gupta. 2006. (2005).pdf Godwin-Jones. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial /01/technology_tren. and Maurer. a2003. Bob (2005). D. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference. Doctoral dissertation.teachableagents. N. Alan (2003). Jan. 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Beers. January 2. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. Clifton Park. Multimedia learning in games. and /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. and . Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Simon (2005). 2005. 17-22. http://www.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen. (2005). June hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://www. http://www. http://jason.pdf (2005). Constance (2005). March 10. Rob (2006a). Train.cambridge. (2005).wisc. /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. Fourth J. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. and Biswas. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . SRI-BI.

commtechlab. 2004. http://woz.msu. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. Jason (2004).Tye. Michigan State University.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. Masters Thesis.

3. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately.. UK. FG2008. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. London.html Research by Dr. was held in Southampton. haptics. 2003. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. http://www.soton. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. M. For a list of papers: The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.. . looking for particular sequences. such as Markov models. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. Aug.pdf Borghi. affective computing.ucsd. Nicole (2001). Bibliography Allen. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception 803DES.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. eLearning Developers’ artificial intelligence. Ludwig-Maximilians University. Lombardi.tudelft. Maja Pantic of Imperial College.” http://mplab. http://www. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Munich.pdf Beringer.smartkom.ecs. L. Report No. April 10-12 2006. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence.fg2008. http://www. 18. Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition Porta. (2005). March. Michael (2003).fg2006. Artificial intelligence techniques. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. at the University of California. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. http://www. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 . including identifying commercial products. and robotics in elearning.

Gao. 47(1). 27-30. X. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). and Koike.Computer Communication. Visualization.xml&DOI=10.acm. (1997). S.F (1999). Michael (2004). An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. 21(9). Wesson.research. Setlock. Y.. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. http://www. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .110 9/CMPSAC. IEEE Transactions. ns/ps/siggraph02. M. and Ma. http://interact. T.rutgers. 675 .. and Chang.. L. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. http://doi. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. September 2002. In Proceedings. H. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. J.pdf Lee.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. Deller. Sato.ucsb. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. Lee.pdf Loi.884693 Chen.676 http://lcv. (2005). Fussell. Pittsburg. Y.2000. L. C. PA. A. W.1109/ICALT. Geiger. Toc.. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. July 22-27. http://www. 2004.1 50 Nakanishi. 191-196. Park. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. (2003). (2004). A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Peixoto. (1997). paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS.D. and Wong.pdf 0/paper/or03/027. P. Trainable Videorealistic Speech l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.actapress. (2000). Sept.. Y..aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. October 14-16. (2002). (2004). M.. Face and gesture recognition: overview. Canada http://cims.ercim. 1999. http://www. and Bobick. J. and Kim. 242-245. 884 – 900. A. T. http://cbcl. http://www. J. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. C.stat. 57-64. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).html Chang. and Poggio. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. Wong. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference.pdf Ou. In A.. G. A. and /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Chen. J. and Bender.ieeecomputersociety.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Computer vision in the interface.2005. Shi-Kuo (2000). P.iscslp2006. and ws/enw63/hci. In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.. Proceedings.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 / Korea.. S. Y. and Yang.pdf Wilson. July 1997.actapress. Vancouver. 442-446. IEEE Transactions. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). (2002).pdf Corradini. Nevada. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning... 2000. R. Las Vegas.pdf Ebert.ogi. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. (2005). http://www.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. J. http://www. (2005). http://csdl2. C. Communications of the ACM. 19(7).edu/mas963/enh encedwall.fsu.clayton.. British J.cse.recveb. D. C.

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corel. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of 100 © Brandon Hall Research . In acquiring Macromedia.autodesk. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.blender3d. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share. animation. Nevertheless.acdamerica. the same principles apply to user interface design. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Advanced Visual Systems GSharp Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa.techillustrator. Designing Web-Based x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www. Horton applied these in his 2000 Canvas Professional http://www.broderbund.avs. and playback.adobe. e-Learning By Design.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. post-production.html Blender . Download a copy: http://www.2. interactive creation.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years. and in his recent 2006 book. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling. Following are the ones most commonly used: p.

The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d. http://www. The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG).org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.IBM CATIA http://www306. http://www. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www. (2005).org/ http://esub.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools.pdf McConnell..htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. Tools and Techniques for ELearning. In P.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 hics. http://www. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .com. William (2000). http://grids.smartdraw. Gloria (2004). June 1-3. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.xaraxtreme. Fu-Kwan (2004). Potsdam. Pheonix. Kommers & G. http://www. Pallickara. http://www. Tools Usage Survey Results. http://www.elearningcentre. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/ aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005. William (2006). (2004). e-Learning by Design. William (1991).editlib. Designing WebBased One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is Richards (Eds. and Uyar.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d. 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books ED-Media ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and http://www. NY: John Wiley. The most listings are for 3-D software.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Japan · Sept 7-10. S.).3dlinks. New York: John SmartDraw http://www. X. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Tokyo.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www.pdf Qiu. Do not reproduce 101 .

asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research .stc. Edward (1997). Edward (1990).amazon. Cheshire. Evidence and Narrative . CT: Graphics Press. al/dataShow. 2nd 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Frances (2004). CT: Graphics 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. CT: Graphics. Cheshire. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. Edward (2001). Envisioning Information. http://www. http://www. Carolina Chapter. STC. Cheshire. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit.pdf Tufte. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.

and force-feedback mice.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems .it/projects/pureform.sssup. Read the press release at: http://www. http://www.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. Haptic devices come in many forms. > > http://wwwpercro. Finally. suits. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something. Do not reproduce 103 . http://www.immersion. including pens. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4.pureform.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. http://haptex.mpbtechnologies.handshakeinteractive. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual m_ghost/phantom.sensable. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. joysticks/ joypads. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.asp Body-based devices include gloves.sensegraphics. gloves. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.html http://www. http://www. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . When used allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.unige. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.miralab.forcedimension.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www.” Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force

The Haptic Museum.informatik. L. 2004. Shahabi. and Hughes. G. Medioni. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Toc. Upper Saddle River. 3-5 June 2004. M. New York Times (Online). McLaughlin.. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. Vincent (2005).pdf O’Modhrain.” http://www. http://csdl2. http://csdl. (2005).ccii.html Levesque.Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics..isfh. David (2003). http://web. Prentice Hall online article. Wired News. 2003. and Sukhatume. (2003).1. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Reaching through the net to 30/1059480393138. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. C.. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. G. G. http://haptex. Proceedings. 22. Research report. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05).html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research.pdf McLaughlin. ss/ACC239.pdf Rowell. and Ichitsubo. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Donnelly. Sukhatme. April.roblesdelatorre. http://www.usc. R. http://www. Haptics Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. Santa Clara.1_release-public.miralab. McHugh.pdf Ó /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. M. http://www.. 2005.cim. (2000). http://www. http://www. M. s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428.html Ross.xml&DOI=10. Deliverable D4.smh.1109/ICALT.unige. S. and Essl. (2002). Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. M..html O’Malley. 2003. A. Inoue. S.unitrier. Nakamura. Abbott. Daithí (2003). D.” http://www. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. 2005. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03).S.pdf O’Modhrain. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). Centre for Intelligent Machines. and Technology and Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems. http://www. McGill University.. (2005).ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. J.phptr. http://www.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . (1997).edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.. Laurie (2004). Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. ml Kushner.B.pdf Hespanha. Japan. IME04-grain-revised2. M.haptics-e. and Gillespie. N.. Proceedings. Dobreva. and Rusbridge. Chapter on Haptics. M. Reality Y. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.unipi.S. M.. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. M. July 31. Report delivered January 15.2005. NJ: Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.mcgill. Italy in March. (2004). http://www. M..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. M. July 3. Oct.

The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception.asp?p=345621 Sakano. 1(3).com/articles/printerfrie ndly.. H. Kaneko. Y.journalofvision.informit. 250a. K. (2001).http://www. http://www. Journal of Do not reproduce 105 . & Uchikawa.

instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning s. gesture recognition.buffalo.html bleDisplay.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.eink." http://web.cmu. In 2005. display technologies. monitors. experience computing. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few 35n17/articles/Accuscript. digital paper. textures. Philips. see: http://www. like digital ink and hives/month/2005/20050713-01. However. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204). and some. http://www.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.” http://www. For a review. Called Librié. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface wearable computing. human-computer interaction.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .cmu. handwriting This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer 2571.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital head mounted displays. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them. projectors. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. they must interact with it through an interface device. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences. > > http://killer. haptics. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here.html http://killer.ices. tangible computing. see: http://www. Now in the research and development phase. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. Writing will require special digital pens. electronic link. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.html Description For humans to use a computer.ices. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. input devices.

au/edna/page4588. aging/resources/whiteboards. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards. http://www.thewirelessdirectory.05/ff_digitalink_pr. whiteboards. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. and 5) build. 3) . 4) ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training.channelnewsasia. and graphic.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards.cs. 2) roll. http://www. it is constantly being improved and updated. 1 Over the years.elearningcentre. See their advice and resources at: http://www.usask.smarttech. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links. http://www.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.logitech. http://www.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.cs. 3/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.wired. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916. http://www.lifehacker. human computer interaction. http://www.thegrid.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format. 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. Although this technology has been around for a few The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers.edfacilities.aclearn. http://www. consisting of a pen and a charger.swan. http://www. These methods are 1) touch.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . Following are three such articles: > On their “Experience Computing” Web site. http://www. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down.wacom.becta.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens. hiteboards. . Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing. Y. and Ottmann.00. (2006).org. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. Haag. Oct.html Wong.> > 15(3). Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. Vancouver. 2003. Read. 2004.pdf Otsuki.htm Zeichick. http://ad. Kato.html http://www. S. T. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and eSchool News Online. University of London. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. The Mercury story/0. http://ad. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. 257-269.08/epapers.unifreiburg. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report. Edinburgh. http://www. N. and Microsoft’s Tablet PC. M. Springer. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www.uclan.pdf Cross. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Bandoh.). http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. Fri.mspx Bibliography .com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388. C. Jan. The most flexible paper yet Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery. ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. HCI2005. Scotland. April 7. Richards (Ed.. http://education. 6.informatik.wired..unifreiburg. Alan (2004). Indurkhya.04/anoto. http://www. is described in a 2002 press release. Adelaide.devx. Will (2004).html eSchool story/0. and py/2005-eLearn. 2005. (2003).co. J.pdf Revell.virtuallearning. 2006. Guardian Unlimited. H. py/2006-tabletop.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Julie (2002). 26. January 6. (2004). http://www. K.eschoolnews.anoto. K. June pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. Nicole (2006). December 22. Michael (2005). Guardian Unlimited.newscientist. Phil (2004).pdf Mohamed. King’s College.html In G. 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden.informatik.aace. B. (2005). T.. Dal-RI. (2005). NewScientist Magazine (Online). In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. ory. J.10577. F. Tablet PC Developer. res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model. http://education. with its use of digital ink.

learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture.e. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). elearning portals. Content management.. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 .” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. conversation. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. 2005). and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. Course Management Systems (CMS). especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. Whenever possible.

Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www. The Element K . more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.TrainingMine http://www. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. which has the following aims: > > > > For GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc. instructors and resources creating communities of learning. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.” Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise Avilar Technologies roles. The LMS companies. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . more control over their own data For faculty. a contact management Gyrus . a leading open source learning management system.Training Partner http://www.trainingpartner. content-driven forums run by experts. groups. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.Training Wizard MX/SST Cornerstone OnDemand Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems.avilar. . and other academic GeoLearning Inc.cornerstoneondemand.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. a search engine. To quote the developers. in alphabetical order. p103. . .IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation.KnowledgeHub http://www. a communic-ation platform. one of the LMS vendors listed below. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). is available as a free download.academici. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D Compendium Corporation .elementk.WebMentor LMS http://www. http://opensourceschools.gyrus.g. more control over the learning environment For institutions.gen21. > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups. .compendiumcorp.pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Frontline Data Solutions. .php EVE. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal IBM .geolearning. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).GeoMaestro http://www. SSE . .ca/en/default. .ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/ Technomedia Training Inc.html Plateau Systems .ibm. .asp SumTotal Systems Inc.Plateau Learning Management System .epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.cfm TEDS Inc.plateau.Net Learning Management LearnSomething Inc.wizdom. .Oracle Learning http://www.intralearn.vuepoint.wbtsystems.webraven.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) . .com/products/saba/learni ng/index.intellinex. .com e. .html OutStart Inc.OnTracker LMS Strategia .Virtual Training Assistant http://www.htm SAP . Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.maxit.CourseMill LMS http://www.IntraLearn XE http://www.aspx RISC NetDimensions .com Websoft Systems Inc.LearnerWeb http://www.LMSLive Integrated Performance Systems.risc-inc.operitel.Syntrio Enterprise LMS Novasys Information Services Ltd.html IntraLearn Software n_resources/learning.html?Open InfoSource Intellinex Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite WBT Systems .OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.learnsomething.LearnCenter http://www.TopClass LMS Learning System http://www. .syntrio. KnowledgePlanet Inc. mGen TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.Dynamic Online Training System Vuepoint .Isoph Blue http://www.mGen Enterprise Saba .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd _01_01.knowledgeplanet.SSA Learning Management http://www. – TEDS http://www.SAP Learning Solution http://www.TM SIGAL .SSElearn Portal http://www.asp Syntrio . Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.http://www.TotalLMS TeraLearn.Saba Enterprise Learning Suite dex.Intellinex LMS http://www.mgen. – KnowledgeBridge http://www. TrainingOffice Audit MaxIT .ips-inc.howtomaster.Ed Training Platform soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.LearnFlex LMS http://www.isnewmedia.jsp Operitel Corporation .InfoSource http://www.teralearn.aspx Oracle USA Do not reproduce 111 .Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) Wizdom Systems Inc.html Trivantis Corporation . .websoft.

Incorporated Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.e-learningcentre. http://www. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .thelearningmanager.htm Bouras. . August.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .info/static. Ed. Jan. ICALT2002 Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. T. Sam (2005).jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS).Xtention Learning Management System http://www. http://www. University of Birmingham. . http://lttf.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long)..71. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. (Online edition).learningcircuits. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.building new education strategies for schools. October.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. Learning Circuits.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc.unitn.. For a review of leading open source learning management 005/adkins. by Sam Adkins. and Trifonova. XStream Software Inc. A.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.eun.jisc. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. L.PDF (2002).A possible future for online learning. 2006.The Learning Manager http://www. and Tsiatsos. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems. Wake-Up Call: open source Pierre (2000). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. Ronchetti. Teresa from the JISC in the UK. Molinari. http://www. Proceedings. A. M.pdf Dillenbourg.melcoe. . Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 http://www.” and open source course and learning content management systems. (2002). http://www.pdf Cohen. UK.pdf Dalziel. http://www. Virtual Learning gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography c/clo0806/ Workshop on virtual learning environments. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features.edutools. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).cetis. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. June 20-21.48. James (2003).org/eun. (2006). Building educational virtual environments.xtention. http://incsub." 005/adkins. James (2005). C. Chief Learning Xtention Inc. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. 21.

ac.pdf Sadeghi. May-June. J. Avgoustos (2004).cfm?fuse action=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 m0533. Czech Republic. nakos. M (2005). http://www. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log 31-Feb.anadolu. T. Proceedings of ALT-C.pdf Morrison. Vancouver. May 2006 http://www. R. and Walker. http://wscg. M. April. Derek (2004). 2005. 5(2).manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE).edu. November 2004. 5/Poster/J03-full. LMS Governance Project Report. survey_2005.unimelb. and Sharifi. Government.. (2005). Report for the Melbourne. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Educause Review.infodiv. Plzen.aace.pdf Wise. Maomi (2005). Healthcare.pdf Ueno. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. 2005. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system.ucisa. Van (2005).pdf Tsinakos. Aavani. Browne. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom. Proceedings. and Quealy. and Higher Education 2005.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies. 40(3). E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. October 2005. Report published by almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 113 .zcu. http://tojde. (2006). 4.. WSCG Conference 2005. J. Exeter. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .

