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Emerging E-Learning Technologies: Tools for Developing Innovative Online Training
By Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Director, Research and Analysis

Brandon Hall Research 690 W. Fremont Ave. Suite 15 Sunnyvale, CA 94087 Phone: (408) 736-2335 www.brandon-hall.com

© Brandon Hall Research

Table of Contents
Our Statement of Independence_____________________________________________________ 5 Preface _________________________________________________________________________ 2 Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks ___________________________________________ 3 Part II: Emerging e-Learning Technologies ________________________________________________10 Affective Computing______________________________________________________________11 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________14 Agents_________________________________________________________________________15 Animation Software ______________________________________________________________20 Artificial Intelligence______________________________________________________________23 Assessment Tools _______________________________________________________________35 Audio and Podcasting Tools _______________________________________________________42 Authoring Tools _________________________________________________________________45 Avatars ________________________________________________________________________52 Blogs __________________________________________________________________________54 Browsers_______________________________________________________________________57 Classroom Response Systems _____________________________________________________59 Collaboration Tools ______________________________________________________________62 Communications Tools ___________________________________________________________74 Competency Tracking Software_____________________________________________________77 Content Management Systems_____________________________________________________80 Data Mining ____________________________________________________________________82 Decision Support Software ________________________________________________________85 Displays _______________________________________________________________________88 E-Portfolio Tools _________________________________________________________________90 Gaming Development Tools _______________________________________________________93 Gesture and Facial Recognition ____________________________________________________97 Graphics Tools ________________________________________________________________ 100 Haptics ______________________________________________________________________ 103 Interface Devices ______________________________________________________________ 106 Learning Management Systems __________________________________________________ 109 Learning Objects and Repositories ________________________________________________ 114 Location Based Technologies ____________________________________________________ 119 Mashups, SOAP and Web Services________________________________________________ 122 Metadata, Ontologies and Taxonomies ____________________________________________ 124 Mobile Devices________________________________________________________________ 127

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Natural Language Processing ____________________________________________________ 131 Peer to Peer Technologies_______________________________________________________ 134 Personal Learning Environments _________________________________________________ 137 Personalization Software________________________________________________________ 139 Portals_______________________________________________________________________ 145 Presentation Tools _____________________________________________________________ 148 Rapid e-Learning Tools _________________________________________________________ 152 Robotics _____________________________________________________________________ 155 Search Engines _______________________________________________________________ 158 Semantic Web ________________________________________________________________ 165 Simulation Tools_______________________________________________________________ 169 Smart Labels and Tags _________________________________________________________ 174 Social Bookmarking ____________________________________________________________ 176 Social Networking _____________________________________________________________ 180 Telepresence Technologies______________________________________________________ 186 Video and IPTV ________________________________________________________________ 189 Virtual Reality _________________________________________________________________ 193 Visualization Technologies ______________________________________________________ 196 VoIP and Telephony ____________________________________________________________ 203 Wearable Computing ___________________________________________________________ 205 Web Feeds ___________________________________________________________________ 207 Wiki Tools ____________________________________________________________________ 211 Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading_________________________________ 214 Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations____________________________________________ 218 Index ____________________________________________________________________________ 259

© Brandon Hall Research

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They asked me to research and report on these trends and changes. had not encouraged me to get into the e-learning field way back in 1992. A list of companies and organizations that are developing and using these technologies is provided at the end of the report. Jennifer McDowell. The first report. and services. which focuses on the extensive variety of emerging services that support e-learning. Operitel’s CEO. Carlos Oliveira. will be available in early 2007. Trace Urdan and Cornelia Weggan divided the “corporate e-learning universe” into the sectors of content. have supported this research from the beginning. and the rest of the Operitel management team – David Fell. 2 © Brandon Hall Research . and a bibliography for each of the technologies. focuses on emerging innovative technologies for e-learning. and Dan Medakovic were very supportive team mates who allowed me to be more productive. the second in the series. Grant Hamilton. This report. In it I identified 50 new content formats for e-learning that are now emerging to replace the “page-turner” models of online pedagogy so prevalent in the first few years of online learning. and I thank them for their support and encouragement. Karen Anderson. Thanks. technology. In it you will find descriptions of 52 technologies that will have a major impact on e-learning over the next five years. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content was published as an e-book in December 2005. Amy Davey. Thanks also to Chad Nolan for checking all the hyperlinks and addresses throughout the report and to Chris Downs for copy-editing the manuscript. This series of three inter-related reports started with Brandon Hall and Richard Nantel perceiving that the field of e-learning is currently undergoing significant change. A third report. Karen. and Jason Stimers – for making my work environment such a positive place to produce this kind of research. where I served as Chief Learning Officer until recently. editing. Pierre Cahorn. I have provided links to online learning examples. None of this would have been possible if my wife. along with an index. and had not accompanied me on this journey with input. My colleagues at Operitel Corporation. and support at all points of my career. A special thanks to Michael Skinner. lists of online resources.Preface In a 2000 report on e-learning. Pamela Fragomeli. Lise Bye. I use this tri-part division of the e-learning field to structure a series of three inter-related reports for Brandon Hall Research.

