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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. and a bibliography for each of the technologies. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. technology. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. Carlos Oliveira. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. Pamela Fragomeli. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. will be available in early 2007. and services. editing. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research. have supported this research from the beginning. This report. None of this would have been possible if my wife. Grant Hamilton. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. and support at all points of my career. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. Jennifer McDowell. Operitel’s CEO. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. lists of online resources. The first report. I have provided links to online learning examples. the second in the series. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. along with an index. Amy Davey. Karen. Pierre Cahorn. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. Lise Bye. A third report. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. Thanks. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. Karen Anderson. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change.

” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. or device that extends human abilities. Do not reproduce 3 . A third way to learn is by seeing. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. We tend to forget. But learning technologies have a much longer history. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. with rows. Technologies are any technique. many different ways to learn. linear teaching techniques online. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. the raising of hands.just the ability to follow an example. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories. With these reforms. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. for example. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. The modern classroom. material.” Starting in the first century AD. and language for communication. the classroom became industrialized. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today. Medieval universities followed the same practice. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. Schools were started to teach accounting. as books were scarce. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. They are. to quote Donald Norman (1993). fire for warmth and cooking. and recess. “things that make us smart. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report. in fact. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. There are. still used in many institutions of higher education. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. coupled with faster printing and binding methods.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. Learning became standardized and linear. that lecturing. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn. or “reader. class periods. detentions. is a 2000 year old “technology. even if the originator of the words is not present. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others.

24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. Eventually. allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. and standards. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. At the same time. Rather than pages. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. When a new technology is introduced. as this is a non-technical guide. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. in 1876 someone at Western Union. However. sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. 2006). The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content.Students in these schools learned by reading. memorizing. frameworks. Sadly. it needs to adhere to architectures. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. moving pictures (films). most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information. mashups can only be done using computer technology. When a new technology first comes into use. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. the early days of computer networking. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication.” In 1970. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). changing the practice of teaching. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research . Like all new technologies. and reciting. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency. 2006). Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. chairman of IBM.” Similarly. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. For example. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander. Thomas Watson.

with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. Number 3. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid. and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. For Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. Find it at: http://kaleidoscope. They provide location independence. presentation and interactive environments. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic.accessgrid.learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. With applications and content becoming both distributed and php). decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.imsglobal. January. Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network.grid. Do not reproduce 5 . the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. There is authentication and authorization support at every has a number of published documents a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. In particular. 2005. see the call for papers in Learning Grid.

the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments .Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. While packaged courses still have a place. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. Major specifications for AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments.” In late based on open. http://www. Bollier says. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . http://ltsc. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications. and makes extensive use of IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. research. we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. http://purl. could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework. interactive learning components. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology. “[a] pull economy . Instead. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times.adlnet. and education The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty.taken together. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System. This is especially true for adult education. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. http://sourceforge. In Europe. http://www. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. At the same time. is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning. enabling the search for ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular.aicc.elframework. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. In business. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies. They noted that “…in education. reinforces this theme. Rather. Instead of just providing courses.oclc.

org/abs/cs. Nov. M. R. Milan. is becoming and wearable computers. Bibliography Abbas. Five years ago.asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.educause. User-created content. G. As Anderson (2004. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.DC/0502051 Alexander. T. M. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. http://www. M. March/April 2006. Switzerland. often placed in repositories as open source content or software.pdf Bogonikolos.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years. K. 2004). Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Likothanassis.wired. 2006) has argued.. Weiss. M..pdf Anderson. Umer. http://www. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). For example.. 41(2) N. I hope you will find it useful.. often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et ege/session1/paper1.. UK. Sept. (2005). October. Z. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . the reader can approach any topic in any order. those learners are now keeping their own erm0621. Ahmad. McClatchey.. (2005).com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. The Long Tail. along with selected examples. 2005). Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Moreover. All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. and McGinnis (2004). Wales. Chrysostalis.html Anderson. http://www. (2002). online resources.. Ali. M.. Cardiff. Web 2.idi. Montreal. Bertolazzi. Lausanne.ntnu.. ambient networks. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. Zanichelli. M. Chris (2006).bcs. K. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. http://www.. Italy. Thus. F. mobile devices. From this. Reggiani. 16. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. A. 12(10). Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment. http://ewic. 2002. Odeh. Giotopoulos. and Conte. http://www.ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. and a bibliography. New York: Hyperion. Bryan (2006).no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/ s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. David (2005). R. S. http://arxiv. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences.1 0/tail. Wired Magazine. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail.” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals. and Votis.. 19. Chris (2004). In the last chapter.cscsi. The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. 2004.htm Bollier. June 2005. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. F.

pdf Millea. Thomas (2004). A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Upper Saddle River. T. J. http://www. and Putland.johnhagel. I. pdf He. (1996).co m/docs/SOA_World. Sept. Working paper. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services. International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). http://www. American Jrnl.iadis. 2002 http://ewic.cti. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning R110203. and Brown. Gregor (2005). J.pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . Oct. 14-16. D. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. Athabasca Dede.Dev Shed. 6-8. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Sept. (2002).pdf Cerri. WI. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. (2005).2005. G. for the Australian Dept. R. http://www.networking technology. 2001.ICALT 2001.enterpriseintegrationpatterns.xml&DOI=10. J. Emerging technologies and distributed learning. (2005). http://csdl2.virtual.act.athabascau.. April ege/session2/paper1. L. C.html Hagel. J.. ThoughtWorks White paper. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. Perth.pdf Friesen.1109/CIT. of Distance Education 10. . of Education and Training. http://www.ascilite. (2005). A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service 0/soa. and Albert. Norm (2006). Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). January th04/procs/pdf/marshall. Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services. E. C. C. Switzerland. Madison.htm Hohpe. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . Centre for Distance Ed..cancore..gmu. Hao (2003). http://www. Infoworld. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . and Zhang. http://cde. Triantafillou.. Stephen (2004). Stefano (2005). http://www. Luo. and Borck.asp Chatarji. 8/16FEsasdirect_1. Hornig. International E-Learning Specifications.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc.. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). V.devshed. J. USA. N. March 2002. 1026-1032.pdf Erl. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking. 2. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE /ec/product. Proceedings. Tsiatsos. T.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. A field guide to software as a service. Dec.bcs. Education. http://ru6. 2003. and McGreal.infoworld.5 6 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services. (2001). Jagadish (2004). http://www. Web Services .xml. Portugal. Aug. http://www. Lausanne.html Hockemeyer. 2005.aspeninstitute. Online. (2005). (2002).au Limited.pdf Knorr.xml. Erlanger. Australia. http://www. http://www. 4-36.html Kong.

http://www.R. http://www. Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://www. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. (2005). (Eds. M. Cook. 2005. J.. Library+information Show.. (2003). C.pdf s/ATLAS.): Proceedings.pdf Werkhoven. 2006.28 April 2004. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. and Geys. Aalderink.aspx Yang. and Oliveira. http://ewic. 2006. and Weggen. April 26-27. future thinking: digital repositories.acten. G. Zhou et al.astd.. In Spaniol. pp. Samuel (2006).org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.unikarlsruhe. ICWL 2003. Berlin: Springer. UK. 9. F. Mashups. J. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. Lee.. Peter (2004).uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. V. Birmingham. Rhonda (2006). M. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 21. and Wade. ACTeN E-Content Report No. http://www-i5. Research 0509_06. (2006).com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 ege/session3/paper2. Cambridge.Neumann.. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.rwthaachen. R. and Ho. Journal of Information Science and Engineering. and Vossen. S. Trinity (2000). April 1.pdf Woodill. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi. 193–205.pdf Urdan. Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. C.alt. MA: Perseus. (2004). Reflective learning. Donald (1993). Hambrecht and Co. SCORM and the Learning Grid.pdf Norman. Stuttgart. G. /experience_machines.iis. http://www. 27 . W. (2005). and Jarke. http://www. http://www. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine.aifb. http://www. Klamma.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . Dublin. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual -learninggrids. 911-928. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.pdf Pierre. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation.sinica. white_paper_2005. http://www. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier. G. Learning Solutions.operitel. http://www. M. May 15. (2003). H.informatik. Germany. W. Harvey. V.

and a bibliography for each section. selected elearning related examples. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. Included are related terms. online resources to learn more about each technology. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. 10 © Brandon Hall Research .

uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. Affective Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “ author of the 1997 groundbreaking book. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. keystroke patterns. In online therapy. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. 2005). facial recognition. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. too.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under Selected Examples Rosalind Picard. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states.cs.. 2005) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing. et al. gestures. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al. in Italy. Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of heads the MIT lab on affective computing. Without the ability to understand emotions. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.html Do not reproduce 11 . Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials. emotional design. SRI Consulting (http://www.” http://www. or sad. and to respond to them effectively. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. For http://www. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. http://www. posture. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. UK. security. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. accuracy.myself-proj. and legality. speech patterns mainstream. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.” (Anolli. understand. privacy. and react to human emotions. emotions.

Graziola. S..wired. Oregon. C. April 2-7. April e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. CHI 2005 conference. and Waterworth. and Zancanaro. Stock. Hatfield. K. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. A. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach. Agliati. I Like It . Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Oregon.. R. April 2-7. F.. Brave.arizona.dis. and Confalonieri (2005). Portland.... B. October University of The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Sensual Evaluation Instrument. K. Realdon.. C. April Kaye. http://www. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. (2005). http://emotion. M. J. K. http://www. with many resources.. http://www.1 2/love. Oregon. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. April 2-7. and Morishima. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli. J. N. O. and Merisol.. and Laaksolahti. M. M. (2005). D.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. M.unitrier.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide. bibliographies. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. UK. e_interfaces/Cahour.doc dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final. Oregon. are available online: http://www. Zurloni. CHI 2005 conference. (2005).html Fallman. http://emotion-research. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Bouraoui. e_interfaces/Chateau.sics. CHI 2005. Iwamura. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. Joseph (2005). We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Dr. The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action. Portland.pdf Goren-Bar. L. 2005. Wired Magazine.html In Germany. Portland. Oregon.. A. Nakajima. Yamada.sics. April 12-15. http://www.. D. CHI 2005.uniroma1. http://www. listing many links to interesting resources. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience.pdf Cahour. Brassac. Y.. Nass. December.sics. http://www. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: e_interfaces/Hook. B. AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. Oregon. Vescovo. V.sics. David (2003).The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion. China.sics. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation.nsma. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . 2005 http://www. 2005.doc Hook. http://www. Isbister. Pachoud. 2005. I. Lee. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.aisb. Vermersch. J. (2005).pdf Interfaces.. Portland.. C.unige. CHI 2005 conference. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. F. (2005). September 13. Pianesi.pdf Maldonado. and Zouinar. O. J.informatik. Z. 2005.. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.pdf e_interfaces/Kaye. Issue 11/12. Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. H. (2005). Salembier. P. April 2-7. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. Portland. H. including studies of emotions in e_interfaces/Fallman.... http://www. P. The Love Machine: building computers that care.

and Steele. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Beijing. ACII 2005. April 2-7. CHI 2005 conference. 2005. Gerd (1998).thesis. http://www. (2002). M.sics.elearningreviews.cs. Affective Computing vs. CHI 2005. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference. J. NJ. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. October 22-24. http://www. CHI 2005. http://www. Emotional Agents. /Wright. CHI 2005 conference. May 26. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. http://www. 35(2). e_interfaces/ e_interfaces/ Regan (2005).edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg.Next 10 Years! 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard. Doctoral Dissertation. MA: MIT. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things.htm Tao. Cambridge. April 2-7. 22.pdf Ruebenstrunk.HTM Steele.doc Wright. Portland.pdf nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education.pdf Norman. Tan. 2005. Helena (2005). (2005). (2005). http://www. http://www. and Daily. 2005.iste. Portland. and Picard. Oregon. Oregon. Berlin: Springer.sics. 2005. S. R.miv.stanford. Paper for Evaluating Affective Picard. Charlotte (2005). http://www. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. E-book http://www. and Ishizuka. Affective Computing. China. T. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Erlbaum. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. OR.ruebenstrunk. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. (2004). (2005).sics. S. http://www. April 2-7. Portland. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel. Rosalind (1997) New York: Basic. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. University of Birmingham. Dec. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. Miami. Oregon. e_interfaces/Mandryk. L.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . M. e_interfaces/Wiberg.utokyo. Ian (1997).pdf Masum. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research. Portland.pdf Mentis. Paper for WEBIST 2005.t. Donald ntent.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. 2005. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. and both may be found in the same http://w3. In this context. Mentor. She made mistakes.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor.. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps. et al. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. and many of them can actually learn. First. Agents have beliefs.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. A second agent in the simulation. 2004) and are. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Fourth. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. autonomous agents. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. Katzlberger. proactive (goal directed). intelligent agents program (for example. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group. In such situations. benevolence. 2004). 2005). which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. see the paper by Far et al. Third. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. veracity. and. Sometimes multiple agents can work and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). rationality. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility. Learning by computers is sometimes called machine s. avatars. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof.informatik. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning. Second. 1999). of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. therefore. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. For example. learning/adaptation. 1999). a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. but Do not reproduce 15 . Dick Stenmark. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. not only about environments. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. and the students had to continue to teach her. useful in educational simulations. Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. Viswanath. However.

Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7.netobjectdays.fsu. http://liinwww. Content Agent Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents.stanford.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity. has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.codebaby. Student Assistant Agent 4. expert Skills Manager Agent 3. User Profile Agent.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. acting against other teams of agents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning).edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents. gents. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. uses seven different types of agents: 1.liv.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.uka. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen.extempo. (1998) developed a conversational agent. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.ira. Baldi. For details see: www. http://www. Even though each agent acts independently. go to: http://ldt. http://www. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support. (2004): http://www. and expert guides. 2000).org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/ ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems. http://www.redwoodelearning. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in CodeBaby Corp. They are available as adaptive coaches. Massaro et al. Learning Paths Agent 5. See the article by Williams et al. Amy Baylor and her colleagues.also about other The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents. 2. go to: http://ritl. Therefore. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research . an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents.

& Kim.educause.aace.University of Southern California. and Telecommunications 2003. J.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro.. In apers/malceb/0623. Norfolk.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao.. Z. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. G.pdf Clarebout. 5(7).. 2005. Krittaya (2005). C. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software atzlbergerDissertation.editlib. L.pdf Kim.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. 21-38. www. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Elan.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. & Lin. Clarebout. Paper presented. VA: AACE. International Journal on E-Learning.editlib. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. http://www. m0523.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.pdf m0235. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management. 459-462.editlib. and Tsang. Large Complex Leelawong. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). and Shaw. Hershey. M.editlib. Bibliography Baylor.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. e-Learning 2005. E. http://www. S. and Ho. Nashville. P. TN. Learning by Teaching Agents. Ng. Y. http://www. No. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. G.editlib... (2002). 3. E-Learning 2003. www. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). 10 (3).org/index. http://www. G. Y. 1503-1506. W. Do not reproduce 17 . Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments. http://www.. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception. Sun. Vanderbilt University.netobjectdays. (2002). B. & El-Khouly. (2005). Doctoral Dissertation. Inter-active Learning Res. 1659-1666. A. & Johnson. http://www. 28(2). Ali (2002). Vanderbilt University.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.cfm?fuse action=Reader. & Bengu. Educause Quarterly. http://www. Hypermedia. 267-286 http://www. (2005).. C.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy... Doctoral Dissertation.editlib. (2003). L. http://www. A. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. http://www. S. Hypermedia. (2003).org/index. Germany.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://csdl. Tennessee.cfm?fuseactio Y.teachableagents. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. and Palopoli.pdf Lin. A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. In Richards.. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.pdf Jafari. G. Jrnl. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp. In Proceedings. 75-80. (Ed. E-Learning 2003. W. Erfurt.old.. PA: Information Sciences Publishing.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 004/07/o7004. Nashville. 11(3). Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. A.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.educause.aace. (2002).. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Thomas (2005). 1353-1356. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. Zahia (2004). 306-311).pdf Kao.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger. & Ebbers.). http://dl. (1999).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S.. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective.teachableagents. Proceedings.editlib. 4(1). (2005). (2000). Fuhua Oscar (2005). Educause Quarterly. (2003). Johnson. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference.Media 2005. and Stucky. Richards (Eds. 17(2). A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. Doctoral Padgham. & Leelawong. (2004).edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung.ogi. G. H.). D. J. Atreya. Finland. M. http://www.http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood. Peter (1998). France. Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. Proceedings.editlib. In ssaroCole_WECC98.cse.. & Lim.uni-karlsruhe. In P. ED. August. New York: John Wiley & Sons. http://www. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. R. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI. www. Pittsburgh. (2006). 18 © Brandon Hall Research . Beskow. (2005). G. Cohen. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.. (1999). R. 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.utexas. S. St. L. V.indiana. L. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS).vt. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. O. 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius..). Virginia Poytechnic and State University. PA. ED-MEDIA 2005. & Booth. Petersburg. In Proceedings. http://scholar.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. S.. 14(1). http://citeseer.html Shim. K. L. of California. and Winikoff. IFIP WG12. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. M.editlib. Toulouse. Proceedings. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Doctoral Dissertation.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI).org/newdl/index. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning.cfm?fuse action=Reader. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Doctoral dissertation. S. A.. (2005). June 1-4. 143-162. B. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.informatics.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Sandel. http://www. (2004).. 61-65. 321333.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. K. 3169-3176.. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents.. Russia.aace. 194-201.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno. Ferat (2000).pdf Menczer. ( Sahin.. D. Government.cs. http://www.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 47-59. 87 Viswanath. 1632. Adebiyi. M. R.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. http://www. (1999). http://www. Wesley.. and Solomon.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. and Higher Education 2004.aace.editlib. U. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. 10 (3). and Núñeza.editlib. M.aifb. and Ferneley. Healthcare. http://www. (2005). ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Carnegie Mellon ED-MEDIA. Kommers & G. 1415-1420. (2004). and Cole. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).lib.pdf Perez.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 1999. http://cslu. (1999). http://www.

ppt Do not reproduce 19 .edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. M. In 8bis.pdf Williams.teachableagents. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. (2004). J. N. & Madsen. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. http://ca. oductCd-047149691X. April 18-21. ED-MEDIA 2004.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.wiley. Gilbert.http://www. Paper at CLAG2004. Chicago. http://research. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. 2004.editlib. Michael (2002). New York: John Wiley & Sons.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. (2004). 3000-3002.html Chun.

topshareware. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. (2003). Also. However. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation.” (Huk.. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference.html Real GIF Optimizer ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . like pictures in a flip book. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes. 2003) Finally. al.animationfactory.000 pre-built animated GIFs.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5.topshareware. go to the Animation Factory: http://www.05 http://www. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. a static diagram. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs.htm For a selection of over 400. motion graphics depiction. Rather. coupled with imagining how something > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.” Lowe adds that “in some cases. The results of many experiments have been fcon.Animation Software Related terms Flash. et. animations may even prejudice learning. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. Given that. However. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www. producing animations can be very costly. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence. with long hours spent to produce even a short Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. produced the best learning results.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al.0 http://www. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly. improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics.

macromedia.html Falling Bodies afaq. For a free demo. See why it has won Academy Awards at: Enliven . A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. http://www.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online.newtek. their 3-D character creation A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.eitechnologygroup. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script. effects. For more information on Shockwave.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.Softimage Co.massivesoftware. http://www. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools. To use ActionScript. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. and rendering tool.viewpoint. http://www. http://www. http://www. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe. http://www. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. animating. http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films. go to: http://macromedia. go to: http://www.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage| Maya is a high-end modeling. a subsidiary of Avid Technology. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web. It is part of Final Cut Studio.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.” x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of nliven. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques.html CAT ts/main.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium. animation. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. It animates fall n/ SoftImage|XSI . the built-in programming language. For information on nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max. http://www.catoolkit. go to: http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation ersion. 2004).animats.utoronto.

http://www. C.. 2003. July 2004. (2003). Cognition and Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.html Malheiro.aace. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. M. Learning Circuits. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. http://www. http://projekte. (2004).htm Hess. http://www.. http://www. 325–360. never too much.learninglab. Educational Psychology Review. (2003). Lehi. go to AllWorldSoft.pdf Toth.unihannover.ascilite. and 04/hess. Learning Circuits.pdf /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation. C. R. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . and Hancock.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves. http://www2. Paper presented at ED-Media 2003. http://www. (2003). Learning Circuits. Hancock. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 R.pdf Lowe.learningcircuits. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. S. 1046-1048. and 04/ 003/toth.) Beyond the comfort zone: Mayer.sjsu. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems. ndouts/mayer_mmlearn. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. Atkinson. S. (2002). T.rapidintake.allworldsoft. Animation – just enough. http://www.htm Hegarty. S. Thomas (2003). D.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software. July. ASCILITE Conference. G.ascension-tech.htm Huk. R.cgi/d17506/Huk_E July 18. http://esub.freedownloadscenter. and Hess. Flash Interactive Session. 14(1).com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.learningcircuits. and Moreno. Steinke. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. March 2002.learningcircuits. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. FreeDownloads Center. G. http://www. (1). McBeath. G. and Cate. (2004).au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r. S. Kriz. Phillips ( 20HKC. media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. M. Jonas-Dwyer & R.K. (2004).htm Bibliography Castillo. 87-99. (2004).com/books_catalog . 21(4).

The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. cognitive informatics. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . multiagent systems. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. machine learning. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. So far. agents. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. Nevertheless. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. expert systems. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. AI. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. data mining. intelligent tutoring.

in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems.” On the other hand. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. recommender systems. possibly undeliberate manner. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al. the subject matter expert. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions.g. and the teacher. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. and data mining. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. including collaborative filtering. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. The reality is that.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time.learning. Moreover. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing.. While many systems purport to be personalized. (2003). To seem humanlike. To achieve their goals. and Aist et al.

” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.. http://www.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 .edu/papers/daveDissert ation. etc) and how they are interrelated.interactions with the system (see Smid et al.unito. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.” http://www. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire. http://lsa. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al. rather than using a single type of knowledge.e. objects. concepts. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring fydiss.di. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows. Talking Head Tutor vs. 2002). Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.uic. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.iit. Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.” http://www. JAIR.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.cs. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “.cs.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. (2005a. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.

pdf Oguejiofor et al. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content.enel.uc3m. question answering (QA) techniques. http://quantumsimulations.” http://ctat.” http://www.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. Aurora . a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. Stottler Henke Associates.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.unsw. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research . intelligent conflict resolution.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et ers/ ations/Gutier04b. without programming. Task Tutor Toolkit . (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management.sinica. challenging.cmu. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. so that these systems become more realistic. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. and OguejioforIT-AEC2004.leaonline.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system. Inc. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . and decision support to make scheduling faster and s/wi04. (2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.library. http://www.gast. Student Log Files – McLaren et al.pact. http://www.html Founded in 1988.kicinger.infrature.cs.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .uregina. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks. see: http://lsa. and multiagents.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.” applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches. and 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. As a result. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily.ucalgary. http://www. Infrature. including student http://bach.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.colorado. aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. http://ariic. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable.

learningcircuits. http://pact.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring. Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED).virtuelage.usyd. China.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.wpi. with the next one in 000/ong. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level. and learning style.” http://www.cs. preferred cadence.masternewmedia. an adaptive testing algorithm. http://aied.inf. http://www. http://www. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the For more info: http://www2.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education. The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two http://www.ed.cmu. http://aied.” Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such x. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support Tutoring Systems Research Group ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training. skill and an interactive intelligent Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring Do not reproduce 27 .edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney .com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.pact.cmu. see: h/current_computer_science_education_re search.teluq. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.gemini. The AIED conferences are held every two years. http://www. http://www. The 2006 conference is in Taipei. http://www.autotutor.ucalgary.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.

In J. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming.). K. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. http://nth. and Frasson.pdf Alkhalifa. In Proceedings..aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about 6(1). and In J.pdf Chaffar. Chicago.uregina. & F. (2004).edu.di. 482-487. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring riendly_article. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. and Read. Lester. C. V. J.doi. a pioneer in artificial intelligence. C. Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that ege/fruehling_2002/ B.pdf Aleven. ml Aleven. Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course.html Brusilovsky. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . R. JAIR.ppt Butz.J.pdf Brusilovsky. S. http://www. R.. and Penstein Rosé.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. I.. V. http://www. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). Vicari. Paraguaçu (Eds. and Douglas. Hermann (2002).pdf Baldoni. M. (2002). The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance. P.82 Bhatt. (2004).Volume I. 22: 3–39. Ritter. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. S. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 004/Barcena_Read. E.pitt.B. Lester. T. (2005).. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2004). S. http://www2. P. M.cmu.sis.Marvin Minsky.cs. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). S00inv. Paraguaçu (Eds. Baroglio. 159-165. and Schwarz. g-ITS04. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . (2004). Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. McLaren. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. Maceió. and Evens. S. Artificial Intelligence Review. 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner.iit.. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. ITS 2004. B. Mostow. PA: Idea. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.) (2006). http://dx.. s/wi04. K. Hershey. http://imlab. http://lingcog. C.1109/ITCC. R. C. http://www. M. Argamon. (2004). (2004). http://www. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.nccu. Peter (2000)..). R. Eshaa (Ed. C. Bibliography Aist. (2004). http://www.ri. V. G.html Barker. and Patti. http://www. Roll.technologyreview.. Hua. and Maguire.. (1997). and Koedinger.2005. M. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue onsubmit. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. http://www. Kort. Reilly. and F.pitt.pdf Barcena.sbg.unito.

http://www. ITS 2004.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Gutierrez. Doctoral Dissertation. (2001). http://www. D. (2000). C.1 Cho. Fossati. Aleksandar (2001). Fall.iaalab.cs. A.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. 13(2). 163-183. Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education AIED05. AutoTutor. (2004). C. and Hsu.. and Pedagogical Agents. hb1391/is_200406/ai_n5706802 Day.html An Adaptive Tutoring System based on Do not reproduce 29 . DecisionSupport and Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Medical Education. B.cs. K.3296. Doctoral Dissertation. R. H.enel. (2005). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Yu. 40(4).uic. 15(4). Fossati. Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Netherlands. Chiou. B. S. http://www. Designing an Ontologybased Intelligent Tutoring Agent with Instant Messaging. (2004). and Sarmanova. of South Australia. 225-234 http://www.ips. Driscoll..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. _331. C.pdf M. H.ucalgary. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005).org/index. http://www. and Glass. Educational Psychologist.. S.. and VanLehn. Yang.639.. ICEIS'2001. Ag-gregation improves learning: experi-ments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. C.editlib.cs. What is an intelligent tutoring system? Intelligence. B.. B.. M (2005a). Proceedings of the 42nd Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics.pdf Frize. G. http://ltodi. S. 18-22 July. Vicarious Learning. Scaffolding deep comprehension strategies through Point&Query.pdf (Also see Behrouz Homayoun Far’s home page: http://www.pdf Far. J. http://springerlink. and Frasson.findarticles.leaonline.pdf Di Eugenio.Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring bcdiss. 23(4).. (2005).niu. Haller.unsw. http://www.1:105633. D. Tainan. Proceedings.pdf Chorfi. (2006).tw/iceer2005/ Form/PaperFile%5C16-0013. http://ariic.est.. and Jemni. Pardo.ncku. http://www. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. 433-447.iit. 15-16.) Fasuga. PERSO: Towards an adaptive e-learning system.journal.. D. and Fred.1 27. Paper presented at Exploring Innovation in Education and Research (iCEER-2005) Craig.metapress. 1-5 aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging. Yu.. http://www. (2004).library. (2005). D.uottawa. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 11(3). In ACL05. Taiwan. Haller. and ink2000. Lu. M. ntp0bb4obnhvt1x155)/app/home/contribu tion. and Kloos. -e/theme05. and Di A.5. McNamara. of Technology.iis. Dynamic Planning Models to Support Curriculum Planning and Multiple Tutoring Protocols in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Illinois Inst.. Reva (2000).pdf Freedman. Paper presented at International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems.uic.pdf Davidovic. Learning Benefits of Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring Systems. Designing Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a Bayesian approach.linkingpublicationresul ts. D.cs. A. Byung-In (2000).ucalgary.sinica. S. and iSTART. Constructing Knowledge from Dialog in an Intelligent Tutoring Sys-tem: Interactive Learning. D. Ong. J. W. M (2005b). Aug. Theme 5: Distrib-uted multiagent learning and tutoring system based on learning Usage of artificial intelligence in education Univ.

Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human.) Knowledge Transfer London. /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM.L. (1997).edu/~circsim/documents/ yckmai02. (1999).. http://bach. In: Intelligent Assistant Systems/Concepts.pact. 2001. Evens. Chicago. Empirical Results. C.. Paraguaçu (Eds. and F. 4NNV88MXQ49. and Trace. Knowledge Representation Intelligent Educational Systems.doc Jeschke.gast. T. (2005).) WebBased Intelligent e-Learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. http://infosys. New Orleans. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. In J. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory.tu-berlin. In A. G.. http://www. R.cmu.. I.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www. (ITS). Walker. tions/ITS2004-workshop-Jackson-paperformatted. (Eds.. W. (2004).). Brazil. C.pdf Kim. (2004). J. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring System. http://www.pdf Khaled.Computer Interaction. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. E.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7293 Khan. (2005).medianet. L.Hierarchical Graphs. (2005). and Richter.cs. Politeness in Tutoring Dialogs: "Run the Factory. 30 © Brandon Hall Research . Michael. J. Sewall.. and F. Vanoirbeek.pdf Kim. pp. http://www. and Rizzo. P.. A Conceptual Framework for Internet based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Looi et 4NNV88MXQ49.massey. Adaptive Hypermedia Conference Proceedings. R. M. UK: Pace. and Future Directions. O. R.pdf Hatzilygeroudis.. http://home. (2001). Vicari. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL. P. A. A. N. That's What I'd Do".L. In Johnson. (ITS). Mathematics in Virtual Know-ledge Spaces: User Adaptation by Intelligent Assistants. Combining Competing Language Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System.pdf Harrer. J.. International Conference on Web rs/hcii2001. Ahmed. B. M. & Patel kjhdiss. M. C.upatras. (ITS).it. (2002) Physiology Tutorials Using Causal Concept Mapping. D.cs.Hershey.K. Amsterdam. PA: IDEA Group. M. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.-K. Jung Hee (2000) Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue.). Proceedings. Hardas.autotutor. M.pdf Jackson. Nikov A. A Web Based Authoring and an Adapt-ive Tutoring System For Teaching And Learning.pdf Johnson. http://prints. P. Y. & Pettenati. USA. Illinois Institute of Technology. and Graesser. Doctoral Dissertation.springerlink. McLaren. 61-64. J. Technologies. Ma (Ed. PA: Idea Group. August 5-10. In Proceedings of 1999 WEbNet conference. and Rizzo. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Midwest AI and Cognitive Science Society Conference.iit. http://mmlab. Bollen. Maceió. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Adaptive tutoring in business educa-tion using fuzzy back propagation approach. /PAPERS/ tionAIED05.pitt. Laroussi. M. Paraguaçu (Eds. MAICS-2002.springerlink. (2005).pdf Kinshuk and Patel. In J.iit. S. ations/Gutier04b. Adaptive Tutorial Dialogue in AutoTutor.pdf Jordon. (2004). and Ma. Chicago. Lester. In J. Behrooz (Ed. In C. M. (2004).. http://www. M. M. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. and Prentzas. Collaboration and Cognitive Tutoring: Integration.pdf Kinshuk. C.kent. Vicari.).C.editlib. Hershey.T. http://www.).. Paraguaçu (Eds. http://www. Applications. Lester.ceid.uc3m. Y. That's What I'd Do". and F. and VanLehn.

pdf Kinshuk.informatik. Evens. Web-based Education Conference.. http://ifets. N. Schaumburg.pdf Lee.aspx? PaperID=16278 Lee.pdf Looi.iospress. J.doc and Evens.unirostock. Breuker. Pain (Eds. R. M. and mankind. and ICCM'03. J. M.. I. and Testing Cognitive Models. Alke (2003a). Zongmin (2005). (2004)..H. 2000. In Proceedings of the Conference on Cognitive Modelling.cs.metapress. In C. Proceedings. http://springerlink. Bredeweg. E.cs. D. Educational Technology & Society.aspx? PaperID=26738 Lulis. Proceedings of MAICS 2004. A. http://www. Evens. Web-based Intelligent E-learning Systems: Technologies and Applications. Illinois Institute of Technology. (2004).org/periodical/vol_4_2000 /kinshuk.. mind. (2004).iit. E.p df Do not reproduce 31 . T.3905. R. (2006). M. (2003).massey. In Brazil. Proceedings. Evens.). and Rosenthal.http://infosys. Amsterdam: IOS Press. K. Patel A. V. R.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue. Using selectional restrictions to parse and interpret student answers in a cardiovascular tutoring system. Klaus (2004). Building. M. http://nth.pact. Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (BRIMS 2003). and Michael. (2000). M. Using analogies to teach negative reflex control systems to medical students.aspx?bsid=5&vid=125 Ma.html Kodaganallur. & Aleven. Weitz. Tools Towards Reducing the Costs of Design-ing. J.linkingpublicationresults. 3(4). Control and Applications conference.journal. C. 5zluxwljdybypl445)/app/home/contribution . (2005).booksonline. G. J. http://ctat.actapress. 4th Edition. 474. Berlin: Springer. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: Maceió.cmu. Implementing analogies in an electronic tutoring system. and Heffernan. Chicago. and Russell. (2005). B.. C.wpi. (2004) W.71.. V... C. http://www. and ts/SSSH2Book/BookSeriesVolumeContents . 002391/sr=11/qid=1155439417/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books 40729X/sr=133/qid=1155439243/ref=sr_1_33/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books A Web-based Intelligent Tutoring System Teaching Health Care Technology. http://www. Hatzilygeroudis. VersaTutor – Archi-tecture for a Constraint-Based Intelligent Tutor Generator.. http://www. Thinking in Complexity: the computational dynamics of rs/kt97_dmu. http://www. M. G. and H. Doctoral Dissertation. and Michael.pdf Koedinger. Lulis. Artificial Intelligence in Education.1 Lulis. Freedman. PA: Information Science.H.K. http://www. A multi-institutional evaluation of Intelligent Tutoring Tools in Numeric Disciplines. Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference. (2004). 1:105633. 035304/sr=13/qid=1155439486/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Lulis. Evelyn (2005). E. Implementing analogies using APE rules in an electronic tutoring system. C. Implementing Analogies in an Intelligent Tutoring System by Modeling Human Tutoring chldial04. and Prentzas. Support Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. http://www. 2004.127 . Proceedings of the International Conference on AI in Education AIED-2005. D. Hershey. Paper presented at the NYC 2004 WWW Conference. http://www2004.

B. Paper presented at the AEC2004 Conference.. Scheurer. Schneider. M. A. and OguejioforIT-AEC2004. A Framework for Constructing Adaptive Web-Based Educational Systems. Harrer.cogsci. and Frasson. Kicinger. Towards Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative. Workshop on Emotional and Social Intelligence in Learning Environments. (2005).pact. DC: Capitol Press. http://www.uma. J. Bootstrapping Novice Data: SemiAutomated Tutor Authoring Using Student Log 262800/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 McLaren. M. G. tory/ L. A. L. M. L.pdf Obitko.. (2004). L. Matera.pdf Nuzzo-Jones. A.ed. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on New Educational Environments. J. A.. Illmann. K.cs. Bollen. M. T.. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes. Suraweera. http://www. (2004b). and Weerasinghe. http://ctat. (2004). ICNEE. A Flexible and Adaptive Tutoring Process for Case-Oriented and Web-Based Training in Medicine. R. and Bollen. T. E. ssoncr. M.unirostock. (2004). Wash. Web-based environment. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: an ontologybased approach. R. In the Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Conference (CSCL-05). http://www. http://www. Centralize the tutoring prozess [sic] in intelligent tutoring system.. Cognitive Tutoring of Collaboration: Developmental and Empirical Steps Towards Realization. Paper..cmu. James (2000). Intelligent Tutoring Systems: the what and the 4/refs/moore_gaussbc12. Engineering Advanced Web Applications: Proceedings of Workshops. Optimal Emotional Conditions for Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System. Simulation Technology Center. and Ramachandran..doc Oguejiofor. B. S.editlib. Proceedings. and De Jong.pact. A.. Harrer.pdf McLaren. B.). In M.umontreal. http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://www..pdf Ong.htm 32 © Brandon Hall Research .ieee. pdf Martens. Paper presented at the AMIA 2000 Conference. M. DB-Suite: experiences with three intelligent Webbased database tutors. (ITS-2004).pact. 2000. (2000). Paper presented at WASWBE 2005. J. Harrer.learningcircuits. (2005). /pap-039-obi. K. Paper presented at ICALT.informatik.cs. and Bollen. Hanover. US Army RDECCOM.PDF Martens. http://www.cs.pdf McLaren. (2000).. http://www. K... Alke (2003b). S. GMDS conference.Martens. (2004a). Learning Circuits. C. A. Online. Schneider. and Glucksmann. http://lttf. Walonoski..pdf Mitrovic. Learning Gaussian Bayes http://www.cmu. J. Martin. B. E.. (2001). Bernauer. A.harvard. http://ctat.. N. Popovici.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.. Kurz. Koedinger. Feb.pdf Martin. Heffernan.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18899 Moore. and Livak.. P. C.. 000/ong. 409432. I. http://ctat. A.pdf ub_4. http://www.pdf MYMIC LLC (2004). August.. The eXtensible Tutor Architecture: A New Foundation for ITS. Web Engineering. R. Final Report.. Andrew (2001). A Flexible Architecture for Constructing and Executing Tutoring Processes. (2000) Sewall. and Seitz. After the Internet: alien intelligence. Outstanding Research Issues in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Comai (Eds. 15(4).es/~eva/waswbe05/pa pers/nuzzo.

and Pancorbo. and Koutsojannis.C.S... and Heffernan. N. Clark. Ponbarry.. Lim. Evaluating the Effectiveness of SCoT -a Spoken Conversational Tutor.iadat. M. Proceedings from the International Conference on Multimedia.pdf Prentzas. W... Amsterdam. H.. Educational Technology & Society.stanford.. and Pancorbo. S. Reusable Spoken Conversational Tutor: SCoT.F..doc Read. S.. http://ifets.H.. T. and Treeratpituk.PDF Prentzas.. C. http://wwwcsli. Paper presented at ITS 2002.. http://mmlab.pdf Riedl.iadat. Owen Bratt. M. E. Peters.. E. Scalable. and Aleven.. (2004).edu/twiki/pub/Public/ SemlabPublications/AI-ED-WorkshopFinal. J.upatras.annals. 34. Mesa González (Eds. J. Maceió. W..ict. Bá /PAPERS/EPY01. (2001). B. L. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance web/IADAT-e2004_26. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring 0509/V34N8p499. H. (2004b). An Intelligent Tutoring System for Trauma Management (Trauma-Teach): A Preliminary Report. K. (2005). and Peters. (2004).C. Contextualizing Learning in a Reflective Conversational Tutor. (2003). In Proceedings.pdf Schultz. Intelligent Tutoring Tools for Cognitive Skill Acquisition in Life Long Learning. M. (2005). Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004). K. http://www.. L. H. SemlabPublications/ICALT_2004. and 2004_Workshop. C.upatras. K.. E.L. E. Rodrigues. and Swartout.. (2004a). http://www. Hatzilygeroudis. Koh. Torrey. T. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring System Using Hybrid Rules as Its Representational Basis. A.. I. D.wpi.P.pdf Tutorial Dialog in an Equation Solving Intelligent Tutoring System. Novais. AIED Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems. and Santos. J. B.. http://www. K.. F. Future challenges in intelligent tutoring systems – a framework. Guided Exploratory Learning versus Directed Learning in a Simulation Environment for Thermodynamics: A Pilot Study.formatex. Low. Annals of Academic Medicine Singapore. R.pdf Patel. V. (2005).ceid. Loke. Adaptive Tutoring Systems for English Distance Learning. Maceió. Hatzilygeroudis. Lai. Paper presented at the AI and Education 2005 Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments. In the Proceedings of the IEEE ICALT-2001. (2004). Owen Bratt. K. Information and Communications Technologies in Education. C. and Garofalakis. web/IADAT-e2004_26. and Russell.stanford. /PAPERS/ITS02. http://mmlab. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialogbased Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. H. C. Vijayan. J. http://nth.A. C. Tang. http://nth... P. A. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. S. Lane. http://www. Automated Story Direction and Intelligent Tutoring: Towards a Unifying Architecture. Méndez-Vilas. Paper presented at the International Association for the Development of Advances in Technology (IADAT-e2004).Y. and Yong. Owen Bratt. Schultz. S.L. Mesa González.) Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.PDF Razzaq.stanford.pdf Do not reproduce 33 . Wong. 3(1).pdf Read. C.Ong.html Pon-Barry.. 499-504.. http://godel. Bárcena. Clark. A Web-Based ITS Controlled by a Hybrid Expert System. (2002). June. B.ceid. /patel. In A.S. (2004). Clark. J. apers/ITS2004/Submitted(not%20final)/Le ena/ htm Rosé. http://www.usc. Hill. P. González-Pereira.. Spain. Schultz. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions.. http://godel.. Brazil. (2000).

Visual Feedback for Gaming Prevention in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2003). (2004). E.pdf Yusko. http://www. http://nth. http://www. The Sciences of the Artificial. P. L.iit.pdf Thomsen-Gray. P. Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Herbert (1996). Palmerston North.wpi.cs. VA: AACE. Feng-Jen (2001). Truth from Trash: how learning makes sense..ppt 700875/sr=11/qid=1155439833/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Multi-Agent Framework for Information Reuse in an Intelligent Knowledge Base. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems. On Evaluation of User Adapt-ive and Flexible Tutoring Models. http://www. ation. (2002). Doctoral Dissertation. W. http://www. Masters Thesis. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Chicago. Cambridge. Schultz. Conceptual Architecture for Generating Examples in a Socratic Tutor for Qualitative Reasoning.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. MA: MIT. Innsbruck. Peter (2004). Comput-ational Intelligence in Web-based Education: a tutorial. http://godel. pp. http://www. July 20-24. Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Svacek. (2004). Kinshuk. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies (IWALT 2000). and Peters. The Knowledge Collective: A Multi-Layer. Masters http://www.Simon. Doctoral dissertation. Intelligent Tutoring for Non-Deterministic and Dynamic Domains. T. In Proceedings of the 11 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2003).pdf Vasilakos. Sydney. Owen Bratt. University of Colorado. d-010806205001/unrestricted/jwalonoski. Clark. fydiss. Maomi (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. (2005). David (2001). Illinois Institute of d-011106-070108/unrestricted/turnert. Chicago. Jason (2005). 15 (4). MA: MIT Press. Z. 3rd jaydiss.wpi. 691914/sr=11/qid=1155439909/ref=pd_bbs_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Yang. Australia. http://www. S. Cambridge. Terrence (2005).edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Illinois Institute of Technology. Worchester Polytechnic Institute. The design and architecture of Research Methods Tutor. and Volf. Brazil. K. Chicago. Doctoral SemlabPublications/aied-final. http://nth. J.pdf Thornton.ViewAbstract&paper_id=18895 Walonoski. Devedzic. http://www.cs. B.aspx? PaperID=27013 Steinhart.pdf 34 © Brandon Hall Research . Jay A. Proceedings of the IASTED Interna-tional Conference on Applied _uno. 299-318.wpi. Illinois Institute of yzdiss...iit. Maceió. Doctoral Dissertation.stanford. a second-generation dialog-based tutor.pdf Ueno. Maceió. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Brazil. Yujian (2000).pdf Wiemer-Hastings. Chris (2000).pdf Zhou.iit. The Assistment Builder: a tool for rapid tutor development. and Pedrycz.colorado. Intelligent Tutoring System based on Belief networks.

or performance samples. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. computer-based assessment tools. once only done by a human assessor. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. aptitudes. When combined into a “360° evaluation. quizzes. For example. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. for example. evaluation.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. the automated scoring of essays. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. making it hard to escape assess-ment.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA).info/learni ng/solo. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time. and (4) computer marking. Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. and output. 1956).learningandteaching. In a business situation. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. However. computer mediated assessment (CMA). which is usually much more reliable than human marking. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. quizzes. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. eassessment. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings. (2) instant feedback to students when desired. are already available. in the near future. Assessment software can generate templates. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. self-evaluation. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. computer based assessment (CBA). We can expect that. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. and psychomotor. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. samples. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . More sophisticated forms of automated. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. 1998 for an introduction to LSA). rubrics. and documents for assessors to use. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. online assessment. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer. affective.

a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. http://www. For information on latent semantic Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools.epistema. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. see: http://lsa. and adaptive question Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.pedagogue.rmsuk. and services useful for outcomes assessment.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system.xstreamsoftware. http://www.K.dialang. Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management The For an online assessment of your foreign language Diploma.respondus. http://www. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product. abilities. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research . and adminis-tration features. an assessment management system with extensive authoring.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. http://www. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). http://www. multilingual support.testcraft. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.redinq.vantagelearning. /Entry.ets. institutional ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. a completely customizable report engine.uc. and past work behaviors.0. http://www. learning tools.fasfind. an online assessment system with support for high stakes ETS.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.” organized by academic discipline. the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. from Resources Management Services in the U.operitel. preview pages for all question types. http://nt. Review it at: http://www. http://www. For details. skills. reporting. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. http://www. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers. http://www. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product. and self-study.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.horizonwimba. Find them at: http://www.brainbench. a customizable look and formance_analyzer2. see: http://www.colorado.” http://www.flaguide. has recently won awards for its performance. check out the Dialang web site. See more at: http://www. on its Web Hurix Systems has developed Red Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.

1: Information and Communications Technology for Language / The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site.ict4lt.scit. http://www. http://cba. (2005).org/en/en_mod41. with over Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas. including a useful listing of assessments and Educational Technology & Society.unimelb. http://www. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy. http://www. Obtain a copy at: Pérez. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4. Ortigosa. is available from: http://liinwww. with a list of 34 strategies.cshe. D.oir.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.htm Atkinson. T. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. P. Online paper. R. http://www. Explore the links at: http://www. G.3 Bateson.200 references. James (2005). ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.uiuc.pdf Atherton.” Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment learning/03/ London: Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. (2004) views/10_01. Steps to an Ecology of Mind. 8 (3).tasainstitute.thinkinggear.tcet.learningandteaching. 5365.quintcareers. M.discovery. & Rodríguez. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment http://school. Freire. A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.html Bibliography Alfonseca.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments. M. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources. ssme/online.ifets. Gregory (1973) /arc/6too. http://www.000 different tests from its database.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online.Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for sment. http://www. http://www.. ng/solo.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.economicsnetwork.umuc. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.unt.wlv. and Davies. http://www. Do not reproduce 37 .

NY: Macmillan. Langu-age Learning and Technology. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Iwashita. (2001). Directions in Automated Essay Analysis.). S. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . (1989).) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies. http://www.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. http://www. J. Kevin (2003). (1982). J. June 22. Martin. N. Shermis and J. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. J. IEEE Intelligent Brown. (1997).org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj. B..ets. New York: Academic Press. McNamara. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". In toryts. http://www. C.htm. Rethink testing for future Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Burstein. Harabagiu and F.msu. and 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein. C. and O'Hagan. In the R. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. M. L. Brumfield. Burstein (Eds. http://www. (2003). www. K. A. and Hirschman. (2001).assess. (2002).amazon. Marcu. 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. http://www. S. Jill C. New York: McKay. 1.iltaonline. http://www. Daniel. Bloom. Louis. (1956). In M.. New York. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. & Olsen. Ciravegna (Eds. http://www. Online paper.pdf Biggs. Kay (1999). http://www. August 2003. http://www.) Oxford Handbook of Applied The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Daniel.http://www. IL: Skylight. http://llt. In R.. B. Hillsdale. J.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson.assess. (2003). New York: Oxford. Linn (Ed. Inouye. eSchool News. Robert (2005). and Marcu. Burstein (Eds. How to Assess Authentic Learning. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Chodorow. 3rd Edition. & Leacock. and Knight. D. Bernstein.pdf Brown J. Shermis and J. (2003). Mexico. Acapulco.htm RC23. and The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. 2005. Kaplan ( RC23. http://www.. In S. Arlington Heights. Jill. L. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. Educational Measurement.

http://www..hlc. March 9.) (2005). Online newsletter. Robert. Seven technologies for 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. London: Falmer. Howard. Howell. (1998). (1999).com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit.. May.html Chalhoub-Deville. (2002). St. B.utas.Carr. (2001). "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests".soton. EdMedia '99. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. and Parry.Proceedings from a Workshop. M. 2: 77-93. PA: Information Science. http://www. M. Language Learning & Technology 2. and Language testing and technology: past and future. Laham. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test. Language Learning and Technology. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Writing assessment: a position statement. K. (Ed. University of Tasmania. http://mason. New York: Basic Books. L. D. Davis. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. html/1. 4.nmsu.. n. http://www. Language Learning and Technology. Chalhoub-Deville. P. (1999). E.. P. Morgan. College Composition and Communication Online. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies.ecs. (2004). and 9.msu. velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion.htm. (2005). Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002). C. Loughborough. National Research Council. http://www. 2. Tests. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges. Board on Testing and Assessment. http://www. (2001).edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. T. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. http://eprints. http://llt. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading t. Gardner. Nathan. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. S. Millard. http://www. Foltz.pdf Dunkel P. 5. Lawrence.doc.) (1999). S. N. Howard (1993). Louis.ncte.msu. Online Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .msu.htm Cebrian. 5. and Howell. Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. & Landauer. H.gmu. (2001). www. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. category/write/107610.unimelb. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004). C. May.iltaonline. (2004).edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. M.html ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. No.html Frase.pdf Hricko. http://llt. http://wwwpsych. (Eds. In Proceedings. http://www. n. D. W. Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented ault. Online paper. O’Reilly. Y..

Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. M. D. M. http://www. Journal of Technol. May. D. http://eric. Handbook of writing research. A.. http://www. Reports from the Institute of Education.bc. and Ma. N.LSAintr o. New York. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research .. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace Tim (2006). /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 and Skinner. M. http://escholarship.pdf Landauer. & J. Hillsdale. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments. pp. University of Gothenburg. Discourse Processes.. J.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis.Jones. Graham.pd f Weiner. http://lsa. V.. Self. D. Problem Solving. 403-416. Online Assessment. Mahwah. Potenza. http://www. M. W.msu.colorado. McArthur. (1999). http://www. http://www. Burstein. (Ed. & lt. 259284. (2006). ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071.pdf MacDonlad. (2000). Measurement and Evaluations. R. H. K. and Hricko. Hardas. NY: Guilford Press. D. (1998). T. In C. (2006).pdf Kenyon.. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a 5(2). M. C. & Leacock. . (Eds. Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing.kent. (2005). 25. Information Science Publishing. 4(6). Howell. (2001).. and Malabonga. Fremer. http://llt. Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. & Laham. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. International Journal on E-Learning. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments. R (2002). Patrick (2000). (1979).. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. B.. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.proexam.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise. and Ward. C. S. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Watt. Hershey. Learning.) (2005). Language Learning and Technology. and 851901 United States Department of Education. W. 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. National Center for Education Statistics. J.) (2000).. Compiegne. Y. Washington.ed. (2005). The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment. Fitzgerald. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.html Khan. K. and Gifford. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing. P. and Assessment. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. DC: U. (Eds. Government. PA: Information Science.medianet. Howard. http://nces. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. / 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey.) (2002).

a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. http://www. Operitel white Do not reproduce 41 .operitel.

. depending on the file size). by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others. which is gaining in popularity. (i. in part. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. According to Crofts et al. Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history.. With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text.e. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. is podcasting. to personalized media).Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. (i. the rest of the file has time to arrive. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. or by “streaming. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Assists non-native speakers. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. One audio application of interest to educators.5 megabytes. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. such as those for iPods. Provides feedback to learners. For example.e. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. Provides another channel for material review. while it is playing. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. compared with even a few years ago. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. You can’t add your own notes. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. (2005). The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. podcasting. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium. one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence.

http://www. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists.elearningcentre. shareware.htm For a list of podcasting tools. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution. tools. http://recap.edupodder. or sentences from audio Web sites.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources. and broadcasting are all found on this site. enhancing. http://www. It is available to download for Mac OS X. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. Microsoft Windows.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder. and utilities for conversion. Audio and video The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://epnweb.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Audacity is x. http://www. sound editing. Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A. DJ mixing.ibritt.scientificcomputing. including A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of online-learning-environments.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. including software to record and play 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. http://www. GNU/Linux. and other operating http://www. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK. http://64. go to: http://www.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution. und. open source software for recording and editing ex.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 .com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. htm RECAP Ltd.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery.71. CD audio extraction. http://www.rds.masternewmedia. playback.

html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. 2005. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. April 2005. Learning wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. Sound Sense. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides).uk/articles/podguide. and Williams.scientificcomputing. Healthcare. Retsema. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman.sonicfoundry. June 2005.cakewalk. VA: 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. Chesapeake. http://recap. Robin Good’s Blog. (2003). Dilley. http://www. N. and Higher Education 2003 ( main.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.h tml Canali De Rossi.masternewmedia. C. http://dl. In G. Ray (2005). M. http://edmarketing. http://www. http://www. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). White paper prepared for the University of 44 © Brandon Hall Research . Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. http://digitalcommons.htm Cakewalk SONAR http://www.. http://firstmonday. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. J. B. Brenda (2001). and Lomas. First Monday. May 20.html Kaplan-Leiserson. 45-50. University of Nebraska. http://www. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio.unl.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. Luigi (2005). September. 417-419). Podcasts. Dave (2005). Doctoral and AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound rofts/ 005/0506_trends Meng.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages. Podcasting and Vodcasting.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Scientific Computing World.html Curtis.adobe. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1). Sonic Foundry Mediasite Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www.html Girvan. L.bias-inc.educause. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. Richards (Ed. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. Government. (2005). 10(9). pdf Noakes.aace. S. Eva (2005). http://www.multitrackstudio. Peter (2005). and Videoblogs in Higher Education. Fox.. Dion Cory (1999).learningcircuits.. July s/AAI9929186 Crofts.A number of audio editors are available on the Web.audiolink.editlib. P. Exploiting the educational potential of

Design. In this vein. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning either directly or with third party tools. Further.brandonhall. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). There are other formal approaches to authoring great content. As well. Development. The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . in the end. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. 2005). and. and Evaluation) Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. rapid elearning. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. simulations. (For details.s html). content development. please see http://www. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools. No authoring tool does everything. For details on each Microsoft product.Authoring Tools Related terms Since its acquisition of Macromedia. Implementation. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. see: http://www. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. For details on each Adobe product. and images and turn them into 3-D training. video. rich Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.elearningpowertools.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. htm Composica . Articulate Business Performance Technology . visualization.Capture Station 2.allencomm. http://www.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex.Composica Enterprise .com/eng/index. hotspots.turbodemo.Thinkcap Studio .com/index. Builds as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content. Acroservices .com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today. Integrates various media.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.Media – Import 3-D Models.adobe.brainshark. music.acroservices. and PowerPoint slides.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio. http://www.lersus. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. http://www.htm Brainshark Inc.atlanticlink. http://www.accordent. http://www. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software. Agile . http://www. XML.articulateglobal. pop-up messages.copycatsoftware. http://www. www. video.thinkingcap. video.iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser. http://www. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. http://www.composica.htm Bernard D&G .Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. and marketing applications. including the following: Drag-and-drop images.Designer’s Counterpoint .info/ Allen Communications .com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. oint-presentations-index. DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming Anark .Content Point . Flash.CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.activeslide. http://presentation. http://www. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies .TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. go to: http://www. .asp Bridge People and Technology .AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. pointers.htm ActiveSlide.

com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze. ng. and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this Integrated Performance Systems .com Element K .impatica. http://www.e2train. http://www.Opus Pro – Rapid development Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft INTEC .asp Eedo Knowledgeware .iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 . Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.dynamicpowertrainer. DVD-video.e-learningconsulting.sculptoris. and installation files. http://www.experiencebuilders. http://www. and Information Transfer . Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . http://www.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature. Import rich media and customize graphics. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics.shtml Dynamic Media Imaira Digital Media .com/inde Pro. Post the characters on any Web ml E-Learning Consulting .Development Kits – Create Flash courses. http://www.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool. video.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools.exe files.epistema. http://www. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files. without programming Hunter Stone . Eclipsys Corporation .elementk. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006.WTDS-Web Training Development System .com/products/forceten.gen21.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool Impatica . http://www. such as the following: Web. audio. http://www.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online. stand alone .seminar. http://www. http://www.hunterstone.php e2train .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages. CD Rom.lecturnity.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema .Digital Workshop Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.elicitus. http://www.Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. http://www. imc AG .com/index. http://www. http://www.htm Harbinger Knowledge Products . or Macromedia Flash media presentations.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. HTML courses. http://www.

php MindOnSite . and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos. shtml Itaca .Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in NetPlay Software . http://www.Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media.LEARNERLand – 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation . http://www.intuition.mindiq. http://www. graphics. MindIQ . http://www.Used to create presentations without programming skills. http://www. and animations with tests and e. http://www. KnowledgeXtensions McKinnon-Mulherin Inc. http://www. Word.EasyProf . Has its own built-in learning management system. PowerPoint dex.customcourse. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation centralized knowledge base. create courses specifically on how to use computer software.mindonsite.knowledgequest.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. with a built-in learning management system.mohive.authoring tool based on Flash templates.Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no http://www.instant-demo.asp Knowledge Quest .maxit.maxit.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system. Built-in testing engine. and PowerPoint into a set of Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. erv.htm MediaMaker . combining multimedia content like OPTX International . http://www.pdf Intuition .mckinnonmulherin.jsp Knowledge Planet .com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. Ready-made button and navigation Learn.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. with no programming and no plugins.KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning . http://www. http://www.htm Kookaburra Studios .E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.learnerland. Works with SAP Learning Solution. MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.knowledgeplanet.DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types. http://www. http://www.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.easyprof. .com MyKnowledgeMap .com/ chure.learn.

Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning PointeCast . matching Respondus .qarbon. course publisher.toolbook.Nuvvo .respondus.htm Suddenly Smart . http://www. http://www. Microsoft PowerPoint.or SCORMcompliant.reusableobjects.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. http://nuvvo. http://www. popups. http://www. customizable flashcards. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating Qarbon . http://www. without knowing code. Provides a course design template using Microsoft mate.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools. and Flash.readygo.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.Publisher Professional . Serco (technical) .com/ SumTotal . http://www. image hotspot activities.E-Learning Objects . http://www.htm Do not reproduce 49 . crosswords.rapidintake. http://www.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.students.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.teds. GIFs.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .syberworks.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. image Scribe Studio .In minutes.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning ateRefer.softchalk.shtml Reusable Objects .ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. and course player all in one software package. or Spanish. and TEDS . and highly interactive elearning content. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents.sensalearning. http://www.htm podia . http://www.ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter. Courses can be posted. http://www.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC. m Techsmith .Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams. http://www. http://www.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video. interactive Flash presentations and online training. http://www. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice.podia.SNAP! Studio – A course builder.p hp?from=menu SumTotal . Audio. a Rapid Intake .percepsys. http://www.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple er-web/sb_author. Savvica . When content is ReadyGo .com/ Percepsys . . http://www.techsmith.

trainvision.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring.bloki.oswego. right in their browser with no additional software required.dol. http://www.pdf S. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. C. De Bra. Lin (2005).edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005. http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . M.webex. Illinois. and rapid simulation. T.pdf Ramp. S. P. (2005). Westcliff – ime4you/ibt/en/start. (2005). http://www. and and Brusilovsky. (2003). http://www.cs. P. http://www.Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. and Ainsworth.brandonhall. http://www. www. http://www.Presentation Studio . D.tue. http://workforceconnections. Government. Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. McMullen.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. Blessing.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . Evanston..php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana . Doctoral – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web _xwb. and host online discussions. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. Northwestern University. and text.sht ml Bibliography Holohan.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the inersoft/trainersoft8. (2005).time4you GmbH .funeducation.lectora. templates. video. images. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference. 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.xplana. content conversion.oswego.cs. Healthcare. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA) US Government . publish blogs.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides. and Riesbeck. and Pahl.xstreamsoftware. CD. or Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications. interactive and intelligent educational software. www. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. E. http://www.asp TrainVision .com/download _rb40eval. E. http://www..htm Zapatec . June 2005. audio. C. Berlin: Webex . Montreal. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.2-conformant objects and assessments. Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.

htm Woodill. Canada. 2005. June 2005.editlib.learningcircuits. 2004. A..ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 004/tozman. (2005). http://www. October 2428.htm Tozman. Learning Circuits. html Do not reproduce 51 . Reuben (2005).org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. http://www.sis. Masters Thesis. Gary (2005).pitt. Learning Circuits. AACE. W.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.htm Tozman. Vancouver. BC.brandonhall. Another new paradigm for instructional design. The myth about tools. Sunnyvale. http://www. Reuben (2004). Eindhoven. Technical Univ. s.learningcircuits. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. NL.2005). Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. CA: Brandon Hall Research. Nov.

Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. http://www.Avatars Related terms Agents.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.codebaby. for example. the avatar may represent an actual human being.” Maldonado et al. http://blogoehlert. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself.telsim. simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research .com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. especially in gamebased learning ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. In the context of elearning. In some situations. in the broadest Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. http://www. Pick a character at: http://secondlife. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects. but in e-learning.sculptoris.typepad. Similarly. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. and generally simulates human activity. Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. games.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience.