They are emulations of “software objects. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. learning object model (LOM). a well-known standard for learning objects. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. This idea is based on older. The acronym SCORM. curriculum. there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code.” This use has been more successful. Beyond that. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. sharable content objects (SCOs). and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. computer-use practices. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). usually referred to as “learning object repositories. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. Learning objects have several uses. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. 2004. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. rapid learning. learning object repository (LOR). as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. SCORM. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. intelligent tutoring. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. culture. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . As online educational materials are produced. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. 2006). “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. of learning objects. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. At the simplest level.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. Rather. However. Wiley. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. reusable learning objects (RLOs).” such as a graph. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs).

html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.rice.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media.goenc. and they can be general or subject Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California.koha. indexes.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. resources for grades K-12.oise. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.sir. preserves. Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects. http://www. http://www. IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. http://www. stores.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.thegateway.mcli.000 o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher http://www.uwaterloo. http://www. http://dspace.fedora. hosted by the University of Victoria in DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.educanext. with a focus on information literacy.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects. http://www. http://web. http://ideas. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada. The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.profetic. http://mlor. and distributes digital research material.cdlib. O/cloe_stories. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects. http://www.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.maricopa.lrc3. http://lester. Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. with almost 15.

html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.irrodl.dicole. dex. m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. (2003).” also known as LORs – learning object repositories. http://www.itdl. Celentano. UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.cancore. Software Architecture Document..aace. 2(4). M. F.1/downes . (2004). The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational 02. EdTechPost.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. And Longo. San Francisco: Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog. http://www. J. CANCORE.html Edusource (2003). 1(3).org/guidelines/ etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 b. Online paper. and Anderson.htm Collis.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard. Bibliography Barritt. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. (2004).uis.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://dl.html For a highly critical view of learning objects.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects. 002089. International Journal on E-Learning. & Strijker. Stephen. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. and Alderman. http://www. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. M. http://www.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use.edtechpost.doc Christiansen.jcdl. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Online us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.uniroma1. (2000). is available at: http://www. (2004). Version .edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections. http://www. B. March.uwm.unesco. http://www.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. http://www.nmc.L.9. 2(1).elearnspace. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.html 681.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. T. 5-16.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201. see Teemu Leinonen’s article.lornet. authored by Rachel Smith. http://www.

learningcircuits. March.. http://www. (2004). G. Lori (2002). Learning Material Repositories . Derek (2004b). Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. G. Do not reproduce 117 . Research Report.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. M.. Jan. and Pragnell. (2004). S. and Mohammed. Rossano.itdl. Rory (Ed.cancore. and Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). March. Wolfgang (2004). http://ideas. 1 (3). Online Education Using Learning Objects. A Primer on Learning Objects.Rafts or Battleships? . http://proceedings.Part 2. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking e/ 002/ 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences. and Morales.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer. http://www. 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Anderson. Paquette. PADLR-final-report. London: Falmer.html Leeder. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. V...pdf Richards. http://www. T. Babin.pdf Krauss. Warren (2000). Norm (2005). R. (2005). (2002). March. Learning Circuits. cts. S.http://www. McGreal. Downes.. http://www. 1(3). 7(1).) (2004).uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/ Online paper. June. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Aug.html Heery.9%2015-11-03. http://www.usq. (2004). July 14. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of Fredinand (2004). Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction.. J. 03.doc M. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore.eduserv. Friesen. Learning Circuits.htm Friesen.edusource. Norm (2006). Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education.Rafts or Battleships? . April 2002. Derek (2004a).pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Learning Material Repositories .bath.html Friesen. Rachel (2006).org.. http://www. R. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality.learningcircuits. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. D.htm Morrison. http://www. 01.cfm/files/pape r_11841.. Elizabeth (2004). IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning usability. http://www.editlib. Paper presented. Hatala. INTERACT 2005.itdl.html McGreal..kth. T.html Murphy.htm Nejdl.blogs.. http://www. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Harrigan. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object http://www. G. http://www. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. Final Project Report. 12. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. March. http://www. D. K. R..informingscience. Online.. Mattson. InSITE conference.bath. 2004. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action. S. df etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. 14. e/morriblog_more. 2004. and Schafer. T.Part 1. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Richards.learninglab.

org/docs/ no-pres. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Objects of Interest.uniroma1..).. 9. and 118 © Brandon Hall Research . David A.p df Wiley. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. Govinda. M. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.dis. (Ed.pdf http://www. Clive. David A.> > http://www. (2000).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. (2004). David A. Jan.htm Shepherd. 1(7).org/read/ Wiley.itdl.pdf Santally.dis. http://opencontent. (2000). M.fastrakconsulting. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. (2002).uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects. Online. (2006). 2. A.uniroma1.htm Wiley. : http://reusability. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Brigham Young University. RIP-ing on Learning Objects. http://opencontent. Iterating Toward Openness. Doctoral http://www.

with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural Clark Labs .org/ ESRI. including cell phones.http://www. personal media players. findability. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.http://www. galleries. laptops. Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. more demands for a person’s attention. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).mapinfo. proximity tools. and wearable computers.intergraph. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. location-based systems are found in museums. including privacy concerns. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information.esri. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. users will be able to use a variety of Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.http://www. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. Intergraph . Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. galleries. PDAs. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. However.http://www. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .frappr. gaming consoles. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. and security MapInfo .S. as with any new technology. Department of Defense. navigation. Do not reproduce 119 .clarklabs. http://www.

Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world.esri. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.berkeley. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. http://earth. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.searchable from a database. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River While not very useful for most Platial enables anyone to http://www.leeds. CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.pangonetworks.000 archaeological sites in the state.bham. CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.” http://www. at: http://www. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.geog. At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. it is a great tool for teaching science. GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for as well as papers on trends in GIS.smm. http://local. http://www.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars. Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class See their complete range of products. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery. http://www.asp?path= 500. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. similar to what a GIS system uses. 120 © Brandon Hall Research . http://mvz. http://www.

info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031. (2003). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. and Rusbridge. Steve (2005). Fabrizio (2005). Jan e/education/ M. http://elearningeuropa.C.html Ross.research. Do not reproduce 121 . enthusiasts.directionsmag.. and Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial Cardinali.intergraph.gees. and Borriello. Information in places.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Online article. http://www. http://www.. http://www. http://pngis. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.geocomm. Heather (2005). (2001).org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic Abbott.00. N. A. Guardian Unlimited. IBM Systems Journal. Mapping. Learning Circuits. Nov. J.. (2005). A. F. http://www.opensourcegis. Part 021154_45.pdf has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. (1999). Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. Dec.. Koutsoudis. Issue 6.digicult. Future LocationBased Experiences. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.. > > http://geotags. Dobreva. http://www. D.htm McLean. McHugh.digicult. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. 2005.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.1642288. 38(4).pdf Spohrer.pdf Tsirliganis.ordnancesurvey.wisc. Location systems for ubiquitous computing. manipulate. 15. http://www. http://www. see: http://www. Eva (2004).uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. Arnaoutoglou. G. J. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the m The theme of the 2005 /jisctsw_05_01. 1999. 84/spohrer. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report story/0.learningcircuits. IEEE Bibliography Benford.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. 2005. We learning: social software and Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store..html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. DigiCULT 004/kaplan2.. http://www. and visualize spatial information. M. http://www..htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. Chapter on Location Based Devices. http://www. Pavlidis. and Location-Based industry professionals. Donnelly. and January.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower. C. S.

hybrid applications. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. For example. tag clouds. composite applications. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. or protocol.Mashups. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. etc. the rules for sending files across the Internet. Many of these objects are software programs.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses.” that is. to a lesser extent. of how to communicate with each other.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. providing an informal collaborative environment. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. all expressed in binary code. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. document management. Similarly. Programs can be “stand alone. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. integration. API clouds. personalized. in schools and universities. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. communications. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. such as those for collaboration. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. run all by themselves.” Using SOAP. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. at the same time. For two or more programs to talk to each other. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules.” then. 2004).. Mashups are constructed in several ways. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. or through “Web services. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. A “mashup. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. also called “object interoperability.

SOAP. 6. a writer for Business Week. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. Issue 1.deitel. Issue gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index. Robert (2005). January 2004 http://lttf. Bibliography Gruman. Enterprise mashups. http://ww6. March 6. July chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 . Douglas (2004).businessweek. Business Week Online.pdf Seimens. As Warlick (2006) has noted. Web Services. http://blogs.html Hof.wikipedia. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services.0*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063. 2006. (2004). 2005. January 2004 http://lttf. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.pdf Stacey.mashupfeed.infoworld.icio. May services. July 25. Dec. trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. George (undated). G. Learning Solutions. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. Mashups. techLEARNING.emilychang. 2006.icio. and Padron.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.htm Siviter. Infoworld. and > > http://www. 6. J. Mix.techlearning.” It has many examples of mashups. Learning Technology newsletter.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. http://en.businessweek. Paul (2002). (2006).org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. Elearnspace.programmableweb. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Dodero. ey-dec0602.operitel.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning 2006. Vol. Learning Technology Woodill.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. and mutate. Many have educational value. online curriculum is more and more becoming a ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups.elearnspace. match. http://www. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning ry2004/ ResourceCenter. Galen (2006).html Warlick. C. 2002.htm Rob Hof. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. C. http://del. http://www. 6. Curriculum as Mashup. http://www. David (2006). http://www. http://www. http://www. Vol.

http://www. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. Delphi Group report. community. A.php?id=25 Chen. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. Ohio.. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. and Joshi. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. C. http://libraries. Finin. metadata. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.pdf Delphi Group (2004). Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. http://iiscs..ifets. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. Barry. to develop metadata standards.” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd.educause. MA.. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. Bibliography tadata/index. and institutional stores. /105. 7(4). and in the context of information technology. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide. An ontology. H.cancore. M. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. (2004) http://www. http://simile.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies.Metadata. Boston. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. and artificial intelligence are being developed. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. search engines. repositories. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. pervasive =O4E.umbc. http://ebiquity. In Proceedings. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. 98-111. C.imsglobal. T. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. B. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. http://dublincore.. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. June 2004..asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. and services. (2004). The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways. http://www.cetis. A. Lenne. Benayache.. http://metadata. Moulin. Ontology-based organizational memory for 124 © Brandon Hall Research . Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).html Description At the same time that learning objects..

May 22. Green Chameleon. Building a Metadata-Based Website.. 7(4). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. 2006. http://www. http://tomgruber. http://www. and pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. S. J. Do not reproduce 125 . D. Reuben (2004).pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Stuart (2005).http://www. 2005. Learning Circuits.html Gruber. Another new paradigm for instructional aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. 2004. and Godby. P. Journal of Educational Technology and Society..learningcircuits. http://www. http://dl.htm Gruber.ifets. BoxesAndArrows. and Diaz. eibel. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. G. and Mosoiu. 7(4). M. April 9. 11(7/8). Chen.php?id=25 Kroski.blogsome. Lytras.html Wodtke. Trondheim. http://www. July/August. Adam (2004). and Nejdl.php?id=25 Tozman.dlib. International Journal on E-Learning. Ellyssa (2005). 2005. Online article. http://tomgruber.niso..boxesandarrows. J. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. http://www. Pouloudi.pdf Oin. http://www. D-Lib Magazine. http://www. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy.boxesandarrows. October-December. Presentation to Tag Camp. Dolog. 2002. Mathes.htm Weibel. TagOntology .com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. http://www. (2002). Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. M. Norway. B. Norm (2005). 004/tozman. BoxesAndArrows. (2004). 7. 2004. Christian (2004). (2004). Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. http://www.pdf Friesen.ppt Ricci. 82-97. eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. http://www. April 18. N. http://www. October 29.ifets. Defining “taxonomy”. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. W. Infotangle.. http://infotangle.pdf Henze. http://www.boxesandarrows. BoxesAndArrows. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. NISO Press. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Wagner. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based Patrick (2006). P. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. Thomas (2005b). (2003).info/ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. http://www.greenchameleon. Understanding Metadata.aace.ecdl2003.delphigroup. (2004).com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. 2003.. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. A. April 21. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges.tagcamp. (2003). A. Thomas (2005a).a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. A.. University of Illinois graduate paper. and Shao. Christina (2002).adammathes. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). of Educational Technology and Society. http://www. 70-81.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . 7(4).

personalization. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. brokerage. However. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. personalization. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. Cited in Prensky. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. location-dependence. personal digital assistants (PDA). wearable computing. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. tablet PCs. pervasive computing. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. time and space. in Japan.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. communicative skills and community building. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. cell phones.” Two years ago. mLearning. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. there were estimated to be 1. rich interaction.6 billion units in operation by that year. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. improved identity creation. instant messaging (text. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). and wearable computers in teaching and learning. and mentoring. powerful support for effective learning. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. Do not reproduce 127 . 2003). conversational learning. cellular telephones. location based technologies. video) and distributed databases. laptops. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. 2004). tablets. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. MP3 players. collaborative learning. it is predicted that there will be 2. strong search capabilities.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. (2004). using ambient intelligence. Essentially. such as increased computer literacy. multimedia. podcasting.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing.

fasfind. Israel.knowledgepulse. Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and g/index. earning. Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.” They have a “firefly watching system. Learn more at: Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the papers/JECR-2005.elearningcentre. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.” and a “bird watching learning system. http://spotlight-mobile.” a “butterflywatching learning system.fasfind.htm Jari Laru.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 papers/AINA2004-final. http://www. http://news.ccu. 25255.pdf http://www.pdf http://www.” > > > http://m. The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and of the University of Oulu in Finland.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. http://csdl2.” > > > 7. US. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. pictures. including Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.stockholmchallenge.beta80group.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. or a combination of media. applications. technologies. http://www. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 audio. gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile 128 © Brandon Hall Research . adult participants in the School’s professional development programs. and a glossary.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.cs.pdf location-specific text. http://www.harvard. activities.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological papers/bird.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. and pre-service teachers.ccu.cs.fasfind.

ntnu. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. and Sharma. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. Sept. 347-359. http://www. For example.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. http://www.msu.pdf ault. http://llt. Molinari. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. 17-22 http://llt.htm JISC (2005). http://213. (2002). Y. Language Learning and Technology.pdf Geddes.135/ipodined/news. A. (2005). /jisctsw_05_04pdf. http://www. Univ. January 2005..ccu. A. 9(1).net. September 2005. http://www.pdf Attewell. Bryan (2004). No. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning.J. (2004). http://www. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management ect%20summary. Learning and Skills Development Agency. and ndex. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.94. B.bham.pdf Bibliography /edition06/download/geddes. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Paul (2005).edu. P. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. R. http://mobile. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.pdf Bob Godwin-Jones.kaywa. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project and Pagani. and Sheu. No. Gaming. Report.html Chen. of Birmingham http://www. E. 39. http://www. Bob (2005). Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.idi. Emerging technologies: Messaging. Jill (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 129 .php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday 04.. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference.pdf Anderson. JISC http://www. http://knowledgetree. (2003). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Gaming. James (2005).eee..iadis.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile M0451.html Grew. 2006 in 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial rs/JCAL-2003. Vol. http://www.cs.jisc. 2(9).6. M.pdf Colazzo. L. 5.html ations. Ireland. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. T. Ronchetti.jisc. EDUCAUSE Review. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. Kao.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.educause. (2005). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. J.formatex.unitn.

S.. Glyfada. (2002).educause.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.pdf Metcalf. Feb. 2490. Kristóf (2002). Brisbane. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector... Peter (2005).. April Amherst. Draft paper submitted for publication. (2005). 130 © Brandon Hall Research . 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyí J. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual EDUCAUSE Review. Coralini. Roffia. Budapest. 2004_final_low..pdf 2005. Ellen (2005). and Nischelwitzer. ning. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate. and Cultural Heritage. computer-aided.innovateonline. June 27. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. May 23. and Yang.pdf Mellow.asp Liu. H. 40(3). (2005). m0532. http://www. http://www. Vecchietti.ox.htm#Implications Prensky. Växjö. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No. A. T. Marc (2004).oucs. Cinotti. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.110 9/ M..pdf Sharples. http://www. A.ascilite. Learning in the Mobile Age. multimediabased learning application. Wang. 2002.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. Archeology. D. UsabilityNews. http://21st.. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Mike (2005).open. and Vavoula. E-Learning on the move.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).00. June/July 2005. M. May/June 2005.century. and Dobreva. Teleborg Campus. Christopher (2005).au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. Michael (2005).uk/elearning/ comment/0. http://www.pdf Scagliarini. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context. T. Hungary. http://portal. (2001).doc Meisenberger.. Ann (2005). Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. L. Conference on Virtual reality.acm. M. Feb. (2004). A theory of learning for the mobile age. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. David (2006). rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. 2005. Towards a Philosophy of al. http://www. Neil (2003). J. and.1490476.bham.1039222 McLean. Växjö University. http://www. Enabling Mobile Learning. Liang. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. http://www.ieeecomputersociety. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference.eee. Australia. http://doi. http://kn. Malavasi.. August 29-30.. http://www. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Sweden.html von Koschembahr. http://www. es/clo_article.2. Taylor. Presented at WMTE 2002. Proceedings.fhjoanneum. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.phil-inst. Chief Learning Officer. and Sforza. E. http://drei.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. MA: HRD Press. Galasso. Chan.fil. F. 2004. ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Guardian Unlimited. Romagnoli. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. 1(5). S. http://education. M. http://www.. Pigozzi.digicult.Light..

http://www. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: http://www..cs.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . research.york. http://www. machine The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. natural language generation..aaai. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational Description According to Coxhead (2001). Do not reproduce 131 . gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education.lexxe. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language. http://tcc. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies. tools.ldc.itc.” See also Jordan et al.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. Lee et al. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. http://dmoz. speech recognition. an alternative communication strategy to improve . rather than just returning Web pages. (2005a.translating one natural language into another. http://www. Kim (2000). a component of intelligent tutoring systems. and standards. et al.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. speech synthesis. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.e. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring.elsnet. (2004). natural language understanding. (2004). It can be used as an interface for many different i. Di Eugenio. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.

this activity.

Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8


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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft



Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing


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Corporation. Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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135 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.

Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. 002/hofmann.html


© Brandon Hall Research

for the learner. and review his or her learning activity. A PLE is structured by the learner. whiteboard). without an offline client to the LMS. etc. This requires support over time. social environments. chat. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development.bham. Running on the learner's PC. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). In many cases. discussion forums. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. as learners move between institutions. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. Technology needs to be situated. such as search engines. manage. A PLE must support lifelong learning. blogs. and social bookmarking sites. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. amongst institutions. learning management systems.. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. Learning happens everywhere and at all efault. libraries. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Individualization in an LMS is weak. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning.cetadl. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. learners need to be in real-world situations. wikis. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. often only for the purposes of the course. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. http://portal. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. (Cortlett et al. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. but these are only available to members of the course. Secondly. To practice real-world situations. it helps the user plan.). which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. and.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. there can be no electronic interaction. and through a variety of technologies. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. e-portfolios. work places. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. T. 11. UK. http://www. Las Vegas. e/morriblog_more. Terry (2006).. (2005). Online case study paper. http://www.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).ac.edublogs.. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. 2006. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry. Jan.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his January 9. A personal learning environment based 0 on and Bibliography O. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.pdf Farmer.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. 22-27 July 2005. Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK. Incorporated Milligan.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working. http://terrya. e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the /birmingham. PLE Reference Edinburgh. http://www.. Ting. M.mlearn. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. http://incsub.jisc.cetis. Colin (2005). tt. Chan. J. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. James (2006). rces/cdm_ple_session.cetis. Sharples.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook.

Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented.).org/en/index. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. Furthermore. 2005). based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems.asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. and/or presentation of materials. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). 2005) Once the user data has been collected. picture.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need. PDAs).elenaproject. Keenoy et al. These techniques include content-based filtering. learning environments.ed. the personalization can be applied to” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e.hcrc. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.g. collaborative filtering. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes..g. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. rule-based filtering. navigation. artificial intelligence. (Filippini-Fantoni. or it can be an implicit model.. etc. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching. However. http://www. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.. http://www. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Often.g.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. etc. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. through a questionnaire). have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni.