class periods. The second way we learn from an early age is by listening to stories and repeating them to others. Humans developed technologies for learning well before the advent of writing over 5000 years ago. “things that make us smart. Perhaps the first way we learn is by imitation. the classroom became industrialized.Part I: E-Learning Architectures and Frameworks A Brief History of Learning Technologies Just what are learning technologies? We tend to think of them as the latest wave of computer-based technologies that present educational materials and online assessments to learners sitting in front of a computer. Learning by imitation doesn't require teaching technologies . Do not reproduce 3 . as books were scarce. Medieval universities followed the same practice. and recess. A full history of learning technologies is beyond the scope of this research report.” Some of the earliest learning technologies include marks on a path to indicate directions or danger. Writing and reading were first developed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) about 6000 years ago. Industrial-ized schooling is about the teacher presenting materials to the learner who must take them and prove that he or she has learned through the successful passing of examinations. linear teaching techniques online. marks and other techniques for signaling direction. still used in many institutions of higher education. Classrooms themselves can be seen as a form of technology. for example. is a 2000 year old “technology. This new technology was first used by accountants to track crops and inventories.” Starting in the first century AD. They are. even if the originator of the words is not present. fire for warmth and cooking. from a few literate clergy to a much wider group of educated readers. coupled with faster printing and binding methods. The modern classroom. A third way to learn is by seeing. was first introduced in Prussia (Germany) in the 1770s. Examples from early humans include tools for hunting and fishing. Given that 50 percent of our brainpower is devoted to vision. and language for communication. many different ways to learn. with a principal aim of controlling the learner and the pace of his or her learning. But I mention it in the context of arguing that the first versions of e-learning consisted of putting industrialized. The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 allowed a much wider distribution of knowledge. The introduction of textbooks as a technology for teaching was the result of mass education movements in the late 19th century. But learning technologies have a much longer history. detentions. Technologies are any technique. The technologies of writing and reading extend our abilities by allowing thoughts to be expressed and received in words. in fact. material. Stories are ways of “depositing” our thoughts and memories outside of our physical bodies into the larger community. with rows. to quote Donald Norman (1993). oral techniques that are passed on from generation to generation in cultures where speaking is the primary means of transmitting knowledge. making multiple copies by having a reader dictate from a manuscript while others copied it word for word. similar to the organization of the burgeoning factories of that time. or device that extends human abilities. visualization with pictures and graphics is a powerful tool.” The word comes from the Latin lectura. There are. various Christian orders copied manuscripts by hand. the raising of hands. that lecturing. With these reforms. early cave drawings that told stories of hunting and warfare. Schools were started to teach accounting. and clay tablets onto which symbols were pressed as the earliest forms of writing. or “reader. We tend to forget. Learning became standardized and linear. Educational or learning technologies are anything that extends our ability to teach and learn.just the ability to follow an example. Schools did not always have classrooms that were organized as we know them today.

sometimes referred to as a mashup (Woodill and Oliveira. mashups can only be done using computer technology. Thomas Watson. stated in 1943 that he could envision “a world market for maybe five computers. there is a tendency to understand it in terms of what is already familiar. we need to break from the page metaphor that has dominated the first decade of Web development (Alexander.Students in these schools learned by reading. moving pictures (films). the early days of computer networking. as this is a non-technical guide. This “tell-test” approach uses little of the possibilities of computer-based learning. memorizing. in 1876 someone at Western Union. changing the practice of teaching. E-learning for many developers has been to simply place materials to read and look at on the screen. At the same time. chairman of IBM. Frameworks are overall design frameworks for implementing e-learning within a specific architecture. 2006). allowing worldwide collaboration Digital representations/transformations Algorithms – repeatable procedures Storage and retrieval – extending our memories Individualization/customization/ flexibility resulting in personalized content Constant availability . The Web is about producing and distributing a variety of content formats. This is different from reading a printed book or presentations on a screen. Architectures refer to the overall technical design of a computer system. it is common for people misunderstand its real impact. it has been introduced with extravagant claims (“hype”) of efficacy and efficiency.” The new computer-based learning technologies will have their greatest impact when we start to realize their unique advantages.24/7 Simulation of complex processes > > To realize these advantages. frameworks. most of the early examples of online teaching still follow this 6000-year-old model. and standards. However. and reciting. Eventually. sometimes gathered from multiple sources. E-learning is the latest technology in a long line of extensions of our ability to teach and learn. all new technologies have detractors who worry that the new technologies will have a significant negative impact on current practices. When a new technology is introduced. the main telegraph company in the world at the time. it needs to adhere to architectures. Rather than pages. When a new technology first comes into use. It is beyond the scope of this research report to explain the details of computer architectures. Computers can be programmed and organized in many different ways. Examples include the horseless carriage (cars). for one application or data set to work with other applications or data sets. Today's wireless networks will likely evolve into something without reference to wires. Like all new technologies. and talking machines (phonographs or record players). The company returned it to the US Department of Defense after a six-month trial saying that it could find “no commercial use for computer networking. AT&T was given what would become the Internet. and then integrated into a unique online mix of information.” Similarly. 2006). Standards or protocols refer to the design of systems so that they can communicate with each other. we are beginning to speak about posts or streams of content. followed by regurgitating this material through online multiple choice tests. But e-learning professionals need to be aware that the architecture of a system can limit or expand the possibilities of what can be done. Some of these advantages include the following: > > > > > > > High speed computation Interactivity – especially for games and simulations Networking with global reach. all new technologies become integrated with previous teaching and learning tools. stated that “this telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. For example. An emerging architecture that is particularly relevant to emerging e- 4 © Brandon Hall Research .” In 1970. Sadly.