Try them at: http://www.naccq. Lee. http://ww.knowledgeenvironments. J. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.” which are avatars that teach... has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers. Aug..daden.html 2005 . www. and Nodder. Yamada. Y. (2005). http://www.stanford. Iwamura. A.exodus. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Raj (2003).co.. users are represent-ed as avatars. D. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 .. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. 25.) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Brave.. H.Training Education & Education International Conference.pdf Online Resources In Europe. M. R.vcom3d. in cooper-ation with a number of Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning SI. H. and T. eLearning Developers’ Journal. K. Koschmann. In T.oddcast.. edings_03/pdf/255.redwoodelearning. In the toolkit. http://www. Inc. Nakajima.tmmy. http://www. 2003. offering a large number of supportive functions. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. (2004). Bibliography An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. Ahad. New York-based Oddcast Inc. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise. C.. Nexus Media. and Morishima. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning. and Weber. Nass. http://isnm. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference.pdf Maldonado.. (2005). http://www. The system will be design-ed as a scalable.elearningguild.pdf Jung.W.pdf Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different 503DES-H. Chan (Eds. New Zealand. ado. modular application. 2005.

Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the


However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the


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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > 26753.html ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs)

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at:

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs)

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere.

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique., July 14.,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. w.pdf

Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. m#feature


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Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. ( What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. ( The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >


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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. n/browsers_list.php3

Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/ m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch., July 30, 2006. 072900038.html?referrer=email


© Brandon Hall Research

” In spite of the costs. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. higher education. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. management.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. 2006. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs. the costs and headaches multiply. The use of clickers has several advantages. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture. classroom communication systems. giving almost instant feedback. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. and military settings. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. or clickers. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. However. The devices keep students alert and involved. display. and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive. costs can be an issue. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. corporate. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. Student answers are available immediately to the H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. training the faculty member to use the software. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment.einstruction. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. clickers. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. Beatty. integrated with other types of learning technologies. increasing their motivation to learn. http://www.

pdf Burnstein.” Q. 3. http://www.cfm EDUCAUSE (2005).htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications ce-response-systems/index. 2006.gtcocalcomp. http://www. http://www. The Physics 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied 7002. R.physics. Upper Saddle River. Research Bulletin.utexas. Inside CUA. http://www. No. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems. Educause Learning The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD. Volume 2004. including material on the use of classroom response systems.campustechnology.pearsonncs. es/cps/ECARCRS. March This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning.cua.educause. Feb. CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.utexas. ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su. 41(5). Tom (2004). July 7.umass.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities. Eric (1997).h-itt. http://www. (2003). (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system. http://umperg. Ian (2004). http://www.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.pdf Mazur.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “ 60 © Brandon Hall Research . Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response 3.cisat.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system. NJ: Prentice ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning. http://www. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type. textbook. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual.optiontechnologies.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software. The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.qwizdom. Anne (2006) o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs. http://www. The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click. http://www. 7 things you should know about… udienceResponseSystems/Home. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. 272-275.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software. E-Learning pdf Cassidy. https://sharepoint. and Lederman.

edu. http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 61 .itee.uq. 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1. Melbourne.Conference.

g. These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software. doing. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e. clarification. and collaborating. http://www. collaborate. Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests. social bookmarking. reduction. it requires skill and ndex. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. e.advancedreality.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD).html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository.teamspace.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. http://www. Annotea . many respond.zoho. organization. organize. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe . Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations. The Institute for the Future. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . and There are many different ways to collaborate. through brainstorming)..Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.g.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. http://www. This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place.. social networking building. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.

and communication. share information. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication). http://www. Presence (see who’s online). robust document management. http://www. alerts. recordable conferencing.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. Web t/index. flexible workflow.bookmarks. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications.digite. voice and data Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users.Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://www. Atinav – aveComm . http://www. collaborative file management. Digite – Digite Enterprise . Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation. Features include Blenks – In-team .com/ Cisco . http://www.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution.Documentum eRoom . integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic.bluetie.emc.citrix. http://www.bantu. A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists. Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . http://www. BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others. education. http://www.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. and communicate with others. and instant access to the group workspace. http://www.Unified MeetingPlace . non-profit. http://software. with templates and workflows for product development.w3. project planning and – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 . document versioning. and upload photos. markup of data. office. and individual users. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook). share files.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration m/index. http://www.inteam. expert location.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.backpackit.Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of ps5664/ps5669/index.centraldesktop.gotomeeting.opencroquet. and information technology adoption.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail.courseforum. discussion forum.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . and meeting s/ Central Desktop – Central Desktop . and collaboration. version control. and instant messaging. Includes document organization and sharing. and searchable discussion threads. jot down EMC² . http://www. http://www.comotivsystems. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts.jsp Engineering.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. search.brightidea. instant Bantu – Bantu Messenger .com/services/faq_basics . intellectual property management.

share files and documents. tracking the status of assignments. scheduling and using calendars. cameras. require-ment and risk management.exactamerica.hp.gordano. desktop sharing. http://www.grapevinesoftware. quantitative project management. conducting surveys. Web-based extranet tool.Halo Collaboration Studio . voting. including whiteboards.A Webbased collaboration environment for software / Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. http://www. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform. http://www. desktop sharing and remote desktop EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . It provides working groups with simple.shtml Hewlett Packard . and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. http://www. eZmeeting . Features include interactive data collaboration. http://www. universal file viewer for MS office documents. presentation tools. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.groove. with collaborators able to add to and change the Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.gliffy. The system streamlines project planning.facilitate. software construction. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas. secure. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. and creating action plans.ezmeeting. 2001. http://www. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.forumone.features a project navigator.Live meetings and Web conferencing. search.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. interactive whiteboard.epam-pmc. and images. http://groups. easy to use online collaboration system. allow members to update and edit Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. Features include the following: Accessing documents. and corporate instant Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing. categorizing. and sending workflow tasks. attach threaded discussions to files. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet. drawing tools. It has tools for managing multiple teams.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Google – Google Groups – Forum One – ProjectSpaces .A system of carefully placed plasma televisions. http://www. resource information sharing. and organizational process performance. invite workspace members. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries. http://www. meeting. http://www. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. http://www. Exact Software – e-Synergy . recording and playback.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. http://www. assign file editing rights and completion dates. project ation. and document management. data and process product quality assurance. and team management.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting.

and photos. http://www. and customers on the cts. Web versioning control. and more.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. contacts. realtime IBM . security levels.A collaboration suite for business or training/education.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution.hotComm . including versioning. online editor. integrates with MS Office.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network. Features include the following: Business http://www. Features include the following: Shared calendars.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for peer-to-peer.inquesttechnologies. blogs (Weblogs). http://www. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. discussion kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace . Outlook. folders. instant messaging and presence indication. private interactive access or exchange of text. and Microsoft Outlook integration.A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. and secured fashion – up to 399 search archiving. calendars.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. Integrated suite of multiuser.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction.ilinc. and file Microsoft – Live Meeting . bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks.interwoven. a Wiki.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software. Functions include the following: Share documents. http://www. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc.Lotus QuickPlace .mspx Do not reproduce 65 .com/ iLinc Communications . a powerful. and extensibility. and shared documents. online document lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. data. Features include the following: Document management.hotcomm. Customizable Web directory. an interface to a mailing list server. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative. video. voice. structured. ment_management/index.jdhtech.Jotspot Live. http://www. http://www03.mayeticvillage.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point . Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces. partners.jotlive. JotSpot . task manager. A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. podcasting. online calendar. http://www.kGroups provides a number of tools. http://kgroups. image eting/default. and Lotus Notes. Interwoven . and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web. http://www.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M . and provides search. including file sharing.uwc.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. and secure peer networking architecture. http://www. customers. online contact management. http://www. http://www. link sharing).

task management. Document Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . called an online community. schedule and track events and activities. Oracle . providing the best of both worlds. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals. Integrates with Microsoft – eStudio . audio and Webcam. see each other in real time using cameras.Corporate quality communications center. and contact and document management functions.rallypointhq. team events. Allows people to talk to each other. processes.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.same-page. and MP3 audio recording.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. Workflow Automation. http://www. Features include the following: Interactive Same-Page. MyWorldChat Communicator . resources. instant messaging. share knowledge.Microsoft – SharePoint . and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall. author and review pages individually and across the group. 003/technologies/sharepoint/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance http://www. Novell – Groupwise . text chat. http://www.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. http://www.santacruznetworks.near-time.Community Zero . http://www.A suite of persistent group messaging. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web. calendaring.novell. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet. and files. http://www. http://www.html Rallypoint .com/collabsuite/index. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. file Ramius . instant messaging. and share data or applications while they are online. Within each area. Santa Cruz Networks . http://www. real-time application sharing. http://myworldchat. and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research .communityzero.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. and presence management solutions. organize and discover content through categories and tags. moderator functions. http://www.Rallypoint .ht ml Parlano – MindAlign .Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages. Enables individuals. and communicate. participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates.mspx Near-Time – Flow .com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat.

http://www. http://www. http://www.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . documents. http://www. FTP server. and use live audio. http://www. project Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . Webbased whiteboarding. or use it to build a Web application.Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees.webasyst. project. e-mail server.webcrossing.seldensystems. http://www. http://www. and Vignette .solutions. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. and more. http://www.sitescape. and business relationships. and breakout groups.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.Forum ZX . Web conferencing server (in-house). and instant messaging.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. /2005. desktop document and business partners.trichys. and calendaring tools.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. threaded discussions. instant messaging.sharemethods.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to /stcollab. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail.cyber-grad. collaboration. interact. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. http://www. Includes VoIP. productivity applications. application sharing.tacit. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration .com/ SiteScape .Vignette Collaboration – VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all newsgroup server. Designed specifically for the non-technical user.html Trichys – WorkZone .Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management.Collaboration software that includes document management. http://www.04. voice and Web conferencing. collaboration. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software. calendar sharing. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. and prospects – without leaving their ShareMethods – ShareMethods .com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite .ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. chat server.sumtotalsystems. view and edit documents or images together.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server. XML-RPC server. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . http://www. Use it out of the Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with workflow and task management. partners.2097. store SpiderWeb Communications . and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. http://groups. video. and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.viack. http://www. and other business communications. http://www.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews. live video.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. ent/0.vignette. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and information sharing.Processes email. Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . identify and resolve potential problems.Projistics . feedback.brevient. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.0 . and save to disk icon.axista. project OPM Creator – OPMCreator . and collaboration to timesheet management.nexprise. Share multiple projects with multiple users.opmcreator. connects HP .com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. calendars. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it.caucus. exit and NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents.elluminate. http://www.Intuitive project management software for work teams. data. and content. review button.onproject.Web event calendaring. annotation tools. invoicing. and e-mails. simple. attendee list. custom stamps.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. http://www. project planning. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox .com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .In-house tool developed to assist in project management. onProject – myonProject . and share documents. files. http://www.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.nagarro. online management for projects of any size and scope. print icon. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files. and Web pages. Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. http://www. http://www.HP Virtual Classroom .com/ applications. affordable. content button. http://www. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. PeopleCube – WebEvent Team .projectdox. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team . http://www. scheduling solutions. video. Access to the tool is also given to clients. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be Nagarro . and data into a single storage area. and communicate with their project Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. whiteboard software_development_project_manageme Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7.Instant set-up. assign tasks. scaleable. http://www. applaud and meter. http://www. and asynchronous group meetings http://care.teamdynamix. Works with Microsoft Project.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice.Features include Hands up.peoplecube.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. and graphics in a structured online learning environment. form to submit questions. navigation. private/group chat. http://www." virtual collabor-ation. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.project-open. http://www. http://www. http://education. set user permissions.

0 .com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . Record classes or Webcasts. shared desktop. office ew/16/108/ messaging. http://www. and by whom. online classes. _imc.Synchronous Webconferencing Linktivity Division. For example.communiqueconferencing.liveoffice. http://www.linktivity. broadcasts files. desktop sharing. and text chat. http://www. http://www. hand raising. and collaboration features. polling and quizzes. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.mixmeeting. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly. and meetings. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. video. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. shared whiteboard and present-ation.Photon Infotech – SPARK . and presentations to audiences spanning the globe. http://www.intralinks. internet_conferencing. and Web conferencing with WebEx.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . URL sharing.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. Multilingual. Webcasts.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. online seminars. breakout rooms.ivocalize.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. Allows holding live.glance. http://www. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. private whiteboards for each Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. session Batipi – Batipi Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides.A secure. and content display. visual. sales presentations. Real-time reporting shows which information has been Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with mples. http://www.genesys.adobe. toll-free conference calling. learning. and phone use.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. http://www. application sharing. record and playback.photoninfotech. http://www. e-mail invites. transparency tools. notes. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. and a change presenter ability. remote control. integrated content management system.elluminate.batipi. how often. http://www. instant messaging.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. http://www. http://www. including Web conferencing. live demos. instant Do not reproduce 69 .com/ Intralinks . and collaborative content-building sessions. Features include shared documents.LiveOffice provides Web-based. and real-time videoconferencing. http://www. teleconferencing. synchronous online lectures. and more. guest LiveOffice – IMConferencing . pre-recorded broadcasts. attendee lists. e-learning classrooms.convenos. Web. virtual office hours. video.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze . keyboard and voice Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a iVocalize . http://www. meeting management.Delivers unlimited voice.horizonwimba. and videoconferencing. and Webconferencing specialists.

asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences.wave3software.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. and moderation of Webcasts. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session. http://www.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. Web conferencing. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project. conference calling. present PowerPoint slideshows. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video. e-learning. or an entire desktop. or meeting. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. text messaging. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. the Internet. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).webex. set up labs and conduct quizzes. remote support.webtrain.telnetz.voxwire. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. share other applications.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. http://www. any application.meetingone. http://www. course. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . tour Web sites. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. discussion forums. The suite manages the WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.To support large deployments. and system management. http://www.Combining audio and Web conferencing components. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services.raindance.Powers online meetings.vodium. and into the WebTrain – Communicator 4 .com/home/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .com/ Radvision – Click to Meet .cudenver. audio. Requires only a browser and a phone. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants. and document collaboration. With the convenience of online access through an individual account. http://carbon.Meeting One – Click&Share.netspoke. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document. editing. http://www. a graduate school of the University of Toronto.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint . ing. send text WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network. Webinars.cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . Solutions include Web Vodium – Media Publishing Suite .Web and audio conferencing services.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . ervices. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s. http://www. show rich multimedia content and documents. http://www. and instant messaging capabilities.edufolio. teleconferencing.

com/View. http://eprints.thinkofit.. Buckingham Shum. Nov. T.springerlink. M. Japan on July 13-14. http://www. (2003). http://www.globalschoolnet. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. also has a great list of collaboration 2006. Fred (2002). J. N. Curtis (2002).1:100250. (2004).com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. Michaelides. Nov.1 Bibliography Alexander. 2002..usabilityfirst. S.mitre.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. March/April 2006.diglib..” Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work ces. http://www. ChenBurger.htm Mitre Corporation. also known as “groupware. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. and businesses to provide collaborative educational.htm Butler.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer.clomedia.pdf Bonk. Maceió..ctcevents. and Coleman. M.collaborate. http://www. http://www. Brazil.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools. D. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.writely.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler. Web 2. scientific. Collaborative Strategies. J. http://www. http://www. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. Creating an eCommunity. and Tate. K. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck. Presentation to the DLF Fall x. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration.athabascau.. The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba. J..kolabora. D. communities.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. erm0621.criticalmethods. D. Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools.educause. Models of collaboration. 41(2).. http://collaboration. Q2Learning White Paper. http://cde. Sign up for free at: http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 . 4. http://www.. Potter.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. 2003. http://www. Beshears. Bill (2004). Bryan (2006). Shadbolt. De wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. Eisenstadt. Chief Learning Officer. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in dex. es/clo_feature. Dalton.htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW)..aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.collabtech. A.soton.

org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.N. 72 © Brandon Hall Research .. Robin Good Blog. A.learningcircuits. W. and Miller. (2005).org/ / 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. 2565-2569. 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. June 30. Luigi (2005)..PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. (Eds.masternewmedia. In Crawford. P. http://ifets. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools. J.. . CA. http://www. http://www. R. http://www. ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. The State Of Collaboration Elliot. R. 827-829). http://www. Robin Good Blog. CMS Watch. Gibson. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. D.masternewmedia. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning..htm Canali De Rossi. Bjorn (Ed. R. January 2005. June Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference.masternewmedia.. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. (Eds.zcu. World Conference on Educational /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. J. http://cde. Sept. (2004). http://www. Matthew (2004). Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online. University of Athabasca.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott.htm Canali De Rossi. and Martens. Chesapeake. (2002). C.) (2003).htm # Clapp. (2002). http://www. Willis. http://www. J.. http://ifets. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. Then Knowledge Management. J. Proceedings. Live ELearning. 002/kaplan.html Hurst. Kirschner. Institute for the Future White Paper. http://www. Luigi (2003a). A. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments. Robin Good Blog. Technologies of Cooperation.). 2003.masternewmedia. and Jochems. 5(1). hnology_of_cooperation.htm Canali De Rossi. D. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise.pdf? 5/Poster/J03-full. May 2.htm Canali De Rossi.pdf Kaplan. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments. M. Educational Technology & Society. The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.rheingold.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog. http://www.Canali De Rossi. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.. and Sharifi. Palo Alto. VA: AACE. /kreijns.athabascau.) (2004). Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.. K. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide.. January 21.. McFerrin.html Institute for the Future (2005). http://wscg. August 2002.. and Thomas. What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. (2004). Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. June 5. Luigi (2004b). Collaboration First. J.html Munkvold. Price.editlib. Luigi (2003b).cmswatch.pdf Strijbos. A. & Weber. Educational Technology & Society. Soren (2002). (2002). Fitzgerald. K. A. /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es.html Kreijns. and Forster. Robin Good Blog. Learning Circuits. D. Findlay.. Aavani. 5(1). R. London: Springer-Verlag.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.cfm/files/pape r_12386. Luigi (2004a).

Studies in G.cqu. J. 24. http://www. Nov. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement. & Purnell. Callan. Evaluation. 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark. Innovation and Development. 1(2).edu. K.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2004).

Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. http://www. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. It is being developed into a transportable. discussion forums. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. re-usable. For Laurillard. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.71.janison.editlib. telepresence. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard. developed in Brazil.conversate.” http://goldenswamp.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. Find her work at: http://64.jisc. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning instant messaging. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser. VoIP. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. ml The Learning Place in Queensland. UK. and yet tailored and flexible. labs. http://www. Australia is a Web site for creating ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research .uk/deletacademictalk.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire. messaging. including communications tools.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. whiteboards. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. http://www. a process referred to as “text mentoring. chat.48. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. For example. discussion groups. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. Hegarty et al. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: . http://hbswk. e-Book. British Journal of Educational Technology. Sven (2002). JulySept. . (2000). Developing a successful e-mail and S. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. elegi/session1/paper6. Nick (2002). M. chat.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2004). Learning Circuits. June. CharityVillage.pdf s/usingoutlook.) Theory and Practice of Online rmed35. University of Athabasca. Jan.html Laurik. http://cde. (2005). J. Technologies of Online Learning. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) Library. M..htm In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. D. 31 (3). and telephony tools.pdf Eleuterio. (2004) University of Warwick. E-Learning 1. F. s. J. Diana (1993).uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ http://safety. Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. and 199-212.thinkofit. 2005 http://www. Computer Mediated Communication. Paper presented at the ELeGI 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal. 2002.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training. September 23. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging.html Laurillard. distance-learning course at Keele University. (2002).bcs..elearningcentre. http://ewic. and Cerri. Mark (2004). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.hbs.jisc. International Journal on E-Learning.. Francis. UK.ngfl. 31.editlib. and Bortolozzi. / Pattie (2005). CAP e-Guide. 19. J. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs. University of Birmingham. R.pdf s/im. S. J. Hegarty. London: Routledge. 20-21.elearningcentre. > http://www.html m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools. http://www.htm Garner. 2002. and Elliott. http://www. Bostock.warwick. 002/elearn. James (2005). An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. Working Knowledge Newsletter.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . I. Komzak. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. (Mlearn 2002).athabascau.

ac. A. 2002.king. and Briggs. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. http://dircweb. (2002). ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning.Stone. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). 76 © Brandon Hall Research . 20-21. J.

skills. entering defined competencies into a matrix. skills verification. performance appraisal. Edwards Deming. go to: dex. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. diagnose Physicians need to be able to gather data. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. Description According to Sanders (2001). David McClelland. organizational and personal goals are tied together. see below) and performance or talent management systems. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces ( /Competencies. and carry out proper procedures. 2000). In 1973. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer.” it started in 1950 with Dr. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries. see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . Known in the early days as the “quality movement. W. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. 2005). hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). For a large list of competencies for physicians.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. competency-based training. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs.imsproject. a Harvard psychologist. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. https://launchpad. Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. skills inventory.

html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. objectives. (1982). Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.htm Online Resources 001/competencies.expresscomputeronline. regardless of industry or sector. 2005.E. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. New York: David 78 © Brandon Hall Research .com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. Ken (2000). a Canadian company. London: Wiley. http://www. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. http://www. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Benjamin (1956).com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western ethods/assment/as7scans. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. Taxonomy of Educational 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom. SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module Competency and competency frameworks. Chief Learning Officer. and development interventions. April 25. Sudipta (2005). Express 050425/technologylife01.html The http://www.wmich. http://www. http://www.syberworks. For example. New York: Oracle Learning Management System http://www.desire2learn.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. http://www.learnflex. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp.learningcircuits. htm Many companies have their own competency models. Read their white paper at: http://www. R. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.shtml Hogg. See the list of competencies at: http://www. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. Building a skills inventory. Josh (2006).cipd.ncrel.. http://www. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's es/ n_resources/learning.” http://www. measurement. Clare (2005).com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine. April.

F. Competency based learning management. http://www. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. White paper. 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . http://www. Competency /DispForm. S. 2005. Cambridge.pdf Rankin. Godfrey (2005). 001/competencies.html 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner. 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. and Epstein. White paper from Operitel /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867. (1973). (2005). LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. (2003).htm Whiddett. March t/competnces/comptfrmwk. and Cahorn. pp. Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. (1999). New York: John Wiley. Miller. Sanders.collectionscanada. P.operitel. Ethan (2001). 2nd ed. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations. (2004). Gary (2004). L. http://www. v. (2000). Operitel Corporation. Rankin. and Neathy. and Expertise. and Grigorenko. (2001). http://www. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. The Psychology of Abilities. (2001). http://www.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. E-Learning Competencies. American Psychologist. http://www. London: IRS. Rankin. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice. Michael. and (2001). Creating a Culture of Competence. Emerging technology trends in http://www. Ellen (2000). A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies. Study 706. London: IRS. Learning Circuits.. London: IDS. R. Woodill. University of Toronto.htm Parkin. E.1/features/ewet te. http://www. (Eds. Competencies.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. Parkin’s Lot. ompetency-based-learningmanagement. April 30. The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey.operitel. Fall 2000. Master's thesis. UK: Cambridge University 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. N.) (2003). S.blogspot.html Radsma.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. http://parkinslot.

not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. displaying a course catalogue. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else. LCMS. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira.atutor. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. They have designed competitive. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. If you could afford it. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. According to its official Web site.” As well. which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. in fact. Repositories. to date. 80 © Brandon Hall Research .ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. you could hire a company to build a private.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. and “topic maps. I feel that closed. With the advent of learning objects. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS).” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. Sold on the basis of being “easy to use. 2006). functionality to an ECM. launching courses.” http://drupal. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. First. rather than complementary. such as registering users. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. and reporting. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife. Today.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact. Unfortunately. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. the standardized railway system still works while private. These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. manage. Learning objects. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.

topicmap.pdf Cohen. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning es/clo_article. http://www. C.cmsmatrix. Scott (2005). http://www. PA: Idea Group. http://www. and The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. A. http://www. March 2005. EdTechPost 40(3).htm Simon. San Jose. elearnspace blog. Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. http://sakaiproject.asp Woodill. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. Bibliography Bonk. Retalis. January Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support. 18.ntua.html McGee. reuse in many AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. 2/ atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper. http://www. 2006.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post Leslie.softlab. G. (2004). Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. (2005). Content Management: our organized future. Budapest. and publish to multiple outputs. http://www. Gerry (2003). New Thinking Blog. S.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of ntmanagement. > > http://www. (2003). Mashups. Why content management software hasn’t worked. (Eds. May 15. B. June 9. http://www. Educause Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs.edtechpost. Van (2005). P. 2003. and Brantner.gerrymcgovern. S. Curtis (2005). http://travelinedman. 2003. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. Hershey. Cisco Corporation White Paper. Learning Solutions. Ed. and Carmean. (2006).aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS.blogspot.educause.topicmaps. Jafari. George (2003). 2003.pdf Weigel. http://plone.operitel. McGovern. Strategies for managing scalable http://www. TravelinEdMan blog. 2005.htm Siemens. “Monoliths. http://www. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy.html Cisco Corp. erm0533. March 3. May/ (2005). http://www. http://www. C..

Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. knowledge discovery. 2001). 2000. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. Consequently. delivery models and infrastructure investment. As data mining tools and techniques evolve. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). personalization methods.Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. Luan and Willett. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned.

New York: Springer. M Fayyad. by applying fuzzy logic. In Pierre. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning (1996). B.amstatonline. Thalheim. Presentation at the Data Mining roducts/product_profile/smart.) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing can generate meaningful results for the teacher.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers. U. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. knowledge discovery.. P. 2001) http://www. School Business Affairs. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. http://imej. Robert (2002). pp. G.. 1--34. Data Mining in e-Learning. text mining.soul. Piatetsky-Shapiro. M. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.usyd.uwaterloo.html Bibliography De Veaux.pdf Fayyad. P. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases.. Do not reproduce 83 . K. (cited in Luan and Willett. S. hammouda-elearning. Samuel (Ed. hammouda-elearning. (2006). 13-16 http://asbointl. Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents. California. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. and Smyth. Alex (2002).convera.pdf Freitas. R. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured book-springer-ukc. edited U..classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. Piatetsky. ted/Deveaux. -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad.pdf Iskander. Australia. What’s Not. and R. Both products are from Convera. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. http://www. 68(8). http://pami. Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. http://www. Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.. Lange. Long Beach. Feb. Data Mining: What’s dex. http://www. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. B. http://www. and Kamel.hkuspace. and Web mining. and Tschiedel.cs.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.cs. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools.html Hammouda. (2004). 1996. (2000).icosystem.reeltwo. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Grieser.pdf Jantke. New York: Springer. G.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. when used with a particular data mining algorithm. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches.. entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages. http://www. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns.

Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 52-59.pdf Monk. E. http://wwwjime.unisb. J.pdf Pahl.ccsd. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning. 47-55.. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning.2004.unikiel. A.pdf Mor. Austria. RP Conference Presentation. Yacef (2005).ac.ejel. http://www. and Ventura.pdf Merceron. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. David (2005) 39-40. 238-241.html Ueno. In Proceedings. 15(4).org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.wfu. NYC. 3(4). S. (2006).editlib.asp Merceron. and Minguillon.pdf McCalla. 2004 (7). Scholl.cabrillo. 3(1). http://www2004.compmech. 319-346. Claus (2004). Data Mining in e-Learning. Feb. http://csdl2. http://www. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference. and Yacef. (2004). Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and 641523. May 17-22.-Dec.pdf Loo. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”.org/index. and Willett. http://archiveedutice. Advances in Management 264. http://www. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference.actapress. 41-54.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Train. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004). Oliveira. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners. analyze for more adaptive teaching. ports/dmkm. C. Gord (2004). http://www. International Journal on ELearning.informatik. 13-16. K. 2006. MA: WIT Press. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. B. http://imej. A. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM). and K. Hiroshima. and Ullrich.aspx? PaperID=15069 DF/Merceron_Yacef. Maomi (2004). and Romero. dex. http://www. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). 7(1). (2004). Porto. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results. (2006). Journal of Interactive Learning Research. http://dl. K.aace. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning.pdf Merceron. Vol 4.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. and K. T. Oct.ags.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research . Billerica. store.cnrs. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. M. (2001). Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making.. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Japan. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. Yacef (2004).. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). (2004). A. A.

ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. http://www. 4) develop an action is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. http://www. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004). 2) 3) vote/prior-itize.hut. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .com/ Facilitate. 5) carry out a survey.sal.utoronto.whichbook. The software then recommends books that you might like to read.decisionarium.bnhexpertsoft. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments. in their case study of medical . http://www. http://www.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation http://www.facilitate.tkk. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).une. For example. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. and 6) document results. http://www. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. http://www.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support.

For newsletters. http://www.. (2000). Decision Support Systems in e-Learning. http://damit. Thalheim. Grieser. B. Thalheim. 2005. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. K. 101-110. Gerhard (2003).org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Jay (2004).com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. and Tschiedel. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. Memmel. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical . see: E03DaMiT. R. Enn (2004).sal. Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects.. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems.unikiel. http://www. (2004). http://www. http://www.sal.dssresources. Information Systems for a Connected Society. (2004). August. B.html Scott. and Frasson.hut. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. S. 2004.bnhexpertsoft.pdf Power. Lange. http://dssresources. 6-9. In Frize. http://www.pdf Jantke. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. White paper from BNH Expert Software. http://www. M.uottawa. books. B. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. P.2004. Online manuscript. Manchester. and Tschiedel. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed.. bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. Theresa (1998). 238-241.are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. M.actapress. Hamalainen. http://www.. http://www.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu.html Hamalainen.pdf Ehtamo. Raimo (2003). Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. USA.” http://dmoz. SIGGRAPH publication. Kauai..dfki. DSE'2003 Workshops http://www. Enn (2005). Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems. http://science.informatik. B. 12(2-3). Portugal..pdf ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom.pdf Knolmayer.html Rhyne.pdf Ounapuu.pdf and Germany. Kankana (2005). H. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. http://www. Aachen. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings..): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. June 20-24.. Porto. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research . C. 317-328. Jan. Jim (2002). Dan (2003).manchester. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004).uniserve. (2003). 23(4).html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. and information on this area.hicss. Rostanin. SSpapers/CLNGL03. August 16-18.siggraph. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems

T. 9. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. PA: Idea Publishing.ideagroup. (2006).com/books/details.the curriculum. M. F. http://science. Oct. de Carvaho. Vol. Hershey. and Laurindo.asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 .html Shimizu. /vol9/scott. 2002. Electronic paper could change that some day. intelligent interfaces. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard. monitors. http://killer. For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. electronic paper. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. projectors. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.siliconlight. big enough to be projected on large walls. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. head mounted displays. lighting up theater size screens.Displays Related terms Digital ink.theregister. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors.P /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area.” Selected Examples Samsung. In the near future. Inc.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.ices. > > http://www. still/video camera. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. It can display and send data out through its wireless http://www.ntera. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. For air set/homeframeset. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual. digital paper.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games. This can be a holographic image. By stacking a second projector. Finally. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 http://www. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. in cooperation with Sony. See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. In regards to digital paper.html Promera is a hand-held computer. viewers see a floating midair image or overview /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.cmu.

informatik.informatik.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. and Pizer. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference. M. In G. (2005). 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.acm. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. Richards (Ed. (1996).H. K. Garrett. Hirota.. Government. Canada. pages 3053-3068. Pisano. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate.technorati.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society. E.jisc. http://blog. For a list of his publications. s.firstmonday. State.. W. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies.). see: http://ad.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs. ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. See a demo at: http://www. H. and Ottmann. Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper. Livingston. and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005).provisionentertainment. Whitton. http://www. A. First Monday is a journal on new technologies. In 2005. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display. http://portal. G.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www. Germany.fogscreen.unifreiburg.E. Tim (2005).unifreiburg. Vancouver.. London: Springer. see: http://www. Oct. Largest LCD and video http://ad.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.. http://thejournal. 2005. To access the py/2005-eLearn.. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. 2005. Hamburg.pdf Wang. paper?start=0 T.loaz. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog.

helping to transform education and training. evaluation. http://www. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.educause.htm Educause.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. 2005). My first report in this series. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. 90 © Brandon Hall Research . Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. open source electronic portfolio.htm IMS. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for ortfolio/default.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio. ortfolios.foliotek.imsglobal.iwebfolio. http://www.nottingham. http://www. http://www.paisley. ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://isle. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality. olios.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic. http://www. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and simple usability.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning. maximum http://www. model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. has posted a list of Online Resources on Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and p_bestv1p0.