New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. > > http://www..noekaleidoscope.pdf Cavalluzzi. University of Glasgow. A. http://www. A.gla. G. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. http://smart. Online paper. PowerPoint presentation.. Calimera Guidelines: onal/index. Adaptively Recommending Museum 20PDF/Personalisation..emarcon. Kay. and Nuguid. (2004).org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.virtualmuseum.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. with a particular focus on the museum sector. http://www.firstmonday. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). http://adiret.hatii.ascilite. and Kuflik. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum.pdf Calimera Project (2005).org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch. HATII.. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings. K. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces. J. William Niu.pdf Callaway.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Bowen. wireless networks. (2004).. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004.calimera. W. and FilippiniFantoni. D. (2005).net/home. The Future of Access (or.metmuseum.umuai. The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.unibo.(2001).uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture.cs.CY/0409055 Boyle T. https://www. dynamic user profiling techniques.cognitive traits. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile. 140 © Brandon Hall Research . Online paper.directa. De Carolis. A. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques. Pizzutilo.calimera. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use.. (2005).arces.unimagdeburg.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. http://www.pdf Beler. A.pdf Bright. Bibliography Abbott. http://www. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. T. S. and Cook J. Daisy (2002). J. A demo is available at: http://www. B.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. Ngo. /museomarmo.. A.html bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.pdf m/index.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. http://www. http://www. http://arxiv. s/ moulin. C. http://www. http://w5. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.. S. and Verdaguer.Info. (2003). http://lrnlab. (2004).. Online paper. Dillon. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. P. Issue 7. PA: Idea Group Publishing. C. Barcelona. N. Giroux. M.itc. O. S.usyd. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. PEACH http://peach.www2004. S.. Ecole du Louvre. Moulin.. O. Bowen. Roy (2004).nestafuturelab. (2005). Nejdl.p df Green.acm. M.pdf Heckmann. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. FutureLab report. 1–27. Dagger.pdf Dolog. A. H.24_Conlan. http://tmtfactory. 2005 www. In Mizzaro. s/informal/resources/File. Paris. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum.. (2003)..uniud.Information Access. V. http://www. M. In R.pdf Conlan. Facer. Montreal.. P. http://www. (Eds. Dominik (2003).Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. Online paper. and I. http://www. (2002). Málaga. Hershey. George (2005).. (2004). Italy. (2005). Spain.uni- Do not reproduce 141 nloads/ /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. Magical Mirror: multimedia. C. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. (2004).htm onalisation/report_01. D.learnexact. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.designshare.cs..6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. Soro. http://iswc2002. May 2002. W. Pianesi. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website.. Silvia (2003).. https://www.dimi. Web mining for web personalization. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.pdf Eirinaki.ppt Correia. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning and Cardinalli. (2005). New York.tcd. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. D. F. http://www. Personalization and Digital Technologies.di. Stock. May 2004. N. (AVI 2004). Wade.pdf Copa. science centres and ions/copa-reshaping-education. M.p df Filippini-Fantoni. P. T.1145/643477. May 25. and Numerico. URL: http://doi. http://www. University of Sydney (2004). May 25. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. l4RESULTS2004V2. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and interactive services in home automation. DigiCULT . Personalization through IT in museums. Paper presented at ELearn 2002.pdf Fuschi. /aims04. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. Subramaniam (Ed. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. April 2004.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. http://www... G. Henze.2004-1213.) (2002). In Proceedings of WWW2004 . and Zancanaro. and Tasso.. Sanna..semanticweb. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. D.pdf Goren-Bar.. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.pdf Ceccaroni. February. Kuflik.edfac. M. (AVI 2004). K. http://www. Gallipoli. T. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. or200406.ichim. 3(1). and Sintek. and Paddeu.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. and Boavida. Italy.jpbowen. September 2002. F. and Vazirgiannis. FutureLab. Graziola. X.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. (2002).

pdf Kay. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.pdf Klobučar. J. http://www. SeLeNe . and Peterson. 2004 http://www. and Montandon. Goren-Bar.ijs.pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). Nicola (2005). Kummerfeld. P. (2005). UK http://homepages... UM 2005. B.. A. J. S. and Niu.. W. http://adiret. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System.. (2004).edu. gs/icce/2002/1509/00/ scrutable_pums..cs.pdf Kuflik..Self E-Learning Networks.pdf Johnson. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.fiit. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of yNiu05. Stock. Brusilovsky. and Zancanaro. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www. J.1.. http://www. May 25. PIA Kummerfeld.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). Lum.. K. http://www. Waycott. V. Seničar. (2005).e5.2.inf.. P. and Conejo. Gallipoli. Proceedings of IIT. L. K. Final Version. Jones.pdf Henze.bbk.. Martin (2004). K. Dolog.ed. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents.. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.. editor. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. S.usyd. 142 © Brandon Hall Research . and Nejdl.pdf Henze. (2001). P. Online paper. 7(4):70-81. W.pdf Kay.4.l3s.cs. (2005). http://www.cs.kbs. In Mária Bieliková.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. W. (2002). A. (eds..itc.. Edinburgh.pdf Kuflik.uni-sb. Kay...pdf /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. 23-30 July 2005. Online paper. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. pers/PeachUM2005. P. T. P.ippr. and Blažič. B..cs. P. http://peach. 2005. Niu . /waswbe05.dcs. Levene. Rocchi. P. P. Penserini. Online paper. http://w5. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks. and Online paper. Educational Technology & Society. Yasuda.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www.. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. (2004).sb. M. pums. WP4 Deliverable 9/01/keenoy1. Callaway.. T. C. M. M. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. (2004).uk/selene/reports/ Del22. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).ac.pdf Keenoy.bbk.. Italy. http://eprints. .usyd. and Zancanaro.p df Iwazaki. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. J. (2004). D. Personis: A Server for User Models. Kaszas.unihannover. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. (2002).. M. (2005). http://www. A. http://csdl2.pdf Kay.unimagdeburg. Brasher. Yokoi. (2004). M. pages 249-256. Turcsanyi-Szabo. D. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. 2004. Jaroslav. and Okamoto.. IEEE Computer Society. Busetta. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). and Lauder. In: De Bra. October 2004. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. de Freitas. B.pdf Kuruc. T. N.

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while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. collaborative environment.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.Portals Related terms Collaboration. In the business world. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. content management. 2001). and real-time training and documents in a Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .elearningeuropa. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. Knowledge Management. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. vendors. http://www. As of early 2006. instructorled. the portal offered information on more than 20. learning management systems. which form a dynamic user profile. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases.

com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121.000 online courses http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron. document management information. March 1. e-mail distribution lists. and Sheehan. Bray (2001).nl/mart/CategoryView. Ron (2004). go to: http://www. PA: Information Science Publishing. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. interactive discussion groups. 2004.) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.000 lesson plans http://www.fathom. and including educational uses. M.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. school 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. May 2000. calendars. You’ve come a long ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. (2003). http://knowledgemanagement. baby! E-learning portals. http://www. http://www.executrain. Hershey. and New York: AMACOM.000 publishers worldwide http://www.asp Element K – Access to over news and 2000/Barron.www2. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.htm CyberU – Access to over 3.700 online courses http://www.trainingregistry. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Teach-nology – Access to over Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of wledge_center/index.elementk. Tom (2000). All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. audio and/or video. http://blogs. http://www.proquest. (Eds.worldwidelearn. http://h20219. Learning HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. category. 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins. instructors. Training Registry – Large online training directory www.Education. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. A. Heidi (2001).learningcircuits. museums. administrators.campustechnology. online meetings with text.300 online courses t/prodinfo/demo. http://www. In Jafari.cyberu. instant Brockbank. Campus Technology Magazine. students.aspx Bibliography World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. and Aucoin. http://www. A Portrait of Learning Portals.ittoolbox.tamtam.hp. Campbell. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line. and shared lists for 003/technologies/sharepoint/ m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.

J. http://www.asp Katz. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. PA: Information Science Publishing. M. (2003). C. Richard & Associates (2002). Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success. Reviewed at: http://www. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. http://www. and Sheehan. San Francisco: JosseyBass.educause. A. and Gordon. Hershey. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann.) (2003). (Eds. Heidi (2003).htm Do not reproduce 147 .com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning http://www. September 000/Weggen. Cornelia (2000).Collins. New York: AMACOM..asp /eqm04113. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.

” In the Middle Ages. in partnership with Dreamworks. http://www. when experts are not readily available.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. Skypecasting. See the TEAL Project at MIT. In http://www. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the c_home. the word “lecturing” means “to read.masternewmedia. 148 © Brandon Hall Research . Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. While it is expensive. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. web conferencing. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.lsc. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching.replayhq. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. It is clear that in this age of entertainment.elluminate.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. http://www. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. webcasting. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. http://www. virtual classrooms. Hewlett-Packard. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called webinars Consequently. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom. However. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.macromedia. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. Online presentations can be very boring.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. Experience them at: http://www. the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. although many are trying to change this practice.

uk/eclipse/vendors/p ngadobe.htm http://www. forums and message boards.htm ferencesolution. brain. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.athabascau.hp. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. instant messaging.thinkofit. Webcasts. Web conferencing.humanresourceWebinars.380 ach. A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.adelaide. and using PowerPoint and online meetings.silicon.39155030.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.000 software programs for business and presentation s/ 5/02/ /web_presentations. Do not reproduce 149 .elearningcentre.html#a1185 http://weblog. http://www. online communities.lsc.kolabora.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. videoconferencing.00. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over /web_conferencing.elearningcentre.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages. http://www.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. independent listing of partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.infoworld. and press/2005/051212xa.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. social software for online collaboration. and Flash. > > http://www.brandonhall.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. > > http://weblog. virtual classrooms.kolabora. http://www. Dreamweaver. > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat. http://www.elearningcentre.elearningcentre. and kidneys.eweek.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using a columnist at InfoWorld. virtual conferencing. Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. videoconferencing. although it does not have to be. and Web presentations. Authorware. groupware. Breeze.> > http://www.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.htm” > http://www.acue. Web seminars. Coursebuilder. m Human Resource Webinars is a http://ajax. and whiteboarding. virtual meetings. presentation and streaming presentation 5/01/22.

2003. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.russellmcnally.http://www.pdf Bibliography Agarwal.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. http://www. Jennifer (2004). Knowledge Media Institute Technical ch. Russ (2004).com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Live and Online!: tips. http://www.masternewmedia. April 30. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting.learningcircuits.aace.. Luigi (2003a). Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. ns/ is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. http://www. July 26. http://www. http://labnol. Robin Good Blog. and Furr. http://www. Luigi (2003c).timelyweb.html Using Apreso software. http://www. /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime.pdf http://www. There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction.asp McNally. (in two parts) > > http://www. http://www.fasfind. /software/795/index.pdf Scott. Part2. May 15. 3.html Canali De Rossi. 150 © Brandon Hall Research . 2003. Christine (2001). Sept. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. (2002). 7(3).masternewmedia. http://www. Luigi (2003b). Live ELearning. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.russellmcnally. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. San Francisco: /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Robin Good Blog.blogspot. http://www. Armit (2005). ation. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate v7n3_lazarus. http://www.masterviews.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. http://m. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference. July /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. and essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. Hofman.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.htm Canali De Rossi. Belinda (2003).aln. K. Digital Inspiration. P. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. (2004) Part1.htm Learning Circuits. July. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).apreso.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and 01/ 3008_148.

com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. http://www. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. InfoWorld. and Winfield. -05-1.pdf Spielman. _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . (2003). but… Presentations Magazine.presentations. Feb. Choose the Right Vendors.html etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. Start Saving Time and Money Today. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology.http://kmi.. http://www. Dave (2002). http://www. 11. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Choices are great. S. Software. 1/07OPstrategic_1. Dec. and Equipment.

does not require any plug-ins. extreme e-learning. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. Navigation built in . low. Standardize approaches.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. and clip art is straight forward and supported . graphics. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. manage the content and the users. Does not require any advanced skills. E-learning produced this way can be very boring. 2003). usually when it is needed (Brodsky. virtual classroom. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. It can refer to learning something quickly. For example. It is best suited to text-based materials. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Advanced features. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. In the first case. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. learning objects. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. Assign SMEs who are committed. Tools for rapid e-learning are. such as creating links. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. According to Ready Go!. In the second sense of the term. or where the online information frequently changes.versus high-interaction). Instructional design built in.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. programming. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . or HTML knowledge. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. FAQ.. easy to use. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. simple. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. Deploys easily . but not always good for you. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. are built in. Reduce the number of development vendors.e. tests. just-intime e-learning. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. and communicate deliverable expectations.automatically assures that all navigation works. including tools and templates. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. 2003). by necessity. microlearning > down pages. glossary. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials.

J.articulate.access to a clear project plan.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough.scate. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.elearningguild. centrally located files. /US/English/managing_knowledge1. Kendrick (2006). http://www. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry. June. Mark (2003).co. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. Jennifer (2004).htm Bersin.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Dianne (2005).com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID. Transform Magazine. and Bersin. Lane (2002).html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite. LTI Newsline. Penny (2004).learningcircuits. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. (2004). Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend. Extreme Learning: Decision _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. January 23. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate 005/archibald. conferences. See a demo at: http://www. ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses.elearningcentre. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. and Publish. schedule and due dates. June 30. Learning Solutions. 2004). article/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. es/clo_article. Jay (2005). Enhance. Future-Proofing. http://www. Rapid eLearning: what works – market.clomedia. http://www. See sample templates at: http://www. Reusability. Josh (2004).jsp?id=59278 Cooper.” Find out more: http://www. Tips and Techniques. http://www. http://www. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. http://www. http://www. July 2.microlearning.asp Bersin. and other good stuff. es/clo_article.elearningguild. tools. Paper. http://www. Do not reproduce 153 .masie. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. version control protocols. computer games.transformmag.htm Bibliography Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity ticle/articleDetail. Chief Learning Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.elearningmag. which contains information on Web site. Making rapid e-learning work.bersin. 2006. Templates. E-Learning for short attention spans. July 2004. http://www. August 2004. Chief Learning Officer. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to 306dev-h.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. Josh (2005).com/studio. http://www.ltimagazine. Larstan Business Brodsky. Clark (2005). Edit. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. April.pdf Crosman. Bill (2005).pdf Aldrich. LTI Newsline. J. January. Learning Circuits.

http://www. http://www. Joe (2005). Ray (2006).net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra es/clo_lettertoeditor. Mar.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Ed (2004). Vignettes for Training White Paper.pdf Mayberry. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. April 20. arning/ Learning.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and sstory.clomedia.learningcircuits.e-learning programs in weeks.elearningguru. Garin (2004). Eric (2003). http://www. 2002. LTI Newsline.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.pdf Gustafson. Nick (2005).elearningguild. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. June 2004.macromedia. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.pdf Jimenez. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Chief Learning tracts/index. e-Learning Crop Circles.pdf Jimenez.jsp?id=150619 Hess.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc.macromedia. Jan. http://www. Clive (2006). http://www. Learning Solutions.pdf Macromedia Inc. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. January 2003. 2006. February 2005. Mobile and Device Based Learning. Stephanie (2006). 9. Simulation.pdf Shepherd. 10. Learning Circuits. Project Management in the Age of Rapid /default. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.clomedia. Press release. Kevin (2002).com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms.elearningguild. http://www. http://www. es/clo_col_elearning.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. Rapid Intake White Paper. http://download. 2005. (2004a). The Training Foundation online article. es/clo_article. January ticle/articleDetail.trainingfoundation. Macromedia White Paper. Macromedia White Paper. Nov. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. Bersin and Associates White Paper.ltimagazine.clomedia. http://www. 004/mayberry.adobe. hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. (2004b). Learning Solutions. Ray (2005). Chief Learning Officer.htm Masie Center (2005). http://vftraining.

Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.ri. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students. Inc. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol Related terms Artificial General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools.ife. engineering. http://www.whmsi. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. for underwater exploration. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Do not reproduce 155 . > http://www. one child at a time.aad. http://mindstorms. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves and Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.rec.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. and math. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.edurobot. http://www. Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts.” Find out how you can become involved at: Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. technology. simulation > http://www. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. http://robotics. http://www. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of

.nasa. J.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational Germany. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels. D.brynmawr.php Bibliography Blank. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture.pdf http://www. W. http://zeus. http://robothaven. http://www. http://www. Internationales Wissenschaftliches k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract.cuny. links. (1980). Kumar. oster. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. (1999).fhbrandenburg. H. Heinsohn. Find out more about this group at: Gerecke. and Mataric. It features news. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka. Miller. Lathan. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Robots in the classroom . http://www. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. Düsseldorf. H. P. D.. Yanco. Harwin.uml.pdf Nourbakhsh. http://www. AAATE Conference _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. D. Artificial Intelligence Conf. lip movements. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.pdf Boersch.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. Mindstorms: Children. New York.pdf lmenau2004F. (2004) http://www.l3s. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.microworlds. http://www. November.brooklyn. (2001). Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. Computers. (2004).l3s. C. and vocal tics. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session. Proceedings. M. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). (2004). Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational for accessible education. K.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. New York: Syngress Publishing. L. Paper at the American Assoc.pdf Ferrari. S. D.profetic.. M. Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. go to: http://www.ed. /edu. and Hempel. Keating.atr. Blank. I. I. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. and LCSI is a company founded by Dr. and Meeden. Kumar. particularly Run by NASA..pdf /June22/educational-robotics.. D.wtec. http://www. Sept. H. (2005). D.irc. and Loose. June.kipr. (2004). and Yanco. L. By donning motion sensors.cs. Mr. http://robotics.. Ferrari. and other information on > > http://www.. Basic Books.andrew.eng. M. and Powerful Ideas. 156 © Brandon Hall Research . k/papers/ robo_ed/ See also: http://www. and Wagner. B. Germany.

http://www.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. S. T. McHugh. D. and Rusbridge. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. and West. (2005). Ottawa.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . R. Dobreva. 28-30. (2001)... Abbott. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage 001-Robots_Education. M. http://rob. A. Sept. Donnelly. Ontario. M. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.pdf Stewart. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference.digicult.