learning technologies is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Find it at: http://kaleidoscope.org) has a number of published documents that.fr/publication. with access to an enormous variety of learning materials and programs. see the call for papers in Learning Grid. (For a longer description of grid architecture in e-learning. Do not reproduce 5 .org). Services need not be conducted at a particular system or particular network. The search and connectivity to other services is dynamic. In particular. Links are based on loose couplings rather than tight a integration of programs. presentation and interactive environments. Grid technologies define a new computing paradigm by making an analogy to the electric power grid. a learner should be able to “plug in” to the grid and remotely start any application and/or receive access to any content on the grid. 2005. the Access Grid is an ensemble of e-learning resources including multimedia large-format displays. Number 3. the IMS Global Consortium (http://www. > > > Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time. They provide location independence. php). and interfaces to grid middleware and visualization environments (See: http://www. decisionmaking applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners Ability to more quickly meet customer demands Lower costs associated with acquiring and maintaining technology Managing business functionality closer to the business units Leverages existing investments in technology Reduces reliance on expensive custom development Service Oriented Architectures Chatarji (2004) suggests that service oriented architectures offer the following advantages over traditional approaches to distributed computing: > > > > They offer business services across platforms.imsglobal. For example. There is authentication and authorization support at every level.accessgrid. Benefits from a business value perspective include the following: > Provides the ability to build composite applications E-Learning Frameworks and Standards Several efforts have been started to establish a formal framework for producing e-learning. > > > > > > > Short-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > > Enhanced reliability Reduced hardware acquisition costs Existing development skills leveraged Accelerated movement to standards Provides a data bridge between incompatible technologies Long-term benefits of implementing SOA include the following: > > > > Provides the ability to build composite applications Creates a self-healing infrastructure that reduces management costs Provides truly real-time decision-making applications Enables the compilation of a unified taxonomy of information across an enterprise and its customer and partners The ultimate vision for service oriented architecture is to construct e-learning resources in a grid.grid.free. With applications and content becoming both distributed and interoperable. January.

reinforces this theme. the E-Learning Framework (ELF) (http://www. we build highly automated plants or service platforms supported by standardized processes seeking to deliver resources to the right place at predetermined times. “[a] pull economy .” The trend in e-learning is also to move from push to pull in terms of instructional design of content. http://purl. The world is moving away from the model of a teacher as a container of valuable information to be disseminated to learners. In Europe.adlnet. the 6 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. relentless change and new innovative technologies make this task difficult. http://www.net/projects/ariadnekps ADL SCORM – Specifies the behavior and aggregation of modular. While packaged courses still have a place.is based on open. Instead of just providing courses. and education administration. and makes extensive use of XML. Instead. enabling the search for content.org/wg12/ AICC – An older specification from the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC) for run-time communication between content and learning environments. At the same time.” In late 2005. research. what is needed to succeed is “the ability to mobilize appropriate resources when the need arises. the new model of teaching involves facilitation.org) is an international effort to establish a serviceorientated approach to developing and integrating computer systems in the sphere of learning.org/dc/ IMS – Serves as a catalyst for developing instructional software. Bollier says.Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. They noted that “…in education. This theme is found in two recent publications on the shift in e-learning from “push” to “pull. In business.aicc.the kind of economy that appears to be materializing in online environments . When Push Comes to Pull: The New Economy and Culture of Networking Technology.org/Scorm/ IEEE LOM – For metadata describing learning objects (LOs). along with teaching appropriate search and evaluation strategies.” David Bollier’s 2005 report for the Aspen Institute. This is especially true for adult education. John Hagel and John Seely Brown placed a working paper on the Web entitled From Push to Pull -. Standards are formally accepted definitions while specifications are less evolved and contain descriptions that often change over time. perhaps the hardest shift is to think of teaching as providing educational resources rather than just instruction. interactive learning components. Rather.oclc.taken together. according to both Freisen and McGreal (2002) and Neuman and Geys (2004). we design standard curricula to expose students to codified information in a predetermined sequence of experiences. access to a wide range of documents and other online resources needs to be facilitated.elframework. Teachers facilitate learners to find what they need to construct their own answers to problems and issues in life.org/ The above Web sites show how the elearning industry is moving to develop a set of common viewpoints that will result in a greater interoperability within the industry. Major specifications for e-learning. http://sourceforge. http://ltsc. http://imsproject. From Push to Pull in E-Learning For those of us who have been in the business of teaching for a long time (I started in 1971). could form the basis of a formal e-learning framework.” The problem with standardized procedures in education and training is that they do not work well in times of rapid change and uncertainty. flexible production platforms that use networking technologies to orchestrate a broad range of resources. include the following: Dublin Core – The most broadly based metadata specification. Freisen and McGreal (2002) distinguish between e-learning standards and specifications.com ARIADNE – This group has created a European repository for pedagogical documents called the Knowledge Pool System.ieee.