31(3). http://www. Fall. J. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. http://www. D. (2004). http://www.educause. white_paper_2005. George (2004). Business Communication Quarterly.. (2005). http://ferl. Educause Review.. with many links. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. m0224.thejournal.educause. J. An Overview of e-Portfolios.pdf ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. 28–37.. and Haywood. Dublin. and Ittelson. Gary (2004). (2005).edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook. engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student Online paper. Lee. http://www. and McKean. 2004 http://www. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh. Frederick (2005).amazon. J. Aalderink. http://www. E.criticalmethods. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. Reflective learning..cfm Dubinsky.alt.. B.pdf Lorenzo.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds. Trent (2002).pdf Batson. D. http://connect. (2005). ortfoliopaper. m0441. has a section on e-portfolios. D. e-portfolios.becta. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios. and Wade.asp?id=6984 Cohn. Feijen. (Focus on Teaching). Light. http://www. The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. Online. V. K. vol. Bryde. Online Paper. University of Iowa.educause. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. J. ePortfolios. (2002). http://www. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. M. W. Harvey. and Hibbitts. http://www. no. THE Journal Online. FD Learning White Paper.pdf Conway. Bibliography / Do not reproduce 91 . (2002).ac. http://www. The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Educause Quarterly. esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper. J. B.htm Tosh. J. an online resource on collaboration. 4.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens. Vol 27 No 4. Bob (2004). 2005. (2004). March. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Trinity College. P. College of Education http://www. Dec. July/ August 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. Educause future thinking: digital repositories. (2003). G.doc Banks. Cook. http://www. 3001. and Werdmuller.. G. Graham (2005) April olios. Fleming. Dec.. S.campustechnology. B.educause. 16.. 37(2) M0441.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts.

(2002).A.. http://www.http://www. research. 144-169. ml h/article1. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. 2(2). and portfolios.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research .3/tosh.citejournal. & Figgins. M.cjlt. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of

There is a free 30-day trial version. dubbed XNA Studio. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. and learning ( Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. a subsidiary of Avid Softimage. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. 2003). games. Examples include Hive7. 2005). Constance Steinkuehler.clickteam.hive7. For a brief review of these tools. helping speed up the game creation writing about “first person shooter games. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas. play. allows members of a game development team to work together. http://www. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets.thinkingworlds. serious games. http://www. from the University of Wisconsin. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition. MySpace.” says that “in the mod world. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. create. and Second Life.myspace. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 .com In 2005. edit.facebook. http://www. virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking http://www.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms. The toolset.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. identity work. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. see: http://news. This game allows users to +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082. One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games.secondlife. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www. Marc Prensky (2003). simulations. complex problem solving. Dr.freescale. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. as such. http://www.cyworld.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. Facebook. Making such changes is part of what modding is / Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam.

” Find his list of publications at: The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. 8/index. ames/default. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player 94 © Brandon Hall Research .com/news/548 http://www.aspx urces. http://it.muzzylane. The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game Many of their learning games resources are free.coe. produces educational games for training. along with their Web sites. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe. The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. http://www.nasaga.siggraph. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.ucalgary.” Read her research at: Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines. Review them at: http://esub. > > http://www. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference.softimage.gdconf.seriousgamessummit. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of Thiagi. Started in North America. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: or go directly to the Softimage Web site. You can read about them at Pluginz. implementation.htm Dr.htm Dr. Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools. http://www. Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware) Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools. For The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education. Some of their games are played by simply using ools.wisc.” http://www. and speakers on all aspects of gaming. See the selection of games at: http://www. Sign up at: http://www.programmersheaven.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games.digiplay.for the Xbox.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.mpjgaBKQ dAe. hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver.

Rob (2006b). /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Oct. 2006. H.marcprensky. C. Mayer (Ed. Clifton Park.xplanazine. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. http://www. 2006. simulations and microworlds. Constance (2005). and Michael.xplanazine. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure.itc. 2003. http://www. sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. 17-22. Gaming. Beers. Gupta. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. J. N.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.pdf Bergeron.php Reynolds. 9(1). (2005). January 2. http://www. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. Jan. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference.iicm. 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen. and Inform. Learning on Demand Bulletin. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. D. (2006). (2005). Games and Education = Oil and Water.Bibliography Amory. Hawaii.ukzn. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games..pdf Swamy. Lloyd (2005).edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0. talogue. University of Wisconsin Madison. Montreal.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . S. Serious Games: Games That Educate. pdf Reynolds. and Chen. http://www. . Xplanazine. 549-567.wisc. In Richard E. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. N. G. June. Language Learning and Technology...pdf Michael. Xplanazine. Bob (2005). (2005).education. see: http://www. S. Simon (2005).cambridge. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. /03/games_and_educa. Technology Trends for the Year.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt. http://www. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. Marc (2003). IT-University Copenhagen. Gamasutra. Williams. June 25-28. R. H. March ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.php Rieber.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. Multimedia learning in games. and Swamy. and Maurer. http://www. Doctoral dissertation. http://website.pdf Godwin-Jones. and Biswas. D.pdf 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts.pdf Prensky. R. Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment. Dreher. Fourth Quarter. Alan (2003).com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. Train. 2005. Clifton Park. http://www. Rob (2006a). New York: Cambridge University Press. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.uwf. Bryan (2006).. (2005). 2003. Chapter 33. Developing Serious Games.

Masters theses/mudcraft/thesis. 2004.commtechlab. http://woz.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research . Jason (2004). Michigan State University. Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games.msu.

fg2006.fg2008. Artificial intelligence techniques. F.soton. affective computing. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. Munich. (2005). Michael (2003). such as Markov models. eLearning Developers’ Journal. March. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system. including identifying commercial products. at the University of California. The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Bibliography Allen. 2008. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition. was held in Southampton.ecs.elearningguild. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. FG2006.html Research by Dr. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. Ludwig-Maximilians University. 3. London.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans.cybernet.tudelft. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. April 10-12 2006. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. For a list of papers: http://www. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. 803DES.ucsd. L. and robotics in elearning. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. Report No. http://www.smartkom. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. looking for particular sequences.” http://mplab. Nicole (2001).pdf Beringer. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures. . Advances in Do not reproduce 97 .pdf Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. Porta. M. 18.. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. haptics. artificial intelligence. Aug. http://www. UK.

(2002). Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005). l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman.clayton. Park.F (1999). 27-30.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. Lee. 242-245. Chen. (2005). and Chang. Las Vegas. July Toc. In Proceedings. Shi-Kuo (2000). J. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. and Yang.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. (2002). Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility. T.pdf Daugman. J. http://interact.Computer Communication. http://doi. 202004. and Ma. Communications of the ACM. British Columbia. Y.pdf Wilson. (2004).cse.pdf Corradini. September 2002. J. 191-196. (1997). P. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces.. Fussell.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. http://www. and Poggio. (2000) ws/enw63/hci. Visualization. paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces. http://cbcl. and Cohen. and Koike. and Bender.acm.html Chang. C. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. S.actapress. Setlock. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion. M. Y. Canada http://cims. http://www. D. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing. http://www.pdf Ou. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 0/paper/or03/ Loi. A. Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree.884693 21(9). Vancouver.actapress. J.xml&DOI=10. and Carreira. Nevada. M. Sato. J. http://www. Lai. 1999.ucsb.. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference. R. IEEE Transactions. 2004.research. (2004). (1997). Proceedings. http://www.pdf Lee.1 50 Nakanishi.rutgers. Korea. July 1997.1109/ICALT. Gao..fsu. 47(1). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation.pdf Peixoto. 19(7). J. L. A. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. and Bobick.. (2005). Y. In Proceedings. 675 Michael (2004)..aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. L. Sept. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research .stat. Y. P. C. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02).110 9/CMPSAC. ns/ps/siggraph02.676 http://lcv.pdf Ebert... Wong. Deller. and Kim. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. http://www. Face and gesture recognition: overview. IEEE Transactions. X.iscslp2006.D. and Wong.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat. H. Wesson. (2005). In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul. G. http://csdl2. (2003). 57-64.2000. 884 – 900. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. October 14-16..ogi. ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. W. T. PA. http://portal. 442-446. Computer vision in the interface. M. /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. Journal on Applied Signal Processing.illumination variations. http://www. 2533–2543. 2004:16.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 .

Graphics Tools Related terms 100 © Brandon Hall Research .Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.html Autodesk AutoSketch Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.acdamerica. Designing Web-Based Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.avs.techillustrator.autodesk. interactive creation. rendering.blender3d. Nevertheless. Horton applied these in his 2000 book.broderbund. e-Learning By Design. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool p. Download a copy: http://www. post-production. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www.2.0. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons. and in his recent 2006 book.html Blender .com/ Canvas Professional http://www. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. and playback. animation. the same principles apply to user interface design. In acquiring Macromedia.

uk/index. The most listings are for 3-D software. Pallickara. ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. A.php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Kommers & 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang. In P. New York: John Wiley. Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Potsdam. June 1-3.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. hics. Japan · Sept 7-10.xaraxtreme. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.).co. 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online . William (1991). ED-Media Conference. Do not reproduce 101 .. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks. Tokyo. Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). Pheonix. Tools Usage Survey Results. William (2006).pdf McConnell.elearningcentre. (2004). Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models. http://www. Fu-Kwan (2004). http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the http://www. http://www. Gloria (2004). Richards (Eds. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. William (2000).com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). http://grids. (2005).co.htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google NY: John A. 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton. Tools and Techniques for aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear SmartDraw http://www.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes. http://esub.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. and Uyar.pdf http://www. X.IBM CATIA http://www306. Designing WebBased Training. e-Learning by Design. Germany.carto.smartdraw.

CT: Graphics. Edward (2001).org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/ 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. Cheshire.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research . STC. Carolina Chapter.pdf Tufte. Frances (2004).blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Evidence and Narrative . Edward (1990). Envisioning 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 CT: Graphics Cheshire. Cheshire. http://www. http://www. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. http://www. CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed. Edward (1997).stc. Visual Explanations : Images and

asp Body-based devices include SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them. Haptic devices come in many llers/freedom/f6_news_touching. Finally.html http://www. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. > > http://wwwpercro.pureform. and force-feedback Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.mpbtechnologies. When used approp-riately.html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. http://www.sensable. joysticks/ joypads. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics.sssup.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices . a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.immersion. http://www. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a m_ghost/phantom. suits. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4.miralab. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships.forcedimension. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. http://haptex.Haptics Related terms Force feedback.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . Read the press release at: http://www. including pens. who becomes directly involved in experiencing me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks.” http://www. http://www. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX). gloves. Do not reproduce 103 .in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .

Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. (2005). Abbott. http://www. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. Italy in ml Kushner. 30/1059480393138. Deliverable Japan. 22. NJ: Prentice-Hall. M. Report delivered January 15.” http://www.pdf O’ (2003).ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. 2005.isfh. Iwane. 2005. Research report. Santa Clara. http://web. Technology and Haptics. C.pdf Ó hAnluain.. McLaughlin. M.. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.html O’ Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. Matsubara.. G. Nakamura.html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. Haptics Laboratory. S. Oct. Sukhatme. 3-5 June 2004. G.usc. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. and Rusbridge. (2000). Blindness. pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS. and Sukhatume.” http://www. M.ccii. July 3. Prentice Hall online article. D. Dobreva. G. Daithí (2003). Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community. Reaching through the net to touch.1_release-public. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. and Gillespie. http://www. 917-921.1109/ICALT..html Ross. Proceedings.2005. (2002). McLaughlin. Laurie (2004). David (2003).edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2.. (2005).unitrier. M. Reality bytes.pdf Hespanha.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research . and Ichitsubo. http://csdl. http://www.mcgill. Upper Saddle River. (2004). The Haptic Levesque. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. Vincent (2005).org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. M. A. July 31. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. 2003. McGill University. and Essl. http://www. 2003. http://www..xml&DOI=10. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference ss/ACC239. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www.S.cim.informatik. M. (1997). Medioni. Chapter on Haptics. M.ra. professional. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation.unipi. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05) Y. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). J...matr. McHugh.1. Wired News. L. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. Proceedings. Inoue. Donnelly. A. http://csdl2. N. http://www. Centre for Intelligent Machines. http://haptex.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. http://www.pdf Rowell. Toc.digicult. M. New York Times (Online).. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005).miralab. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. M. and Hughes. and Jaskowiak.pdf O’Modhrain.

The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. (2001). 250a. Y. Do not reproduce 105 .informit..journalofvision. Kaneko.asp?p=345621 ndly. 1(3). K.. H. Journal of Vision.http://www. & Uchikawa.

html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper. see: http://www. tangible computing. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.Interface Devices Related terms Digital the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard 35n17/articles/Accuscript. bleDisplay. handwriting recognition. This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. gesture hives/month/2005/20050713-01.ices. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming 2571. Called Librié. Now in the research and development phase.dottocomu. wearable computing. head mounted displays.html Sony. > > http://killer. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning http://www. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content. Philips.html http://killer. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment.buffalo. However. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. input devices. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. which "is a new drawing tool to explore / 106 © Brandon Hall Research . they must interact with it through an interface device. For a review. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.cmu. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. and some. electronic paper.eink. experience computing. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204)." http://web. textures. human-computer interaction. Writing will require special digital pens. like digital ink and paper. monitors. projectors.” http://www. digital paper. In 2005. see: link.html Description For humans to use a s. display technologies.

it is constantly being improved and On their “Experience Computing” Web The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. and 5) build. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface. http://www. human computer interaction.05/ aging/resources/ 1 Over the years.lifehacker. Although this technology has been around for a few Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. 4) bend. whiteboards.logitech. ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://www. http://www.smarttech.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. These methods are 1) touch.channelnewsasia. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer. Following are three such articles: > 3/home.cs.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic hiteboards.edna.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your http://www.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. http://www. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.thewirelessdirectory. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and 3) The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links. http://www. http://www.cs.thegrid. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System. 2) roll. http://www. http://www. http://www.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital iteboards. See their advice and resources at: http://www.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 .swan.aclearn. .edu.wacom. and graphic.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface. consisting of a pen and a charger. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies. ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.

2006. Read all about their award winning technology at: py/2006-tabletop. Michael (2005). Jan. N. with its use of digital ink. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. T. Scotland. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.pdf Cross. Haag. http://www..pdf Mohamed. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.unifreiburg.. 108 © Brandon Hall Research . S.. eSchool News Online.wired.00.html In G. 2006. T. University of London. http://ad. Nicole (2006).aace. Fri. http://education. 2004. January 6. The Mercury News.virtuallearning. J. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. Indurkhya.). The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers.html eSchool News. 6. ory. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing.eschoolnews. Adelaide. Guardian Unlimited. J. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western . HCI2005. Phil (2004). (2006). and Ottmann. Will (2004). (2003). June 1. http://ad.informatik. http://www. Jan. NewScientist Magazine (Online).pdf Otsuki. The most flexible paper yet revealed.devx.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight. Guardian Unlimited.newscientist. 26. http://www.unifreiburg. Y. B. .. Oct. Richards ( story/0. http://dl. 2004.htm Zeichick. Dal-RI. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. http://www. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard.08/epapers.html http://www. (2005). Julie (2002).1585516. December 22.mercurynews. res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking.00. M. Microsoft’s Tablet pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink. and Nakagawa. Vancouver.10577. http://www.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. Alan (2004).uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school. and Ottmann. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.. 257-269.10577. Read. 15(3). King’s College. Kato. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. is described in a 2002 press release. news/business/technology/14286388. Proceedings of E-Learn 2005.informatik. April 7. K. Springer.mspx Bibliography story/0.1116483. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. (2004).com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. Peltason.html Wong. H.> > py/2005-eLearn. Tablet PC Developer. Australia. (2005).04/anoto.

conversation. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). Whenever possible. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. Course Management Systems (CMS).” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework).Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. Content management. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 .e. Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made.. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. elearning portals. But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. 2005). thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people.

IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS).net/ Cornerstone OnDemand IBM . roles. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e.Training Partner http://www. is available as a free download. .com/ Avilar Technologies Inc.Training Wizard MX/SST http://www.geolearning. The LMS GeoLearning Inc.fldata. in alphabetical order.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Element K .com/ Frontline Data Solutions.. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report). and other academic Compendium Corporation Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.GeoMaestro http://www.academici. a communic-ation platform. one of the LMS vendors listed below. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications. To quote the developers. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events). content-driven forums run by experts.” http://elgg. Gyrus . instructors and resources creating communities of learning.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.gen21. more control over their own data For An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite oodle_Sample_e-book.WebMentor LMS http://www. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www. The roles.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia. more control over the learning environment For institutions.elementk.g.compendiumcorp. . groups. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. a search engine. . http://opensourceschools.KnowledgeHub http://www. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners. a leading open source learning management Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. a contact management system.php EVE. http://www. .TrainingMine http://www. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research . . > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.avilar.

com/ Vuepoint .com/2004/index.plateau.DOTS .http://www.html Trivantis Corporation .com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/ LearnSomething dex.PeopleSoft Learning Management TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.html OutStart Inc.Oracle Learning Novasys Information Services TeraLearn.iPerform http://www.CourseMill LMS http://www.Dynamic Online Training System http://www. .LearnerWeb http://www.OutStart Evolution LMS Saba .LMSLive http://www.SAP Learning Solution http://www.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www.technomedia. .ips-inc.html IntraLearn Software Wizdom Systems Inc.syntrio.SSA Learning Management http://www.TotalLMS KnowledgePlanet Inc.Virtual Training Assistant http://www.wizdom.Vuepoint Learning System http://www.mGen Enterprise ng/index. .risc-inc. – TEDS SSE .InfoSource http://www. .com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.ttg-inc.asp SumTotal Systems Intellinex LLC.redbooks. .com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions mGen Inc.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .com/ Syntrio .OnTracker LMS http://www.htm SAP .com/ Integrated Performance MaxIT .LearnFlex LMS Strategia Interactive Solutions New Media n_resources/learning.SSElearn Portal Websoft Systems Inc. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.LearnCenter http://www.jsp Operitel Corporation .com/flashhom e.Ed Training Platform http://www.aspx RISC . – KnowledgeBridge Inc. .html Plateau Systems . . TrainingOffice Audit http://www.TeraLearn LCMS http://www.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.wbtsystems.Intellinex LMS http://www.webraven.TopClass LMS http://www.intralearn. .Plateau Learning Management System http://www.aspx Oracle USA XE _01_01.asp Learn.KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.sumtotalsystems. .com/ Do not reproduce 111 .Net Technomedia Training Inc. Tracker.learnsomething.TM SIGAL . .net/ NetDimensions .com/overview.Isoph Blue WBT Systems .cfm TEDS InfoSource Inc.

e-learningcentre. 2006. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.pdf Dillenbourg. http://www. see the recent article in Learning Circuits.building new education strategies for Learning Manager http://www. http://www. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins.htm Bouras. Teresa A. A. Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central. C.melcoe. ICALT2002 Conference. L. http://www. Chief Learning c/clo0806/ Colazzo. (2002). October.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). 21. Proceedings. University of Birmingham. http://incsub.. http://www. 2005. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Pierre (2000).Xtention Learning Management System For a review of leading open source learning management systems. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).learningcircuits.37/teresadeca/webheads/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final. and Tsiatsos.pdf Dalziel. Learning 005/adkins. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .” and open source course and learning content management systems. (2006) Xtention Inc. The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s and Trifonova. . August. . James (2003). James (2005).Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual http://www. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems .co. Jan. Molinari. Virtual Learning XStream Software Inc..A possible future for online learning.learningcircuits.eun. . D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64. Incorporated Subversion. Building educational virtual environments.XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. (Online edition).brandonhall." http://www. http://www.pdf Cohen. June 20-21.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.edutools.xtention. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. by Sam Adkins. http://lttf. 005/adkins. Sam (2005).jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS) from the JISC in the UK. Ronchetti.PDF Farmer. Workshop on virtual learning environments. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS. T.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www.48.cetis. (2002). M. Ed.71.

. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.pdf Collaboration in Educational Technologies. 31-Feb.bath. May 2006 http://www.ucisa.. Exeter.zcu. Plzen. 40(3).ac. L. and Sharifi. (2006).edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533.pdf Do not reproduce 113 . 5/Poster/J03-full. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. 2005. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.cfm?fuse action=Reader. M (2005).aace. November 4.pdf Morrison.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE). Report for the Melbourne. Aavani. http://wscg. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .unimelb. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Report published by UCISA.pdf Sadeghi.pdf Ueno. Proceedings of ALT-C. Derek (2004). Healthcare. Proceedings. Maomi (2005). T.infodiv.pdf Tsinakos. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. http://tojde. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 and Quealy. 2005. 5(2). LMS Governance Project Report. http://www. and Higher Education 2005. and A. R. Jan. (2005). Browne. Czech Republic. nakos. almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. J. Avgoustos (2004). Van (2005). http://www. M. Government. Educause Review. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. http://www. October 2005. WSCG Conference 2005.

and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . does not mean the intended learning has taken place. a well-known standard for learning objects. 2006).” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. metadata is used to describe objects in repositories. stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. They are emulations of “software objects. Learning objects have several uses.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen.Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. Beyond that. of learning objects.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information. learning object model (LOM). it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. However. computer-use practices. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. sharable content objects (SCOs). As online educational materials are produced. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. 2004. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs).” such as a graph. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings. reusable learning objects (RLOs). SCORM. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning.” This use has been more successful. Wiley. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. This idea is based on older. Rather. intelligent tutoring. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. At the simplest level. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. learning object repository (LOR). rapid learning. Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. curriculum. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. culture. The acronym SCORM. LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST).html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education. http://www. with a focus on information literacy. http://ideas. http://www. preserves. stores. http://www. http://dspace.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona. with almost goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math. CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields. The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of O/ Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. http://dlist.fedora.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes.wisconsin.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).uvic. http://www. http://nsdl. http://lester. Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 . resources for grades K-12. and they can be general or subject items.goenc.unsw.thegateway. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. http://www.oise. hosted by the University of Victoria in LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.mcli. and distributes digital research material.maricopa. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in It is open to any member of the academic or research community. http://www. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers.utoronto. Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures. http://www. http://www. http://www.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels. indexes. Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering.irrodl.htm Collis. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning llections. A. authored by Rachel dex.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www. Downes.elearnspace.nmc. Online cts. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context. 1(3).. http://www. us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905. Online paper. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://portal. (2003). “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?”” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. http://www. T. Celentano.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. (2004)..dis.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. http://dl. UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software 5-16.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www. C.1/downes .doc Christiansen.jcdl. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. http://www. 2(4). 2(1).uwm. http://www.html Edusource (2003). Stephen. http://www. International Journal on http://www.html For a highly critical view of learning 002089. F.dicole. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. and Alderman.L. http://www. Software Architecture Document. A. http://www.9. B. (2004).org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events.uis.lornet. M. Bibliography Barritt. and 681.uniroma1.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. Version . see Teemu Leinonen’s article.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.publiclibraryofscience. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian (2004).org/ci/en/ev. J. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . CANCORE. And Longo.unesco. & Strijker.html http://www. (2000). is available at: http://www. M.

org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.. http://www.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire.htm Morrison.p df Roselli.doc Fiaidhi. Downes. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. and Morales. London: Falmer. Warren (2000). Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and usability. http://www.Part 2.kth. Fredinand (2004). 1(3). Roberts. Learning Circuits.html Friesen. and Mohammed. July 14.Rafts or Battleships? .learningcircuits. April 2002. 2004. A Repository for the Teaching June. McGreal.cancore. March. 7(1). Friesen. 14. InSITE 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. http://ideas. ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15. Norm (2005) PADLR-final-report. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Learning Material Repositories ..html Murphy. R. Babin.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.. http://www. INTERACT 2005. S.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. Derek (2004b). Lori (2002).org. 2004. Derek (2004a). The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. (2002) etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal. Learning Material Repositories . http://proceedings. http://www. (2004). rimer. http://www. Mattson.usq. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. Research e/morriblog_comments.editlib. T. Online paper.. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. D. http://www. N. D. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach. G. (2004).htm 002/mortimer. Anderson.learninglab. http://www.html Heery. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. M. 1 (3).ca/implementing_proje cts. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS..Part 1. R.cfm/files/pape r_11841. Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. M. Rachel (2006). 12. T. T. (2004).org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03. Rory (Ed. http://www. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward. R. Hatala.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.itdl.Rafts or Battleships? .learningcircuits. March.htm Friesen. 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Aug. Paquette. Wolfgang (2004). M. and Pragnell.cancore...bath.edusource.. and Freisen. A Primer on Learning Objects. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. Harrigan. N. Learning Circuits. Elizabeth (2004).html Leeder.pdf e/morriblog_more. S. K. MacLeod.itdl. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.html McGreal. Norm (2006). http://www.bath. Paper presented. March.blogs. V. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. and Schafer. http://www. Richards. G. Do not reproduce 117 . Final Project Report. G. J. (2005). CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world.) (2004). Online Education Using Learning Objects. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. http://www.. 2004.pdf Richards.http://www. Jan.

1(7).htm jects.uniroma1.htm Wiley. http://www. M. http://www.pdf http://www.pdf http://opencontent. (2006). http://opencontent.dis. (2000). (2000). A. (2002).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. and Senteni. David A. (Ed. David A. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. (2004). Iterating Toward Openness. M. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius.itdl. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects.dis. White paper for Fastrak Consulting. Objects of Interest. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory. RIP-ing on Learning 2. Wiley.. David A.> > http://www. Doctoral dissertation. Online. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. : http://reusability. 118 © Brandon Hall Research .. Brigham Young University. 9.).p df Wiley.uniroma1.fastrakconsulting.

and wearable computers. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. users will be able to use a variety of devices.frappr. including cell phones. navigation. proximity tools. as with any new technology. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp . location-based systems are found in MapInfo . and security Clark Labs . Do not reproduce 119 . Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile.cadcorp. including privacy concerns. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U.http://www.esri. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience. galleries. ESRI.intergraph. PDAs. galleries.http://www. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the Intergraph .clarklabs.S. gaming consoles.http://www. laptops. http://www.http://www. personal media players. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. Department of Defense. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. findability.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth. geocaching. more demands for a person’s attention.mapinfo. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites.

Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps. See their complete range of products. http://www. at: http://www.state.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools.” http://www. the national mapping agency for Great At the Museum of Vertebrate Platial enables anyone to find.greatestplaces.cetadl. as well as papers on trends in GIS. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps. While not very useful for most people.esri. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web. it is a great tool for teaching science.searchable from a database. http://earth. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley. http://www. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.asp?path= 500. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .geog. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year.pangonetworks. http://platial. http://www.000 archaeological sites in the state. Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe. Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations. http://www. Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.berkeley. similar to what a GIS system The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40. Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details.leeds. The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local

and visualize spatial information.directionsmag. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space. has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. (1999). http://www. IBM Systems /jisctsw_05_01. Fabrizio (2005).ca/ Geotags.intelresearch. G..http://www. http://education. http://geotags. and Borriello. http://www. Dobreva. McHugh. m The theme of the 2005 Geography. Earth. (2005). http://pngis. 2005. Donnelly.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education.pdf Do not reproduce 121 .intergraph. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. and Location-Based industry professionals. Bibliography Benford. A. 2005.learningcircuits. C. > > http://geotags.digicult. (2003).com/gis4mt/index. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. Part II. A. (2001). Abbott.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www.pdf Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. Location systems for ubiquitous story/0. Steve (2005). Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile.. and Chamzas. Chapter on Location Based Devices.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.pdf Tsirliganis. Learning Circuits.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.htm McLean. M. Pavlidis. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work. Eva (2004). and students. Heather (2005) Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. http://www. location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry. e/education/index. http://www. 38(4). and M.1642288.. F. G. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. DigiCULT Newsletter.. Information in places.. Future LocationBased Experiences. D. 15. http://www. Cardinali. enthusiasts. http://www. JISC Technology and Standards Watch 004/kaplan2.. 84/spohrer.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Spohrer. http://www. J. /gis05. manipulate. Issue 6. see: 021154_45.ordnancesurvey.html Ross.. Guardian Unlimited. Nov. Online article. Jan 2004.. We learning: social software and e-learning..geocomm. tory. The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. IEEE Report. January.00.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems. Dec.jisc.

or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. API clouds. or protocol. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. composite applications. at the same time. Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. hybrid applications. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment.” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Programs can be “stand alone.” Using SOAP. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. For example. to a lesser extent. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. such as those for collaboration. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. For two or more programs to talk to each other. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application.Mashups. in schools and universities. tag clouds. providing an informal collaborative environment. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. Many of these objects are software programs. of how to communicate with each other. Similarly. Mashups are constructed in several ways. integration. all expressed in binary code. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. document management. also called “object interoperability. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. A “mashup. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while..” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. or through “Web services. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . communications. run all by themselves. 2004). Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application. the rules for sending files across the Internet. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. etc. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. personalized. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations.” that is.” then.

Enterprise mashups.infoworld. match. and ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. http://www. Infoworld.*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 iendly.html Hof.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities. January 2004 http://lttf. Issue 1. 6. Issue Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. Business Week Learning Technology newsletter. SOAP. 2006.0 APIs. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. and Padron. http://blogs.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. Douglas (2004).programmableweb. Dodero. G. C.htm Torres. http://www. Bibliography Gruman.html Warlick. trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. C. ey-dec0602.pdf Seimens.techlearning. http://www. Dec.bctechnology. David (2006). George (undated). has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his http://www.elearnspace. Robert (2005). Many have educational value. March 6. Learning July 28. J.businessweek. Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. Mix. Galen (2006). http://www. > > http://www. Curriculum as Mashup.pdf http://del. E-Learning Interoperability & Web /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites.icio.wikipedia. As Warlick (2006) has noted. http://en.” It has many examples of web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. J.html Woodill. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning Rob Hof. July 25. http://ww6. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. 2006. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education. http://www. 2005.deitel.htm Siviter. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other. Vol. and Oliveira. January 2004 http://lttf. 6. ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. (2006).businessweek. Elearnspace. Web Services.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. a writer for Business services. Paul (2002).com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. 6. 2002. 2006. May 15. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.mashupfeed. http://www. Learning Technology newsletter. (2004). E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry.