They bring into the equation user preferences. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. 2004). Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. search engine optimization. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. such as Yahoo. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. Ezzy (2006a. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. as this section of the report shows. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. for a variety of reasons. they take the structure of the Web into account. each with their own defining feature sets. But. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest.examples are early yahoo. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. data mining. Examples are Google and Overture. such as Google and Altavista. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. One is the problem of finding relevant. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. One new approach is called “federated searching. meta-search engines. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. which submit queries.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. Meta–search engines. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. federated search. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. Web directories.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers ( and Alta Vista. dependable information. a rich user experience. resource discovery. information retrieval. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . While search engines have improved over the past several years. in parallel. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. collective intelligence. specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. Octavo – A collaborative search engine. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works. PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. video. http://www.mooter.ask. Shares advertising revenues with content Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://www.answers. – Narrow a search to specific categories for better – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. http://dmoz.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information. Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online.convera.gada. and Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://www. http://getoutfoxed.’s search service http://a9. http://www. http://search. http://www. http://www. rather than just returning Web About. IceRocket – Searches Alexa – Search results with Web traffic AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://www.aeiwi.grokker. http://www. then fill in the search Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.umdl.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking. and the Grokker – Clusters results by HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search AlltheWeb – Search audio. Gravee . blogs. http://www. http://oaister. – Features hundreds of searchable GigaBlast – Cluster results by top Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. get answers http://www. http://www. Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories. Clicking a cluster makes search more Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.netscape. http://www. http://www. AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters.looksmart.otavo.General search engines: A9 – MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior. http://www.topic Google Book Search – Search just for AolKIDS. Internet Movie Database – search within plot http://kids. Clicking a cluster further refines a Gnoosic – A search engine for Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. http://icerocket. cast lists and theatre 160 © Brandon Hall Research . Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video. http://citeseer. Yahooligans. http://infomine. Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and Wink – Using social networking.eurekster. http://froogle. http://vivisimo.ujiko. http://www.squidoo. http://books. > > http://firstgov. reviews.Clusters Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine. users tag their favorite results and block spam.koders. Much of this information is hidden from Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US http://tagjag. FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. Wink then diplays the results. Other engines that are searched include TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://www. http://www. http://www.php?langu e=en Vivísimo . Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms IceRocket – Searches blogs Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. & KidsClick!.com/v2/index. http://www. Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category. http://rollyo.acronymfinder. and StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.psu. HealthFinder — A medical search engine.gnoosic. http://www.stumbleupon. cast lists and theatre http://www. http://www. http://www. Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. Ujiko – Clusters results.

com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries.ncbi. Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink. legal search SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.4 billion Last.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.nlm.columbia. http://www.cfm?doid=10 PubMed – Search engine for medical information. MediaFinder .gov/entrez/query. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.cmp. http://www.psu.psu. http://www.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.rrzn.scirus.acm.last.rawsugar. http://www. http://www. http://www.krugle. http://www.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.omgili.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.almaden.Krugle – A search engine for chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk / Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.findlaw. SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe.convera.merl.” Content-based search engines for Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio http://www.columbia. is tracking over 38 million sites and http://www. TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology Omgili . VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.htm Do not reproduce 161 . SearchEdu . http://wang16.columbia.nih. http://smealsearch1. http://lawcrawler.truveo.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search LitLinker .fm/ LawCrawler . http://www. http://www. as of this writing.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and. http://techsearch.searchking.f cgi QBIC .htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK.searchedu. Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.

and their Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. greeting Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines. weather. and Web mail for the topic entered. shopping sites. tickets. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research .com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken SearchTools. pictures. hotels. http://www. games. ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. news sources. Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders. Unlike other search engines.xcavator. classifieds. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www. health information sources.researchbuzz. including a set of international telephone directories. movies. Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.ixquick.cs. and notes. is a valuable resource for ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. flights. http://vivisimo.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing.searchtools.zapmeta.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU. city guides. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. maps/directions. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. http://www-rocq. earcheng. and tracks a user's search Info – Searches reference works. Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. http://www. the user's community has total control over the results. audio.nyu. http://www.zoominfo. focused searches on topics they care about. Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. http://www.inria.trovando. http://www. Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. or federated searching. and links the clusters.dogpile.kartoo.copernic. A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://nlp. white pages. http://www.bolton. yellow pages. jobs. A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK.intute. bookmarks. apartment rentals. lottery results. Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. dating and personals. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.

Resource Discovery .co. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. can be published on the user's site.elearning. This search engine. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA).com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. Do not reproduce 163 .0 vs. http://www. Part 2. or topic The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories. http://www. 2006.readwriteweb.just as a search engine is used for text. 10(12). Ebrahim (2006). Guntram (2004). phrase.editlib.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. S. Part FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. First Monday. http://infomine. 6.0 hprojects Bibliography 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De No.eurekster. 7-12. http://www. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. (2005).tveyes. http://www. New York: Portfolio. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork.html Battelle. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide.netmasters. (2004).ala.readwriteweb.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. For example.firstmonday. 2006.citysearch.. Y.. is against the idea of federated searches. arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. July 20.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004). Read/Write Web. Search Geser. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.downes. http://www. http://www. or swicki. International Journal on e-Learning. > > http://firstgov. Traditional Search.Position Paper: Putting the Users First. Users can also browse by subject category. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities. Ebrahim (2006). June 2004. http://swicki. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. Pat (2005).php works. http://www.htm Ezzy. July-Sept. Read/Write Web. 6. and Apprato. No. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.pdf Ensor. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage arch_20_vs_tr_1. http://www. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.searchenginecolossus.ucr. TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by olkitforexpert/ http://www. Frank. John (2005). July 25. and Searching in eLearning Systems. and Shoham. http://www. DigiCULT Thematic Report. Traditional Search. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web arch_20_vs_tr. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture. Search 2. http://www. http://www. A. _12/aharoni/ Stephen Downes. June. DigiCULT Thematic Report.

com/news/showS toryts. _thematic_issue_6_lores. Mike (2004). and MacColl.pdf Schlenker. 2003.html Heck. 5/42FEsearchcase_1. Parts I and II.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research .de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. Kashyap.1759.prescientdigital. It’s Gada. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches.infoworld.eschoolnews. http://searchenginewatch. B. Oct. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. P. Part I: http://www. and Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box.prescientdigital. Simple advice for complex search solutions. (2004).com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. they’re just limited. http://www. 2004. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. Carmine (2006).pdf Gincel. W.ed. http://dl.pubsub. Search engines don’t suck. J. 2004. 2005. 2005. InfoWorld.htm Part II: http://www. Prescient Digital Media.. 15.aace. Danny (2004). http://bobwyman.ischool. Murray. http://www.eweek. http://www. http://homepages. (2005). 10.html Kumar. 15. Mittal. Oct. http://www. Major Search Engines and Directories. 2005. 2004. SearchEngineWatch. http://www. http://www. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information 5/42FEsearch_1..isnoldenburg. A. (2000). 149-166.pdf Sullivan.00. April 28. Oct.. Corey (2005). Richard (2004). Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. International Journal on E-Learning. Bob (2005). (2005). InfoWorld. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. and Hilf. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. Doctoral m Pratt. 4(1).18 69408. Oct.http://www. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . E. Refining enterprise search. White paper.asp Wyman. .uk/boon/delos200 Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. M.infoworld.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference. eSchool News. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. Low.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. S. June 30. Jakob (2003).com/article2/0.php/2156221 ublications/dissertation. html Porco. Stanford University. Lisa (2005). Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. May 8.

ibm. the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic taxonomies. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW).alphaworks. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. http://www.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. near Boston. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). Abbas et al. are now falling short of earlier promises. Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. metadata. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. founder of the World Wide Web.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects.aktors. Selected Examples In Europe. such Do not reproduce 165 .org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. It has both its advocates and its critics. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. http://www. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. (2005) note that “historically. but it will not be in general use for some time. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). microformats. 2003). Like it or not. ontologies. semantic grid.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. http://www. search. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing.

Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. F. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Hendler. and 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Antoniou. The first issue is free. Olmedilla. Wahlster. Tim (2003). It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications.aimatshape. (1). Cambridge. In Fensel. B. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. (2003) and ontologies and tools for creating semantic Umer. S. A. implementing. J. KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. (2001).info/issues. http://www.. Salvachua. Greece.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. Mark (2005). J. http://www. T. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. and Aguirre. D. http://jungla.pdf Daconta. R. Lieberman. semantic portals for end-users.. M. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. (Eds. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). http://arxiv. http://www.. May 2001. O. and Knowledge TheSemanticWebHype. xi. T.dit.. MA: MIT D. MA: MIT. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts... http://kaon. A Semantic Web Primer. Obrst... http://edutella. http://www-jime. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). Markus.. Z. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. http://www.) (2003).es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final. G. S. http://www.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning. T. J.. (2005).. D. http://www. and 2005. McClatchey.upm. semantic infrastructural services. May 29 June 1. Web Services. M. Scientific American.php?http://www .. (2004). http://www. Ali. http://www. Forward. http://www. and Smith. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. and Whitelock.sciam. L.ifets. Simon. Mozo. Cambridge. Huber. K. and Lassila. Brantner. and van Harmelen (2004). Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. A. G. May 9-12. (2005). New York: Bibliography 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. S.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. S. Sobernig.pdf Anderson.ideagroup. The semantic 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005..pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .hpl. W.

uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web. L. F...pdf Nilsson. (2001). Jennings. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective. Brian (2005). and Zetti.cetis. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic /waswbe05. 2006.unihannover. The Netherlands. T.jisc. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. Lieberman. Cambridge. May Syllogism. http://www. H. and Naeve.. http://www. http://www. http://www. MA: MIT Press. Wilbert (2005).ac. Lund. Paper presented at the GLS 4/ Passin. /ie_aied05. and Naeve.kbs. Nicola (2005b). Oct. Nack.html Haack. htm Dorai. and Gouarderes. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services. (2004).semanticgrid. Amsterdam.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. Sikora.9/semgrid.. Semantic Networks and Social Hershey.1961106. http://homepages.pdf Kraan. Oct. http://www. D. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. 18-22 July 2005. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. http://www2002. 500-504. and Worldview”. http://www. http://www.well. Sweden. http://www. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. A developer’s introduction to micro-formats.pdf Henze. A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web.. 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web.) (2003). 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.Some Architectural Guidelines. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research -504. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again.unihannover.De Roure. (Eds. http://www. Paul (2003). Journal of Computer Science. Semantic Web Technologies. N. and Hendler. http://www. CETIS Online article.189 5.kbs. J. H. D. pdf Doctorow. Nicola (2005a). Online Stephen’s Web. CT: Manning.pdf Downes. M. Online article. Rutledge. (2001). 1(4).amazon.00. http://www. http://www..asp Hatem. Thomas (2004). Mauthe. A. G. and Neagu. 2001. 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . A.scipub. Palmer. M. Phil (2006). http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . ns/nack-acm-panel-2002.pdf /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. D.. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. (Eds. Juan-les-Pins. (2005). C. Cory (2001). W. DevSource.) (2005). Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Wahlster. (2002). Ramadan. and PA: Information Science Publishing. Greenwich. 2005. Stephen (2005). 10.. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia. http://www.devsource.

and Christodoulou.. (2003)..html Stojanovic. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. 2005.. K.10577. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. Scott (2002). Clay (2003). 7 (4). R. P. John (2004).pdf Updegrove. Online elegi/session2/paper12. http://www. H. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. http://www. D. S.ecs. August 2. January 17.darwinmag. G.html Van Dijck. 2628.pdf Tao.pdf Tane. Del3.981948.pdf Samaras.html Wilson.inria. The Semantic Web. L. A.dcs. Darwin. 2005. 2003. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. (2004). G. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. and Davis.. http://www. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for A. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. http://www.aifb.pdf Shirky. CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit. D. Woukeu. M. and the Semantic 1. December 3. Andy (2005).infoworld. Wagner. and Miller. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. http://www. http://www. and Worldview. 2002. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application. and Studer. WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. H. http://ewic. Davis. B. Staab. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. F.. (2001).asp gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). J. F. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. G. Economics and 3/49OPstrategic_1.pdf Sampson. Semantic Web. 2004. http://eprints. Nov.cetis.ifets. May 17–22. (2003).org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research . 2003. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning /column. New York. and Diaz. Syllogism. Scott (2005).sop. (2005).ac. Peter (2003). D. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. L. http://www. 171444/printArticle Wilson. Who said that? story/0. Lytras.00...soton. Online article.w3.bcs. http://poorbuthappy.p df yllogism. June 14. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Millard. http://www.marketingprofs. and up. 7.. trust. Scott’s Workblog. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. (2005). Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first http://www.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.unikarlsruhe. Karenos. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. 2004. (2004). David (2002). and Woukeu.cetis. Marketing Profs.. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. CETIS Online article. New York. InfoWorld. June 21.

edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).insead. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. 2005).Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning. http://www. role-playing. http://sos. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. participants will be motivated to evaluate.calt. It was decommissioned in 2005. Winters et al.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.e. http://www. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations. learn. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 .noaa. http://cave.calt. especially ones set by themselves. http://www.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.ncsa.calt.calt.” My first report in this series. in a dynamic and reflexive environment. reviewed simulations as an online content format. but information about it remains on the Web. According to High (2004). Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal.uiuc.calt. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.insead. http://www. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. microworlds.icherubini. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.

http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient. Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the For example. hpro/ Assisma . It runs on Kaplan IT Learning . heart sounds. http://www. Linux. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation.shatters. ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different without programming knowledge.dc. to play in a virtual fishtank. > > http://geowall. http://www." breathing.. they are only available for Macintosh computers. pulse rate. go to: http://www.html weather Forio .experiencebuilders. and Mac OS X.atghome. A guide’s voice prompts the Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations. has issued "The Calm and The Storm." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. m Intermezzon .Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.forio.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.sdsu. Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www. with many examples to eoWall/index.fsl.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with ex.adobe. http://www.edcenter.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous Biographix .com/company/ At the Earth System Research http://um3d. Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.noaa. html Muzzy Lane Software of Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser. However.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help . Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.geo.stt-global. and Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.biographix.

which can then be used to build simulations.sdsu.nexlearn.learning2005. http://www. Outstart – SoftSim – With this Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.the click of a Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www. has built a virtual environment for simulations called Roleplaying Engine . tion/index.knowledgepresenter. TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. http://www.jibc. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.knowledgeplanet.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with Knowledge Planet .com/products / http://www.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.outstart. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. Kookaburra Studios . pe.” http://www. http://www. Integrates with many media types.percepsys.asp Knowledge Quest .knowledge-director.icherubini.maxit.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming. http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any MaxIT . http://www.qarbon.maxit.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine.teds. is/ Elliot MaxIT .KnowledgePresenter Simulator .htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions. http://www. Do not reproduce 171 . including d/Links/Simulation_Training.virtualcontrolroom. mulation. create courses specifically on using computer software. http://www. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a Reusable Objects .com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.reusableobjects.

computer games. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. and Ip. http://www. http://www. http://www. 172 © Brandon Hall Research 001/karrer. Holland. http://www. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. M.bham. July. J. AACE conference. 2004. Learning (2004).org/Journal/Oct_04/article02.blikstein. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. (2002).com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Les (2004).. http://www. 12. Making the most of software 004/aldrich.ft.cs. Gash. P. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (2004). and McCloughlin. http://www. eSchool es/clo_feature. A. 004/estabrook. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2001). & de Jong.PDF Blikstein.clomedia. September. Jennifer (2004). Simulation levels in software training.. http://www..pdf Cherubini. H. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .science. 1(10). Six criteria of an educational simulation.medialabeurope. http://www. Taghiyareh. http://www.uva.learningcircuits.htm eSchool News (2004). ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. apers/sobeihTR04. A. studies. Montréal. J. (2005). 4. and Bostan. 2002. Learning Circuits. m s. The promise of online simulations.. J. L.. Simjour. U. In Interaction Design and Children. T. brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. Paper presented at Robocup conference.projects. T.. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. How playing power drives lessons home. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. ts/poplog/packages/simagent.bbk. Chief Learning Officer.html Sobeih. June. (2001). Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. Department of Computer Science. M. Clark (2004).htm High.learningcircuits. Bjorn (2004). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. October 2004. B. A. Clark (2005). Financial Times. 2004. San Francisco: Pfieffer. F. October 15-19. Utrecht.html Lunce. Implementation and tory.for Philosophers and Engineers. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. 004/bersin.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. and Sund Martin. Mazloumian.http://www. Learning Circuits. International Workshop. and Wilensky.. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. http://www.. Sept.html Linser.pdf Swaak. 8. (2002). Online report. Aaron (2005). September. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -.htm Aldrich. Rasmussen.eschoolnews. Laser. p. http://itdl. Shannon (2004).learningcircuits. Karrer.html Learning Circuits. and Hou. Kamau (2004). A. Computer simulations in distance education. Feb.ncassr.pdf DeVries.

284-294. Fort _white_paper.. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.protonmedia. Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc.-Apr.pdf 291013Discovery%20simulations. and Strohecker. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. M. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.. Mar. N.uc. Florida.pdf Do not reproduce 173 . 17. http://www. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. (2003). In Association for Computing Machinery.. Gary (2003). 1997. 8(31). http://www. Cherubini. C.prospect. Online paper at: http://lsm. Sherry (1997).icherubini.html Winters. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.pdf Turkle.knowledge. USA. The American Prospect. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.

see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID which transmits over short distances. easily changed. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from infrared (IR) tags.iu. therefore. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). RFID technology is developing rapidly.” http://vis. http://cnm. optical tags.ala.checkpointsystems. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . For a full discussion of this issue. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) obiles/m02. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. especially for tagging retail items in stores. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive . The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. http://uitspress. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. grease. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www.. They are programmable and. 2005).html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al. or water.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria http://www. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.iu. especially in museums and for outdoor fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. While controversial.