. 12(10). (2005). http://www. M. In the last chapter. 41(2). often in the form of e-portfolios (Roberts et al. Bibliography Abbas.com/gp/product/1401 302378/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Bailetti. and wearable computers. 2006) has argued. along with selected examples.1 0/tail. I hope you will find it useful. McClatchey. October.wired. Italy.. Adaptive E-Learning GRID Platform. http://www. T.. Ahmad. As Anderson (2004. M. the content that arrives after making a request is becoming more personalized (Werkhoven. Montreal. those learners are now keeping their own records. UK.. 2005). and McGinnis (2004).asp?bhcp=1 Amoretti.. Paper presented at Communities and Technologies 2005. and a bibliography. F. Likothanassis. the world of learning can now revolve around the individual learner and not the instructor. Milan. M. June 2005..ntnu. Chris (2004).ability to find both human and information resources at a moment’s notice to resolve an issue has now become a competitive advantage. Paper presented at the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid..edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. 19.bcs. Wales. Each technology and its relevance to learning is described. Switzerland. M. I recently was working on my computer in a hotel in Berlin while simultaneously chatting online with one colleague in Canada and another in China. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Creating Customized Learning Environments. R.. M.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/amoretti_ubilearn. March/April 2006. http://ewic.com/wired/archive/12.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session1/paper1. often placed in repositories as open source content or software. http://www. 2002. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF). The Long Tail: why the future of business is selling less of more. 16. is becoming commonplace. When Push comes to Pull: the new economy and culture of Do not reproduce 7 . N. A. Z. Umer. Weiss.cscsi. http://www. Bertolazzi. Five years ago. Ali. Nov. mobile devices.DC/0502051 Alexander.educause. From this. Service-oriented Grids for Dynamic ELearning Environments. Paper presented at workshop for the Semantic Web Interest Group. (2005). New York: Hyperion.. F. Chris (2006). All this is to say that e-learning is based on a set of emerging technologies. ambient networks. M. User-created content. and Votis. S. I have tried to project what we can expect over the next five years.org/home/CSCSI/Member s/swig/swig04papers/bailetti-weissmcinnis. The degree and experience of collaborating and sharing information has also changed with online learning. Because this research report is meant as a reference work. K. http://www. http://arxiv. Instead of a central administrative office keeping information banks on many learners. Lausanne. Bryan (2006).” the infrequent requests and desires of many individuals.. We are now in the era of providing for “the long tail. Web 2. 2004.org/abs/cs. Reggiani. G. This report identifies 52 distinct technologies that are being used today in online learning.amazon. Odeh. I discuss the meaning of these emerging technologies in e-learning based on both knowledge lifecycles and technology innovation cycles. For example. K. Computing is becoming pervasive and ubiquitous as we move into a world of wireless hotspots.html Anderson. perhaps a dozen technologies could be identified as producing and supporting elearning materials and experiences.idi.. Zanichelli.. The Long Tail. (2002). the reader can approach any topic in any order. R.pdf Bogonikolos. Giotopoulos. online resources. Cardiff. Paper presented to the International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.htm Bollier. Sept. Wired Magazine. and Conte. Moreover. Thus. Chrysostalis. Strengths and weaknesses of each technology are then presented. David (2005). servicing such a large variety of requests is only possible in the online environment.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.. 2004).pdf Anderson.

and Borck.au/conferences/per th04/procs/pdf/marshall.athabascau. Thomas (2004). Human Learning as a Side Effect of Learning GRID services.pdf Knorr.networking technology. http://www. C. ThoughtWorks White paper.html Hockemeyer.. (2005).iadis. 1026-1032. L.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/cit/ &toc=comp/proceedings/cit/2005/2432/0 0/2432toc. D. Switzerland. of Distance Education 10. Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: The Case of INVITE. J. 14-16. http://www. March 2002.ca/softeval/reports/ R110203. Norm (2006). T. http://www. http://www. Gregor (2005).xml&DOI=10. Green. A field guide to software as a service. Web Services . WI. (1996).xml.asp?c=huLWJeMRKpH&b=667 387&ProductID=283015 Bouras. and Zhang.co m/docs/SOA_World. E. http://www.com/c/a/WebServices/Introduction-to-Service-OrientedArchitecture-SOA/ Dede.pdf Cerri.com/article/05/04/1 8/16FEsasdirect_1.2005. 2. Service-Oriented Architecture: a field guide to integrating XML and Web Services.cancore. (2002). I. A Workflow based E-learning Architecture in Service Environment. Australia. (2005). 2001. Madison. What is service-oriented architecture? O’Reilly Webservices . Education. (2005). C. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies . Perth. Centre for Distance Ed. http://www.pdf Friesen.gov. 2002 http://ewic.johnhagel.com/pub/a/ws/2003/09/3 0/soa... http://ru6. http://www. Luo. http://www.amazon.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 . Dec.html Kong. Stephen (2004). and McGreal.1109/CIT. pdf He. C.pdf Erl. Online.gmu. American Jrnl.edu/pdf/ajde. R. 2005. J. Tsiatsos. W. Athabasca University. January 2005. and Brown. T.html Hagel. http://csdl2. Hornig. http://www. Emerging technologies and distributed learning.. April 18. 6-8. N. Working paper.enterpriseintegrationpatterns. Lausanne. NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://www.virtual. 13-16. Emerging Technologies: a framework for thinking.au Limited..pdf 8 © Brandon Hall Research . J.ICALT 2001. (2001).asp Chatarji. A Report of the Fourteenth Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology. Introduction to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).Dev Shed. http://cde.devshed. 13.computer. and Putland. J. E-learning standards: open enablers of learning or compliance straight jackets? Paper presented at the 2004 ASCILITE conference. Adaptive e-Learning and the Learning Grid. Infoworld.pdf Millea. http://www. Sept. USA. International E-Learning Specifications. Hao (2003).. Stefano (2005). International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT'05). Aug. 2004. Jagadish (2004)..aspeninstitute.infoworld. 30.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. Software Evaluation Report R11/0203. G.act. 2003. Proceedings.org/conferences/2002/1stl ege/session2/paper1.ca/protocols_en.org. Oct. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches. and Albert. Portugal. for the Australian Dept. (2005).cti. http://www.. 4-36. Keynote address at the Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age Conference (CELDA 2005). Sept.com/gp/product/0131 428985/104-98511511919955?v=glance&n=283155 Friesen.htm Hohpe.com.S.com/paper_pushpull.5 6 Marshall.det. Erlanger.org/celda2005/index. J. From Push to Pull-Emerging Models for Mobilizing Resources. (2002).ascilite. Developing Software in a Service-Oriented World. G. V. Triantafillou.au/publicat/pdf/em ergingtechnologies. Porto.bcs. of Education and Training. Upper Saddle River.org/site/apps/ka /ec/product.xml. Paper presented to the 1st LEGE-WG International Workshop on Educational Models for GRID Based Services.