F.. A. http://iiscs. repositories.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms and artificial intelligence are being developed. Perich. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches. and Joshi. search engines.wssu. H.pdf Delphi Group (2004). schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies.. 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. http://www. Bibliography http://ebiquity. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services. D. pervasive computing. June 2004. 7(4).. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies. Ontology-based organizational memory for http://libraries.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning 124 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. Benayache. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. In Proceedings. and Chaput. Boston.imsglobal.cancore. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. tadata/index. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.. Delphi Group report. http://www. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program.. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification. B.umbc. http://www. http://dublincore. M. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice. C. metadata. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another. and institutional stores. Lenne. http://simile. C. An ontology.php?id=25 Chen. (2004).edu/get/a/publication /105. Barry. A.html Description At the same time that learning objects. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud. 98-111. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Finin. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. to develop metadata standards. http://metadata. community. =O4E.. and services. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. Ohio. (2004).. in the context of information technology. MA. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM).ifets.

Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003).com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe.pdf Friesen. July/August. http://infotangle. (2004).com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. and Diaz. Learning Circuits. A.. 26-28. Nov. Presentation to Tag Camp.html Gruber. 7. epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. http://www. Ellyssa (2005). Trondheim.dlib.. Lytras. NISO Press. http://www.php?id=25 Tozman.boxesandarrows. 7(4). http://tomgruber. Adam (2004).org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy. Building a Metadata-Based Website.. and Poulymenakou. N. (2003).boxesandarrows.niso. pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. BoxesAndArrows. Dec. 2005. 2003.delphigroup. International Journal on E-Learning. Thomas (2005a). http://www.learningcircuits. Green Chameleon. Pouloudi. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). D-Lib Magazine. Do not reproduce 125 . http://www. and Nejdl. Thomas (2005b).html Wodtke. Chen.blogsome. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://www. http://www.htm Gruber. Christian (2004). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. University of Illinois graduate paper. J. 11(7/8). Christina (2002).cancore. Another new paradigm for instructional design.pdf Oin. http://www. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. Defining “taxonomy”. W. April 9. Understanding Metadata. S. TagOntology . P. and Godby. BoxesAndArrows.ifets.adammathes. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas.htm Weibel. http://www. Norway.ppt Ricci. http://dl. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. May 22. M. Reuben (2004).pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001).org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. 2005.. B. Mathes. http://www.ecdl2003. 2002.. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data. A. November. (2002). Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic detail/defining_taxonomy eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. April 18. Dolog.pdf Henze. (2004).info/ UnderstandingMetadata. 2004. Wagner. J. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. G. Stuart (2005). 2006. (2004). (2003).php?id=25 Kroski. http://tomgruber. Patrick (2006).greenchameleon.tagcamp.. Norm (2005).ca/editors. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies. April 21. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. 2004.ifets. 2002. and Mosoiu. Online article. http://www.aace. http://www. October-December. P. 7(4). October 29. BoxesAndArrows. M. Infotangle. and Shao.

7(4). http://www. 70-81.php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research .info/issues.ifets.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.

pervasive computing. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). using ambient intelligence. instant messaging (text. personalization. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. Cited in Prensky.Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. Essentially. strong search capabilities. tablets. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. (2004). there were estimated to be 1. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. personal digital assistants (PDA). and mentoring. improved identity creation. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. 2004). cell phones. collaborative learning. rich interaction. laptops. conversational learning. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. brokerage. time and space. wearable computing. location-dependence. MP3 players. Do not reproduce 127 . any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. tablet PCs. it is predicted that there will be 2. However. He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices. such as increased computer literacy.” Two years ago. cellular telephones. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. communicative skills and community building. location based technologies.6 billion units in operation by that year. in Japan. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. video) and distributed databases. mLearning. podcasting.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. personalization. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). 2003).” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. multimedia. powerful support for effective learning. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC.

http://www. http://spotlight-mobile. http://urbantapestries.fasfind. activities.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education.” a “butterflywatching learning gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. http://csdl2.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology.ccu.fasfind.cs. Learn more at: http://www. or a combination of 128 © Brandon Hall Research .com/wwwtools/m/271 7.” They have a “firefly watching earning.ccu. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content. http://urbantapestries. 25255. and a glossary.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery. including Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.cs. 7. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe. technologies. http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education.harvard.” > > > The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers. http://gseacademic. Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. papers/ papers/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in 7. US.mobilelearning. links.cs.fasfind. and pre-service The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites.knowledgepulse. of the University of Oulu in papers/JECR-2005. Israel. movies.pdf http://www. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture. http://www.” > > > http://m.mobilearn.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.pdf The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and http://news. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning. g/index.pdf location-specific ata. audio. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.htm Jari Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education.ccu.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning.” and a “bird watching learning system.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.

uk/eli_practice.jisc. 39. (2004). Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 /edition06/download/geddes. S. /jisctsw_05_04pdf. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. 9(1). (2003). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. and Bob Godwin-Jones.m-learning. http://www.. Sept. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for rs/JCAL-2003. Learning and Skills Development Agency. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.html Grew.pdf Do not reproduce 129 .” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile Bibliography Alexander. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. EDUCAUSE Review. Ireland. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. T. and Trifonova. Univ. James (2005). Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. L. http://www.idi.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life. Ronchetti.pdf Jasola. September 2005.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning.ntnu..msu. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16. E. http://knowledgetree. Kao. M. (2005). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. M0451. The short message service (SMS) for schools/ The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project. ndex. No.flexiblelearning. Paul (2005).. and Sheu. ault.bham. http://www.itdl. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. A.pdf Anderson.232. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. Jill (2005). wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).htm JISC (2005). and Pagani. http://www. Emerging technologies: Messaging. Language Learning and Technology. Y.jisc. P.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://www. 19. http://www. http://llt. Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner. Bryan (2004). For example. Vol. http://www. Gaming.135/ipodined/news. Attewell. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning.html Chen. JISC Technology and Standards Watch. 17-22 http://llt. J. of Birmingham http://www. (2005). Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Bob (2005). (2002). ect%20summary. 2006 in Dublin.html Kadirire.unitn.pdf 05/Final/ R. http://213. Report.msu. No. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial ault. January 2005. 2(9). ations. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.ccu. B.J. http://www.pdf JISC Guide. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.6.

Understanding. June/July 2005. http://education. and Neil (2003). Marc (2004).. 40(3). Brisbane. Budapest.htm#Implications m0532. 1(5).pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research . and Nischelwitzer. 2005. Mike (2005). Hungary. May 23. ASCILITE2005 Conference. UsabilityNews. Ann (2005).phil-inst. http://www. Taylor. M. Liang.usabilitynews.2002. Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.fhjoanneum. Cinotti.acm.ieeecomputersociety. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. http://www. E. Proceedings. and Vavoula. http://www. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.century.bham. http://www. (2002). M. (2001).. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.. G. Michael (2005). F. 2004. 2005. (2005). Galasso. Coralini.. D. T. August 2490.innovateonline. Feb.clomedia. multimediabased learning application. J. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Pigozzi. Glyfada. and Dobreva. Enabling Mobile Learning.asp Liu.1039222 McLean. Vecchietti. and 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri. Christopher (2005). Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Archeology. Ellen (2005). S. http://portal.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner.. Draft paper submitted for publication. ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. Wang. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing. E. E-Learning on the move. April 2005. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference..oucs.pdf Mellow. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02). Learning in the Mobile http://kn. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross.2.digicult. S. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age..fil. A theory of learning for the mobile age. T. M.ox.pdf comment/0. 2002. EDUCAUSE Review.. Teleborg Campus.. J. A.110 9/WMTE. Presented at WMTE 2002. http://www. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. Australia. L. Proceedings. M. es/clo_article. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. A. Malavasi.. 2004_final_low.html von bane05/blogs/proceedings/ Scagliarini. Conference on Virtual reality. Kristóf (2002).hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. (2004).00. and Cultural Heritage. M. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. David (2006). Romagnoli. H. Chief Learning Officer..cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Amherst. http://www. Chan. May/June 2005. MA: HRD Press. J.doc Meisenberger. Donnelly. http://www.1490476. http://doi. computer-aided. Guardian al. June 27.pdf Thomas.eee. 40-53.. ning. rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. Peter (2005). http://www. (2005).. 2005.pdf Metcalf. http://21st.Light. Växjö. Växjö University. Feb. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.ascilite.

ac. speech and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET).lexxe. http://www. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility. http://dmoz.php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming .org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. http://tcc. Kim (2000).itc. http://wwwusers. Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. i. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation .edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site. Lee et al. (2004). and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento.cs. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.ldc. natural language generation.aaai. http://www. et al.york.upenn.. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.elsnet. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.” See also Jordan et al. It can be used as an interface for many different devices. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. rather than just returning Web pages. machine translation. and standards. speech The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.. research.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. Di Eugenio. http://www. ( Description According to Coxhead (2001).e. http://eduforge. (2004). html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages. natural language understanding. Do not reproduce 131 . a component of intelligent tutoring systems. http://www.translating one natural language into another.

this activity.

Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8


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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft



Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing


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Corporation. Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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135 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference.

Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. 002/hofmann.html


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and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. libraries.cetadl. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. as learners move between institutions.. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. A PLE must support lifelong learning.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios.bham.). they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. Running on the learner's PC. and through a variety of technologies. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. track. It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. social environments. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. etc. work places. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. but these are only available to members of the course. for the learner. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. Technology needs to be situated. and. learners need to be in real-world situations. (Cortlett et al. there can be no electronic interaction. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. learning management Individualization in an LMS is weak.aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. and social bookmarking sites. it helps the user plan. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. To practice real-world situations. e-portfolios. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility). This requires support over time. whiteboard). often only for the purposes of the course. A PLE is structured by the learner. without an offline client to the LMS. chat. In many cases. manage. wikis. amongst institutions. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. Secondly. discussion forums. and review his or her learning activity. such as search engines. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. http://portal. efault.

James (2006). T. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. O. PLE Reference e/morriblog_more. http://incsub. rces/cdm_ple_session. Las Vegas. and Westmancott. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Bibliography Anderson. Chan. http://elgg.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck.mlearn. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. 22-27 July 2005.cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog. M. January 9. Terry (2006).php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook. Edinburgh.ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already / es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett.. Milligan. Online case study paper. Ting. Jan. UK.elearning.jisc. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research . Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.. Incorporated 2006. Sharples.ppt University of Birmingham (2005). tt. 11. Colin (2005). D. http://terrya.jisc.cetis. Proceedings of HCI International 2005. (2005).cetis. e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK. http://www. http://www. Farmer.

Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. the personalization can be applied to content. navigation..time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational However. Keenoy et a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop. collaborative filtering. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . http://www.” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques.g.).asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. These techniques include content-based filtering. Furthermore. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. PDAs).) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals. etc. Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. rule-based filtering. etc.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files).html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” . but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. picture. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.ed.. 2005) Once the user data has been collected.g. (Filippini-Fantoni. or it can be an implicit model. keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. and/or presentation of materials. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. through a questionnaire). Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching.. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's Software Related terms Adaptive software. artificial intelligence. Often.elenaproject.g.hcrc. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. learning environments. http://www. 2005). yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour.

three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile..ecdc. S. De Carolis. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological 140 © Brandon Hall Research . B. A demo is available at: http://www. with a particular focus on the museum sector. http://www.emarcon. http://www. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art.unibo.hatii.arces. Pizzutilo. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. (2004). Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!). wireless networks. (2005).aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content.. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.metmuseum.. http://www.noekaleidoscope.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles .cognitive traits.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum. PowerPoint presentation. http://www..umuai.directa. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.. Bowen. J. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours. s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch.pdf 20PDF/Personalisation. Melbourne. 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cozzolongo.pdf Bibliography University of Glasgow.CY/0409055 Boyle T.beta80group.(2001). A. and Kuflik. and Calimera Guidelines: personalization. HATII. Online materials/access_lecture. G. (2004). dynamic user profiling techniques. The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. http://www.pdf m/index. http://adiret. http://arxiv.html http://www.pdf Bright.pdf EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004. (2005). Ngo. and Nuguid. http://www.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public onal/index. T. Online paper. The Future of Access (or. and Cook J.virtualmuseum. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005. D.gla.unimagdeburg. A. Kay.ascilite. > > http://www. K. http://www.calimera... Daisy (2002). William Niu.. http://www. A. C.. A. /museomarmo. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Borda.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018.

jpbowen. K. May 2002. M. Issue 7. Wade.. Paris...pdf Dolog. Sanna. In Mizzaro. Spain. Dillon. S..2004-1213. and Vazirgiannis. O.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. February. Magical Mirror: (AVI 2004). Paper presented at ELearn 2002. Personalization through IT in museums. September 2002. (2005). and Sintek. H. L. M. interactive services in home automation. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education. T. S.pdf Copa. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums.pdf Heckmann.cs.semanticweb. Facer. FutureLab.pdf Fuschi. Ecole du Louvre. ions/copa-reshaping-education. (2002). M. http://w5.uniud.. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and nloads/futurelab_review_09. http://www. (AVI 2004).uni- Do not reproduce 141 . P. (2003).ichim. V. Silvia (2003).learnexact.. URL: http://doi. T. April 2004. Rocchi. and l4RESULTS2004V2. N. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Montreal. D. S. http://tmtfactory. P. 2004. C. http://iswc2002.. and moulin. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. Kuflik. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. Dominik (2003).Information Access. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide.. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference. J. science centres and galleries. D. (2004). I. PA: Idea Group Publishing. Pianesi. http://www. and Verdaguer.acm. Personalization in distributed elearning environments.p df Filippini-Fantoni. and Cardinalli.. http://www. 2005 www. Málaga.futurelab. R. http://www. https://www. (2004). DigiCULT . (2005). In R. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. Soro. C.pdf Eirinaki. Comparison of museum/city tour guides. Nejdl. Gallipoli.) (2002). (2004). New York. G. 3(1). Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing. T. (Eds. Moulin.itc. X. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.designshare. Rudd.p df Green.htm Hawkey.. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website. FutureLab report. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . Bowen. W. PEACH http://peach. (2002). onalisation/ / Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. P.di.. Henze.pdf Conlan.1145/643477.dimi. and Web mining for web personalization. and Numerico. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. Graziola. Gallipoli.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. Personalization and Digital Technologies.. (2005).. Subramaniam (Ed. http://www.24_Conlan. University of Sydney (2004). http://www. F. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization. s/2p170. C.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. 2004.pdf Ceccaroni. Dagger. Stock.. O.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. and Boavida. or200406. and Humphreys.tcd.www2004. /proceedings/pdfs/1correja.pdf Giroux. May 25.usyd. 1–27. http://www. Hershey. A. Roy (2004). May 25. Italy. Online paper. (2003).Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1..cs..pdf Goren-Bar. N.uniba.ppt Correia. Online paper..Info. May 2004. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology. George (2005).au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. M.

W.. Turcsanyi-Szabo. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning. M.. J. Online paper. http://peach.uni-sb. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. M. /PL%20paper%20for%20publication. P. Niu . (2004).. J. WP4 Deliverable 4. Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. IEEE Computer 9/01/keenoy1. D. S.kbs. Dolog.unihannover.2.fiit. and Blažič. http://www.stuba. Kummerfeld.pdf Kuruc.. http://www. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. de Freitas. Brusilovsky. UM 2005. Final Version. B. UK. Educational Technology & Society. Gallipoli.cs.pdf Klobučar. Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy and Lauder.. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Levene...1..e5. (2001). Yokoi. (2005). Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications.. and Peterson.pdf Kuflik. and Conejo. T. Busetta. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System.ijs.PDF Kay. K. A. (2004). Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. pages 249-256.. C. http://www. In Mária Bieliková.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. Brasher.p df Iwazaki.bbk.itc. Edinburgh. Online Bratislava.. and Zancanaro. S. http://www.l3s. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/ J.. Online paper. (2005).cs. Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02).it/papers/avi2004. (2004). Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks.. D. yNiu05. http://adiret. P.unimagdeburg..pdf Johnson. P. SeLeNe .. editor. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents. (2002). 7(4):70-81. P.. C..pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). M.. Personis: A Server for User Models. (2005). P.pdf pers/ http://eprints. (2005).usyd. B. and Nejdl. A.pdf Kay.. Kaszas. (eds. Waycott. Italy.. T.. Yasuda. W. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People. T.cs.usyd. and Zancanaro. 2004. N. P. M. and Niu. W. Jaroslav. J. and Lum.ed.. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies). Martin (2004). In: De scrutable_pums. K. http://www. Goren-Bar. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML. Nicola (2005).pdf Kay.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies. (2004). K. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. Callaway. pums. May 25..pdf Kay. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. and Montandon. 23-30 July 2005. October J. LSC.cs.Self E-Learning Networks. R. Levene. (2004).pdf Kuflik. PIA Conference. http://csdl2. A. L.. Online paper.pdf Henze. (2002). . V.pdf Keenoy.. Proceedings of IIT. T. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. B. 2005.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) Seničar. 2004 http://www. Jones.ippr. P. and Lauder. http://www. T. 142 © Brandon Hall Research .. UK http://homepages.pdf /waswbe05. http://w5.

.ecs.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). Ken (2000). m. C. S. D. Turcsányi-Szabó.pdf Pivec. A. C. A. Spain. (2005).um. New York. s/2p264..pdf /ldr12-supplement.pdf Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. available from www. (Eds. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. http://www.2.1. A.H. Muller. http://www.. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version). Hall W. http://eprints.dcs. Winterhalter. 2002. Jones. Sehring. http://www. /proceedings/PerElPub. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century.. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining.. M. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. B.. J-P. Montandon. Online paper. (2004a). Trummer. Málaga. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives.pdf Do not reproduce 143 . M.dcs. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.2. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization.pdf Sakamura. Kaszás.depaul. J. V. M.. Keenoy. Online paper.) (2002). Z. sonalization/ Mor. ACM Press. January 2004. S. (2004) Diagne. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection. Lejeune. Hungary. Bossung. Italy.fraunhofer. J-P. David.http://senet. and Hemmje. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. Stewart. available from www... May 25. Preis.. Gallipoli. Paper presented at EDEN 2004. Jones. Julia (2004). Schmidt.. 2004. August. http://www. David. (2004b).. A. and Tasso. Lejeune.elearningguild. /01/ 702dss-h. F. http://www. Y.. A. L. 0605. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069.2. Margaret (2002). M. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. Stuart.pdf Mobascher. H. pp. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Gutl. Kaszás. A. Faure. and Levene.. M. Maier P. R.bbk..ipsi.. Blake. B. (2000) K. P. Goita. and Modritscher. and Levene. M.. Keenoy.pdf Martinez. Pluhar. Barrios. May _eden04/ Schoonenboom.html Schmidt. J.. Enric and Minguillon.nott. Turcsányi-Szabó Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior..cs.. (2002). (2004).ac. Mehta. J... Armstrong http://www. L. What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal.. C.utokyo.lsc.ncsl..soton. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000. J. 43(8):142–151. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning.sts.bbk. C. H. P.tuharburg. (2005).. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS). C. and Srivastava. Malaga. May A Multi-Dimensional.pdf Reeves.uniud. Communications of the ACM. A. May 7..pdf Ng M.pdf Niederee... Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. URL: http://maya. Flypad Report. Spain.mrl. 2004 http://www2. (2004). Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. F.

and plus/HTML/papers/ s/flavia_mw2002. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004). Proceedings. Online paper. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002).pdf Tanikawa.. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous.miralab..pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . H. (2003). Yamashita. April 17-20. IL. http://csdl2. Ando.. Y.unige. T. V... USA. and Ioannidis. 27-31 March M. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums. M..Sparacino. Boston. J. IEEE Computer Society. Wang. Pliakas. A. (2004). Chicago.pdf Vlahakis. http://www. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. Yoshida. Kuzuoka.. http://alumni. N. T.. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. 2002. Flavia (2002).

Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .Portals Related terms Collaboration. vendors. 2001). instructorled. content management. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices. the portal offered information on more than 20. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. learning management systems. Knowledge Management. As of early 2006. collaborative environment. http://www. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles.Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources.elearningeuropa. In the business world. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. which form a dynamic user Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience .

PA: Information Science Publishing. baby! E-learning portals. A Portrait of Learning and universities.000 publishers worldwide 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research . HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. go to: http://www. Ron (2004).com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. In Jafari. category.000 lesson plans online courses http://www. and shared lists for tasks.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www.htm Brockbank. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.300 online courses http://www. http://www. interactive discussion groups. Tom (2000). school administrators.www2.students. news and 2000/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. May World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. calendars. http://blogs. http://www. instant messaging. You’ve come a long way.asp Element K – Access to over 2.campustechnology. http://www. administrators. Campus Technology Magazine. and Sheehan.proquest. Bray (2001). K. (Eds. including educational Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www.000 online courses http://www. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint. students. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and m/documents/peerpublishing/ t/prodinfo/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries.teach-nology. instructors..ittoolbox. (2003). 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. e-mail distribution Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. Campbell.elementk. New York: AMACOM. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic he/259662-0-0-225-121. and Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.mspx For a demo of SharePoint. 2004. Teach-nology – Access to over 27.hp.fathom.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9. museums.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint. M. http://knowledgemanagement. March 1.worldwidelearn. audio and/or video. http://www. document management information.executrain.saba. and schedules. online meetings with wledge_center/index. Heidi (2001).) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. http://www. Learning Circuits. http://h20219.asp?id=9028

http://www. (Eds. Richard & Associates (2002). (2003). Heidi (2003). Reviewed at: Do not reproduce 147 .org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen. New York: /eqm04113. San Francisco: JosseyBass. http://www. and Hershey.learningcircuits.asp ub5006. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.educause. Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits. J. C. and 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen. September 2000. http://www. M. http://www.educause. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Cornelia (2000).) (2003). Enterprise Knowledge 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari.asp Terra. PA: Information Science Publishing. A.

the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter. New Jersey has a “Cardiac earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts.masternewmedia.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. See the TEAL Project at MIT. Online presentations can be very” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. webinars Consequently. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. http://www. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote Hewlett-Packard. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.lsc. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting. web conferencing. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. Experience them at: http://www. http://www.elluminate. in partnership with Dreamworks. In fact. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available.html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the 148 © Brandon Hall Research . Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. Skypecasting. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. However. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. http://icampus. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. the word “lecturing” means “to read. While it is expensive. virtual classrooms. http://www. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall.” In the Middle Ages. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. webcasting. http://www. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. It is clear that in this age of c_home. when experts are not readily available. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. although many are trying to change this practice.

social software for online collaboration. http://www. a columnist at InfoWorld. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell. An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using http://www.ccimeet. intranets. instant messaging.lsc. brain.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the press/2005/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as ferencesolution. and m Human Resource Webinars is a http://weblog. virtual meetings. Web conferencing. http://www.eweek. independent listing of Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system. Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.kolabora.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”.uk/eclipse/Resource s/ TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. Authorware. http://cde. presentation and streaming presentation tools. videoconferencing. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing. forums and message ngadobe. and e-learning.humanresourceWebinars. Do not reproduce 149 . > > /web_presentations. http://www. and /web_conferencing. See live video from the operating room at: http://www.htm http://www.kolabora. online meetings. and seminars relating to the field of human 5/01/ resentations.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.htm http://www.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing. http://ajax.elearningcentre. Webcasts.00. Web seminars.elearningcentre.> > http://www.elearningcentre.380 0005416. Captivate. online communities.infoworld. and 5/02/25.39155030. Coursebuilder. > > http://weblog. http://www.acue. videoconferencing.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.e-learningcentre. and Web presentations.htm http://www. http://buyersguide. conferencing.brandonhall.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.infoworld. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources. although it does not have to be. virtual teams. virtual classrooms.elearningcentre.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations. and using PowerPoint and A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.” > http://www.

http://www. Live ELearning. Digital Inspiration.htm Duckworth.html Canali De Rossi.programjunction. July. Luigi (2003c).com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ation.01.. http://www. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. April 30. 150 © Brandon Hall Research .com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with. Christine (2001).org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus.timelyweb.http://www. Belinda (2003). http://www. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. Russ (2004) /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools. http://www. Luigi (2003a). Best new tools for web conferencing and live There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze.filesland.masternewmedia.russellmcnally. http://www. http://www. (in two parts) > > ch. Sept. May 15. K. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. July /software/795/index.blogspot.asp McNally.aace.presentations.masternewmedia. http://www. 2004. and is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and Part1. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations.aln. Robin Good Blog.htm Canali De essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.. 2005. Sept. 3.apreso. Robin Good Blog. July 3008_148. and Quick.pdf http://www. An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning. http://www. Luigi (2003b). P. etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. Part2.htm Canali De Rossi.downloadjunction. http://www. P. 7(3).pdf Scott.htm Hofman. Live and Online!: tips.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Jennifer (2004).org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. http://labnol.html Using Apreso software. Learning Circuits. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ 01/duckworth. http://www. 2003. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report.pdf Bibliography Agarwal. (2002). Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN). K. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Armit (2005). ns/index.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations.fasfind. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1. (2004).com/wwwtools/m/21593. http://m. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person. 2003.

infoworld. (2003). and Equipment. etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell.pdf Spielman. 2005. -05-1. but… Presentations Magazine. InfoWorld. Dec. Dave (2002).html Zielinski. Software. Choices are great. Feb. Choose your presentation tools carefully.presentations. and Winfield. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. 1/07OPstrategic_1. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the ns/delivery/article_display.http://kmi. _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 . Start Saving Time and Money Today. Choose the Right Vendors. 11.

Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement.. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. simple. According to Ready Go!.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. In the first case. extreme e-learning. low. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. manage the content and the users. graphics. and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. learning objects. This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. Instructional design built in. just-intime e-learning. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge. 2003). and communicate deliverable expectations.e. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. tests. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. are built in. by necessity. or where the online information frequently changes. Reduce the number of development vendors. E-learning produced this way can be very boring.automatically assures that all navigation works. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. In the second sense of the term. programming. It can refer to learning something quickly. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. FAQ. or HTML knowledge. a demand to produce online content very quickly. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. but not always good for you. Assign SMEs who are committed. such as creating links. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. Does not require any advanced skills.does not require any plug-ins. glossary. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic. Standardize approaches. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. and clip art is straight forward and supported . Deploys easily . Leverage professional project management methods and tools.versus high-interaction). usually when it is needed (Brodsky. 2003). including tools and templates. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner. Tools for rapid e-learning are. Navigation built in . virtual classroom. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. For example. Advanced features. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly. It is best suited to text-based materials. easy to use. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. microlearning > down pages.

com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. Making rapid e-learning July 2. J. J.transformmag. Chief Learning Officer. Lane (2002).html SCATE Technologies produces article/articleDetail. See a demo at: http://www. http://www. http://www. and Bersin. which contains information on resources. January 23.bersin. version control protocols.scate. August 2004. Bill (2005). When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work.pdf Aldrich. June. Mark (2003). Josh (2004). Future-Proofing. Templates. centrally located files. and Publish.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America. January.asp Bersin. July 2004. LTI Newsline.jsp?id=102399 DeVries. and other good and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.ltimagazine. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.access to a clear project plan. http://www. E-Learning for short attention spans. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. June Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Web es/clo_article. es/clo_article. tools. conferences. http://www.htm Bersin. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.pdf Crosman.htm Bibliography Abell. Penny (2004).com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. http://www. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.readygo. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. LTI Newsline. Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder. http://www.pdf Brodsky. Clark (2005). Larstan Business Reports. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross. Reusability. Kendrick (2006). Dianne (2005).com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/ 306dev-h. Josh (2005). http://www. pid. Learning Solutions. Tips and Techniques. http://www. April. See sample templates at: http://www. Jay (2005). Jennifer (2004). 2004. 2004).elearningmag.learningcircuits. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough. Extreme Learning: Decision 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.clomedia. Transform 005/archibald. Do not reproduce 153 . computer /US/English/managing_knowledge1. http://www. http://www.” Find out more: http://www. http://www. Learning Circuits.elearningcentre. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”.jsp?id=59278 Cooper. Paper.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. (2004). Edit. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources. schedule and due dates. techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning.

jsp?id=150619 Hess.clomedia. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed.htm Masie Center (2005). What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer. http://download. Press release. Mobile and Device Based Learning. 606dev-f.pdf Gustafson. Learning ticle/articleDetail. 004/ sstory.pdf Jimenez. Stephanie (2006).com/articles/abs tracts/index. January 16. Jan. http://vftraining.e-learning programs in weeks. (2004b). Ed (2004).learningcircuits. (2004a). es/clo_lettertoeditor. arning/rapid_deploy_elearning.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Clive (2006). Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML.pdf Mayberry. April /default. Eric (2003). Rapid Intake White Paper. 2006. Bersin and Associates White Paper. LTI Newsline.trainingpressreleases.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford. e-Learning Crop Circles. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process.ltimagazine. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Learning Circuits. 9. http://www.pdf Macromedia Inc. The Training Foundation online article. Joe (2005). 2002. Kevin (2002).adobe. Chief Learning Officer. Vignettes for Training White Paper. arning/virtual_classrooms. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. Learning Solutions.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam.clomedia. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. http://download. es/clo_article. http://www. Macromedia White Paper. Ray (2006). http://www.elearningguru. June 2004.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse. Ray (2005). E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Chief Learning Officer. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development.macromedia.asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal. 2006. http://www. Garin (2004).trainingfoundation. February 2005. 10.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. Nick (2005). Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.pdf Shepherd. http://www. January 2003. hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Macromedia White Paper.pdf Jimenez.elearningguild.elearningguild. Simulation. Learning. Nov. es/clo_col_elearning.clomedia.

simulation > and Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www. Do not reproduce 155 .whmsi. engineering. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.ri. http://mindstorms.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. > http://www.cmu. and mathematics. for underwater General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. http://www. Check out their online catalogue at: Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. one child at a time.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.edurobot. http://www.rec. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the technology. http://robotics. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and engineering. technology. http://www.nasa. Inc. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled.