T. Aparna (2004). http://www. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew e.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. Masters Thesis.. 4(3). In Kommers. hesisFinal.aace.. van Kranenburg. Noma. and Backhouse. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. M.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 . M. http://www. 3_01_low. in a 2005 online article.xml&DOI=10. http://www. http://www.cfm?fuse action=Reader.66 Ward.jisc. (2005).). (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. Technology Watch Report 1. April 13. and Dobreva. 276-283. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. C. Oct.rfidnews. (2005). infrared tags x. Shibuya. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags.. James (2006).edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. Noda. Andrew (2005).aace..csmonitor. Proceedings.digicult.. 2004.pdf Murray.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc.pdf Salcedo. 261-263. Y. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. ry. Michigan State University. Toc. eSchool News Online. and Yano. RFID: frequency. /TSW0602. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning. K. 2005. Donnelly. P. standards. http://www. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal.msu. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. adoption and innovation.asp?id=1222 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1.html Osawa.. Ogata. H. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). http://www.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.digicult. (2003).. 3_01_low. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). Corey (2004). & Bibliography Borck..msu. January 1. (Eds. R. http://csdl2. http://www. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. 7s01-legn.pdf Osawa et al.toydirectory. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism. http://www. 5. (2006). R. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. & Richards. 2004. S.2005 .. N. A. and e. Tsukagoshi. http://www.toydirectory.infoworld.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. March. http://www. (2004). Ando. http://www.html?s=feature Heining. TD June 27. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market.1109/WMTE.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses.. Infoworld.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.

net/ CiteULike . Second. and search for a specific user's Blinks. and Web links. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.blinklist. connect with others. ontologies. search others’ post their favorite Web sites. printouts.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. store. Third. in turn. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. and organize the academic papers they are reading. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. get inspired. and books. search. Fifth. They can save references.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. http://blogmarks.icio. Also. and to share them. or distributed in e-mails. faculty. The result is something called a tag cloud. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. http://www. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. For example. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. http://www. or check out what everyone wants to do. Blink also provides tools to sort. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. users can see what others are Blinking. Fourth.icio. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several Blinklist . http://ask.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy. no matter their location or timing. they act as an “outboard memory. Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share Web site (http://del. Flickr held over 100 million images. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. share references with colleagues. As of April 2006. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. describe. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. researchers at all levels (students. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term.citeulike. For instance. share their stories. http://www. http://www.connotea. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects.metafilter. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. Students.” However.A free service to help academics share. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. as each member can upload resources discovered. 176 © Brandon Hall Research . Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community. while users of the del.

memeorandum.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. the users Digg .com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.jookster. Furl . Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging.html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.rojo. http://flickr. http://jots. http://myweb2. share. Also retrieve it easily. http://www. Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure. and share photos with Project Pad .html Linkroll .icio.A Kaboodle .A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. users submit stories for Simpy – Search Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. Tags can be shared or kept private. http://www. and non-hierarchical editorial MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with date/index. http://www.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.linkroll. and discover relevant Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://www. sort.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. http://www.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested. http://www.netscape.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. http://www.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.kaboodle. http://www. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related Del. blogging.simpy.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests. Jots and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Jookster .edu/ppad2/ Flickr – Clipmarks .shadows.clipmarks. music. . http://projectpad. http://www. http://www.feedmarker.A technology news Web site that combines social http://blog.northwestern. http://del. Do not reproduce 177 .Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with Magnolia . or enter new items and tag them. With digg.Consumating . http://www. RSS. http://www. based on what is happening in the news k_menus. updated in near real time.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. but. similar to Digg.icio. and/or books and find them again.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page.

A. and share it with others. March/April 2006. Web 2. > http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place.fasfind.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines.quickonlinetips.educause.” http://www. http://www. http://www.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies. http://www. Online Resources Jon Udell.html es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them. Bryan (2006).veotag.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. anyone can start a directory of events for their own Unalog – See what other people are reading on the http://tabblo. Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.html es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. with contributions from users. http://www.infoworld.yelp.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.wists. and Digg.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. If a city is not there.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del.html http://tagsonomy. Suprglu . http://www.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.zvents. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.quickonlinetips. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted s/m/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. http://swik. Upcoming – An events calendar by about how tagging works with Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips. http://weblog.spurl. tags. and social bookmarking.” > > s/m/ es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “ SWiK .0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery. Wists – A social shopping site.icio. http://unalog. 41(2). has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . a technology columnist for Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.

ejournal. D-Lib Magazine. Online Paper. Social consequences of social tagging.educause. D-Lib Magazine. Will (2005). nd. http://www. Ideant. The New School of Ontologies.weblogged. 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. http://www. B. T. Many2Many. Tag mania sweeps the Web.. 2005. Sept. my. May 20. Aug..pbs. http://www. Flack. 2. Jon (2005).asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.html Lawley.ascc. http://www. S. http://tomgruber. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.sid19_gci1195182. J. (2005).com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng.infoworld. Ulises (2005). and Scott. Tom. ntent/0.html Mathes. http://www.html Do not reproduce 179 . Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and mputer-mediatedcommunication/ 2. http://www.289142. http://www.html (2005). May 5.dlib.hp. 0/34OPstrategic_1. Hannay.pdf Gurber. SearchCIO. InfoWorld. Adam (2004). 20. (2005). 11(4).htm Hammond. Ulises (2004).com. ias_dtd. (2005). The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. Webblogg-ed. 2006. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS . M. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. http://ideant. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. Keynote address. 2005.hpl. Online paper.php Lund. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse.typepad. B. Shamus (2006). 11(4). Jan. 5/facilitating_th. B. 2005. Lund. and Hannay. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. Plasticbag.adammathes. http://dlib.html Coates.html Udell. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. http://many.infoworld.html ammond/04hammond. Jon (2004). http://searchcio. T. April 2005. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web Udell.shtml Golder. July 20.isi. Tom (2005). HP Labs Report. http://www. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. August 0/30OPstrategic_1. Nicholas (2004)... Trusted Sources.plasticbag. Hammond. Tags vs. Andy (2006).techtarget. T. 2006.pdf Mejias. and Huberman.pdf Richardson.. April Collaborative knowledge gardening.typepad. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. 2005. Liz (2005).com/research/idl/paper s/tags/ ml Mejias. June 21.

peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online etc.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. dating sites. My first report in this social software.) Relationship Management (Orkut. Friendster. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. reviewed social networking as an online content format. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. photo albums. shared link libraries such as del. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. shared links.) Experience Sharing ( Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. communities of practice. e-mail. etc.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration.” that is. work. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. (2005) call an “architecture of participation. photo sharing sites. social networking sites such as Friendster. family.classmates.icio.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. online personals such as Match. and the military. e-mail. 2005). http://www. SMS. tagging. etc. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between 180 © Brandon Hall Research . an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. etc. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites.

com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user.html Last.orgnet.netminer. MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar For an example of the use of social networking analysis. http://www. in Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. audio. which is then open to other readers. as a blog. high Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. http://www.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.friendster. video. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it. or as a social introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events.freeopendiary. Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.esnips.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 .com/introNetwor ks. http://www.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. http://www. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. Orkut . If a user asks for the key players in an organization. http://www. workplaces. Facebook – An online directory consisting of Platial – A site to create social maps. http://www. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.livejournal. upload photos. https://www. List who a person knows and find out who others know.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. http://www.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals. https://www. and geographic regions.” http://www.facebook. – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar Live Journal . Features photographs of members and ways to connect and with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://www. Users share their writings and meet each other. and files and then make them available to others.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. http://360.diaryland. photos.myspace.stumbleupon. http://www. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them. It costs several thousand Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. http://www. http://www. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online. and within “communities of LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. Share it with others if desired. Facebook has networks for colleges.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at and the list of related articles using social network analysis. licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.

links to similar sites. Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-


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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > ec2003/kaplan.htm an2004/kaplan2.htm /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.


© Brandon Hall Research e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005.,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005.

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is


© Brandon Hall Research

(Eds. http://www2.ieor. and Handberg. (2001).) (2000). The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. Network World.ietf. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements. (2002). http://www. http://www. http://gaim. The production of presence – distance techniques in Keynote address at the ISEC Online Resources Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software. http://messenger. is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet. n2.pdf Do not reproduce 187 . In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).html Goldberg. MA: MIT Jabber – An http://www. London: Routledge. the /tele/ Internet Society.pd f Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.virtual-presence. and 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.advanced. history.kth. Network Working Group (2000).com/software/swlotus/products/product3. Presence applications poised for takeoff. 44-49. Nils (2000).amazon. and Pejas. http://laimuz. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.unizar. http://www.fakespace.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing e/CJKPresenceProd. John (2004). 2004. http://get. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location." http://www.sourceforge.. J. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. J.jabber. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. In 090604specialfocus. Ken (Ed. BSD. C. The driver sits in a box.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.hig.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Bibliography Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.txt Knudsen. A. secure. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. C.“Simultaneous Presence. Hubert (2001).nada. http://www. http://www. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. 6. On the Internet. > > http://www. and eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging Online memo. as well as news.html http://www. Cambridge. Sept. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence. MacOS X. n.networkworld. http://www.

http://www. http://www. Wired Jon (2005). Donnelly. M.modes.pdf Udell. Germany: DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. C. L. January 2005. Abbott.digicult. McHugh. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Being There: Concepts.wired. and IJsselsteijn. http://www. H. http://cid. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.. http://www. (Eds. In 8/05OPstrategic_1.kth.infoworld.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. (Eds. and Handberg. June 1. F. Amsterdam: IOS Press..html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . M. Jan. et al.) (2003).. A. (2005). (2001).org/docume nts/Sponberg. A. Calgary.html Riva. Ins and outs of teledildonics.. S. Alberta. September 24.. http://www. Knudsen. 28. Dobreva.pdf Lynn. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. G.pdf 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. D.nada. and Rusbridge. 2002.650 H.Banff.. Regina (2004). InfoWorld.swedishlearninglab. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education. Davide.

My first report in this series. television. In spite of the limitations. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. reviewed video as an online content format. vodcasting. 2002). making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. telepresence. according to Foroohar (2006). even a video plug-in for Skype. amateur and professional video cameras. 2005). streaming video. Once video goes on the Internet. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. Britain's largest telecom firm. tlearning. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. the largest Internet telephone service. IPTV. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. A new version of television. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). cell phones. Further. videocasting. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). As the following examples show. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. in all its formats. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. However. Video blogging has become common. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. Do not reproduce 189 . there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. PDAs. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. screencasting. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. bandwidth becomes an issue. video blogging.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. BT.

which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing For an example of a video blog. the “triple play” of The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.ourmedia.on2. http://www.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. whether and multimedia content to veotag allows users to upload videos. partners. voice. See the current selection at: http://video. desktop.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web. See examples at: Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. http://www. http://www.xstreamengine. ses. the Internet telephone service.medialogic. At YouTube. or students through a high quality. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. http://www. http://www. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen.” Users can upload video clips for free.rocketboom.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina.rocketboom. a three-minute videoblog. See samples at: http://www. tag them.concord. http://vpb.bittorrent.addictingclips. employees. The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. and maintains is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others.veotag. Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. and divide them into chapters or segments. PDA. with IPTV. improves the satisfaction of the client. http://www. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. plus see thousands of video clips posted by Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio. It is still going strong at: In 1999. or set-top box. low bandwidth video stream. see Rocketboom. http://www. 190 © Brandon Hall Research http://www. DFILM launched the MovieMaker.html Dialcom

read “Ten video sharing services compared.masternewmedia. Beyond Wireless Broadband.masternewmedia. http://www. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.” The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. and visual or http://dvguru. London: Learning and Skills Development eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. eaminglearning.pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic. Luigi (2005a).h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.” Subtopics include video and streaming media.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. 1.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming 7005.dvguru. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 .cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to and m Canali De Rossi. but business models are fuzzy. Luigi (2005b). http://www.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. by alphabet.” Bibliography Atwere. which users can” Robin Good 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.pdf Bardia.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. and by tags.pjb.masternewmedia. http://www.thinkofit.lsda. Pradeep (2004). Online article at: http://www. The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. The site already contains nearly 6. termed “mobile television. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility.elearnspace. https://www. http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.” http://www.elearningcentre. Peter (2003). D.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others. For 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.500 vlogs organized by popularity.iptv-industry.masternewmedia.educause. m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. t-learning Study .com/seeds/index. David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. http://www. video. e. levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential. P. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. (2003).ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media.” http://www.

masternewmedia. (2005). IBM Institute for Business Value study.umist. In . Newsweek (International Ed. Brian (2002). Campus Technology. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the ticle.cfm?fuse action=Reader. 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . 417-419). 2005. e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide. ( Thornhill. wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. M. discussions and implications.pdf Klass. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.campustechnology.) (2002).networkingpipeline. C. Brian (2005). June 6. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. http://www2.msn. and Young. http://www1. http://www. NC: Duke University. G. pdf Nolle. The IPTV Revolution. http://www.msnbc. http://www-rcf. Durham. 8-9. 2. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. Feb. April Networking Pipeline. Dec. http://www. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.XMax Goes The Distance. (2003).htm Curtis. 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). http://www. http://edmarketing. Peter (2005). Changing Channels. 2005.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 site/newsweek/ Friedman. Nov. and Matthew (2005). IAT Services White Paper. Mon. L. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective. Manchester.php http://www. Online paper.aace. Jonathan.bcr. Robin Good Blog. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. University of Missouri.). Tom (2005).). Rana (2005). (Ed. 2005. http://www.

http://www. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. inventors. http://www1.ubc. By using aspects of game play. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Depending on the level of realism achieved. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. and storytellers. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. http://solipsis. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. http://www. Near Eastern.columbia. http://ancient. interaction. Exploration and discovery are enabled. distributed virtual environments.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties.arts. augmented virtuality. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background. Videoconferencing is not required. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.netofpeers. desktop virtual reality.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. exchange enabling.shapedc. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces.kahootz. To do this. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a ects/arc/arc.equator.futurelab. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. annah/savannah. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use.cs.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction Shape has developed the augurscope.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. and Religious Studies In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. skin color. and the aim of the virtual Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. Creed. mixed reality.

The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece. The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality. V. http://vrlab. East Carolina University. http://vr.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.cti.intuition-eunetwork. August 9.spider. > http://vads. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and Bouras. For example. (2006).ecu.html The U.healthdatamanagement.” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture. C. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.opencroquet.html Bibliography p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. C. http://www.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . http://ru6. Journal of Network and Computer Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE. http://www.. Campus m/html/current/ A. and Tsiatsos.coe. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice. (2001). and Tsiatsos.secondlife. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. e-Learning through distributed virtual e/index. http://ru6. T. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational http://www. http://www.campustechnology.cfm ?PostID=19660 > G. Triantafillou. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. Technology Area .. Hornig.cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future C. Luigi (2004). Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. (2001).ergonetz. http://www.cti. https://www. Paper presented at ICALT . an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community. > > http://www.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue . Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). and Tsiatsos. including education.hpc. 175-199.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. Research uide/sect34. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.cti. http://ru6. 24. Philopoulos.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications.. http://www.ahds.

monash. and Seyedarabi.ikg. Gerard (2002).it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen.10577. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance McHugh. ISPRS.htm Katterfeld. Conlan.actapress.aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai.. and White. Abbott. T. Michelle (2003). https://www. Learning Circuits.unt. http://courseweb.pdf Ross. 2004. M. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.html Jones.00. G. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. G. 35. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information http://www.actapress. No. July 9-16. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Dobreva. Istanbul. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security 004/0412_trends.html Liarokapis. P.elearning.pdf Stephen (2004). 2004. 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education..learningcircuits. (2005). and Rusbridge.htm Dickey. Ekaterina (2005).icc2005. 27. C. La Coruna/ s_elearn04.pdf Katterfeld. A. Eva (2004). Sept.. Monahan. Vol.aspx? PaperID=19716 Donnelly. 2004.eng. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE).org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. C.actapress. http://www.p df Prasolova-Førland. (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. Proceedings. Guardian Unlimited.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. http://education.pdf McArdle.pdf Hoare. and Mangina. M.tcd.unihannover. (2005). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. (Section on Virtual Reality).org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. http://www. 1(2). Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. 1.. & Sester. http://www. http://www. Lister. 2005. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment.oln.. S. A. Sept. D. M. and Hicks. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. O.digicult. 28. (2005). http://www. International Archives of Photogrammetry. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. (2002). Petridis. and Sester. 2004.cs. Blog. (2005). http://www. Dec. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. http://www..aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Virtual teaching aids become a reality. Trend: augmented reality check. January 2005. Bertolotto. E. M. Web Based Education 2005 conference.. J. F. (2004). Web-based Education 2005 conference. P.

” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of 196 © Brandon Hall Research . Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data.ucar. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. location based systems.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. reviewed visualization as an online content format. The educational advantages of visualization are Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. http://www. data filtering. geographical information systems.zoomclouds. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. mapping.dpc. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. cybercartography. index. visualization can represent alternative points of view. 2005). They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. See some amazing demos at: http://www. allowing for innovation or new understandings. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. graphics. http://www. images. My first report in this series. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. and data rendering.ontopia. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking. et al.inxight. pattern recognition. Finally. On the other Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. For an example. GIS. http://www. data mapping. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. Flash.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. such as a Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross.semagix.unifiedfield. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. see ZoomClouds. 2003). which showcases their potential. cognitive collage. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. dynamic displays. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future.

in English or Sample the collection at: http://svs.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. Museum Edition. “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. http://www.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations. http://www. http://www. and visualization applications.tmm.html For a practical application of visualization. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated intro.idc.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.marumushi. April 7th. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred /3608385. and display (without glasses!) Web site in View_68.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited. http://www.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center.” http://richie.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science. http://www. It has images of space and the earth from space.gsfc. http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www. formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www.cs. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.0 authoring Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever. delivery.”’ BBC News. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .nih.skyscraper.html The Texas Memorial Museum in sible_human.ubc. See: A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. http://www.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat Be sure to explore the “zoo. http://chatcircles.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite Paul Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human Free demo at: http://www.” http://www. http://www. Texas uses VRCO Full Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project. a young graphic designer.lecielestbleu.