. 2005. May 15. G. Research report... 2006. 911-928.amazon.aspx Yang.pdf Urdan. 21.sinica.pdf Norman. and Vossen. C. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.pdf Werkhoven. (2005). and Geys. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Knowledge Grid and Grid Intelligence. Corporate E-Learning: exploring a new frontier.28 April 2004.edu. http://www. M. Rhonda (2006). Towards e-learning grids: using grid computing in electronic learning. http://www.pdf Woodill.R. April 26-27.ac. (2005). Trinity College. W.net/uploads/images/431 /experience_machines. Lee. Donald (1993). C. informal learning and ubiquitous computing. Germany. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. 27 . Birmingham.unikarlsruhe. In W. http://www.de/BIK/vpa/pankratius_vossen_e -learninggrids. J. Zhou et al. http://www-i5. e-portfolios. Dublin.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. and Wade. (2000). ICWL 2003. Trends in e-learning: education versus entertainment? Presentation. F. http://ewic. J. International Conference on Web Intelligence/Intelligent Agent Technology. Feijen. M.operitel. Reflective learning. http://www.amazon. R. E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective. pp. ACTeN E-Content Report No.pdf Do not reproduce 9 . Cambridge. M. C. S.com/publications. 9. http://www.alt. 193–205.alt. (Eds. Learning Solutions. Experience machines: capturing and retrieving personal content. R. Journal of Information Science and Engineering.ac.pdf Roberts. and Ho. Library+information Show. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar. and Weggen.informatik.pdf Spaniol. Harvey. T. (2003). W.tw/JISE/2005/20 0509_06. Aalderink. H. Hambrecht and Co. An e-Learning Platform Based on Grid Architecture. April 1.pdf Pierre. http://www. V.org/NR/rdonlyres/E2CF56 59-B67B-4D96-9D85BFAC308D0E28/0/hambrecht.. Cook.): Proceedings. G. and Jarke.astd. MA: Perseus. and Oliveira. V. http://www..Neumann. (2006).com/gp/product/1846 283515/sr=83/qid=1155437505/ref=sr_1_3/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Riachi.de/i5new/staff/spaniol/publication s/ATLAS. Berlin: Springer. Stuttgart.iis. http://www. (2003). Paper presented at the 4th International LeGE-WG Workshop: Towards a European Learning Grid Infrastructure: Progressing with a European Learning Grid. Mashups.org/conferences/2004/4thl ege/session3/paper2.aifb. G. ATLAS: A Web-Based Software Architecture for Multimedia E-learning Environments in Virtual Communities.acten. UK. Things that Make Us Smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine..bcs. 2006.com/gp/product/0201 626950/104-44064197257534?v=glance&n=283155 Pankratius. Samuel (2006). (2004). SCORM and the Learning Grid.rwthaachen. Klamma. future thinking: digital repositories.uk/docs/trends_in_elearning_27april2006. Peter (2004). http://www.

selected elearning related examples. online resources to learn more about each technology. a brief description of the technology and the issues surrounding it. There are over 2000 hyperlinks in this section of the report. Included are related terms.Part II: Emerging eLearning Technologies What follows are individual reviews of 52 elearning technologies. allowing the reader to investigate each topic to a much greater depth. and a bibliography for each section. 10 © Brandon Hall Research .