H.microworlds. http://robotics.cs. By donning motion sensors.pdf Nourbakhsh. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Mr. (2004). http://www. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Papert. Yanco. (1999). Artificial Intelligence Conf. the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all exrobotics. robo_ed/robots_accessible_education.pdf Cooper. and Meeden. D.. http://www..profetic. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University.. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms. and Mataric. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference. November.atr. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible. S. Proceedings. (2004) (1980). and Loose. Find out more about this group at: http://www. Sept. W. and Dautenhahn.pdf Ferrari. > > http://www. Run by NASA. Blank. New York. and Powerful Ideas. P.sci.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. Kumar. lmenau2004F.. (2004). http://www. LCSI is a company founded by Dr. Düsseldorf. http://www. D. Robots in the classroom Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. L.l3s. R.. K.pdf Boersch. L. and /edu.. and vocal tics. particularly robotics. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. Basic Books. H.brynmawr. D. Paper at the American Assoc.kipr.eng.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. Mindstorms: Children. Germany. Kumar. (2005). AAATE Conference 1999.andrew. J. Germany. G. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational Gerecke. D. http://zeus. lip movements. Keating. I. http://www.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. and other information on robotics.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. /June22/educational-robotics. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. and Hempel. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language.cmu.. http://www. go to: http://www. _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner. Heinsohn. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium. links. D. Computers.cuny.wtec.fhbrandenburg... Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education. and oster. M. 156 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www..php Bibliography Blank. See also: http://www.ed.irc. New York: Syngress Publishing.l3s. for accessible education.pdf http://www.brooklyn. It features news. (2004). Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4). (2001).edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. D. M. Ferrari. http://robothaven. Harwin. http://www.

pdf Do not reproduce 157 . (2001).ccmlab. M.. Donnelly. D.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. (2005). Ontario. Stewart. 28-30.. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www. A.. and West. McHugh. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.digicult. A. http://rob. 001-Robots_Education. S. and Rusbridge. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. Sept. R. Abbott. Ottawa. M. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education.

specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. as this section of the report shows. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet. search engine optimization. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. data mining. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. a rich user experience. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. federated search. which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. such as Google and Altavista. Ezzy (2006a. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . information retrieval. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines. Web directories. One is the problem of finding relevant. While search engines have improved over the past several years. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. Meta–search engines.examples are early yahoo. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . resource discovery. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. which submit queries.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of and Alta Vista. Examples are Google and Overture. such as Yahoo. meta-search engines. dependable information. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. But. collective intelligence. each with their own defining feature sets.Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. 2004).so they take the structure of the Web into account. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content . Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. They bring into the equation user preferences. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. in parallel. One new approach is called “federated searching. for a variety of reasons. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. collaboration. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers.

rather than just returning Web pages.altavista. http://oaister.ask. http://www.msn.umich. http://www. and – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic. AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. get answers http://www. http://channels. Alexa – Search results with Web traffic MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. http://search. http://www.aeiwi.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library http://search. http://www. http://www. HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search’s search service http://a9. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 . and the Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. video. http://www.hotbot. Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.General search engines: A9 – Amazon. Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine. http://www.lexxe.alexa. http://www. http://www.convera. Shares advertising revenues with content AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only). http://www. Octavo – A collaborative search Mooter – Sorts results into visual – Features hundreds of searchable topics.A social search engine with tagging and community-based Gravee .com/ IceRocket – Searches About. then fill in the search box.gada. AlltheWeb – Search audio. http://www. AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach. http://www. – Narrow a search to specific categories for better Gada.gravee. Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all Grokker – Clusters results by subject. Clicking a cluster makes search more GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations. Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. http://www.

reviews.pubsub. http://www.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources. Other engines that are searched include Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic.wink.blinkx. cast lists and theatre FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts. http://www. Much of this information is hidden from Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code. http://www.gpoaccess.Clusters results. http://www. reviews. Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers. Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. Gnoosic – A search engine for music. and movies.ucr. Citeseer – Citations of academic literature.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .psu. users tag their favorite results and block Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and http://citeseer.sri. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://tagjag. & KidsClick!. Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search Clicking a cluster further refines a search. FactMonster. http://icerocket. > > Google Book Search – Search just for Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject 160 © Brandon Hall Research . TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. cast lists and theatre schedules.qelix.squidoo. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. http://swicki. http://vivisimo. Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. Wink then diplays the results. Froogle – Google’s shopping search HealthFinder — A medical search Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and Internet Movie Database – search within plot IceRocket – Searches blogs Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of AolKIDS.topic appears. ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Wink – Using social networking.koders. AwesomeLibrary. Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time. StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites. http://rollyo. Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www. Ujiko – Clusters results.

is tracking over 38 million sites and 2.ncbi. as of this writing.columbia.omgili.cfm?doid=10 56808.liveplasma.A legal search engine. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.truveo.findlaw. Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials. chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.almaden.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www.rawsugar. Truveo – A search engine for video on the – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera).com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.f cgi QBIC .com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www. TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology Last.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine. http://wwwqbic.searchking.psu.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies. http://www. http://www.IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.merl. http://www.” Content-based search engines for pictures.searchedu. http://wang16. http://www.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in PubMed – Search engine for medical MediaFinder . http://www.convera.psu. Omgili Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://lawcrawler. ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information LawCrawler .Krugle – A search engine for developers.scirus. http://portal. SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.rrzn.4 billion SearchEdu . LitLinker .technorati.pandora. Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine. Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www. and Web mail for the topic entered. tickets. http://www. http://www. and notes. SearchTools. http://www.ixquick. Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use. http://www. companies. A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. Known as “meta-search” engines. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners.inria. and their relationships.bolton. http://clusty. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. maps/directions. http://www-rocq. greeting cards. audio. http://www. Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and. yellow pages. http://searchenginewatch. is a valuable resource for researchers.searchtools. clusters.intute. Unlike other search engines.zoominfo.nyu. classifieds. shopping sites. eBay.cs. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. and tracks a user's search history. and links the Info – Searches reference works. http://www. http://nlp. bookmarks. Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://a9. provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines.researchbuzz. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web. health information sources.htm Ixquick – Searches many ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people. Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works. focused searches on topics they care about.zapmeta. flights. Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images. including a set of international telephone directories.kartoo. city guides. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries.trovando. therefore. http://www.copernic. http://www. http://vivisimo. news Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results. white A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. hotels. or federated searching. the user's community has total control over the results. dating and Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources.Voice searching – Proteus project at Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. http://www. movies. lottery results. apartment rentals. http://www.

downes. First 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro.. Guntram (2004). International Journal on e-Learning.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe. New York: Portfolio. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. Users can also browse by subject category.ala. DigiCULT Thematic Report. http://www. is against the idea of federated searches. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher.htm Ezzy.eurekster. can be published on the user's site. No. For example. Search FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. No. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site. Y. and Searching in eLearning Systems. A. O. Part 1. http://infomine. Ebrahim (2006).0 vs. June arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. http://www. Part 2. Pat (2005). Traditional arch_20_vs_tr_1.. http://www. hprojects Bibliography Aharoni. See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. http://www. TVEyes provides the technology and the content. http://swicki. DigiCULT Thematic Report.cfm?fuseactio http://www. July 25. July-Sept. Find out why in this presentation: http://www. and Shoham. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. http://www. Exchanging.editlib.gpoaccess. Search 2.just as a search engine is used for text. > > http://firstgov. December. phrase. Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). Ebrahim (2006). Do not reproduce 163 The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and olkitforexpert/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. http://www. Traditional Search. http://www. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. and Apprato. or swicki. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).php Ezzy. or topic .0 http://www. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector.html Battelle. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.netmasters. http://www. 6. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections. http://www. _thematic_issue_6_lores. 10(12).uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Stephen _12/aharoni/index. John (2005). Read/Write Web. Frank. 2006. This search engine.pdf Ensor. Advanced Technologies for Contents arch_20_vs_tr.Position Paper: Putting the Users TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by http://www. Read/Write Web. 6.php Geser. (2004). July 20. (2005). F. Resource Discovery ..searchenginecolossus. 2006. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community.

pubsub. (2005). M. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. Search engines don’t 5.1759. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Part I: http://www. InfoWorld. 2005. June 30. 3. and Gupta.pdf Schlenker. White Paper presented to the DELOS2005 . Danny (2004). http://www.pdf Murray. they’re just limited. 15. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. http://www. Refining enterprise search.eweek. Jakob (2003). http://homepages. Mimkes. http://bobwyman.. International Journal on E-Learning. A. 4(1).com/links/article . Major Search Engines and Directories. http://www. Stanford University.pdf Sullivan. May 8. Prescient Digital 5/42FEsearchcase_1. http://www.washington.html Kumar.ischool. and Hilf. It’s Gada. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. eWeek. toryts. http://www. and MacColl.digicult. n/ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. http://dl. Corey (2005). Oct. (2004). Bob (2005).prescientdigital.php/2156221 Vaas.eschoolnews. J. http://www. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. 2004.prescientdigital. E.aace. 05/ _thematic_issue_6_lores.useit. 149-166.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research .edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation. Parts I and II.infoworld. Mike (2004). html Porco.isnoldenburg.. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents. 2003. Oct. April 28. InfoWorld.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference.. Oct. S. 2004. 2004. Mittal. Nielsen. Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Simple advice for complex search solutions.infoworld.html Heck. Lisa (2005). P. http://searchenginewatch. S. Richard (2004).com/article/04/10/1 5/ eSchool News. 15.pdf Low.18 69408. J. Carmine (2006). Kashyap. (2005). Doctoral dissertation. Oct. 10. (2000). 2005. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster.htm Part II: http://www.asp m Pratt. 2005. B.

elenaproject. microformats. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF). the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. but it will not be in general use for some time. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). Like it or not.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. Abbas et semantic grid.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects.aktors. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. are now falling short of earlier promises. http://www.asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. (2005) note that “historically. taxonomies. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. ontologies. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). It has both its advocates and its critics. 2003). The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. near The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. metadata. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies. This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. such Do not reproduce 165 . Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. founder of the World Wide Selected Examples In Europe. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. http://www. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. http://www. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. search. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). the idea of the semantic Web is progressing.

Huber. McClatchey. (1).. http://www. 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. 2005. (2001). Ali. S. L. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for MA: MIT. and Zillinger. http://www. http://www-jime.ifets.hp.personal-reader.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler.ideagroup. Z. Wahlster. (Eds. Umer.ifets. Simon. W. New York: Scientific American. D.. The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. G. J.php?http://www . (2004). and Lassila.. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications.sciam. http://kaon. A Semantic Web Primer.. and The first issue is free. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation. Hendler. K. G. A.pdf Daconta. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference. Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. Sobernig. (2005). and Hendler. Antoniou. The semantic web. Brantner. S. http://edutella. and KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications..pdf semantic portals for end-users. Markus. xi.. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased implementing. Obrst. Miklos. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF) H. 051. T. R.dit. May Aguirre.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004.jxta. Lieberman. http://www. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. ons/ 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. Cambridge. semantic infrastructural services. and Ahmed. M. (2003)..seco.tkk. May 9-12.. D. Salvachua. Olmedilla.semanticweb. Greece. and Knowledge Management. May 29 June 1. M. B. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. Odeh. http://www.. J.. 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.aimatshape. http://jungla. S. http://www. http://www.. Z. http://www-jime. O. In Fensel. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). Web Services..hpl.. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. (2005) AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web.) (2003).pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for Bibliography Abbas. T. TheSemanticWebHype. F. and van Harmelen (2004). Mark (2005). J. http://arxiv. Forward. MA: MIT Press. M. Tim (2003).

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Scott’s Workblog. Lytras. August 2. and Stumme. http://www. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Journal of Educational Technology & Society..inria. (2004).unikarlsruhe. elegi/session2/paper12. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference. June Del3. and Worldview.10577. yllogism. and Woukeu. G. http://www. http://www. Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. John (2004). /column. 2628. Peter (2003). http://ewic. Millard. (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0. (2001). Wagner. Marketing Profs.bbk. June 14. and Tane. and Davis. K. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems.. May 17– WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. http://www. Clay (2003).. 168 © Brandon Hall Research . 2002. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.bcs. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. http://poorbuthappy. G. A. 2003.html?ArticleID=421 InfoWorld.. Networks. J. http://education.html Van Weinberger.html Stojanovic.pdf Tao. (2005). 2003. 2004.w3. and Miller. 2005.cetis. David (2002).soton. Scott (2005). and the Semantic Web. D. 1. gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001). 2004.pdf Updegrove.. http://www. The Semantic Web. http://www. 7 (4). Woukeu. Online article. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. http://www.dcs. L.infoworld. Scott (2002). Millard. January 17. Semantic Web. http://eprints. Darwin.html Wilson. Karenos.aifb. 7. M. up. L. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. http://www. D.ifets.981948. http://www. (2005). (2003) 3/49OPstrategic_1. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. December 3.asp Udell. F. (2003).pdf Davis. G. and Studer. Andy (2005) 171444/printArticle Wilson. New York. CETIS Online article.shirky.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. P. S.marketingprofs. Nov.p df Tao. Online article. Schmitz. and Christodoulou. Syllogism. USA.sop.cetis. New York. A. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. http://www2004.pdf Sampson. H.Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference. Economics and Culture. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference.pdf Shirky. Who said that? Metadata..

Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed. http://www. Winters et al.calt. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://sos. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments. 2005). It was decommissioned in 2005. http://www. According to High (2004). (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. microworlds. learn.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).arcscience. reviewed simulations as an online content format. role-playing. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite especially ones set by themselves.icherubini.insead. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.” My first report in this series.calt.insead. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. games. http://cave. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market. participants will be motivated to evaluate. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.insead. in a dynamic and reflexive ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations.insead. i.noaa. http://www.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills.uiuc. but information about it remains on the Web. http://www. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.calt. http://www. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth.insead. Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.

http://www.sdsu. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.adobe.forio. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.ISLE .edu/harvey_about. It runs on Windows. http://www. breathing. ex.umich. and Mac OS X.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building Biographix . go to: http://www. Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.fsl.stt-global." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.adobe. A guide’s voice prompts the employee. Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator. http://www.calt." At the Earth System Research Laboratory.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education.http://www.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . has issued "The Calm and The Storm.edcenter.umich. http://www.intermezzon.berkeley. For example.soe. Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall. http://www. > > http://geowall. ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. Linux. Forio Kaplan IT Learning . http://www. pulse and m Intermezzon . to play in a virtual Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels.dc. with many examples to try.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.html weather hpro/ Assisma . they are only available for Macintosh computers. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . without programming knowledge. http://www.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. http://www.geo. heart eoWall/index.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base. http://thinkertools. Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.edcenter.

com/ Knowledge Planet .ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. has built a virtual environment for simulations called d/Links/Simulation_Training. which can then be used to build simulations. http://www. http://www. http://www.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning. http://www.htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. including NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario http://www. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.outstart.maxit.teds. a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker. http://www.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine . http://www.elearningcentre. http://www.virtualcontrolroom. The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources.knowledgequest.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second. http://www.the click of a pe.qarbon. develop one simulation for multiple delivery tion/ MaxIT . http://www.percepsys.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.learning2005. Do not reproduce 171 Kookaburra Studios .com/ MaxIT . Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. create courses specifically on using computer software.nexlearn.jibc. StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application.bc. http://www.Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any is/ Elliot Masie. http://www. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical Reusable Objects . http://coe. http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen /firefly.” http://www.asp Knowledge Quest .com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software. Integrates with many media types.

org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. A. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -. http://www. (2004). Shannon (2004). Simulation levels in software training. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .htm High. http://www. Rasmussen. http://www.simplay. T. Jennifer (2004). October 2004. 4. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 004/estabrook. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles.pdf DeVries.learningcircuits. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . 2002. (2002).org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. http://itdl.html Karrer. Six criteria of an educational simulation.PDF Blikstein.clomedia. (2002).com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt. ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Mazloumian. P. International Workshop. Learning Circuits. A. Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005)..htm Aldrich. s. How playing power drives lessons home. M.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. Laser. October. Montréal. Online report.learningcircuits. F. 8. Implementation and Evaluation.medialabeurope. and Bostan. (2004). and Ip. R.html Sobeih. Learning m Sloman. Department of Computer Science. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’. Feb. 1(10).. A. Utrecht.projects. A. Computer simulations in distance 004/aldrich. Aug. and Sund Martin.pdf ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/ es/clo_feature. http://www. /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005. Paper presented at Robocup conference.http://www. Sept.. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. San Francisco: Pfieffer.cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory. p. University of Illinois at tory. T.html Linser. Bjorn (2004). UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. 2004. (2001). September.. J. (2001). J. Les (2004). J. and McCloughlin. Gash.bham. http://www. Taghiyareh. The promise of online simulations. computer games.blikstein. http://www. and Wilensky.pdf Swaak. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. http://www. June. Character simulations make e-learning come alive. & de Jong. H. Clark (2004)..ncassr. http://www.htm eSchool News (2004). Viswanathan. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to July. http://www. L. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. September. Making the most of software simulations. (2005). eSchool News.eschoolnews. Clark (2005). Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466.uva. brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002.learningcircuits. Chief Learning Officer.. and Hou.for Philosophers and Engineers.cs. Aaron (2005). Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. Kamau (2004).org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. AACE conference. 2004. In Interaction Design and Children.html Learning Circuits.. B. studies. http://www. 2004. Learning Circuits. October 15-19. Financial Times. U.

pdf 291013Discovery%20simulations. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation.html Winters. _white_paper.pdf Do not reproduce 173 . (2003). Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. http://www. 8(31).knowledge. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process. Cherubini. Florida. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems. In Association for Computing Machinery. Sherry (1997).protonmedia. Mar. Gary (2003). 284-294. Fort Lauderdale.dei. M. USA. http://www. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.. April. and Strohecker.-Apr.. 1997..prospect. 17. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. Online paper at: http://lsm. The American Prospect. N.icherubini.pdf Tjaden.

Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read. RFID technology is developing rapidly.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray.” http://vis. easily changed. some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security which transmits over short RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices. therefore.iu. While controversial. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana . 2005). or water. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . For a full discussion of this issue.iu. especially in museums and for outdoor obiles/m02. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. optical tags.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to infrared (IR) tags. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. They are programmable and. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. especially for tagging retail items in stores. grease. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader. http://uitspress.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. http://www.checkpointsystems. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag.

JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report.. Y. http://www. http://www. 4(3).com/monthly/articl e.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Masters Thesis. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05). ( 3_01_low. and Backhouse. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.. Infoworld. T.html?s=feature Heining.cfm?fuseaction=Reader..jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online) hesisFinal.xml&DOI=10. (2004). Proceedings.pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. H. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box.asp?id=1222 Ross. http://csdl2. 2004. RFID: frequency. C.ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. N. March. 261-263.1109/WMTE. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile Oct. M. http://www. /TSW0602. Corey (2004). http://www. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology 7s01-legn. http://www.. 2005. eSchool News Bibliography Borck.pdf Robinton.msu. van Kranenburg. http://www. Ando. Noma. TD Monthly. 3_01_low. Michigan State University. ry. A. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden. Technology Watch Report 1. http://www. http://www.. hesisFinal. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. R. Andrew (2005). Aparna (2004). and Case. S. http://www. June Toc.csmonitor..toydirectory. (2005). In Kommers.digicult.pdf Osawa et al. & Kondo. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags.. K. (2006).pdf Murray.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran. P. http://www. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. K.pdf Salcedo. Shibuya. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. G.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. and Dobreva. Ogata.2005 .ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .). 276-283. James (2006). in a 2005 online article.infoworld. (2003)..html Osawa. G. http://www. http://www. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. & infrared tags x. April 13. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. January 1. Donnelly.eschoolnews. S. and Yano. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.66 Ward. adoption and innovation. R.jisc... (2005). M. M.aace. 5.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. Tsukagoshi.

For instance. tagging. Fifth. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. Fourth. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. search.icio. as each member can upload resources discovered. in turn. they act as an “outboard memory. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. The result is something called a tag cloud. which are then posted to a user's Web site from BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format.A free service to help academics share. search others’ references. a visualization of what users as a group think is important. faculty.connotea. share references with Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. and search for a specific user's Blinks. and Web links. 176 © Brandon Hall Research .us) post their favorite Web sites.43things. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. researchers at all levels ( Web site (http://del. http://www.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. Second. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web.citeulike. scattered across different browser bookmark settings.First. can learn from their professor’s discoveries. get inspired. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. describe. http://ask. music. while users of the del. metadata. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. and organize the academic papers they are reading. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. ontologies. Flickr held over 100 million images. store. Blinklist .” However. http://www. They can save references. CiteULike . finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. printouts. As of April 2006. For example. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. http://www. users can see what others are Blinking. share their stories. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. connect with others.Social Bookmarking Related terms Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. no matter their location or timing.blinklist. or check out what everyone wants to do. Also. and to share them. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.metafilter. and books. Blink also provides tools to sort. which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress.icio. Third. or distributed in e-mails.

Tags can be shared or kept private. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. http://flickr. http://projectpad. .com/archives/beta_up date/ Digg . but. Project Pad .com Clipmarks .html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. http://www.clipmarks.A free.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each Do not reproduce 177 .jookster. http://www.eventful.icio. http://www. and/or books and find them again. http://del. the users Simpy – Search Magnolia .Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others. RSS.northwestern. MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.networkltd. http://www. Jookster .com/ Jots Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events. http://jots. index. http://www. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the http://blog.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and and discover relevant links. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.furl. Furl .memeorandum.feedmarker.Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. http://www. similar to Digg. http://www.digg.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one Kaboodle . updated in near real time.icio.gnolia. users submit stories for and share photos with others.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. share. or enter new items and tag them. http://www. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.linkroll.kaboodle.netscape. search. Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. http://www. based on what is happening in the news media. blogging.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.Consumating .com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. http://www. With digg. Also retrieve it easily.A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have Flickr – MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. and non-hierarchical editorial Del.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. music. http://myweb2. http://ma.netvouz.html Linkroll .

peterme.quickonlinetips.html http://tagsonomy. Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark errated.” > > http://magazines. s/m/ 7001. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky. and social bookmarking. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.quickonlinetips.wink. http://swik.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.icio. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still s/m/6350. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research .veotag. http://tabblo. Upcoming – An events calendar by about how tagging works with Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.educause.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.” http://www. http://www. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town. Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://www.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items. March/April 2006. http://www.wists. 41(2).tagzania. Suprglu Wists – A social shopping > http://www. http://www. If a city is not there.yelp. and share it with es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. with contributions from SWiK . and Digg. es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. Online Resources Jon Udell.S.A. Web Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U.zvents. http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. Bryan (2006).com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the ntology_is_overrated_followup. http://www.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 558. Zvents – Events calendar for particular es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes. http://www.html http://www.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.html http://atomiq.suprglu.spurl. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.

com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd.weblogged.. http://www.isi. mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. Shamus (2006). July 20. T.hp.289142. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. Online Paper.html Udell.dlib. B. Ulises (2005). Sept. http://www. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. (2005). T. 2005.. June 21. s/tags/tags. http://www. Andy (2006).hpl. May 20. InfoWorld. 2005. Social consequences of social tagging.infoworld.html Coates. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata. and Huberman.html Mathes. Tom. Ulises (2004).com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1. J. Tom (2005).org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review.. Webblogg-ed. http://ideant. 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. HP Labs Report. Online paper. and Hannay.html Mote. 2005. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. August my. . 2004.plasticbag. Adam (2004).org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. and Scott.educause. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. http://tomgruber. April 2005. http://ideant. D-Lib Magazine.shtml Jon (2005). Aug. Liz (2005).html Do not reproduce 179 .. 2. Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource. 11(4). The New School of Ontologies.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.html erm0621. D-Lib Magazine. Tags vs.infoworld.php Lund. B. (2005).ht ml Mejias. 2005. http://www. M. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. http://www. (2005).net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond.htm Hammond. Plasticbag. 2006.adammathes. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies.pbs.sid19_gci1195182.pdf Richardson. http://www. Jon (2004). Udell.. April ntent/0. T. May 5. Will (2005). Nicholas (2004). Trusted Sources.ejournal. Hammond.corante.html McGillicuddy. 11(4). 20. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). S.pdf Mejias. Hannay.. http://www. 0/34OPstrategic_1. Collaborative knowledge gardening. InfoWorld. http://www.pdf Gurber.techtarget. Flack. 5/facilitating_th.typepad. Keynote address. Lund. 2005. Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. Tag mania sweeps the Web. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea.00. 2006. B.typepad. http://searchcio. (2005). Jan. http://many.

etc. shared links. 2005). communities of practice. reviewed social networking as an online content format. SMS.” that Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) (2005) call an “architecture of participation. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. http://www.) Experience Sharing (blogs. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks. family. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals. Friendster. etc.icio. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. social software. online personals such as Match. shared link libraries such as del. photo albums.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts ( 180 © Brandon Hall Research .) Relationship Management (Orkut. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. social networking sites such as Friendster.classmates. etc. and the military. My first report in this series. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. dating sites. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. photo sharing sites. tagging. etc. e-mail. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. e-mail.

and geographic regions. workplaces. Users share their writings and meet each other. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices.” http://www. http://www. For an example of the use of social networking Friendster – Build a network of friends on this Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. documents. http://www. Share it with others if desired. http://www.freeopendiary. http://www.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. or as a social network. It costs several thousand dollars. http://www. audio. https://www.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends.stumbleupon. high schools.esnips. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site.codeville. http://www.html Last.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network which is then open to other Orkut . http://www. https://www. List who a person knows and find out who others LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate.myspace. and files and then make them available to others.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network http://www. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles. http://www.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms. upload Platial – A site to create social maps. If a user asks for the key players in an Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests. http://www.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal. in MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests.xanga.last. Facebook has networks for colleges.orgnet.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online. and within “communities of interest. http://360. Live Journal . http://www. My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. as a blog. http://www. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.facebook.friendster. photos. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 . http://www.intronetworks.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at and the list of related articles using social network analysis. licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships.

links to similar sites. Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-


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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12. 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > ec2003/kaplan.htm an2004/kaplan2.htm /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.


© Brandon Hall Research e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005.,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005.

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is


© Brandon Hall Research

http://kmr.unizar. J. A. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services. Network World. e/ n. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux. BSD.ebuddy. http://www. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. Nils (2000).yahoo. MacOS Online Resources Virtual-Presence. 44-49.sourceforge. http://www. (2002). http://messenger. C. http://www-142. John (2004).es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same history. Network Working Group (2000).networkworld.) (2000). is dedicated to all aspects of virtual and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.ieor. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.html Do not reproduce 187 .pd f Fontana. Hubert (2001). In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001).kth. A. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. London: Routledge.virtual-presence. The driver sits in a box.txt Knudsen.“Simultaneous Presence. C. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.fakespace. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. http://gaim. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the n2. Naeve. Presence applications poised for takeoff. as well as news. http://get. and Naeve. 2004. Jabber – An Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization Bibliography Dreyfus.acs. and Pejas. secure.nada. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. (2001). http://www. Ken (Ed. (Eds. http://www. http://www. http://www. and Handberg.jabber. Online memo.pdf Knudsen. > > http://www. and Windows.) ACS 2000 Proceedings. http://laimuz. In Soldek. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.advanced.ietf. MA: MIT 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 http://www." eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic. On the /tele/ Internet Society. the Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging 090604specialfocus. 6.aim. http://www2. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.html Goldberg.

effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments.. http://cid.html Riva.modes. http://www. H.Learning. and Rusbridge. nts/Sponberg. (Eds.Banff. (2005). Calgary. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. In Hoyer. C. Jon (2005).com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross. Knudsen. Ins and outs of teledildonics. Being There: Concepts.digicult.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research . Jan. Regina (2004). Dobreva. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.. 28. Wired News. http://www. (Eds. G. Lynn. September 24.pdf 8/05OPstrategic_1.swedishlearninglab. When time-shifting and telepresence collide. M. http://www. Amsterdam: IOS Press. F. June 1. L. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.wired. and Handberg. Donnelly.) (2003).com/news/culture/0.) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition.kth.650 64-0. (2001). Davide. A. Alberta. January 2005.infoworld. and IJsselsteijn. S.. et al.. InfoWorld. H.. 2002.. http://www. W.pdf Sponberg. http://www. D. Germany: Hagen.

Britain's largest telecom firm. In spite of the limitations. according to Foroohar (2006). video blogging. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. videocasting. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. IPTV. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. even a video plug-in for Skype. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb. Video blogging has become common. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. the largest Internet telephone service. Further. 2002). there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. reviewed video as an online content format. Do not reproduce 189 . Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). bandwidth becomes an issue. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. streaming video. PDAs. 2005). vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. A new version of television. in all its formats. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. amateur and professional video cameras. Once video goes on the Internet. screencasting. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. cell phones. video on the Internet is not readily searchable. telepresence. However. BT.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. vodcasting. As the following examples show. television. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. tlearning. My first report in this series.

and data services increases the profits by subscriber.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA.on2.dmeurope. Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media. low bandwidth video stream. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads. The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device. video. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. tag them. http://www. and multimedia content to customers. http://www. http://www. It is still going strong at: http://www. The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their the Internet telephone service.rocketboom. a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. improves the satisfaction of the client. http://www.concord. Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. see Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the In 1999.html Dialcom Networks. veotag allows users to upload or set-top The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform. http://www. See examples at: http://www. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for 190 © Brandon Hall Research . employees.” Users can upload video clips for http://www. plus see thousands of video clips posted by is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol. the “triple play” of video.asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. BitTorrent.medialogic. whether dial-up. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.axor.brightcove.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks. a three-minute For an example of a video blog.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. with IPTV. cellular. At YouTube. See the current selection at: http://video. http://www.veotag. http://video.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing http://www.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live and maintains ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. or students through a high quality. See samples at: PDA.dfilm. http://www. and divide them into chapters or segments.

(2003).” http://www.masternewmedia.500 vlogs organized by popularity.masternewmedia.educause. video. David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site. read “Ten video sharing services compared.lsda. and m Canali De Rossi. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro http://www.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital and visual e.pjb.” http://knowledge. http://www.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.wharton.” http://www.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming Online article at: http://www.htm Canali De Rossi.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. http://www. Wi-Max.mefeedia.upenn. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 or http://dvguru. Beyond Wireless The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. t-learning Study .h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019. For example. Robin Good p?id=8954&c=6 Bates. Dec. Luigi (2005a). Pradeep (2004).uk/eclipse/Resources/str http://www. Luigi (2005b).pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.pdf Bardia.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell http://www.dvguru. 2005.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by Interactive TV: a learning platform with 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. termed “mobile m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “ http://eduscapes.streamingmedia.masternewmedia. which users can m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging.” http://www. http://www. by alphabet. http://www. P. The site already contains nearly 6.” Bibliography Atwere. Peter (2003).org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706. and by tags. https://www. D.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency. The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video. Wi-Fi. www.masternewmedia. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming. but business models are Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site.