The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.ontopia.spotfire. http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ http://www. http://makingmaps. http://clustrmaps.html XCelsius http://www.ambientdevices.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.owu.gfdl. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human on.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.nih. See this technology in action. http://www. in the U. http://www.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual CenterView http://www. See their tool set and examples of their work. Digital Dashboard http://msdn.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland. and information presentation. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. one million items. http://www. http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space. http://www. OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere.mccrackendesign.unifiedfield.htm How do users visualize very large data for oard/ es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www.noaa. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial sible_human. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital WorkPlace galleries.vrvis. http://research.semagix. Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map index. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. anatomically detailed.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.arcscience. http://www.cs.htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world Using time as an added TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML Top Tier http://www.

MapViewer. OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. many of which are Online Resources TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.advizorsolutions. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States. for 3-D data visualization. http://www. http://www. including the following: Voxler. for 3-D Okino makes visual simulation data translation. and.” http://www.mapinfo. http://research. modeling. for well log and borehole The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. cfm Do not reproduce 199 .formz. links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.5-D modeling and rendering software. Grapher. for 3-D landscaping and animation.golden.visualcomplexity.visualanalytics. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.esri.softill. http://www. animation. Clicking a related term extends the process.timemap. Carrara.topozone. and Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. and rendering http://www. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters. ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. http://www. trends. Try a demo at: http://www. They have worked with the Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information.S. Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.visualthesaurus. for 2-D and 3-D Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel. http://www. DAZ3D offers several visualization VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world. Strater. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. associations. including the following: Bryce. Over 30 are “knowledge Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. for digitizing and coordinate Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.goes far beyond static JPG map images.okino. and anomalies in data. http://www. http://www. form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. Pixologic is 2.

Paris: La Haye. and http://www.) (1999).com/ Bibliography Alpert.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. as part of his doctoral work at MIT. > > http://www. http://www. les cartes. K.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. G. both visualization companies.agocg. http://www. http://acg.” Bergmann.stanford. Following are two: > > http://graphics. 14(1) nfovis/ > http://www.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1. Paier. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.complexityandeducation.cs.gatech. J.vrco.edwardtufte. les réseaux.. on_design_and_data_visualization.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. Mackinlay.ualbert a. http://www. B. Madison: University of San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist. > > The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and Card. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.pdf Bertin.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social P. http://www. is available online. Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.topicmaps. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think. The Semiology of Ell. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes. esearch. Jacques (1983). Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. http://www. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite ey/visurvey. 31-49 http://benfry. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www.sdsu.ubc.. (2003). Jacques (1967). M. and Woodill. A. > http://www.. and Shneiderman. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational s448b-04-winter/ http://www. together with their estimated depth of influence. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization Working Paper. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences. http://coe. Sherman (2003).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. /thesis-0522d.gatech.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. 2_AndersonWoodill. He finished his PhD.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces. EXYSTENCE network. (Eds.

England: AddisonWesley. M. (2001). Switzerland: University of Lugano. Arns. (1992). August 11. 69-82. and Knezek. ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Robert. 17-30. Educational Media International. NC: Duke University.asp Mittal. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Lugano. May/June.digicult.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. International Journal on E-Learning.html Madhavan. 2005.elearningguild.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark.K. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. K. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. Information Visualization. 45. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Yvonne (1996). http://www. Brent (2006). Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Luca (2005). Vol. Spence.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead. L.agocg. Ruth (2003). J. http://nivea. September. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. http://www. A. 3(1).slis. B.aace. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. 46: 461-488. and Rusbridge. Canadian Journal of Psychology. A. Dobreva. and Pagalthivarthi. Brian (2002).asp?id=11222 Do not reproduce 201 . 4th and Woolsey. http://www. S. (2005). Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative.univparis5. August. McHugh. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. D.html Rhyne.. erm0638. P.. M.siggraph.pdf Scaife. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. K.. http://www. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside http://www. (2005).pdf Shneiderman. pp. Mike and Rogers. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. 16(4).indiana. 329-351. S. 2ml/ Botturi.campustechnology. (2006).uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.usilu. http://www. (2004). A. available online at http://www. 3.istituti. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. http://www. http://www. Abbott.. pp. and Bertoline. Luca (2003). Inside Purdue’s Envision Center. m O'Regan.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. EDUCAUSE Review. (2005).org/index. (1998). eLearning Developers’ Journal. K. Vol. C. 1-34.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. No. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. Reading. 4(1). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Theresa (1998). tracts/index. 185–213 http://www. Durham. Campus Technology. G. Donnelly. Harlow. 41(3). (Section on Visualization). http://createdrealities. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific /papers/externalcognition.cfm/files/pape r_5994.pdf Goldfarb. (2005). January 2005. Siggraph. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage June 1.html Ross. J. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction.

CT: Graphics Press. http://www. http://www.ciconline. http://www. Envisioning Information. David (2002). M.edwardtufte. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Matt (2002). Tufte. (2004) 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. Edward (1990). Computers. Digital Information Graphics. Edward (1997). evidence and narrative. 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . Cheshire. Threshold. 2nd Ed. 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. http://www. Colin. Sharpe. 2nd Ware. Amsterdam: Elsevier. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. http://www.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Press. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. CT: Graphics Edward (2001). Cheshire. From multimedia to multisensory education. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Tufte. David (2005). Information Visualization: perception for design.edwardtufte.

requiring an Internet While the telephone has been around for well over 100 In the near future. http://www.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. http://www. Skype is the best known VoIP VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. http://www. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections. http://www. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony. Join the discussion at: http://voip. but it is rapidly improving. Steven (2005).susx. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. and to children who must remain at home or in a 8 Fitzpatrick.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school.jajah. Geraldine (2005). in remote headphones or speakers. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and Bibliography Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end. Internet telephony.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. March 2005. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. http://www. communications tools.envisioninc.elearningcentre.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. Internet telephony is relatively simple. http://www. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. and a microphone.spectrum. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. 1996).html Do not reproduce 203 .ieee. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. IEEE Spectrum Online. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative Using VoIP.voipreview. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. http://www. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.cogs. http://www. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education.

ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio . 9(3).ieee. Ottoson.msu. Meredith (1996). (2005). and O’Droma. http://www. Robert (2005). Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. S. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. http://ieeexplore. http://llt. M. 9-12. Language Learning and Technology. I.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. Mobile distributed e-learning center. Stojanov.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning.nald..

and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. the automotive industry. training to do their the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or or repairing complex machines.learnexact. and other organizations involved in op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.cmu. ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.bris. Selected Examples In Europe. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. anytime. It is observable by the user 4. ubiquitous computing > http://www. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. The entire system. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. http://killer. It is controllable by the user 5. 1998): 1. weighs less than three eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.hubuska. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. like a wristband or jewelry.ices.cs. http://news.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. including wearable computing. http://www. especially for comercial airlines. r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.pdf 690. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. training.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. http://killer.cmu. including batteries. Do not reproduce 205 . For example. In January 2006.

edu/ Bibliography de 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. Wearable computers that you can slip into. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education http://www. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable ellaWVAC. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. ICWC98.nasa. Toronto: Anchor VA.wired.html Garfinkel. Wearable Computing for the Commons. M. JISC Technology and Standards Watch http://www. Dec. http://isd.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. See: > > > March is a rich source of il/index. Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9. http://www. and Lupisella. Technology Review (Online). especially in the area of wearable Kharif.eecg. (2003). 2004. and Niedzviecki. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Mmoma (2006).eyetap. March 8. Fairfax. H.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap.bham.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. http://www.” including computers built into underwear. May 12-13. S. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). (2002). M.toronto. Wired The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.gsfc. (2004). 2006.eecg. 2005.704 81-0.704 ables/index. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing.wired.html The design of “smart clothing. 1. http://www. ml http://www. http://wearcam. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. What you’ll wear in 10 years.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. Business Week Online. and Levene. http://www. Steve (1998).htm Mann. Simson (2004).com/read_arti cle. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment. Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.eee. Olga (2005).businessweek. 206 © Brandon Hall Research . C.

Bloglet http://www. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been job searches. BlogLines desk 3. When changes are made to a Web site. TV guides. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated. listings of the latest books.” as its content is changed by the author. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. and course offerings. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. feeds. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. and 8. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web 7. including cell Express. Both RSS and Atom are written in 9.0 format). no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator.html 6.Web Feeds Related terms Atom.attensa. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. CompleteRSS this method of finding out what is new is spam free. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore.brightcove. Here is a list of 48: 1. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. social 4. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. photo collections. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. blogs. CDs.awasu. Brightcove http://www. with all the potential for viruses and spam. PDAs. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. To read content from a Web feed. and electronics. Amphetadesk http://www.disobey. > For learners and teachers.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 . (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”). Attensa http://www.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. and Atom is the second. basic text format for quick review. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited.html 2. Aggie http://bitworking. each with its own features. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. podcasts. Awasu 5. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).

downes. My RSS Toolbar For a list of more aggregators. SharpReader http://www.shtml 11. Feedroll .feedburner.fuzzyd. Reader http://www.bytescout. Thunderbird http://www.blogplanet. Newsgator http://www. FeedReader http://www. FeedScout http://bytescout. Gregarius http://gregarius.U. Rojo 17. RSSCalendar http://www. RSS Bandit http://www.http://www.feed-directory. OnFolio http://www.feedster. FeedForAll http://www. RSS2Exchange 33. RSSReader 30. Feed-Directory d/ 26. StepNewz http://www. FeedPublish m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. Feedster hange/ 38. Topix ml 43. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free. FeedBurner /EaZyRss.html 27. LearningFeeds 29. Syndirella 19. EaZy RSS reader http://www. feedbeep olbar. NewsIsFree http://www.2 32.h tm 12.somee.newsgator. PulpFiction tml 41.pluck. To have a blog aggregated.protopage. Pluck http://www. Fuzzy Duck http://www. Protopage 42.hexamail. Sage / 23. PubSub http://www.php. including listings for various electronic devices. RSS Software Videora 45. Edu_RSS 0.mozdev. see: http://www.rss-to-javascript. RSS Orbit 15. Feedtier http://feedtier.onfolio. Project D. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .sharpreader. RSS-to-Javascript 25.

The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing . Brian 20for%20Educators111. University of North Carolina. July/August 2003. a blog by Alan 004/downes.usatoday. Aug. 2004. Robin Good Blog. 2004. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.maricopa. Eva (2004).ca/edu_rss. http://www.downes.downes.htm David.vccs. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Kaplan-Leiserson. Lamb.lo. http://www. The Technology Source Archives. RSS could transform online communications.downes. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference. erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS).elearningguild. http://www. BC. 5-8. 2003. (2003).com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. RSS: the next killer app for education.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. Luigi (2004). 3. http://www.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. Learning Circuits.wcc.mcli. Stephen (2004).pdf Gannett.1. http://www.teachinghacks. eSchool News.ubc.contentious.elearning. Online paper. Read his article written specifically for educators. May 19.maricopa. http://www.. Learning Circuits.pdf Canali De Rossi. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. http://www.cfm?ArticleID=5211 ged/RSSFAQ2. Bill (2003). Online paper.htm Downes. B. Aug. http://www. http://www. eLearning Developers’ RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. 2005. USA Today (online). Version 1. Quentin (2006).dist. http://www. http://www. -08-01-rss-research_x. http://www. Vancouver.masternewmedia.teachinghacks. Mary (2003).Possible Future mc1003/ The Fuss.eschoolnews. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine. Anh (2005). RSS Ideas for Educators.php maintains a long list of RSS 903DEV-L.htm D’Sousa. Aug. and sify. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. A.htm Levine. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. http://careo. and D’Arcy Norman. Oct.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS. Brian tory. http://technologysource.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS.htm Harrsch. RSS feeds college students’ diet for 2004/0405_Trends. Dan (2004).dist. Do not reproduce 209 .learningcircuits. 1. May /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds. Stephen (2002). June 2004. D. http://timyang. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. RSS: a learning 31.

Jon (2005).com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.alexandrasamuel. Alexandra (2005). March 23.html MediaThink (2004). O’Reilly Network. http://googlereader.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT= s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. Aug. 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Mihai (2006). 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). (2006). June 18. http://www. MediaThink White Paper.pdf Parparita. 2006.html Samuel.html?page=1 Udell. Google Reader Blog.oreillynet. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.infoworld. Shelly (2005). http://www. 3. 2005.theshiftedlibrarian. 2005. http://www. 13. http://www. Otherwise Engaged.mediathink. http://www. July 7. Namespaced extensions in feeds. http://www. pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. The Shifted Librarian.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . and 3/13OPstrategic_1. k_rss_white_paper.xml. Jenny (2005). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. InfoWorld. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. Using RSS for data integration. RSS: the next big thing online.blogspot.oreilly.html Powers. M.Levine.

wikipedia. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up. http://wikipedia. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.usemod. http://www. With some basic instructions. 2005).com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.gilbane. anyone can read or add content to a wiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.” Essentially. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. http://www. an image gallery. and projects.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.seedwiki. it is important to have several contributors. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. is available for other applications.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. 3. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. For wikis to work. Do not reproduce 211 Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. custom There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and Content is ego-less. Anyone can add to it. There are now over 1.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.000 articles in English in Wikipedia.10. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites.tikiwiki. can be used by a team for joint writing. See the progress at: http://edu. approaches. http://www. and email 4. the software used to run Wikipedia. df Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://www. and never finished.sourcewatch. RSS. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia. time-less. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. Wiki Tools: Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. features. 2. My first report in this series. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.

com Not all uses of wikis in education work maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology. Swiki.Weblogs. http://64. as well as an analysis of how they work. Phantom authority.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools. http://whiplash. that she updates regularly.html Bibliography Aronsson.ikiw.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.dicole. http://www. including a section on wiki tools.pbwiki. Andrea (2003). and Zhou. R.71. Operation of a Large Scale.shtml Brian :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual mlaut. is provided by David ries/wikis/2004/02/ Dec. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. http://weblog.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. http://www. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. Dec. Raitman. adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. A free trial is’s first nine months in WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.ascilite. th04/procs/augar. First Monday. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. His article. http://www. L.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate entwikis.” http://writingwiki.elearningcentre. including Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. http://flosse. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his WritingWiki. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.wikibooks. N. http://www. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.different. http://www.html Augar. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. http://www.48. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis.ubc. 8(12). (2004).org has lots of resources on wikis. 212 © Brandon Hall Research . an archivist with the British Columbia Jon 5-8. Australia.elearning.” is a rich source of information on wikis. “Quickiwiki. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. Perth. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://kairosnews. http://careo.” http://tlc. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. of the University of British Columbia. (2002). Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.

April Udell. http://www. July 7. Online article at: 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. and Rudolph. Sept. (2001). L. Online article at PCMag. David (2003). W.pdf ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005).. Emma (2005). 2005. http://Weblog. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria.00. Renée (2005).asp Schmitt. What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Twiki. Jon (2004).php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser.http://firstmonday. Zwiki and the Plone Wars .4149. International Journal of Information Ethics. 19.profetic. 36-48. Cossarin. Issue 42. M.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Lamb. http://www.10.pcmag. Profetic: dossiers ssier_imprimer. and mattison.1/technot e_xxvii. Richard (2003).14 Kulisz. http://www. Making the case for a wiki. Lauren (2005).com/cgibin/mb. July. Quickiwiki. Educause Review. http://c2. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . http://gilbane. http://www. T. Bo & Cunnin. Brian (2004).com/udell/2004/1 0/19. Online article. Oct. _002_09_ebersbach. April 2003. Swiki. The wiki way.educause. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Neil (2003). InfoWorld. Online paper. Nov.infoworld. (2004). Ariadne.. (2006). Searcher. O’Reilly Network. Online article. Why Wikis Work Not. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report. UniversityWiki. J. David (2004). Anja (2004). The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.html 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.pdf Fountain. S. Wiki pedagogy.html Tomkin. 2.html 7004. 2006.usemod. http://www. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.shtml Rubenking. 12(10).edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or Schwartz. http://www.irrodl. Wiki Tools. January.

in turn.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. which. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. However. floppy disks. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. CD-ROMS. which can then lead to inventions. After a product has been successfully launched. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs.

For a variety of reasons. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. or may never become commercially viable. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. video games. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. in both formal and informal settings. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. while others will last for decades. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. mature. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. and decline. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. The experience of younger learners with television. ascend the curve. peak. Ontologies. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. Some will die quickly. But not all technologies will travel this road. means that they actually think differently. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. This is due. Further. However. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. in part. change itself seems to be inevitable. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. to the complex. and computers. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. some will never leave the development stage. both in classrooms and online. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. 2003). The technology of e-learning. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. In any field. this approach is now rapidly changing. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago.

” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. mind-altering drugs. In North America. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. sex. p. or violence is needed to keep our attention. the computer. Their children. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. the baby boomers. surprise. Then even more movement. The speed of change increases with each passing year. For example. gaming consoles. terrorism. libraries. 1994). the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. The children of the baby boomers. Once we master the art of reading. ecological disasters. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. Because of this. whereby the action of one participant. With feedback. However. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. Generally. It works for a time. results in an action by the other participant. global warming. we will see the restructuring of education and training. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. and digital ink and electronic paper. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. 2002. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. generally went to work earlier. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. born in the 1970s. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. wearable computers. video games. until we become habituated. designers of Sesame Street. in a back-and-forth exchange. television. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. and personal digital assistants. 28). the space race. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. that is all about to change. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. For the older generation. the learner. But they are usually disap-pointed.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research .” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. In approaching electronic educational media. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. In contrast. touch and taste. Within the next five years. movie theaters. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. the civil rights movement. huge data wall displays. digitization of smell. commercials. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. To keep our attention. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. mobile phones. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education.

and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. or can be more bound up by the technologies. New York: Seidensticker.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Dallas. New York: Collins. Texas. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. http://www. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. May 2006. creative products. Bob (2006). http://www. Gary (2006). It is already a place for massively multiple player games. Boston: Harvard Business School Two hundred years Marc. technologies and services for the next 5 years. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. James (1994). it will be a giant collaborative 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Likewise. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. Guides are optional. Douglas (2005).com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Rushkoff. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). shortly. http://www. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning FutureHype: the myths of technology change. and the mapping of everything. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. http://www. portfolios. http://www. (2001). http://www. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. Clayton (1997). the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning Bibliography Christensen. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. In the next wave. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. Digital Game-based Do not reproduce 217 . At the individual level.

mit. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40. 1515 Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del WEBIST AiLive Inc. Palo Alto. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www. 17th Floor. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Marc Schröder. Manuel I.myself-proj.ailive.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.bartneck. L69 7ZF. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www. 27A 2º esq. New York. 3400 Hillview Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont.Portugal Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.nngroup. UK Auburn University Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.umu.webist.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. D. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43.agentlink. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94304 USA http://www.auburn. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. CA 94539-7498 USA Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 Den Dolech 2 al. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. Building Humaine Project c/o Dr. Box 513. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 2910-595 Setúbal . MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge.unige.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media e.

DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www.educause. Suite 206 Boulder.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 Educause 4772 Walnut s/ Alchemy Mindworks P. Box 5200. Edmonton. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. L69 7ZF. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 Ascension Technology Corporation P.O.rit. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 CodeBaby Corp.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Extempo Systems. Box 2124 Menlo Park. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www. 1900 East Tenth St. Box IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.adobe. Huntsville.php/Main_ Page Autodesk.animats. Bloomington.O. Inc. 10004-104 Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. Apple Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Washington. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. Inc 1 Infinite Loop Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Burlington. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. W Toronto.mindworkshop. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.animationfactory. #1910. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.extempo.ascension-tech. SWiSHzone.siggraph.6450 AutoTutor c/o Dr. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park.html Ulead Systems 970 W. Inc. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 http://www. TN 38152 USA http://www.pact.newtek.S. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www.cmu.autotutor. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall. Avid Technology Avid Technology. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 Pty Ltd The Basement. Inc. San Antonio. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 NewTek.cognitivesciencesociety. One Park West SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Haley.818. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Cognitive Science Society Department of Santa Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www.psych. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www.aaai. 601 Townsend Street San Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California. Tel: +1. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 Character Animation Technologies Ltd. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www. Wellington.autodesk.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.cs. 220 © Brandon Hall Research . California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 http://www.htm Macromedia. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis .viewpoint.asp EI Technology Group. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. Suite #480 Torrance. MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U.swishzone.massivesoftware. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa.avid.San Rafael. 190th Street. PO Box 24478.

edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Quantum Simulations.teluq. 100 Sherbrooke St.licef.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Suite 360 San Mateo.unisa. Calgary.ucalgary. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. Calgary. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.cs. Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.iit.cs.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.10th Street S. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www. Suite 1500 T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics. u. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.W. H-1111 Budapest.eden-online.uquebec. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.wpi.enel. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. Egry J.. Suite Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 .ca/eng/inde x. 5275 Sardis Road h/current_computer_science_education_re search. East Adelphi. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood Do not reproduce 221 . Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.usyd. CA .virtuelage. West Montreal.

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Suite 200 Ottawa. 2280 St. Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 2280 St.Nuvvo c/o Savvica RapidGuide c/o XStream Software. Ste.screenwatch. 3rd Floor Magalia. Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.xstreamsoftware. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www. 110 Fourth Ave. PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. Laurent Blvd. Richmond.westcliffdata. Suite 200 Ottawa. Warwick. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 RapidBuilder c/o XStream Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. Cedar Ave & Napier Presentation Studio c/o WebEx SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 http://www. Laurent Blvd. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www.webex. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. Courtice. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 http://www. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 http://www. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain podia Ltd 6th ontent=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 Do not reproduce 227 . 200 South. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Inc. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www. Ontario. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane. Inc. Redmond.articulate. Suite 150 Lindon. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 http://www.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York.. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.reusableobjects. Suite 400 New Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr.

CA 92101 USA http://www.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. #1910. Ste 202 Encinitas. Germany Tel. XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 Sensa e-Learning 4465 W.turbodemo. Inc.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o TurboDemo c/o Bernard D& Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd. Edmonton.83 01 60 Fax +49(0) ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon.respondus.funeducation. 10004-104 Avenue. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Suite 200 Avatars CodeBaby Corp. SC. 250 The Esplanade Toronto. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.sensalearning. 323 Newbury Street Boston.xplana.seminar. Suite 1550 San Jose. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.codebaby.5709 http://www. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.qarbon.4259 Fax: (760) 635. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research .de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/ mate.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Trainersoft FunEducation. Gandy Blvd. 55 South Market St. 76133 Karlsruhe. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 DA Group The Lighthouse. +49(0)721.83 01 616 http://www.

CA 94608 USA http://www. B13 Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. W Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. GTCO CalComp. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive. Suite 260 Orlando.html Knowledge 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.mozilla. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . USA OmniWeb Omni Development. Inc.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. CA 94043-0801 USA Browsers Flock 100 View Moorestown. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. Inc. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Mary Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. WaveMarket. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.opera.flock. Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. mniweb Opera Software ASA P. P. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.cramersweeney. TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Mazgaon. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. Nesbit Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Dale Mabry Oddcast 589 8th Ave..oddcast. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.qelix.blogburst. 11th Floor New York..O. Suite 900 Austin.knowledgeenvironments. 219 Tampa.redwoodelearning. Mumbai 10. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www.omnigroup. 6th Flr.. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr.

Pittsford.brevient. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.batipi.umass. Draper. Breeze c/o Macromedia.Columbia.telnetz. 6th Floor New York. Suite 522. Inc. Inc. Puyallup. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Suite# 401.physics.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Amherst. 12617 Meridian E. 1050 Pittsford Victor Centra c/o Saba.qwizdom.backpackit. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 Brightidea. 404 Fifth Avenue. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Somerset. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Pleasant St.944. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square 230 © Brandon Hall Research . 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Smartroom Learning Solutions. 4631 Dandelion Circle Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. #205 Pasadena. 1192 East Draper Parkway. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N.brightidea. Jospeh Street. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 udienceResponseSystems/ Brevient Tel: Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th BlueTie. Chicago IL 60622 USA Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 Central Batipi 11 St. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www. Orlando. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.0162 http://www.pearsoned. Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. NJ . 100 North Lake Avenue. Suite 101E Falls Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ.aspx Qwizdom. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd. Suite 103 Toronto. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care.

VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr.. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. 795 Folsom Street. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 LLP PO Box 325. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Cisco Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. Lauderdale.emc. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www.edufolio. Suite 950 Portland.convenos. 232 http://www. Inc. Suite 630 McLean. Inc. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. San Engineering. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 Digité. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. 57th Street Gainesville. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. 1034 N. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 eStudio c/o 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. 6th Floor San Francisco. 170 West Tasman EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.digi-net.communiqueconferencing. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Digi-Net Collaboration Loop CMP Media CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph. Suite 600 Ottawa. Sanibel Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www.same-page. 82 Pioneer Way. Suite 105 Chapel Hill.Tel: (626) 593-7007 Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www. Ontario.collaborationloop.html Citrix Systems. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 .com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.epam-pmc. Inc. Inc.

com c/o Citrix Systems. 395 Encinitas. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. Inc.genesys. Inc. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www.horizonwimba.4517 http://www. Clevedon. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www.Tel: (978) 474-4900 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.gotomeeting. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. Suite 2300 New York.groupsupport. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 GoToMeeting.novell. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .gordano. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.grapevinesoftware. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 Gordano 18 Kenn eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www. #115 Rockville. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 Global School Net 132 N.flypaper.exactamerica. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue. Suite 500 Markham.groove.hotcomm. 3100 Steeles Avenue Groove Networks. El Camino Real. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.ezmeeting. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 Groupwise c/o Glance Networks. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.

3 Wing Drive. Corp 2780 Skypark default. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 MITRE 202 Burlington Road Netspoke 600 West Cummings inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Suite 100 iLinc Communications 2999 N. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.ivocalize. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.netspoke. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. Suite 1401 ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.mspx LiveOffice. 44th St. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Suite #150 Herndon. Fordham Interwoven 803 11th Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. Suite 6500 Woburn. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. 1289 LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.ilinc.http://www03. Inc.linktivity. Suite 412 Cambridge. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat. Sunnyvale. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.interwise. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.intralinks. Suite 300 JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www. Phoenix. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Suite 225 Cedar IntraLinks 1372 France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Do not reproduce 233 .iceweb. Inc. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. Inc. 25 First Street. 11th floor New York.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www.

Suite 445 ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Photon Infotech Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 003/technologies/sharepoint/ 17-17 State Highway 208. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www. Ste 275 Mill Valley. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. Inc. Suite B. Inc. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Harbor. Suite 300 Fair Lawn. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 SpiderWeb Communications. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. 51. Suite 210 Maynard.sitescape.parlano. Suite 1450 Chicago. New Raindance Communications. 3679 Concord Selden Integrated Systems. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. 35. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Suite 200 Greeley. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.seldensystems. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www.opentext. Suite 440 San PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy. Riverside Plaza. 1175 58th Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls RADVISION Inc. P. Cactus Box 3325 York. 1157 Century Drive Louisville.project-open.Adyar ml Parlano 10 S. Inc.

O. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 dex. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.webofficepoint. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 Web Crossing. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www. Kierland Blvd. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington.txl Viack 14811 Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue Do not reproduce 235 .com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.tomoye. Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 Vignette 1301 South MoPac ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. Inc.axista.usabilityfirst.sumtotalsystems. Canada http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto. Suite 100 WebEx Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt.teamspace. Box 135 FIN-00381 Teamware P. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www. Ontario M2N 6H8. Suite 950 Washington.webex.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www. Chicago IL 60622 USA Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. Suite 100 Scottsdale.tacit. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www.webasyst.teamware. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.Box 2900 Vodium 1629 K Street NW. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. P. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. Suite 1050 Vancouver.teamdynamix.. Suite 810 WebAsyst PO Box 25331.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7


© Brandon Hall Research

Tel: (514) 745-4010 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK

Fax: (781) 890-828 Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300


© Brandon Hall Research

Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4)

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 LearnCenter c/o, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915


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VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 TEDS Inc. Suite 260 Foxborough. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.technomedia.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Suite 700 Arlington. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. Suite 1280 San Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. Chantilly.outstart. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. St. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.mgen. Fifth Floor 1001 De Maisonneuve ng/ Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 500 West soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.maxit. 100 Foxborough Blvd.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau n_resources/learning.Suite 350 TeraLearn LCMS c/o SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square. LTD 671 N.sselearn. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite SSElearn Portal c/o TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.saba. Glebe Road. East .syntrio. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 mGen Enterprise VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. 550 Queen St. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. Inc. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. West. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 Do not reproduce 241 . PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. Suite 2200 Chicago. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.plateau. Louis. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.teds.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies

com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.uwm. Suite 101 Houston. 4 Expressway Plaza. Box 9752 Boulder. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights. Suite # 105 Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions. Tracker. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. 4th Floor Oakland.edutools. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www.sumtotalsystems. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.avilar.ttg-inc. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100. 2280 St. 240 Bay Street.xtention. 6760 Alexander Bell Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.gyrus. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.. Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson.cdlib. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.wbtsystems.arizona. 17041 El Camino WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Victoria. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. 122 West Inc. Suite 200 Ottawa. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc. Laurent Blvd. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www.vbtrain. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.fldata. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc. Inc. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs.trainingpartner.

Stevenage. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. 1275 Kinnear Road National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.dist. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.plos. Suite 3100 San Francisco. Sterling ENC Learning Inc.merlot. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. AZ. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. AZ 85250 USA http://www. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 Do not reproduce 243 . CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. Box 1892. CT 06459 USA GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. Houston. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Norton Road. Fondren Library. Box 3000 Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Location Based Technologies Cadcorp LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.unsw. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.thegateway. ETRAC. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.4464 Markham Street Victoria. Rice University. Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & 5151 East Broadway. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.maricopa. SG1 MS 44.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.eoscenter. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 m ESRI Suite 300.geocomm.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station LESTER c/o Lisa Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.cadcorp.goenc. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Suite 1600 Tucson.

se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.asp?path= 500.mobilearn. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.imsglobal.smm. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www. Box 240000 Huntsville.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.berkeley. Austria http://www. P. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.aaai. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki.pangonetworks. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC.5372. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Spotlight MapInfo One Global View Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .bham. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.stockholmchallenge. 959 Concord Inc. PMB #112 Lake Mary. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. 17 SE 3rd Avenue. Metadata. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 MOBILearn c/o Dr. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. CA 94720-3160 USA PanGo Networks.O.intergraph. Inc. html ELSNET Trans 10. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.eee.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. Suite 100 Framingham. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. Suite 501 Portland. of Geography. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.mapinfo.O.

com Victoria. Whisman Road Mountain View.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.Project Coordinator CSI .org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .sun.llearn. 10010 USA Groove Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.upenn. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.advancedreality. Inc.elsnet.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.internet2. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 1000 Oakbrook Drive. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.asianart.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www.ldc.cetis. Italy http://tcc. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.seti. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Deane Rd.elena-project. Inc. PA.lockss. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 . 1st Floor A . 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. Inc. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. 3000 Richmond Rive Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.lexxe.itc. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Suite CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo jxta c/o Sun LOCKSS c/o Victoria KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia. NY. World Wide Learn Suite 100. Portals Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Slate ns/ ProQuest 789 E. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. 3333 http://www. 2850 Ocean Park ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Ninth St.teach-nology. New York 10973 USA http://www.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.virtualmuseum. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. Minneapolis. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.elementk. Inc. Suite 225 Santa Monica.worldwidelearn. Box 172 1039 .com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 600 Alpharetta.saba. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. 3016 5th Ave.saba. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.17th Avenue SW SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau.elluminate. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.6526 http://www. Alberta. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www.proquest. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.333.cyberu.genesys. Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. 3º 08021 Barcelona. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 50 Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey Teachnology. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.presentations. NE Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.

100 Do not reproduce 247 .hp.euron.html Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon Euron c/o Raptivity Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Suite B Orion. Henrik I Christensen. ReadyGo Inc. SWEDEN. Centre for Autonmous Woods Hole Marine Systems. O.. Box 2827. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.ife.raptivity. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.generalrobotics.nasa. Pasadena. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 CA Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.aad. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. Inc. Evolution Robotics. Radstock ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.botball. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Chilcompton.rec.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.eng. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.articulate. 130 W. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 Australian Antarctic Division Channel Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Lindsey Bldg. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. Redmond. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www. Inc. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. Numerical Analysis and Computer Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. SE-100 44 Stockholm. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. Union St.irc.ed.

com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research .intute.Search Engines About. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 Suite 500 Oakland.alexa.icerocket.dogpile.ixquick. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. Box 1133 Washington.ask.about. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.6100 IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.O. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 Copernic 360 Franquet Street. Chicago. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.gnod. Box 29141 San 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Healthfinder P.convera. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www.gigablast.copernic. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Google (including Froogle. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 Ask.findlaw. QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Gada. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 Inc. Suite 60 229 West 43rd Street New York. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Headquarters 555 12th Street. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.kartoo. Google. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800. 42nd Floor New FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Dogpile c/o dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) Koders Inc.O. DC 20013-1133 excite.

CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www.mooter. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.W. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 64 Fulton MSN Search One Microsoft Way SearchKing. Nesbit Rd.qelix.pubsub. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 22000 AOL Way Netscape AOL LLC. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 Technorati 665 3rd Street. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .lexxe. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www.msn. 23rd Oklahoma 2400 N. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. Ltd. 6th Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. Mary Apts.looksmart.acm. Mumbai 10.netscape.seekport.metacrawler.cs.technorati. 360 22nd Street.1057022 LookSmart. Inc.. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. Inc. Suite 1200 Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . 601 108th Avenue NE. 7th floor.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.convera. An AOL Company 333 Bush Street. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.almaden. PubSub VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.krugle. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Qube c/o Qelix Technologies Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. NY 10003.82152 Martinsried http://www.cfm?doid=10 56808. 625 Second Street San Truveo. Mazgaon. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp. New Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www. INDIA. Suite 211 Palo Alto .truveo. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 Proteus Project 715 Pandora Media.pandora.searchking. 17th Floor New York. 23rd Floor San RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.nyu. Seventh Floor New York. LitLinker c/o ACM. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. Inc. Suite 207 San Francisco. Inc.

EC4M 7NG London. 10 Old Bailey. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www. Box 1558 New Canaan. Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.O. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G ö Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P.experiencebuilders. Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. 1st Floor A . CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. Inc. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.atghome. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.New York. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. Yahoo http://www. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 Yahoo! 250 © Brandon Hall Research .assima. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.tkk. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 Assima Captivate c/o Flash c/o Macromedia.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Zoom Information Inc.Project Coordinator CSI . 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. Suite 112 anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI . 601 Townsend Street San Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.macromedia.stt-global. GreenPark Reading.

com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer MASIE Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www. 2280 St.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www.teds.fsl. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www. England http://www. B15 STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.assima. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. 55 South Market St. Schaumburg. Suite 240 NexLearn.eduperformance..cs. Suite 360 San Mateo. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Newburyport. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 SimCorder c/o TEDS Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.learning2005. Suite 1550 San Jose.maxit. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon.outstart. Suite 200 Ottawa. CA . LLC 100 South Main Do not reproduce 251 . Suite 300 Wichita. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 Wizard Training Suite c/o Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.xstreamsoftware. Light & Acoustics. Laurent Blvd. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www. Ontario. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.nexlearn.knowledgepresenter.knowledge-director. Stagecast Software.muzzylane. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville..stagecast. Inc. 1821 Walden Office Square.stottlerhenke.bham. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hø NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. Québec. Suite 400. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 Softsim Outstart ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Taschereau Ouest. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Inc. Suite A-207 Brossard.