posture. confused. because as pervasive or ubiquitous computing becomes > > > > > Major difficulties with using computers for the above “benefits” are concerns with privacy. it is not surprising that researchers are working on software that can recognize the nonverbal cues that indicate specific human emotional states. Affective computing is aimed at giving computers skills of emotional intelligence. computers will never be-come human-like or appear “natural. understand. 2005). keystroke patterns.” http://www.com/Explorer/NGT-AC. UK. http://www. author of the 1997 groundbreaking book.” Projected benefits include the following: > > Making people more comfortable with their computers Detecting whether a person is under stress.edu The MYSELF project coordinates a number of researchers in several European countries who are working on affective computing. The lab’s Web site has many resources to check out at: http://affect.myself-proj. in Italy.mit.shtml) contends that “affective computing is an important development in computing.cs. computers will be far more invisible and natural in their interactions with humans. gestures. heads the MIT lab on affective computing.it/ Ditto the Donkey software rates the niceness or nastiness of messages and responds “emotionally. Affective Computing. security. Selected Examples Rosalind Picard.ac. and legality. affective computing can give the therapist more information on a client’s emotional state. 2005). For example.Affective Computing Related terms Artificial intelligence. maintains a list of papers and doctoral dissertations on the topic of affective computing. Affective computing can detect whether a learner is having a problem with a subject and adjust accordingly by offering tutoring or less difficult learning materials.html Do not reproduce 11 .convo.uk/x02/ Online Resources The Cognition and Affect Project at the University of Birmingham.. and to respond to them effectively. Using emotionally realistic characters in an online simulation can make e-learning more effective (Maldonado et al.uk/research/cogaff /0-INDEX. facial recognition.bham.” Affective computing employs cameras and body sensors to discover clues about what a user is feeling. emotional design. SRI Consulting (http://www. including the ability to recognize and express emotions. speech patterns mainstream..media. and react to human emotions.sricbi. then trying to change the user's emotional state Improving the safety of public spaces by detecting a person's malicious intent before he or she commits a crime Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Learning about the state of employees’ emotions in order to increase productivity Assessing the reaction of consumers to product offerings Description Affective computing allows computers to interpret. Given that 80 percent to 90 percent of human-to-human communication is nonverbal. Without the ability to understand emotions. et al.” (Anolli. http://www.co. Making computers more responsive to a learner’s emotions should also enhance learning. accuracy. emotions. the MYSELF project is trying to “integrate affective computing into virtual tutors to enhance distance learning and training applications. or sad. Specific algorithms interpret these clues and instruct the computer to take appro-priate actions. too. privacy. In online therapy.

D. Intimate Objects: a site for affective evaluation. Rocchi. 2005. A. and Merisol.html In Germany. Realdon. 2005.. Contents of the proceedings of ACII 2005 are at: http://www. In Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: Bibliography Anolli.html The Geneva Emotion Research Group at the University of Geneva maintains a Web site on this topic. Balestra. Nortillaro. M.sics. http://www.pdf Cahour..bartneck.com/wired/archive/11. including studies of emotions in computers. CHI 2005 conference. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.. bibliographies. April 12-15.. Graziola. M.ch/fapse/emotion/ The Humaine Project has a portal with reports. Hatfield. V. N.arizona.. Methodologies for Evaluating the Affective Experience of a Mediated Interaction. P. (2005). Pachoud.uniroma1. Christoph Bartneck maintains an Affective Computing Portal. Nakajima.unige.org. Oregon..sics. Portland. http://www. David (2003). are available online: http://www. Pianesi.nsma.wired. October 22-24.uk/publications/procee dings/aisb05/2_Agents_Final.. 2005.sics.aisb. 2005 http://www. April 2-7. with many resources.edu/emotion... Sensual Evaluation Instrument. The Love Machine: building computers that care. 2005. K. J.unitrier. and Zouinar.sics. A. CHI 2005 conference. UK. and Laaksolahti.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Goren-Bar. April 2-7. April 2-7.. and Waterworth.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Kaye. I Like It . O. and Morishima..html Fallman. B. D.1 2/love. C. M... China.pdf Interfaces.. html The first international conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was held in Beijing. Yamada. http://emotion-research. Isbister. (2005). O. L. April 2-7. listing many links to interesting resources. CHI 2005 conference. Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach.The Emotion Home Page is a listing of various research studies on emotion.. F. K. Oregon.. H. Iwamura.Affective Control of Information Flow in a Personalized Mobile Museum Guide.doc Chateau.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Chateau. http://www. R.. Portland. University of Hertfordshire. J. Portland. Y. Vescovo. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Wired Magazine. It is instructive to read the list of papers presented and to see the advances that have been made in this field. Oregon.. CHI 2005 conference. CHI 2005... AMUSE: a tool for evaluating affective interfaces. Brave. (2005). Paper presented to the Workshop on eLearning and Human-Computer Interaction: Exploring Design Synergies for more Effective Learning Experiences. Agliati. Salembier. Oregon.de/link/affective_port al.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Hook. http://www. Vermersch. F. Mantovani.pdf Kaye. C. and demonstrations on affective computing in Europe.pdf Goren-Bar.sics.dis.sics. Issue 11/12. April 2-7. September 13.it/~lhci/009. S. and Confalonieri (2005). H.net/ The Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action.pdf Diamond.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Fallman. Joseph (2005). Bouraoui. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces.informatik. http://www. Dr.pdf Maldonado. J. B. Portland. and Zancanaro. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. Z. J.doc Hook. http://www. Zurloni. Oregon. Portland. Lee. Brassac. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces. The Potential of Affective Computing in ELearning: MYSELF project experience. http://www. C. (2005). I. (2005).. December. Stock.. April 2-7. 2005. http://emotion..de/~ley/db/conf/acii/acii2005.. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Portland. CHI 2005. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective 12 © Brandon Hall Research . (2005). P. http://www. http://www. K. M. Nass. Oregon.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Cahour.