G. 2005. pdf Nolle. discussions and implications.pdf Thornhill. http://www-rcf. The IPTV Revolution. Campus Technology. 2005. Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Nov. Jonathan. Feb. NC: Duke University. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Matthew (2005). M. Changing Channels. http://www.cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://edmarketing.pdf wpcontent/ e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.aace. and Swenson. In 417-419).) (2002). C. Asensio. Durham. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions.usc. http://www. 8-9. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.XMax Goes The Distance. 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. (2005). Robin Good Blog. Brian (2002).asp?id=7769 Meng. Tom (2005).networkingpipeline. L.). S. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar. (Eds.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. .com/article. http://www. http://www.). 2. Newsweek (International Ed. April 26. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. http://www2. Networking Pipeline. P.msnbc. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.campustechnology. Rana (2005). Manchester. Online paper.htm ticle. IBM Institute for Business Value study.masternewmedia. Mon. 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006).pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research . Brian (2005).php Taplin. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. University of Missouri. http://www. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. IAT Services White Paper. 2005. June 6. (2003). Dec. Peter (2005).com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ and Young. (Ed.

shapedc. Videoconferencing is not Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators.cs.netofpeers. Exploration and discovery are enabled. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed. and re-experiencing or reusing past events. designers.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to. http://www. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. Near Eastern. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. Shape has developed the augurscope. simulation. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative).equator. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity. By using aspects of game play.futurelab. http://www. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space. and the aim of the virtual experience. distributed virtual environments.ubc. desktop virtual reality. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.kahootz. and storytellers. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Depending on the level of realism Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. mixed reality. http://www. inventors. To do http://ancient. http://www. exchange enabling. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. interaction.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. and Religious Studies department. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone annah/savannah. http://solipsis. skin color. Creed. augmented ects/arc/arc.

maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. e-Learning through distributed virtual Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students.campustechnology. East Carolina University.coe. Triantafillou. including education.secondlife. http://ru6. Hornig. A. > http://vads. (2006).. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. http://www. http://www.. G. Research report. > > http://www.. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training. C. http://www. http://ru6. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.cti. Campus Technology. e/ ?PostID=19660 > http://vads.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University. T. T. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and . Journal of Network and Computer Applications. and http://www.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.html The Bibliography p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration. 2006. (2001). August Technology Area . For .” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. Philopoulos.pdf Bouras.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual C. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. C. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.opencroquet. http://ru6.ecu. http://vr.activeworlds. 24. (2001). Paper presented at ICALT 2001.healthdatamanagement. T. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment).uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.intuition-eunetwork. and Tsiatsos. Luigi (2004).html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. V. http://www. http://www.pdf Bouras.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006).cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . and Tsiatsos. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.

htm Katterfeld. Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). and Hicks. (2005). 2005.learningcircuits. 1(2).unihannover. (Section on Virtual Reality).it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen. http://www. (2004). January Hoare. M. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. July 9-16.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson. Sept..html Liarokapis. 2004. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. F. 2004. ISPRS. C. P.. http://www.htm Dickey. M. & Sester.Good Blog. https://www. C.actapress..00. Ekaterina (2005). and White.. M. D. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning 2004/ PaperID=19716 Queen. Gerard (2002).aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. Eva (2004). Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference.pdf /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. http://www. (2002). A. Michelle (2003).co. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata.. and papers/ story/0. Stephen (2004).edu. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. A. and Sester. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. 1.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. Dobreva.aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. No. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training. T. Virtual teaching aids become a and Rusbridge. M.tcd. Vol. International Archives of Photogrammetry.. Trend: augmented reality check. Lister. Abbott.icc2005.masternewmedia. F. E. G. (2005). http://courseweb.. 28. http://www. and Mangina.digicult.. http://www. McHugh. http://www.. http://www. 35. Istanbul. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. G. O. S. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference. Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference.10577. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Donnelly. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. Sept. 004/0412_trends. R.eng. Web Based Education 2005 conference. Guardian Unlimited.unt. Proceedings. M. http://www. Katterfeld. La Coruna/ http://www.cs. http://www.p df Prasolova-Førland. Petridis. Learning Circuits.html Jones. (2005). 2004. P. Monahan. 27.oln.pdf McArdle. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization. (2004). Bertolotto. Web-based Education 2005 conference. dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10. (2005). M.elearning.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B.

The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. Flash. On the other hand. The educational advantages of visualization are many. See some amazing demos at: http://www. Another is the category of “artificial life simulators. Finally. images. http://www. data mapping.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. http://www.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. cognitive collage.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector.ucar. dynamic displays. geographical information Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. data filtering.ontopia.dpc. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of index. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed. which showcases their potential. 2005). and data rendering. such as a blog.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input.inxight. mapping. allowing for innovation or new understandings. For an example. cybercartography. pattern recognition. http://www. see ZoomClouds. http://www. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.zoomclouds. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. My first report in this series. visualization can represent alternative points of view. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall 196 © Brandon Hall Research . The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. location based systems. reviewed visualization as an online content Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator. GIS. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations.unifiedfield. 2003). et al. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software. Museum Edition.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin.marumushi.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.skyscraper. Be sure to explore the “ It has images of space and the earth from space. See his list of resources at: http://www. /3608385.”’ BBC formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform and display (without glasses!).nixlog. http://news.vrco. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.” Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.0 authoring system. http://www.medibolt. View_68. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. a young graphic designer. http://www. See: http://www.ubc. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode. Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .utexas. http://chatcircles. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations. and visualization applications.cs. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of Web site in Tokyo.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and intro.nasa. Free demo at: Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. delivery.” http://richie.nih. VR.html For a practical application of visualization. http://www.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body . Texas uses VRCO Full “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input autostitch.typorganism. http://www. http://esapub.ddd.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. see ‘Scientists seek “map of Paul Nixon. April 7th. Sample the collection at: http://svs.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. English or Spanish.esrin. Using time as an added dimension.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions. See their tool set and examples of their work. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital oard/index.indiana. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of galleries.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA. http://www. and information Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www. http://www. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www.idashboards.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete. http://www.html Top Tier http://www. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .noaa. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML CenterView index. http://www. http://www. for example.htm How do users visualize very large data Digital Dashboard http://msdn. anatomically detailed. http://www. http://www.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian http://makingmaps. retrieval.gfdl.umd. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. in the U.cs.vrvis.amnh.html XCelsius http://www. http://www. one million ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map. ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. See this technology in OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map sible_human. http://clustrmaps.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural http://www.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.cs.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.arcscience. WorkPlace 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search.vicodi.mccrackendesign.

http://tangible.mapinfo. http://www.” http://www. trends. modeling.softill. ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. networks.S. Strater. http://www.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. and rendering.visualanalytics. for 2-D and 3-D DAZ3D offers several visualization packages. Try a demo at: http://www. for 3-D data MapViewer. animation. http://research. including the following: http://www.visualthesaurus.oziexplorer.pixologic. links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets. and. especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data. for 3-D landscaping and animation. Clicking a related term extends the Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. and rendering The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. http://www. http://www. for digitizing and coordinate cfm Do not reproduce 199 .5-D modeling and rendering VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. including the following: Bryce. Carrara. They have worked with the U. http://www. Online Resources Visualcomplexity. http://www. Didger.accurender.formz.goes far beyond static JPG map Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.timemap. for well log and borehole Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.golden. http://www. for 3-D modeling. many of which are Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company.intergraph. Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www.daz3d. Over 30 are “knowledge networks. Pixologic is 2. and anomalies in TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users. Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages. http://www.visualcomplexity. for thematic and analytical mapping. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.musanim. http://www.advizorsolutions. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

14(1). Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations. Madison: University of Wisconsin.agocg. > > http://www. Paris: La The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics. Journal of Interactive Learning on_design_and_data_visualization. > > http://acg. http://www. The Semiology of Graphics. / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems.liveplasma.topicmaps. Following are two: > > http://graphics. (2003).ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.vrco. http://www. esearch. and Shneiderman. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. J. (Eds. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.gvu. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.topicmap.ualbert a. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. A. M.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.fakespace. Mackinlay. les cartes. Bibliography EXYSTENCE 2_AndersonWoodill. J. Jacques (1983).ubc. P.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.) (1999). both visualization companies. Working Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. Sherman (2003).cfm?fuseactio Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools.editlib. /thesis-0522d. and Resetarits. is available online. and Woodill. J. http://www. les ré nfovis/ > http://www. Proceedings.sdsu.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research .com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.” http://vis. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological http://benfry. http://coe. Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation in June 2004 and now has his own Web rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. 31-49 http://www.masternewmedia. Paier.pdf Bertin. Jacques (1967).pdf Bergmann. > http://www. http://www.gatech.. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to ey/ http://www.cs. s448b-04-winter/ together with their estimated depth of influence...edwardtufte. He finished his PhD.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.gatech.

E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. (2004). J. International Journal on E-Learning.Francisco: Morgan Luca (2003).org/dl/index. http://www. G. Inside Purdue’s Envision tracts/index. 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi.univparis5. Harlow. (2005).fr/CanJ/CanJ. Theresa (1998). Durham.psycho. 3. Information Visualization. Switzerland: University of Lugano. June 1. 2005. K. 4(1). (Section on Visualization). A. and Knezek. Robert. Donnelly. P. MA: Addison Wesley Longman. Campus available online at http://www. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning.pdf Scaife. Canadian Journal of Psychology. eLearning Developers’ Journal.slis. m O' 2ml/ Botturi.. M. Siggraph. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML. (1992). S. http://www. and Bertoline. 42.. (2001).org/index.asp?id=11222 Metros. (2006). Abbott. 1-34. K.asp Mittal. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. 4th Edition. http://www. Shneiderman. (2005).edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.. http://www. 69-82. 41(3). 2. Mike and ey/visurvey. External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. http://www. Educational Media International. Brian (2002).agocg. and 185–213 http://www. M. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Brent (2006). Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. Lugano. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. 46: 461-488. Arns. (1998). Vol. Visual Literacy: an institutional 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. (2005). EDUCAUSE Review. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.. C. B. and erm0638. August. S. and Woolsey.digicult. January 2005. Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks. Spence. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. NC: Duke University. Ruth (2003). K. 45.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. http://www. Vol.html Ross. 329-351. D.pdf Goldfarb. G. (2005). ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Dobreva. http://www. Morales. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.elearningguild.indiana. http://www. 3(1). http://www. Yvonne (1996).amazon. http://nivea.html Madhavan. No.cfm/files/pape r_5994.K. A. L. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. September. May/June.editlib.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.html Rhyne.educause. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. August 11.istituti. Do not reproduce 201 . J. 16(4). http://www. England: AddisonWesley.usilu. Luca (2005).DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark. Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes...siggraph. McHugh. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. No.

Matt (2002). and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. David (2005). Visual Explanations: images and Tufte. Computers. Edward (1990).amazon. Information Visualization: perception for design. Envisioning Information. 2nd Edition. Visualization. CT: Graphics Press. Colin. David (2002). http://www. http://www. http://www. Amsterdam: 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. M. Ware. (2004). Sharpe. http://www.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. CT: Graphics Tufte. Cheshire. Cheshire.E. The Visual Display of Quantitative Digital Information Graphics. Edward (2001). http://www. Threshold.ciconline. Edward (1997).edwardtufte. evidence and narrative. http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education. CT: Graphics Press. 2nd Ed. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. Cheshire.

Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. http://www. http://www. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging. Steven (2005). March 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1. Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.avaya. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson. Using Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans.elearningcentre. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. and a microphone. http://www.Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software. In the near future. http://www. requiring an Internet hookup. IEEE Spectrum Seven Myths about Voice over An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching.jajah. http://www. but it is rapidly 8 Fitzpatrick. Internet Bibliography Cherry. 1996).pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital.envisioninc. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. headphones or speakers. http://www.cogs. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities. Join the discussion at: http://voip.susx. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.html Do not reproduce 203 . http://www.weblogsinc. Internet telephony is relatively s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. in remote communities. A high speed Internet connection is recommended. Geraldine (2005). Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening. communications tools. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.voipreview.spectrum.

msu. 9(3). (2005). Language Learning and Technology. Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. 9-12.pdf Ottoson. Mobile distributed e-learning . and O’Droma. http://ieeexplore.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. http://llt. I.Ganchev. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. Stojanov. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. S.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . Robert (2005).org/xpl/freeabs_all.nald.. M. Meredith (1996). gfx.

ices. It is attentive to the surrounding managing. 6. especially for comercial airlines. and other organizations involved in op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. 1998): 1. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced.sportbrain. It is unrestrictive to the user r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. For or repairing complex machines. http://killer. The entire m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. http://wearables. It is observable by the user ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere.bris. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Selected Examples In Europe. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. http://news.pdf http://www. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other This can extend professional training in to remote http://killer. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. weighs less than three http://www. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or 690. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2.ices. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. the automotive industry. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness. Do not reproduce 205 . BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. including batteries.cmu.cmu. anytime. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital. including wearable computing. ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. like a wristband or jewelry. training to do their jobs. In January 2006. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.cs. It is controllable by the user 5. ubiquitous computing > eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating.hubuska. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004). http://about. ml http://www.” including computers built into underwear. http://www. The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.704 81-0. http://isd.eee.wired. S. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Wearable Computing for the is a rich source of references.gsfc.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech ables/index. (2002). M. 2004. http://www.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. and Niedzviecki. H. Wearable computers that you can slip Toronto: Anchor cle. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News.704 81-0.technologyreview. personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.html Garfinkel.htm Mann. 2006. ICWC98.wired.toronto. S. and Lupisella.wearable. March http://wearcam. The design of “smart Wired News. C.businessweek. il/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. http://www.cs.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor. especially in the area of wearable cameras.http://www. Steve (1998). Mmoma (2006). 206 © Brandon Hall Research . May March 8.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. (2004). and Levene. http://www.eecg.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects. See: > > > http://genesis. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments. Bibliography de Freitas. (2003).pdf Kharif.toronto. Business Week Online. Olga (2005). Fairfax. 2005. Dec. Technology Review (Online). Simson (2004).com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. What you’ll wear in 10 years.

The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.awasu. Bloglet Express. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. each with its own features.bloglet. including cell phones. feeds. Really Simple Syndication (RSS).0 format). Both RSS and Atom are written in XML. and course offerings. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. social bookmarking. CDs. PDAs. information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web 5. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. job searches.html 2. and Atom is the second. and laptops. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Awasu http://www. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content. TV guides. > For learners and BlogLines desk 3. Here is a list of 48: 1. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. CompleteRSS 7. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site. Amphetadesk http://www. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you. To read content from a Web feed. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).brightcove. When changes are made to a Web site. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. basic text format for quick review. listings of the latest books. Aggie 4.html 8. and electronics. Attensa http://www. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices. photo collections. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2.Web Feeds Related terms Atom.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 .com 9.” as its content is changed by the author. enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. Brightcove http://www.bloglines. podcasts. BlogExpress http://usablelabs.

feed-directory.http://www. Reader d/ tml 41. Pluck http://www. Edu_RSS Topix http://www. RSS Orbit http://www. Newsgator http://www. EaZy RSS reader 25.rssreader.hebig. To have a blog 46. Feedster olbar. feedbeep http://feedbeep.feedforall.rssreader.feedburner. Feed-Directory http://www. OnFolio 40. Syndirella /EaZyRss.pluck. NewsIsFree 26. FeedScout 28.U.topix. Videora http://www. see: 13. Rojo http://www.feedzilla.feedster. RSS2Exchange 33. RSSCalendar 14. including listings for various electronic devices.videora. FeedBurner http://www.feedreader. Feedroll .org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877. My RSS Toolbar http://www.onfolio.feedpublish.h tm 12.mozdev. RSSReader http://www. Project / 23.learningfeeds. StepNewz http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. Fuzzy Duck http://www. PulpFiction 45.shtml m/products/pulpfiction/ ml 24. FeedPublish http://www. RSS Software hange/ 38. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for 19.somee.html 27. Protopage 18. Thunderbird http://www.php.rss-to-javascript. FeedForAll http://www.2 For a list of more aggregators. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research 21. Feedtier http://feedtier. Sage http://sage. SharpReader http://www. RSS-to-Javascript http://www.projectdu. PubSub http://www. LearningFeeds 44.protopage. Gregarius 43. FeedReader http://www.

http://www. maintains a long list of RSS resources. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. 1. Aug. 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject. http://www.teachinghacks.php 2003. Learning Circuits. University of North Carolina.lo. Bill (2003). 31. Version 1. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .htm tory. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. a blog by Alan -08-01-rss-research_x. Quentin (2006).Possible Future Evolution.pdf Canali De Rossi.downes. A. USA Today (online).vccs. has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning. Vancouver.maricopa. An Introduction to RSS for Educators.ubc. Oct. Anh (2005).instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. Brian mc1003/ The Fuss. The Technology Source Archives.eschoolnews.pdf Gannett.masternewmedia. June 2004. RSS: the next killer app for education.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with Levine.downes. http://www.htm D’Sousa. http://www. and Norman. Online paper.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators. 3.downes. 2004. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. Online sify. Brian Lamb. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.elearningguild. http://careo.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. D.htm ged/ 20for%20Educators111. May 19.elearning. erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes.learningcircuits. 2003. Kaplan-Leiserson.dist.. Luigi (2004).mcli. Stephen (2004). Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback. Lamb. http://www. May 2004. B. http://technologysource. Aug.wcc.mcli. Eva (2004). 2005. Aug. eSchool News.maricopa. /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.dist. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. Learning Circuits. http://www. Do not reproduce 209 . http://www. July/August 903DEV-L. Robin Good Blog.1. Mary (2003).ca/files/ RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. http://www. eLearning Developers’ Journal. http://www. http://www. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.usatoday. 2004. RSS: a learning technology. RSS Ideas for Educators.teachinghacks. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography 2004/ BC. and D’Arcy An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://timyang. Dan (2004).org/2004/jun2 004/downes.htm Harrsch.htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS. Read his article written specifically for educators. (2003). RSS could transform online communications. Stephen (2002).

Shelly (2005). What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. http://www. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Jon (2005). http://googlereader. Otherwise Engaged. http://www. Alexandra (2005). 2005.html Powers. Jenny (2005).html?page=1 Udell. http://www.Levine.infoworld. k_rss_white_paper. June 18. The Shifted s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big. 13. March 23. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities. July eeds/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. Using RSS for data integration.html Samuel. Aug. http://www.html 210 © Brandon Hall Research .alexandrasamuel. 2005. RSS: the next big thing online. MediaThink White Paper.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www. Namespaced extensions in 3/13OPstrategic_1. InfoWorld. 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Sept. 3. M. Google Reader 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. (2006).pdf Parparita.theshiftedlibrarian.xml. O’Reilly Network. Mihai (2006). and Webb.html MediaThink (2004).com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds. 2005. 2006.oreillynet. http://www. http://www. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big.

features. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system. and email notification.usemod. Wiki Tools: Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis.schtuff. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.tikiwiki. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. Content is ego-less.sourceforge. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. 4.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. approaches. These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students. the software used to run Wikipedia. it is important to have several contributors. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. can be used by a team for joint writing.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. There are now over 1. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. 3. For wikis to work. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.usemod. time-less. is available for other entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.wikipedia. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.300. http://www. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online.” Essentially. http://www. http://www. and never finished. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment. and projects. My first report in this MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. 2005). RSS. http://wikipedia. With some basic instructions. an image gallery.000 articles in English in There are hundred of “wiki engines.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. http://www. 2. custom Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. http://www. Anyone can add to it. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration. See the progress at: http://edu. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. http://www.seedwiki. Do not reproduce 211 .

ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. http://www.” The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. is provided by David Mattison.html Augar. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis. Australia.dicole.ucalgary. http://www. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education. His article. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. http://weblog. of the University of British Columbia. http://kairosnews. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education.ubc. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University.elearningcentre. that she updates regularly.” http://tlc.html Jon Udell. http://m.elearning. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Phantom Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine. and Zhou. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference. Operation of a Large Scale. “Quickiwiki. 8(12). http://www. including’s first nine months in service. Andrea (2003). General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning. WritingWiki.wikibooks.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader.48. The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom. including a section on wiki has lots of resources on Not all uses of wikis in education work well. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference. Perth. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. (2002) th04/procs/ online-learning-environments.. http://flosse. First Monday. http://en. R. http://64. http://www. Dec. http://careo.shtml Brian Lamb. http://aronsson. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .se/wikipaper. ries/wikis/2004/02/16. 5-8. N. Raitman.socialtext.ascilite. http://www. as well as an analysis of how they mlaut. L. (2004). mattison.” is a rich source of information on wikis. http://www. A free trial is available. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://whiplash.html Bibliography Aronsson. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki W. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.different. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time.infoworld.

Profetic: dossiers pratiques. Sept. 0/19. The wiki way. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.infotoday.pdf Leuf.. 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison. July. S. 2005. Online article at: http://www. Emma (2005).infoworld. January. Cossarin. Making the case for a wiki.. O’Reilly Schwartz. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis.profetic.pdf Do not reproduce 213 . mattison.ariadne. Wiki Tools.1/technot e_xxvii. Anja (2004). and Rudolph.zkm. Ariadne. http://www. Renée (2005). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not. 19.pdf Fountain. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet.14 02872. ssier_imprimer..pdf Kulisz.http://firstmonday. Jon (2004). (2006). http://www.pcmag. Issue Zwiki and the Plone Wars . M. Twiki.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. Wood. 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.shtml Lamb. David (2004).asp Schmitt. http://Weblog. Educause Review. July _002_09_ebersbach. and Webb. UniversityWiki. Richard (2003). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). Why Wikis Work Not. http://container.html T. http://gilbane. 2006. Neil (2003).Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. 2004. Udell. M0452. Clark. Online article. (2001). Oct. http://www. Online article at PCMag.Oct. Wiki pedagogy. (2004). 36-48. Lauren (2005). Online article.educause.00. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis.irrodl. 12(10). http://c2. April 2004.. ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). http://www.educause. David (2003).oreillynet. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane 7004.10. April 2003. M. International Journal of Information Swiki. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. http://www. J. Bo & Cunnin. Brian (2004). Addison-Wesley Professional 2. Online paper.

with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. floppy disks. After a product has been successfully launched. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. However. CD-ROMS. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. in turn.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research . which. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer. which can then lead to inventions. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle.

to the complex. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. The experience of younger learners with television. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. in both formal and informal settings. Further. video games. and computers. and decline. For a variety of reasons. while others will last for decades. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. in part. However. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. both in classrooms and online. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. In any field.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Ontologies. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. ascend the curve. some will never leave the development stage. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. change itself seems to be inevitable. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. This is due. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. means that they actually think differently. Some will die quickly. or may never become commercially viable. But not all technologies will travel this road. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. 2003). The technology of e-learning. mature. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. this approach is now rapidly changing. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. peak.

The last 35 years have also brought AIDS. or violence is needed to keep our attention. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. p. In approaching electronic educational media. surprise. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. Once we master the art of reading. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. The children of the baby boomers. Then even more movement. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. and digital ink and electronic paper. commercials. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. mind-altering drugs. With feedback. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content. that is all about to change. gaming consoles. the learner. libraries. video games. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. whereby the action of one participant. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. ecological disasters. touch and taste. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. It works for a time. sex. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. the civil rights movement. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. the space race. 28). we will see the restructuring of education and training. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. movie theaters. mobile phones. results in an action by the other participant. Because of this. television. and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. until we become habituated. To keep our attention. the baby boomers. in a back-and-forth exchange. For example. Within the next five years. 2002. digitization of smell. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. Generally. designers of Sesame Street. In North America. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. generally went to work earlier. For the older generation. Their children. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. and personal digital assistants. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. huge data wall displays.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . born in the 1970s. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. But they are usually disap-pointed. In contrast.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. terrorism. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. wearable computers. global warming. However. 1994). The speed of change increases with each passing year. the computer.

http://www. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. In the next wave. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Bibliography Christensen. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. (2001) Seidensticker. At the individual level. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Dallas. Rushkoff. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control. http://www. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. Digital Game-based none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). http://www. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning Do not reproduce 217 . portfolios. James (1994). May 2006. shortly. Douglas (2005). http://www. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena. or can be more bound up by the and the mapping of everything. The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. technologies and services for the next 5 years. New York: McGraw-Hill. Guides are optional. Marc. Two hundred years ago. Bob (2006). Clayton (1997). and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human Woodill. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. It is already a place for massively multiple player” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths. New York: 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. FutureHype: the myths of technology change. Prensky. Gary (2006). creative products. Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. http://www. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.

New York. UK http://www. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. CA 94304 USA http://www. Palo al.nngroup.ailive.umu. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ AiLive D.cs. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 e. 3400 Hillview Avenue.unige.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston. Building 5. CA 94539-7498 USA Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool . MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG Humaine Project c/o D-66123 Saarbrücken. Box 513. 27A 2º MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.bham.bartneck. L69 7ZF.agentlink. Den Dolech 2 P.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. 1515 Broadway. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 WEBIST Av. 2910-595 Setúbal .myself-proj. Marc Schröder. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www. Manuel Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. 17th Auburn University Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.Portugal Tel.51.

CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville. Washington. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Bloomington. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. Box 527. #1910.animats. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Inc. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 10004-104 Avenue. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.W. Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. P.codebaby.extempo.indiana. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 s/index.liv.rit.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. O. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Extempo Systems.mindworkshop.educause. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 Educause 4772 Walnut Street. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. Huntsville. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.O. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 Apple CodeBaby UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 Box 2124 Menlo Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. 1900 East Tenth St.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.ascilite. Secretariat. L69 7ZF. Ascension Technology Corporation P. Box Alchemy Mindworks P.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer. Edmonton. Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. Inc 1 Infinite Loop W Toronto. Suite 206

Tel: +1.San AutoTutor c/o NewTek. Suite #480 Torrance. Suite 108-414 San Antonio. CA 93106-9660 USA Tel: (805) 893-2791 Fax: (805) 893-4303 http://www. Suite 100 Menlo Park. Texas 78258-7500 USA Tel: (210) 745-3104 Fax: (210) 579-1430 http://www. PA 18301 USA Tel: +1 (570) 476-8006 Fax: +1 (570) 476-0860 http://www. New Zealand Tel: +64 4 384 7316 Fax: +64 4 384 7328 Character Animation Technologies Ltd.htm Macromedia. LLC 20770 Hwy 281 MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 00-2843 http://www. San Antonio.cmu. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 201-0800 Fax: (212) 201-0801 http://www.S. One Park West Tewksbury.catoolkit. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://ctat.asp EI Technology Group.autodesk. 190th Street.aclweb. 33 Ewell Street Balmain NSW 2041 AUSTRALIA Avid Hegarty Spatial Thinking Lab c/o Department of Psychology University of California.swishzone. Walt Disney New Technology & New Media U. TX 78249 USA Tel: (210) 370-8000 Fax: (210) 370-8001 http://www. 110 Cuba Mall.macromedia.massivesoftware.aaai. Art Graesser University of Memphis 202 Psychology Building Memphis . Santa Barbara. CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 Fax: (415) 507-5100 http://usa. CA 90502 USA Tech Support: +1 (510) 979-7118 Fax: +1 (310) 512-6408 Artificial Intelligence American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess 220 © Brandon Hall Research .php Viewpoint Corporation 498 7th Avenue Suite 1810 New York. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 tylab.autotutor.460. TN 38152 USA http://www. Inc. University of Texas 1 University Station A8000 Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. 5131 Beckwith Blvd.818. Wellington.html Ulead Systems 970 W.viewpoint.ucsb. Avid Technology Park. 601 Townsend Street San SIGGRAPH c/o Mark Massive Software PO Box 5456 Auckland 1036 New Zealand Tel: (310) 837-7878 http://www. TX 78712 USA Tel: (512) 471-2030 Fax: (512) 471-3053 http://www.pact.eitechnologygroup.psych.newtek.html Association for Computational Linguistics 3 Landmark Center East Stroudsburg.6450 http://www.cs. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 Fax: (650) 321-4457 Cognitive Science Society Department of Pty Ltd The Basement. PO Box 24478.

u.ucalgary.cs. Inc. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.virtuelage. H-1111 Budapest. Suite 1500 of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive Suite 360 San Mateo. Stuart Building 235 Chicago. Calgary.teluq. CA . 1.enel. 100 Sherbrooke St. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www.. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.brainbench.usyd. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.W.stottlerhenke. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City.cis.10th Street S. Chantilly. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept.W. Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. East Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester.unisa.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh. Alberta. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www. Suite K.gemini. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 West Montreal. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.iit. 5275 Sardis Road Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 Do not reproduce 221 .com/ Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Egry J. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st h/current_computer_science_education_re search. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 Quantum Simulations. Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.

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110 Fourth Ave. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara. Inc.westcliffdata. NY 10001 USA Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 http://www. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 353-0022 Opus Pro c/o Digital Workshop The Innovation Centre Warwick Technology Park Gallows Hill.Nuvvo c/o Savvica Inc. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www. CV34 6UW UK Tel: +44 (0)870 120 2186 Fax: +44 (0)870 120 2187 ON. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City. 3rd Floor Magalia. Suite 200 Ottawa. CA 94040 USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 Utah 84042-1911 USA Tel: +1(801) 805-3600 http://www.screenwatch. Reusable Objects Richmond Forum Cnr. Redmond. Cedar Ave & Napier Road. 150 Hamlet Court Road Westcliff-on-Sea. PointeCast Publisher Professional 355 South 520 West. 2280 ReadyGo! 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.xstreamsoftware. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Fax: (408) 496-4353 Ontario.respondus. CA 95954 Tel: (530) 852-7070 x103 http://www. Ontario. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Fax: (613) 731-9615 Quest c/o Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. Essex SS0 7LN UK Tel: +44 (0)1702 436600 Fax: +44 (0)1702 434888 http://www. UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.webex.. Suite 200 Presentation Studio c/o WebEx Communications..westcliffdata. 150 Hamlet Court Road RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software.scribestudio.digitalworkshop. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 ScribeStudio 15 Maiden Lane.podia. 200 South. 2280 St. L1R 3K7 Canada Tel: (416) 907-8618 http://nuvvo. Laurent Blvd. Suite 400 New York.html Presenter c/o Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New RapidGuide c/o XStream ontent=products/scobuilder ScreenWatch Producer 15191 Humbug Rd. podia Ltd 6th Do not reproduce 227 . Johannesburg.allencomm. Suite 150 Lindon. Warwick. World Trade Centre Exchange Quay Manchester M5 3EJ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 36 Fax: +44 (0) 8707 80 26 37 http://www.xstreamsoftware.readygo.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder SCORMxt c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. South Africa Tel: +27 11 482 7543 Fax: +27 11 482 8447 SCOBuilder c/o Westcliff Data Services Ltd PC House. Laurent Blvd. Inc.

com DA Group The Lighthouse. CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690. 76133 Karlsruhe.sensalearning. #1910. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www.htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www. Trainersoft FunEducation. 323 Newbury Street TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.seminar.5709 http://www.time4you.funeducation. SC. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. CA 92101 USA http://www. 10004-104 Avenue..83 01 616 http://www. ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.respondus. Suite 1550 San Jose.4259 Fax: (760) Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. Avatars CodeBaby Corp.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House.suddenlysmart. +49(0)721. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.83 01 60 Fax +49(0) ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www. Redmond. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www. 55 South Market St. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research mate. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.. Gandy Sensa e-Learning 4465 W. Ste 202 Encinitas.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o ime4you/ibt/en/start.toolbook. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.maxit.thinkingcap. Germany Tel. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 250 The Esplanade Toronto. Suite 200 Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www.codebaby. 4.

FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www.. Inc. 11th Floor New York. Birmingham. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse. Suite 900 Austin.oddcast. WaveMarket.html Knowledge Environments.opera. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www.O.cramersweeney. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. Mary Apts.O. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube.redwoodelearning. P. USA http://www. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.wavemarket. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr. 6th OmniWeb Omni Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 GTCO CalComp. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue.daden.vcom3d.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.knowledgeenvironments. Tel: (413) 458-5611 Oddcast 589 8th Ave. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. Mazgaon.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View..mozilla. B13 9SG.. Inc. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops. 219 Tampa. Mumbai Box 407 Green Mountain Falls. W Toronto. Suite 260 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Qube c/o Qelix Technologies Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd.tmmy. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www.blogburst. mniweb Opera Software ASA TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 Browsers Flock 100 View Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St. Nesbit Rd. Inc. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Moorestown. Dale Mabry

SW. 4631 Dandelion Circle Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 Central Desktop. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 Centra c/o Saba. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.brightidea. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.Columbia. Inc. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. 1192 East Draper Parkway.inteam. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. Suite 101E Falls Church. 12617 Meridian Somerset. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. Puyallup.caucus. Breeze c/o Macromedia. Jospeh Street. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. Suite# 401. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www.0162 http://www.adobe.optiontechnologies.aspx Qwizdom. Ontario. Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Smartroom Learning 404 Fifth Avenue. 100 North Lake Avenue. Chicago IL 60622 USA BlueTie. 230 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.smartroom. Suite 522.physics.avecomm. Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. Suite 103 Toronto. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood udienceResponseSystems/Home.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www.qwizdom.umass. NJ . NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www. Inc. Pleasant Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Brevient Tel: Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. Orlando. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 Batipi 11 St. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg. Draper. #205 Pasadena. 601 Townsend Street San Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Amherst.bluetie. 6th Floor New York. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. Digi-Net Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext. Suite 600 Digité. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www.centraldesktop. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.elluminate. 170 West Tasman Dr.communityzero.html Citrix Systems. 1034 N. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration. CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 57th Street Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. Cisco eStudio c/o 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 Edufolio c/o Terra Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. 82 Pioneer Way. Suite 305 CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.edufolio. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.digi-net. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.courseforum.epam-pmc. ps5664/ps5669/index.Tel: (626) 593-7007 LLP PO Box 325. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software. 232 http://www.collaborationloop. LLC 501 West Franklin Street. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. Suite 630 McLean.digite.comotivsystems. Inc. Inc. San Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley.communiqueconferencing. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www. Sanibel FL.same-page. 6th Floor San Francisco. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Suite 950 Portland.emc.convenos. 795 Folsom Street. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.

PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 c/o Citrix Systems.hotcomm. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 GroupSupport.grapevinesoftware. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Horizon Wimba 520 8th HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 GoToMeeting. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. Suite 500 Markham. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 Glance Networks. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. Suite 2300 New York. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .hp. 395 Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www. Inc. ON.genesys. El Camino Groupwise c/o Gordano 18 Kenn B. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.ezmeeting.hyperoffice.gordano. HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Clevedon.facilitate.4517 Groove Networks. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www. Inc. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. #115 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.Tel: (978) 474-4900 Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave.glance. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.groupsupport. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Global School Net 132 N.globalschoolnet.groove. 3100 Steeles Avenue East.

liveoffice.mspx Interwoven 803 11th Avenue. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. Fordham Blvd. Suite 1401 IntraLinks 1372 Do not reproduce 233 . NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 iLinc Communications 2999 Interwise. 11th floor New York. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www.interwise. Suite 6500 Woburn. Suite 100 Tucson. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles. Suite #150 Herndon. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. 44th LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 412 Cambridge. Inc. 3 Wing Drive.intralinks.onproject.http://www03. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 default. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.inquesttechnologies. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. 25 First Street. Suite 300 MITRE 202 Burlington Road inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road onProject. 1289 N. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 Linktivity 3760 North Commerce MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www.mitre. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.interwoven.

1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.raindance. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. Suite 210 ml Parlano 10 Selden Integrated Raindance Communications.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.q2learning.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 003/technologies/sharepoint/default. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 RADVISION Inc.seldensystems. Box 3325 York. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Inc.nagarro. 51. Riverside Plaza.sharemethods. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc. New No. 17-17 State Highway 208. Suite 200 Greeley.radvision. Cactus Rd.opentext.peoplecube. Ste 275 Mill Valley.sitescape. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní.com/collabsuite/ OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. 35. Suite 440 San Jose. Suite B. Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. 1157 Century Drive Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 3679 Concord Road. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Suite 300 Fair PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.cyber-grad. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.Adyar ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar.O. Suite 1450 Chicago. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www. 1175 58th Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. Inc.photoninfotech. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.performancesolutionstech. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 SpiderWeb Communications.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Photon Infotech Inc. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www.

Suite 100 Austin.viack. Suite 810 Toronto. Ontario M2N WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. Suite 100 WebAsyst PO Box 25331.. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.vignette.txl Viack 14811 N.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.axista. Box 135 FIN-00381 Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Web Crossing. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 Vignette 1301 South MoPac Do not reproduce 235 .tomoye. Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. Canada http://www. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www.stalker. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301.teamspace.webex. Vodium 1629 K Street NW. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.Box 2900 Alameda. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.O. Kierland Blvd. 1100 Lovering Avenue Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.teamware. FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 WebEx Communications.sumtotalsystems. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www. Suite 950 Washington. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street.teamdynamix. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.webofficepoint. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain Teamware P. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken.trichys. Suite 1050 Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7


© Brandon Hall Research

Tel: (514) 745-4010 Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK

Fax: (781) 890-828 Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300


© Brandon Hall Research

Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4)

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071

Do not reproduce


Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 LearnCenter c/o, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915


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meridianksi. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.sselearn. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.ssaglobal. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco.technomedia.wizdom.syntrio. St. Fifth Floor TEDS Suite 260 Foxborough. 1001 De Maisonneuve Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown ng/index.teds. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www. soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood n_resources/ PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. 550 Queen TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc. PO Box 100 Fair LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. 500 West CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 Do not reproduce 241 . VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 100 Foxborough Blvd. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. Inc.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc. Inc. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.maxit. East . Chantilly. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www.Suite 350 Toronto. LTD 671 N. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 mGen Enterprise Suite 700 Arlington.saba.teralearn. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. Glebe Road. Inc. On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Suite 2200 Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood SSElearn Portal c/o SSE.

CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Center for International Education University of Wisconsin .com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.risc-inc. Suite 101 Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P. Laurent Blvd. 17041 El Camino Real. Suite # 105 Columbia. Inc.uwm. Box 9752 Boulder.wbtsystems. WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. Ontario. 10130-103 Street Edmonton. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. Suite 401A Lake Jackson.arizona. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.trainingpartner.edutools. 122 West Way. Suite 200 Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 Training Mine c/o Frontline Data 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.sumtotalsystems.avilar.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.xtention.. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Tracker.cdlib. NY. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.gyrus. 4 Expressway Plaza. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www.xstreamsoftware. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist.vbtrain. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street. Inc.O. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia . Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems.sir. 4th Floor Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC.ttg-inc. 2280 St. 240 Bay Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp. Inc. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.

au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe. Suite 1600 Tucson. CT 06459 USA http://www. 5151 East Broadway. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www.netera. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Location Based Technologies Cadcorp MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www. Norton Road. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers.esri. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 Do not reproduce 243 .clarklabs. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Box 3000 Markham Street Victoria. Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.cadcorp. Houston. 1275 Kinnear Road Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester. Stevenage. Box 1892.unsw.thegateway. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.dist.O.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.rice.maricopa. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www. Fondren m ESRI Suite 300.mcli. AZ 85250 USA http://www. SG1 Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street. GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www.lolaexchange. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. AZ. Rice University.plos. Sterling Court. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 ENC Learning Inc. Suite 3100 San Francisco.merlot. MS 44.lrc3.

org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. of Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. Tino Johansson University of Spotlight Mobile. Austria Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.cancore. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.asp?path= 500. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www.mobilearn. Dept.O. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 PanGo Networks. Box 240000 MapInfo One Global View Troy. Suite 501 Portland.aaai.bham. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. 959 Concord Street. Inc. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .O. Suite 100 Menlo Park. BL3 5AB UK MOBILearn c/o Dr.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Suite 100 Framingham. PMB #112 Lake Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton . University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www. Inc. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.stockholmchallenge. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 html ELSNET Trans 10. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.intergraph. 17 SE 3rd Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 Metadata.smm. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.

100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly.asianart. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. 3000 Richmond Rive TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive. Suite 300.itc.movedigital. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.elena-project. NY. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . Deane Rd.ldc. 10010 USA http://www. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. 1st Floor A . 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco. PA. Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N. Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.llearn. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.internet2. ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .edu jxta c/o Sun KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. 19104-2653. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.cetis. Whisman Road Mountain View.lockss.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 1000 Oakbrook internet2. 4150 Network Circle Santa Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212. Italy Groove Networks. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento.groove.sun. CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.Project Coordinator CSI . CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.

com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www. 15-4-A Gatineau. 50 S. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 ProQuest 789 E.elementk. 3016 5th Ave. Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester. 3º 08021 Portals Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street. NE Calgary. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. Eisenhower Parkway Teachnology. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. Suite 600 Presentations. 3333 The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www.trainingregistry. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City.saba. Box 172 1039 . Suite 225 Santa Monica. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www.virtualmuseum. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard. New York 10973 USA http://www.genesys.proquest. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.presentations.6526 SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.cyberu.17th Avenue SW Calgary.worldwidelearn. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www. Alberta. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Slate Hill. World Wide Learn Suite 100. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Box 1346 Ann ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway. Ninth Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 ns/ iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 Elluminate Canada Suite 304. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.macromedia.saba.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research .apreso. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.

Radstock Somerset.evolution.html Norman. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics. Suite B ReadyGo Inc. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www.readygo. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View. 100 Do not reproduce 247 . Ste. Pasadena. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. CA General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. SE-100 44 Stockholm. Henrik I Christensen. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www. Inc.raptivity.rec.cmu.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. 130 USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 Centre for Autonmous Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.atr. Box Woods Hole Marine Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Raptivity P.ri.irc. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Redmond. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www. D. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 Australian Antarctic Division Channel Evolution Robotics. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan. SWEDEN. Lindsey Euron c/o Prof. Union St. Chilcompton. Michigan. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www.generalrobotics.nasa. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.hp.

com Copernic 360 Franquet Street. Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www.copernic. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www.Search Engines About.about. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Koders Gnod. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.findlaw. 831 3rd St #101 Santa KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. Suite 500 Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag. Suite 60 229 West 43rd Street New York. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www. Box 29141 San Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. Box 1133 Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research . QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. Gnoosic c/o Marek Dogpile c/o Google (including Healthfinder FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Headquarters 555 12th Street. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.kartoo. 42nd Floor New York.6100 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 excite.gigablast. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View. Google. Inc. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www. MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.mooter. Mumbai 10. Inc.cfm?doid=10 56808.searchking. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. 601 108th Avenue NE. Suite 1200 Bellevue.1057022 LookSmart. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. Mary Apts.acm. Seventh Floor New York. 7th floor. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 Qube c/o Qelix Technologies Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D .com Technorati 665 3rd Proteus Project 715 Broadway. Ltd. PubSub Concepts. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www.rawsugar.cs. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www. 23rd Floor San Francisco. Nesbit Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235. 625 Second Street San Francisco. 22000 AOL Way New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. Inc.pubsub. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic. An AOL Company 333 Bush RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna.W. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. 17th Floor New LitLinker c/o ACM. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search.lalisio. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.looksmart. 23rd Oklahoma Netscape AOL Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www.convera. New SearchKing. 64 Fulton Street.. INDIA. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.82152 Martinsried Pandora Media.technorati. 2400 N.pandora. Mazgaon. Suite 211 Palo Alto . NY VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 Truveo. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 . 6th Flr. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.lexxe. Inc. 360 22nd Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159.netscape. Suite 207 San Francisco.nyu.krugle.

forio.atghome.intermezzon.alphaworks. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.New York. 601 Townsend Street San Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.assima. 1st Floor A . GreenPark Reading. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www. Yahoo http://www. Inc. 701 First Avenue CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.experiencebuilders. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.O.Project Coordinator CSI . 10 Old Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI . Inc. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.htm Yahoo! Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group Flash c/o chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. Box 1558 New Zoom Information Inc.knowledgequest. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Assima IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains. Ontario.AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.zoominfo. EC4M 7NG Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Captivate c/o Macromedia. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .com 250 © Brandon Hall Research . M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.macromedia.columbia. Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Stagecast Software.knowledgepresenter.maxit. Suite 300 KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.muzzylane. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Québec. 55 South Market St. B15 Do not reproduce 251 .. MASIE Center. Inc. 2280 St. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 6essai.learning2005.xstreamsoftware. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Taschereau Ouest.. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.qarbon. Inc.fsl. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www. LLC 100 South Main Street. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www.Tel: (717) 790-0400 SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science. 1821 Walden Office Square. Suite CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.teds. England http://www. Schaumburg. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www.eduperformance. CA . Suite 1550 San Jose. Inc. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. PO Box 397 Saratoga NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder.stagecast.html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Light & Acoustics. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.bham.assima.stottlerhenke. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www. Suite 240 Atlanta. Suite A-207 Brossard. The University of Birmingham Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame. Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima.outstart. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 Softsim Outstart STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics. Laurent Blvd. Suite 200 Ottawa. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.knowledge-director.cs. Suite 360 San Mateo.html Viewlet Builder c/o Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 ts/poplog/packages/simagent.stt-global.

com Social Bookmarking Network c/o The TechnoCentre. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext. 625 Second Street San Francisco. Suite 900 Austin. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks. Inc. 795 Folsom Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Social Software Alliance c/o Social Classmates Online.furl.netscape.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.friendster. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Rojo SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www. SW. Morton c/o Yahoo! Inc. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 Spurl ehf.icio. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. 655 High Street Palo Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Ltd. Suite 500 Renton.O. Inc. Menlo Park. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik. Suite 125 San Diego. Inc. Inc. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P.shadows. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www. Box 920089 Needham.zvents.iu. 101 Wolf Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www. 2001 Lind Ave. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale. CA 94089 USA http://del.classmates.analytictech. WA 98055 USA http://www. 568 Howard Street San Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. mag. CA 94105 USA Eventful c/o EVDB.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.icio. FURL c/o LookSmart. Suite 224 Bloomington.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www..gnolia.. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. MA 02139 USA Friendster. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.tagzania. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www. CA. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www.

O. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. Cupertino. Church Street. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www.spider. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.advanced. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www. CA 92121 USA http://www.activeworlds.percro.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 Sparta Social Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia BitTorrent 201 Mission Street. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.fakespace. 7220 Trade Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. CA 94105 USA Fakespace 11 Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.percro. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara.hpc.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L.veoh. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www. VA 23461-1924 Do not reproduce 253 . 95 Parker Street Newburyport.brightcove. New York.spartasocialnetworks. 4th Floor 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Box 1641 Denver. CA 90028 USA http://www.dfilm. One Cambridge Center Jabber Software Foundation iTunes Apple Computer. Box 1641 Denver.html Jabber Software Foundation P. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. Suite 115 San Diego.1011 CM PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Veoh Networks. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 Futurelab 1 Canons Road Brightcove. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. Inc.

uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street. Tracy. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www.ambientdevices. Columbus. Inc. Suite 280 Downers Grove. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A. Suite 317 San Diego.idashboards. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento FeedTank 590 Grand Intuition 9. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 Golden Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.501 North Morton Mapland c/o Software Illustrated MapInfo One Global View. Box 240000 Huntsville. Suite 100 CenterView c/o CORDA DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research .vista. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.umd.coe. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.V. Box 884. Williams Building College Park. 809 14th Street.intergraph. 350 South 400 West.mapinfo. Suite 110 Troy.O. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www.corda. Troy. 1333 Butterfield ADVIZOR ESRI Suite Intergraph Corporation P. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www. Inc. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 IC ISIM VRLAB.informationinplace.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr. Inc. Danvers. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road. Suite 206 Bloomington. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Draper. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Formz 2011 Riverside Drive.accurender.bham. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston.golden.

Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www. Suite 102 Mountain View.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www. RIDemo Brivibas 183.ontopia. Ontario L4V 1T8. 9th floor New York. Visual Analytics Inc. Inc. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. 212 Elm Street Somerville. Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. 2513 Charleston Road.vrvis.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.vicodi.mccrackendesign.spotfire. 500 Macara Avenue Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. 869 97th Ave Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc.musanim. A-1220 VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.jajah. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.nlm. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www.visualthesaurus. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www.S.inxight. California. Donau-City-Strasse 1. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. Unit # 1 Mississauga. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. 73 Princeton Street.softill. Inc. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. 20010 Fisher CA 94712 USA http://www. MA 01863 USA Vicodi Edvins Snore. Unit A2 VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization. Inc. NY 10012 USA Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo. 155 Spring Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda. Ltd.visualanalytics.topozone. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www. W1T 1AN United Kingdom Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www. VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Suite 3A New Unified Field. 94043 USA http://www. ETZ H Electronics Lab. 2nd Floor Poolesville. Spotfire. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 JAJAH Topzone c/o Maps a la carte. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles. FL 34108 USA http://www. 3 East 28th St.

CA 94043-0801 USA http://www. Pacific Business Centre #101 .. Suite 381 FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.rojo. Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos FeedForAll PO Box 296. Feedster. Inc. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Valdeku 100. Switzerland http://www. Seventh Floor New York. Inc. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.1001 Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.feedster.ethz.feedzilla. Suite 900 Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway.attensa. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 JotSpot. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.715135858 http://www.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Inc. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research PubSub Concepts. Nederland Tel: +31. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep. 200 2nd Rojo Networks. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden. Suite 2260 Feedreader / i-Systems Inc. Building K Mountain View. Suite 605 San Francisco. 795 Folsom Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www. CA 95008 USA Web Feeds Attensa. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www. 64 Fulton Street. Suite 100 Campbell. Inc. Petersburg. Estonia Socialtext 655 High Street Palo StepNewz c/o Feedzilla.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.bloglines. Inc. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.pluck. First Floor.feedburner. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. 167 Hamilton Ave. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. 3rd Floor Feedscoute c/o Bytescout.wearable.feedforall. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 11211. Coldbrook Business Corp. South #358 RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.V.feedreader. San Francisco. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout. 116 New Montgomery Street.

Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 Do not reproduce 257 .

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

5. 49. 72. 150. 165 Air display. 35. 212 Boolean searches. 48. 209. 156. 69. 137. 88 cybercartography. 161. 78. 66. 50. 112. 122. 97. 159. 197. 160. 171. 16. 203.Index 3-D graphics. 89. 59. 84 Adobe. 74. 60 Cognition. 52. 200. 91. 77. 181. 15. 79 Complexity theory. 215 Communities of practice. 216 Affective computing. 94. 29. 35. 64. 114. 201 cognitive collage. 63. 176. 148. 39. 177. 80. 45. 85 Blogs. 127. 16. 109. 4. 216 Computer based assessment. 85. 177. 127. 170. 58. 2. 59. 56. 36. 27. 71. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 21. 64. 29. 179. 145. 80. 93. 180. 65. 67. 84. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 50. 7. 162. 43. 74. 46. 127. 189. 170. 48. 75. 145. 40. 209. 78. 65. 29. 138. 65. 141. 128. 116. 93. 112. 171. 170. 27. 66. 23. 20. 72. 46. 26. 226 Authorware. 18. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 165. 153. 50. 93. 91. 27. 16. 208. 211 Communications Tools. 135. 129. 24. 196. 41. 36. 169. 18. 203. 119. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 90. 197. 93. educational. 59. 50. 81. 159. 23. 165. 74. 112. 5. 123. 158. 46. 25. 28. 127. 127 Cooperation. 84. 171. 69. 122. 140. 70. 91. 11. 170. 13. 191. 137. 211. 139. 128. 15. 34. 57. 196 Dashboards. 47. 207. 193. 169. 36. 116. 69. 196. 24. 89. 194. 160. 193. 181. 203. 177. 24. 47. 51. 184. 196. 144. 140. 60 Clickers. 122. 189. 46. 74. 33. 70. 70. 15. 83. 195 Authoring tools. 85. 125. 62. 178. 201 Adaptive systems. 180. 219. 145 Conversational learning. 217 Collaboration. 101. 57. 23. 35. 17. 80. 110. 149. 28. 174 Bayesian probability. 231. 53 barcodes. 199. 97. 137. 146. 174. 139 assessment. 176 Cell phones. 82. 65. 30. 165. 192 Browsers. 176. 22. 94. 193. 20. 136. 95. 110. 160. 199 Architectures. 42. 27. 180 Competency Tracking. 45 Avatars. 52. 196 cognitive maps. 100. 47. 66. 15. 48. 4. 193. 117. 63. 47. 101. 122 Ambient computing. 28. 54. 196. 21. 31. 85. 25. 81. 193. 109. 48. 23. 57. 180. 45. 22. 190. 170. 125. 205 Animation. 68. 21. 180. 23. 191. 198 Data mining. 130. 90 Assessment. 63. 190. 39. 26. 209 Augmented reality. 218 Agents. 50. 207 Classroom response systems. 66. 49 AJAX. 46. 118. 100. 103. 55. 211. 18. 70. 211 Broadband. 69. 198. 196. 189. 145. 113. 52. 66. 121. 4. 46. 146. 37. 121. 65. 24. 83. 39. 172 Audio. 223. 190. 21. 67. 27. 71. 72. 146. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 8. 43. 50. 44. 67. 191. 45. 63. 194. 159. 196 collaboration. 69. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 74. 128. 211. 174. 149. 109. 184. 12. 42. 21. 132. 86. 44. 35 Content management. 209. 203. 93. 100. 18. 26. 6. 127. 35. 67. 194. 74.

106. 12. 210 formative assessment. 196 Graphics. 106. 155. 176. 158 Informatics. 197. 152. 189. 57 Flash. 169 Expert systems. 16. 225. 90. 109. 13. 137. 64. 152. 170 Federated searches. 205 Hybrid systems. 196. 8. 133. 156. 71. 27. 25. 134. 110. 178. 103. 205. 47. 141. 114. 24 e-Portfolios. 219 Infrared tags. 187. 60. 179. 3. 172. 89. 68. 217. 33. 214 Human-centered computing. 166. 6. 42. 28. 106 Head mounted displays. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 197. 74. 100. 152. 86. 158. 120. 80. 34. 204 Dreamweaver. 101. 127. 217 Instant messaging. 216. 162. 166. 174. 5. 59. 158. 119. 16. 47. 34. 116. 196 Immersive environments. 153 Facial recognition. 5. 94. 203. 81. 196. 86 Deep Web. 86. 45. e-learning. 122. 88. 63. 13. 63. 23. 25. 202. 239 Individualization. 216 Distributed systems. 120. 210. 201. 121. 194. 106 Healthcare applications. 217 images. 103.Decision support systems. 176. 110. 95. 190. 197. 37. 90 Experiential learning. 74. 11. 123 Hype in e-learning. 47. 164. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 22. 215. 58. 13. 97. 66. 198. 67. 196. 24. 27. 85 Extreme learning. 125. 23. 91. 69. 199. 170. 4. 122. 88. 80. 189. 32. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 25. 45 dynamic displays. 134. 94. 30. 183. 158. 33. 23. 169. 146. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 193. 153. 88. 89. 191 Games. 193. 215. 162. 121. 20. 26. 123. 85. 80. 170. 46. 78. 26. 175. 26. 16. 107. 94. 201 Grid computing. 8. 83. 199 Gesture recogntion. 70. 114. 93. 63. 11. 97. 196. 60. 169. 161. 184. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 119. 127. 160. 170. 26. 215 Informal learning. 65. 4. 15. 173. 149. 9. 106 Haptics. 193. 48. 122. 162 History. 20. 107. 5. 101. 25. 174. 85. 31. 119 FireFox. 238 Geocaching. 134. 149. 45 Displays. 55. 198. 93. 124. 137. 35. 64. 158 Design. 37. 75. 131. 53. 49 Google. 35. 107. 84. 19. 180. 66. 106. 54. 9. 139. 106. 57. 45. 163 Findability. 154. 18. 3. 250 Folksonomies. 75. 26 Emotional design. 69. 80. 216 Director. 159. 200. 178. 70. 17. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 74. 15. 9. 103. 119. 88. 163. 88. 119. 91. 49. 49. 7. 169. 167 evaluation. 57. 51. 72. 11. 193. 93. 197. 70. 104. 162. 26. 9. 25. 196. 100. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 109. 199. 97. 124. 154. 88. 27. 165 Handwriting recognition. 134. 187. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 79. 5. 100. 125. 89. 134. 84. 196 e-Commerce. 109. 35 Frameworks. 98 GIF graphic format. 11. 4. 11. 200. 108. 193. 49. 120. 7. 16. 30. 152. 146. 132. 186. 180. 248 graphics. 21. 184 e-Science. 52. 48. 201 FrontPage. 20. 52. 29. 151. 59.

135. 206. 143. 108. 121. 124. 170. 42. 107. 146. 24. 54. 85. 6. 60. 98. 169. 148. 119. 246. 62. 127. 46. 45. 128. 110. 183. 134. 226. 199. 97. 69. 178. 42. 43. 26 Metadata. 138. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 174. 80. 114. 215. 43. 139. 136. 134. 211 latent semantic analysis. 191. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 244 Motion Graphics. 107. 196. 46. 148. 142. 161. 127. 152. 27. 65. 215 Interoperability. 119. 216. 213. 161. 178. 68. 145. 190. 49. 145. 114 Learning Objects. 35. 199. 150. 176. 6. 135. 149. 135. 145. 191. 134. 7. 211 Knowledge management. 81. 109. 129. 146. 130. 171. 44. 11. 80. 150. 26. 43.Interface devices. 97 Ontologies. 166 Pervasive computing. 111. 34. 123. 186. 143. 91. 45. 165 pattern recognition. 48. 124. 29. 246 Location based tools. 54. 166 PowerPoint. 182. 140. 137. 146. 47. 237. 152 Lecturing. 111. 66. 31. 130 Mobile computing. 242 learning object model. 4. 137. 139. 34. 152 Libraries. 54. 30. 146. 65. 6. 16. 191. 32. 158. 47. 139. 63. 77. 127 Podcasting. 130. 26. 90. 153. 160. 100. 21. 42. 205. 95. 165 Microlearning. 26. 20. 66. 93. 7. 129. 25. 149. 6. 180. 48. 205 Macromedia. 15. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 121. 79. 53. 181. 199 Neural networks. 45. 45. 176. 127. 86. 183. 7. 120. 172. 223 Portals. 125. 20 Museums. 175. 147. 125 Lab book wiki. 36. 78. 6. 70. 22. 193. 47. 156. 124. 103. 193. 176. 141. 134. 152 Networks. 122. 124. 189. 145. 18. 109. 139. 140. 171 M-learning. 128. 124. 238. 25. 109. 143. 26. 40. 64. 172. 255. 114 learning object repository. 23. 196 Pedagogy. 26. 189. 171 Metacognition. 8. 116. 85. 127. 62. 35. 115. 233. 115. 239. 240. 68. 166. 144. 112. 120. 174. 180. 81. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 90. 256 Microworlds. 107. 140. 80. 21. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 17. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 174. 187. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 100. 128. 17. 141. 190. 155. 116. 134. 178. 140. 190. 77. 154. 106. 139 Personalization. 65. 112. 2. 180. 127. 65. 113. 250 mapping. 160. 48. 220. 7. 110. 196 Mashups. 137. 122. 149. 78. 156 Legacy materials. 114. 89. 5. 57. 129. 148. 80. 76. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 145. 189. 15. 36. 204. 114. 192. 82. 131. 60. 23. 42. 180. 128. 45. 4. 42. 137. 124 iPod. 74. 119. 69. 246. 101. 230. 244 Meta-search engines. 144 Navigation. 80. 114. 189. 191. 119. 49. 216. 4. 138. 93. 241. 174. 65. 241 Learning Management Systems. 159. 127. 80. 59. 47. 249. 153 Microsoft. 165. 116. 122. 165. 163 Microformats. 162. 63. 23. 120. 114. 135. 194. 109. 139. 192. 122. 125. 26. 119. 179 Optical tags. 234. 113. 58. 165. 123 Medical applications. 125.

124. 148 Smart labels and tags. 176. 129. 4. 48. 116. 174. 109. 190. 119. 156. 35. 46. 7. 173. 134. 84. 189. 114. 54. 148. 150. 89. 27. 134. 74. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 50. 177. 38. 110. 40. 181 Speech recognition. 185. 114 Robotics. 196 Serious games. 47. 189 Security. 209. 247 rapid learning. 197. 11. 34. 119. 93. 62. 179. 70 Radio. 171 Science. 174 self-evaluation. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 36. 47. 119. 88. 114. 162. 168. 38. 37. 54. 35 Semantic Web. 64. 40. 74. 211 Tags. 16. 167 reusable learning objects. 94. 163. 120. 72. 161. 22. 177. 9. 144. 39. 11. 59. 178. 227. 93. 176 Team management. 57. 48. 131. 125. 124. 35 Quizzes. 26. 124. 166. 5. 50. 42. 90 Reusability. 155. 131. 211 Skypecasting. 161. 109. 172. 152 Thin clients. 26. 165. 94. 171. 114. 180. 49. 26. 36. 35. 9. 11. 15. 170. 155. 125. 124. 47. 141. 175. 172. 35. 191 summative assessment. 110. 71. 52. 116. 141. 165. 148. 137. 134. 26. 62. 46. 163. 166. 199 Turing Test. 88. 47. 97. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 54. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 174. 77. 139. 83. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 191. 180. 160. 116. 135. 65. 47. 45. 183. 215. 170. 158. 106. 191 Tangible computing. 106 Proximity tools. 74. 225. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 37. 46. 171 Scenarios. 20. 95. 131. 86. 215. 54. 46. 191 Tours (online). 114 Screencasting. 150. 122. 35. 133. 57. 93. 156. 175. 69. 182. 36. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 168 résumés. 176. 21. 189. 125. 153. 115. 123 Simulations. 217 Translation. 169. 203. 154. 48. 186. 179. 36. 169. 75. 215. 114 Repositories. 199 Single-user wiki. 64 Telephony. 178. 48. 189 Search engines. 152. 119. 175 Rapid e-learning. 52. 50. 27. 132 Streaming video. 5. 4. 174. 189. 159. 170. 81. 184. 207 Social networking. 246 Privacy. 125. 189. 80. 57 T-Learning. 55. 48. 165. 160. 203 Telepresence. 221 SCORM. 68. 35 Symbology tags. 118. 49. 216 Tests. 179. 117. 115. 193. 30. 177. 176. 112. 181. 35. 174. 39. 159. 49. 154. 119 quizzes. 83. 205 Shockwave. 174 Project management. 175 Tag clouds. 180. 152 Projectors. 169. 150. 6. 189 Television. 188. 122 sharable content objects. 122. 122 Tagging. 91. 174 Social bookmarking. 8. 174. 141. 177. 149. 247 Role-playing. 178. 9. 47. 155. 137.Presentation tools. 141. 138. 91. 199 Taxonomies. 9. 66. 158. 82. 167. 153. 87.

193 Visualization. 149. 210. 108. 182. 200. 123. 211. 205. 211. 203. 107. 189 Vodcasting. 44. 4. 187. 66. 215. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . 49. 60. 150 Webinars. 256 Woodill. 176. 199. 68. 137. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 148. 209. 90. 255 Web conferencing. 51. 106. 160. 79. 106. 65. 148. 9. 113. 217 Word. 80. 187. 119. 130. 256 Webcasting. 216. 205 Usability. 137 Virtual reality. 3. 100. 154 Virtual learning environments. 22. 236. 112. 174. 212 Wikis. 159. 164. 74. Gary. 216 Vlogs. 91. 211. 148 Whiteboards. 148. 194 Video. 74. 13. 57. 193. 56. 127. 150. 206. 177. 74. 7. 200. 43. 123. 121. 62. 131. 177. 89. 67. 5. 182. 108. 98. 255 Wearable computing. 239 Wikipedia. 124.Ubiquitous computing. 69. 189 virtual classroom. 64. 212. 88. 207. 45. 81. 11. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 196. 106. 214. 190. 46. 197. 189. 9. 165. 57. 148 Virtual classrooms. 215. 109. 208. 209. 213. 145. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 192. 198. 191. 210. 40. 253 Videocasting.

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