MA 02139 USA Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.rojo.friendster.netscape.checkpointsystems. SW.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.gnolia. Inc. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. WA 98055 USA http://www. CA 94089 USA http://del. Menlo Park.analytictech. Inc. Box 920089 Needham. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Spurl Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. 2001 Lind Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.spurl. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.O. 625 Second Street San Francisco.. Ltd.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.tagzania. Social Bookmarking c/o Yahoo! Inc. Suite 900 Austin. 101 Wolf Drive. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. Thorofare. CA. Suite 224 Bloomington. CA 94105 USA Jots c/o VPOP Technologies. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www.icio. 795 Folsom St. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research Classmates Online. 655 High Street Palo Alto. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 Rojo Networks.shadows. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 mag.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. Inc. 568 Howard Street San Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Friendster. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. Morton Street. Suite 125 San Diego. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 FURL c/o LookSmart.networkltd.. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. Suite 500 Network c/o The Eventful c/o EVDB.socialtext. Inc. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive. Box 1641 Denver. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie .Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.percro. Cupertino. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.O. CA 94105 USA Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. CO 80201-1641 USA Do not reproduce 253 . LLC 15 Skehan Street Sparta Social Networks.jabber. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. 95 Parker Street Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road.bittorrent. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Suite 115 San Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.dfilm. Church Street. Suite 900 San Suite 1001 Los Fakespace 11 E. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. Inc.hpc. VA 23461-1924 CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.fakespace. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 Jabber Software Foundation P.sociosite. New York.1011 CM Amsterdam. CA 90028 USA http://www.percro. Box 1641 Veoh Networks. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 iTunes Apple Computer. 7220 Trade Street.ergonetz. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CA 92121 USA http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.activeworlds.hp. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www.spider.brightcove. 4th Floor Marshalltown.html Jabber Software Foundation P.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .de Futurelab 1 Canons Road PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.O.

350 South 400 West. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Intuition 9. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www. Suite 100 Lindon.formz. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 ESRI Suite CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies.golden.esri. IC ISIM VRLAB. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.intuition-eunetwork. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. 1333 Butterfield MapInfo One Global View. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.corda. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 Suite 317 San Diego. Columbus. Suite 3 Brooklyn.coe. Inc. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Virtual Reality Lab FeedTank 590 Grand Intergraph Corporation Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. Tracy.. Box 884. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .intergraph. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. Draper.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Grove. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Williams Building College iDashboards 5750 New King Street.idashboards.mapinfo.umd.bham. Suite 206 Golden Software. Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Box 240000 Huntsville. 809 14th DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.501 North Morton Street. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. Inc. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. Suite 110 CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. ADVIZOR Solutions. Cambridge. Golden.accurender.feedtank. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Danvers. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.

CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.visualthesaurus. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www.unifiedfield.spotfire. Inc.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. Unit A2 Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. CA 94712 USA Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Spotfire.S. MA 01863 USA Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. 73 Princeton JAJAH Inc. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 Visual Analytics Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.softill. California. Unit # 1 Mississauga. 155 Spring Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. NY 10012 USA http://www.visualanalytics. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale. Inc. Inc. 2nd Floor Poolesville. Suite 3A New York. A-1220 Vienna. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 Unified Field.ontopia. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.sportbrain. U.vicodi. Inc. Suite 102 Mountain View. 9th floor New York.okino. Ontario L4V Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. 94043 USA http://www.musanim. Suite 305 North Chelmsford.vrvis. 869 97th Ave N. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. Donau-City-Strasse VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. 20010 Fisher Avenue. FL 34108 USA http://www. Vicodi Edvins Snore. RIDemo Brivibas 183. 3 East 28th St.jajah.nlm.nih. ETZ H Electronics sible_human. VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London. 2513 Charleston Pixologic. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.

Coldbrook Business Corp. Broadway.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 JotSpot. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. 167 Hamilton Ave.. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Onfolio Four Cambridge Center. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.ethz. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge.pubsub.feedforall.onfolio. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10. Suite 605 San Francisco.V.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 Feedster. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.. South #358 St. P. 64 Fulton Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. San Web Feeds Attensa. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. Brightcove.brightcove. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. Valdeku Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.rojo. 795 Folsom St. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. Inc. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. Suite 2260 Portland. 200 2nd Ave. 2nd Floor Palo Alto. Suite 900 Austin. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. Estonia http://www. Pacific Business Centre #101 .feedburner.pluck.feedreader.715135858 Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. Switzerland http://www.feedzilla. Suite 100 Campbell. 116 New Montgomery Street. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.. 11211. Inc.1001 Rojo Networks. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 Feedreader / i-Systems Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. Hanover. CA 95008 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. Inc. StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. Suite 381 Vancouver. Building K Mountain View. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.bloglines. Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto. First PubSub Concepts. FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech.wearable. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 FeedForAll PO Box 296. Nederland Tel: +31. Petersburg. Seventh Floor New

com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

67. 132. 218 Agents. 20. 231. 12. 170. 181. 97. 64. 101. 196 collaboration. 84. 195 Authoring tools. 65. 27. 161. 159. 145. 116. 65. 194. 122 Ambient computing. 27. 91. 194. 117. 179. 17. 165. 52. 130. 160. 35. 6. 122. 66. 140. 129. 180 Competency Tracking. 21. 190. 93. 90. 162. 42. 18. 169. 118. 74. 16. 72. 48. 113. 193. 82. 198. 170. 85. 84. 127. 112. 203. 178. 80. 207 Classroom response systems. 81. 25. 180. 190. 70. 44. 13. 70. 36. 153. 189. 193. 145. 189. 122. 43. 46. 136. 23. 127. 177. 21. 35 Content management. 62. 150. 26. 52. 63. 60 Clickers. 146. 165. 211. 110. 21. 37. 190. 55. 54.Index 3-D graphics. 219. 198 Data mining. 80. 45 Avatars. 81. 95. 121. 171. 94. 66. 64. 71. 171. 127. 43. 18. 18. 216 Affective computing. 23. 209. 40. 149. 5. 59. 177. 158. 69. 100. 29. 101. 29. 30. 193. 74. 45. 128. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 16. 25. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 48. 63. 28. 174. 116. 57. 59. 137. 165. 201 Adaptive systems. 48. 58. 35. 193. 114. 78. 48. 91. 189. 77. 23. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 46. 71. 39. 26. 15. 67. 137. 93. 100. 27. 205 Animation. 144. 203. 212 Boolean searches. 146. 85 Blogs. 36. 46. 91. 184. 39. 80. 184. 128. 51. 67. 50. 203. 170. 47. 125. 123. 141. 57. 41. 138. 181. 86. 56. 22. 180. 209. 27. 78. 215 Communities of practice. 122. 70. 47. 74. 169. 75. 200. 4. 24. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 165 Air display. 160. 109. 139. 211. 23. educational. 127 Cooperation. 83. 68. 69. 192 Browsers. 94. 127. 29. 21. 196. 180. 22. 174 Bayesian probability. 66. 16. 211. 15. 93. 65. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 35. 49 AJAX. 72. 216 Computer based assessment. 18. 66. 4. 31. 146. 74. 69. 128. 203. 24. 28. 15. 69. 140. 172 Audio. 69. 57. 15. 209 Augmented reality. 79 Complexity theory. 159. 191. 49. 65. 149. 201 cognitive collage. 27. 196. 103. 34. 45. 170. 89. 11. 39. 47. 52. 23. 85. 109. 217 Collaboration. 194. 42. 20. 60 Cognition. 5. 191. 66. 125. 145 Conversational learning. 223. 50. 135. 176 Cell phones. 50. 199 Architectures. 180. 112. 196. 46. 44. 33. 67. 89. 193. 209. 171. 93. 139 assessment. 156. 53 barcodes. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 24. 174. 121. 59. 28. 50. 88 cybercartography. 4. 191. 97. 211 Broadband. 26. 8. 72. 207. 24. 196. 170. 70. 112. 199. 208. 74. 127. 100. 160. 159. 196. 50. 35. 7. 197. 46. 65. 176. 85. 137. 197. 211 Communications Tools. 109. 2. 63. 84 Adobe. 226 Authorware. 110. 90 Assessment. 46. 36. 196 Dashboards. 47. 176. 145. 83. 196 cognitive maps. 45. 148. 50. 74. 119. 63. 21. 93. 177.

100. 64. 154. 134. 146. 93. 217 Instant messaging. 97. 78. 154. 25. 200. 116. 3. 217. 180. 210. 16. 26. 26. 57 Flash. 146. 124. 84. 35. 170. 95. 5. 75. 103. 25. 159. 196. 89. 152. 45. 153 Facial recognition. 47. 37. 107. 5. 100. 18. 63. 52. 57. 163 Findability. 74. 120. 152. 125. 74. 83. 94. 196. 131. 183. 106. 107. 134. 101. 86 Deep Web. 23. 137. 106 Head mounted displays. 69. 121. 167 evaluation. 215. 250 Folksonomies. 134. 106. 85. 90. 132. 11. 197. 80. 70. 26. 193. 6. 178. 170. 173. 162. 170 Federated searches. 202. 11. 122. 16. 49. 134. 70. 11. 186. 191 Games. 203. 48. 198. 217 images. 200. 20. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 27. 91. 124. 25. 139. 172. 16. 79. 86. 152. 66. 75. 248 graphics. 169 Expert systems. 109. 9. 114. 215.Decision support systems. 194. 205 Hybrid systems. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 49. 13. 42. 35. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 106. 25. 161. 204 Dreamweaver. 26. 80. 4. 91. 179. 8. 155. 196. 97. 4. 47. 93. 47. 63. 163. 48. 51. 215 Informal learning. 169. 106 Haptics. 28. 85 Extreme learning. 24 e-Portfolios. 88. 190. 52. 5. 11. 238 Geocaching. 98 GIF graphic format. 85. 69. 107. 156. 89. 4. 214 Human-centered computing. 160. 178. 74. 63. 57. 198. 189. 122. 196 Graphics. 27. 119. 33. 197. 64. 23. 67. 19. 35 Frameworks. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 219 Infrared tags. 187. 29. 119 FireFox. 15. 88. 176. 197. 108. 158. 12. 68. 93. 45 dynamic displays. 120. 21. 153. 127. 152. 9. 30. 20. 90 Experiential learning. 45. 184. 193. 158 Informatics. 66. 137. 24. 109. 162. 16. 104. 59. 3. 216. 80. 31. 170. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 49. 123 Hype in e-learning. 94. 60. 199. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 225. 196 e-Commerce. 46. 89. 88. 17. 158. 13. 176. 196 Immersive environments. 119. 58. 20. 201. 9. 201 Grid computing. 193. 7. 120. 169. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 88. 205. 201 FrontPage. 158 Design. 166. 216 Distributed systems. 164. 70. 30. 49 Google. 149. 121. 33. 55. 119. 72. 162. 88. 97. 187. 180. 162 History. 13. 141. 184 e-Science. 174. 133. 100. 34. 5. 123. 210 formative assessment. 88. 122. 189. 9. 37. 26. 193. 53. 174. 197. 94. 196. 80. 158. 103. 109. 199. e-learning. 110. 114. 149. 103. 169. 22. 165 Handwriting recognition. 59. 23. 106 Healthcare applications. 151. 27. 25. 11. 84. 65. 239 Individualization. 216 Director. 166. 32. 8. 199 Gesture recogntion. 54. 60. 26 Emotional design. 127. 134. 7. 193. 196. 110. 86. 125. 15. 119. 45 Displays. 106. 34. 101. 175. 71. 81.

46. 121. 122. 180. 127 Podcasting. 26. 119. 124. 238. 101. 205 Macromedia. 6. 74. 108. 79. 32. 100. 180. 196 Pedagogy. 128. 90. 127. 93. 178. 193. 199. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 149. 114. 172. 6. 135. 48. 148. 124 iPod. 124. 125. 114 learning object repository. 25. 153. 180. 45. 60. 174. 134. 113. 127. 144. 150. 42. 36. 35. 141. 152. 160. 17. 59. 241. 81. 234. 182. 34. 116. 206. 186. 65. 140. 135. 163 Microformats. 156. 7. 135. 60. 244 Meta-search engines. 187. 2. 165 Microlearning. 4. 111. 174. 166 Pervasive computing. 4. 27. 66. 170. 130. 175. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 100. 191. 166 PowerPoint. 140. 26. 125 Lab book wiki. 145. 17. 6. 192. 63. 146. 124. 103. 49. 130. 140. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 196. 107. 47. 136. 63. 113. 35. 189. 246. 178. 62. 80. 65. 146. 54. 26 Metadata. 134. 171 Metacognition. 121. 215. 23. 77. 181. 183. 153 Microsoft. 119. 215 Interoperability. 15. 85. 137. 148. 159. 120. 174. 110. 193. 144 Navigation. 123. 115. 216. 111. 165 pattern recognition. 171. 246 Location based tools. 226. 36. 78. 122. 137. 31. 161. 213. 230. 42. 110. 127. 241 Learning Management Systems. 115. 6. 97. 78. 124. 129. 242 learning object model. 146. 107. 98. 116. 11. 57. 143. 80. 172. 7. 169. 119. 139. 125. 192. 244 Motion Graphics. 139. 80. 128. 199. 152 Lecturing. 149. 46. 109. 20. 69. 120. 24. 189. 156 Legacy materials. 223 Portals. 6. 191. 191. 137. 26. 65. 125. 137. 4. 43. 176. 162. 45. 62. 80. 211 latent semantic analysis. 220. 145. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 40. 139 Personalization. 249. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 161. 211 Knowledge management. 48. 148. 165. 199 Neural networks. 237. 120. 139. 97 Ontologies. 158. 114. 123 Medical applications. 114. 89. 44. 26. 191. 166. 90. 66. 145. 128. 43. 233. 23. 196 Mashups. 69. 45. 86. 42. 65. 30. 127. 145. 95. 7. 127. 49. 143. 216. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 68. 25. 143. 147. 204. 76. 5. 174. 122. 116. 42. 142. 77. 82. 22. 140. 246. 47. 127. 26. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 47. 190. 68. 70. 141. 250 mapping. 150. 180. 160. 239. 165. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 34. 43. 58. 165. 8. 205. 138. 122. 65. 112. 178. 134. 176. 18. 16. 64. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 20 Museums. 109. 23. 129. 152 Libraries. 29. 48. 134.Interface devices. 112. 129. 183. 80. 179 Optical tags. 255. 124. 189. 128. 93. 114 Learning Objects. 190. 135. 131. 145. 47. 45. 26. 42. 80. 139. 54. 155. 114. 91. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 53. 154. 190. 114. 171 M-learning. 109. 149. 106. 21. 139. 7. 21. 134. 138. 152 Networks. 54. 189. 130 Mobile computing. 119. 146. 176. 119. 45. 240. 107. 256 Microworlds. 109. 15. 194. 81. 85.

21. 191 Tangible computing. 84. 119. 125. 199 Turing Test. 48. 247 Role-playing. 189. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 35. 119. 9. 178. 30. 35 Quizzes. 196 Serious games. 116. 27. 170. 125. 174. 246 Privacy. 227. 87. 48. 77. 171 Science. 169. 119. 129. 166. 9. 46. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 189. 35 Symbology tags. 209. 181. 162. 22. 215. 36. 50. 144. 118. 16. 148. 117. 168. 124. 155. 72. 46. 48. 91. 64. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 190. 176 Team management. 174 Social bookmarking. 26. 158. 152 Thin clients. 114. 182. 155. 114. 171. 191 summative assessment. 141. 64 Telephony. 150. 20. 106 Proximity tools. 180. 69. 174 self-evaluation. 170. 36. 215. 112. 175. 153. 97. 172. 152 Projectors. 211 Tags. 165. 40. 36. 47. 123 Simulations. 35. 167 reusable learning objects. 115. 158. 174 Project management. 184. 109. 161. 119. 199 Taxonomies. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 114 Screencasting. 88. 5. 47. 89. 217 Translation. 110. 94. 26. 171 Scenarios. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 116. 36. 154. 49. 186. 133. 221 SCORM. 62. 178. 54. 178. 4. 131. 159. 52. 216 Tests. 174. 46. 82. 119 quizzes. 38. 93. 66. 163. 86. 94. 189. 59. 165. 154. 93. 91. 188. 168 résumés. 183. 88. 74. 169. 148. 177. 125. 122 Tagging. 48. 135. 26. 197. 37. 39. 37. 160. 48. 193. 152. 166. 134. 167. 180. 49. 141. 141. 125. 83. 149. 181 Speech recognition. 134. 50. 174. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 39. 11. 83. 74. 225. 71. 46. 57 T-Learning. 106. 205 Shockwave. 175 Tag clouds. 68. 122. 116. 199 Single-user wiki. 179. 191 Tours (online). 203. 80. 189 Security. 165. 95. 170. 120. 203 Telepresence. 180. 38. 175 Rapid e-learning. 207 Social networking. 26. 137. 131. 57. 35 Semantic Web. 139. 54. 153. 65. 122 sharable content objects. 115. 131. 54. 173. 114. 90 Reusability. 141. 54. 138. 211 Skypecasting. 109. 8. 160. 189 Television. 42. 15. 47. 47. 124. 137. 35. 6. 215. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 122. 177. 174. 177. 114 Robotics. 175. 176. 27. 55. 45. 57. 81. 150. 50. 163. 189. 4. 40. 189 Search engines. 179. 247 rapid learning. 191. 11. 132 Streaming video. 177.Presentation tools. 156. 75. 174. 185. 9. 7. 161. 47. 74. 176. 34. 35. 47. 156. 49. 169. 148 Smart labels and tags. 172. 93. 5. 35. 11. 176. 150. 70 Radio. 134. 155. 52. 124. 179. 124. 9. 159. 62. 114 Repositories. 110.

45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 106. 79. 57. 98. 159. 211. 9. 253 Videocasting. 62. 189. 154 Virtual learning environments. 44. 131. 89. 51. 56. 112. 148 Whiteboards. 64. 164. 255 Wearable computing. 210. 203. 211. Gary. 255 Web conferencing. 149. 194 Video. 121. 108. 256 Woodill. 150. 189 virtual classroom. 148. 217 Word. 191. 148 Virtual classrooms. 174. 211. 215. 123. 4. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 207. 199. 46. 137 Virtual reality. 43. 40. 182. 190. 81. 65. 206. 66. 256 Webcasting. 90. 209. 212 Wikis. 5. 7. 187. 212. 193. 200. 236. 107. 148. 197. 124. 239 Wikipedia. 177. 215. 177. 74. 210. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 74. 200. 45. 137. 113. 67. 91. 196. 68. 11. 69. 74. 182. 49. 130. 127. 22.Ubiquitous computing. 216. 160. 119. 148. 3. 213. 205 Usability. 150 Webinars. 9. 209. 176. 187. 123. 106. 165. 60. 13. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 189 Vodcasting. 100. 205. 208. 192. 106. 88. 193 Visualization. 145. 214. 109. 108. 57. 198. 216 Vlogs. 80.

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