http://www. (2002).HTM Steele. Berlin: Springer.org/Content/NavigationMe nu/Publications/JRTE/Issues/Volume_351/ Number_2_Winter_2002_20031/Applying_ Affective_Computing_Techniques_to_the_Fi eld_of_Special_Education. http://www. http://www. ACII 2005.ruebenstrunk.Next 10 Years! Mahwah. Portland.htm Tao. Erlbaum. http://www. CHI 2005 conference. and Ishizuka.amazon. (2004). T. 22.pdf Ruebenstrunk.cs. Oregon. October 22-24. and Daily. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. L. Affective Computing. J. Emotional Agents. Portland. E-book http://www. 2002. 2005.pdf Masum. University of Birmingham. 2005. Portland.org/topics/human-computerinteraction/usability/2004-normanemotional-design/ Picard.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mentis. http://www.bham. http://www. CHI 2005.. Evaluating Affective Computing Environments Using Physiological Measures. 2005. Cambridge.pdf Mentis. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Proceedings of the First International Conference.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Mandryk. Paper for WEBIST 2005.thesis.uk/research/cogaff /Wright.ac. Rosalind (1997).sics. Oregon. Charlotte (2005). (2005). OR. Evaluating affective interactions: Alternatives to asking what users feel.utokyo.sics.sics.com/gp/product/0262 661152/sr=81/qid=1152930312/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Picard.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Picard. Regan (2005). R. Helena (2005). R. CHI 2005. http://www. April 2-7.com/gp/product/3540 296212/sr=82/qid=1155436264/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Wiberg. Usability?: insights of using traditional usability evaluation methods. and Picard. Miami. (2005). 35(2). MA: MIT.pdf Do not reproduce 13 . Beijing. M. Affective Computing vs. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.stanford. Portland.iste.pdf Mandryk.se/~kia/evaluating_affectiv e_interfaces/Wiberg. Ian (1997).doc Wright. (2005). http://www. http://www. Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. NJ.jp/papers/mostafa/WEBIST2005_ Mostafa_Japan_Final. Applying affective computing techniques to the field of special education. S. S. April 2-7.amazon. Paper presented at the workshop on Evaluating Affective Interfaces.sics. Emotional Computers: Computer models of emotions and their meaning for emotion-psychological research.miv. Insight into Strong Emotional Experiences through Memory. China. and Steele.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005 Maldonado. 2005.de/emeocomp/co ntent. Gerd (1998). Dec. M.t. An affective role model of software agent for effective agent-based e-learning by interplaying between emotions and learning. Doctoral Dissertation. Oregon. http://www. J. CHI 2005 conference. http://www.ac.pdf Norman. April 2-7. Donald A. Paper for Evaluating Affective Interfaces. May 26.elearningreviews. Tan. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. New York: Basic.

Animation Software 14 © Brandon Hall Research .

veracity. Agents can be used to model social systems (Guessoum. therefore.se/~dixi/agent/clas s. Intelligent computer aided instruction or tutoring programs often use agent technology. Agents are autonomous and can act independently within the limits their programming. animated agents can be used to speak and present learning materials in an online application. In this context. autonomous agents. Being goal orientated is a key character of agents (Yan. see the paper by Far et al. A student agent and an environment agent allowed interactivity and change within the environment. Luengo (1999) describes students interacting with three agents while constructing a mathematical proof. An intelligent agent is a computer system capable of flexible autonomous action in some environment (Wooldridge. Third. has classified intelligent agents as follows: > > > > > > > > > Interface agents System agents Advisory agents Filtering agents Retrieval agents Navigation agents Monitoring agents Recommender agents Profiling agents Description Agents are intelligent software programs that can act on behalf of an individual or a group.gu. agents need to cooperate with each other to solve collective problems. rationality. intelligent agents program (for example.. et al. For example. Agent-generated content can be utilized in several different ways. but Do not reproduce 15 . and social (able to communicate and interact with other agents). Wright (1997) has even suggested that virtual agents can have emotions. Dick Stenmark. A second agent in the simulation. In such situations.htm) Most online agents in e-learning play the role of teacher or tutor. (2004) report that teaching a computer agent can be effective in terms of learning.Agents Related terms: Artificial intelligence. and. and the students had to continue to teach her. However. Other possible qualities of online agents include mobility.informatik. First. Agents have beliefs. flexible means reactive (responds to its environment). Learning by computers is sometimes called machine learning. learning/adaptation. of the University of Goteberg in Sweden. An agent can act as a personal assistant for a teacher and as a personal assistant for a student. 2005). Sahin (2000) says that “self-organization of …intelligent agents is accomplished because each agent models other agents by observing their behavior. Software agents act on behalf of users to accomplish their goals. 1999). She made mistakes. Second. Katzlberger. Fourth. and both may be found in the same http://w3. Ueno (2005) describes an agent that learned from the log data of a Web site. personal agents can negotiate with other agents to produce a personalized learning environment. Sometimes multiple agents can work together. not only about environments. 2004). proactive (goal directed). benevolence. and many of them can actually learn. 1999). a Learning-by-Teaching approach can also be effective (Leelawong. 2004) and are. avatars. Mentor. useful in educational simulations. Multiple adaptive agents act as a “complex adaptive system” to reproduce social dynamics with feedback loops and uncertain outcomes. software agents can “watch” for new items of interest to a learner and send an alert when one appears. which is a sub-field of artificial intelligence. Viswanath. 2005. software agents can retrieve content on the Internet for an individual user. These “pedagogical agents” serve as the role of teacher by presenting the materials to learners online. told the students when Betty was wrong and how they could teach her properly. A software simulation for Grade 5 students called Betty’s Brain “learned” by students teaching her about concept maps.

has a virtual studio for programming actions and gestures of a variety of online characters.uka.com/ CodeBaby Corp. Student Assistant Agent 4. http://www.netobjectdays.pdf Animated characters from Extempo Systems can be used in online teaching and coaching.old. uses seven different types of agents: 1. 2000).redwoodelearning. go to: http://ldt. an agent takes its decisions according to the model of the environment and the model of the other agents. Even though each agent acts independently.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 A research group in Italy has used XML and the Java Agent Development Framework to develop a prototype e-learning system using multiple agents. and expert guides. One issue for further study involves how close to a human being a software agent needs to be to comfortably interact with people.liv. Learning Paths Agent 5.org/index. expert role-players. Therefore. Chief Content Officer (CCO) Assistant Agent 7.html For a set of papers on pedagogical agent research by Dr. 2.edu/_Website/ Research on animated agents with programmed “social skills” is being carried out at the Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) at the Selected Examples Nel is an agent based tutoring system that teaches introductory physics.also about other agents. The agent was successful in language tutoring with children with hearing loss. User Profile Agent.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.fsu. Stone (1998) reports on another study where multiple agents were organized in teams. Chief Learning Officer (CLO) Assistant Agent 16 © Brandon Hall Research .ira. http://liinwww. Baylor and Ebbers (2003) examined the question of whether it is more effective to have one pedagogical agent with combined expertise and motiva-tional support or two separate agents – one with expertise and one with motivational support.de/bibliography/Ai/a gents.com Online Resources For an online primer on pedagogical agents. MASEL (Multi-Agent System for E-Learning). Amy Baylor and her colleagues.extempo. http://www.edu/~slater/pages/agen ts/ Professor Michael Wooldridge of the University of Liverpool has written over 200 articles and 13 books on the behaviors of software agents and on multi-agent systems.editlib. Skills Manager Agent 3.ac. See the article by Williams et al. They are available as adaptive coaches.stanford.csc. This permits the agents to organize themselves for a common task” (Sahin. (1998) developed a conversational agent. acting against other teams of agents. For details see: www. which could show realistic facial expressions to convey emotions on a computer screen. Their study revealed that students working with agents of the same ethnicity perceived the agents to be significantly more engaging and affable. They found that having two separate pedagogical agents representing the two roles had a significantly more positive impact on both learning and the perceived value of the agents.com/ The simulations from Redwood e-Learning Systems make extensive use of pedagogical agents.codebaby. (2004): http://www. go to: http://ritl. Baldi.org/pdf/02/papers/ malceb/0623. they take the other agents' behaviors into account to make a decision. Massaro et al. Content Agent 6.uk/~mjw/ Professor Wooldridge also maintains a large bibliography on agents. http://www. Baylor and Kim (2003) applied the same thinking to the interaction effects between student ethnicity and agent ethnicity.

http://www.org/index. Educause Quarterly. 267-286 http://www. Ng. The Role of Gender and Ethnicity in Pedagogical Agent Perception.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9288 Far. 2005.editlib. Adaptive agents and multi-agent systems. C.. C. http://www. Ali (2002). Proceedings. S. & Lin. (2005). E. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=213 82 Katzlberger.org/index. 5(7).org/index.pdf Clarebout.netobjectdays.editlib. 3. 306-311). Nashville. Hypermedia. Designing Agents for Feedback Using the Documents Produced in Learning. M. Doctoral Dissertation. (2000). and Ho. A. Hypermedia. A. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12193 Kutay. 75-80. Conceptualizing Intelligent Agents for Teaching and Learning.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0235. and Palopoli..editlib. 275-285. Vanderbilt University. In Proceedings. & Bengu. Jrnl.teachableagents. E-Learning 2003. Y. International Journal on E-Learning. IEEE Distributed Systems Online. & Johnson. In Proceedings. Thomas (2005). http://www. & El-Khouly. (2002).old. An XML Multi-Agent System for e-Learning and Skill Management.educause.org/papers/ThomasK atzlbergerDissertation..University of Southern California. www.pdf Guessoum. http://www. In Proceedings of WEBNET 2000 Conference. L. (2002). Doctoral Dissertation.org/index. (2003).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. 28(2). G. Y.editlib.teachableagents. G. Learning by Teaching Agents. PA: Information Sciences Publishing. Inter-active Learning Res. VA: AACE. Things that Make Agent as Learning Companion Effective. Educause Quarterly. & Ebbers.. (2005).. No.. http://www..educause.isi.. and Telecommunications 2002 (pp.pdf Lin. www. W.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8843 Garro. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=9270 Elen. (2002). A Heterogeneous Agent Model for Distributed Constructionism. Hershey.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Krittaya (2005). P. E-Learning 2003. Using the Learning-by-Teaching Paradigm to design intelligent learning environments.).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. G.aace. and EBusinesses (MALCEB'2002). Large Complex Systems. Animated pedagogical agents: Where do we stand? In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia. (2003).pdf Kim. G.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0523. J.editlib.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://www.computer.editlib.. http://dl. Agent-Based Computer Tutorial System: An Experiment for Teaching Computer Languages (ATCL). W. B. 4(1). (Ed.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2003). 10 (3). (1999). S. Developing Web-based Tutoring Agents Using CORBA. L. Fuhua Oscar (2005). 21-38. & Kim. and Telecommunications 2003. Germany.org/16948 Leelawong.org/papers/krittayathesis-sp.org/comp/mags/ds/2 004/07/o7004. http://www. and Tsang. 1353-1356. Z.edu/isd/carte/ Bibliography Baylor.org/newdl/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Vanderbilt University. Norfolk. 11(3). 1659-1666.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12158 Cao. 459-462. Paper presented. http://csdl. Animated Pedagogical Agents: An Opportunity to be Grasped? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. TN.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11122 Baylor. Y. and Shaw. The Pedagogical Agent Split-Persona Effect: When Two Agents are Better than One. Nashville. Johnson. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.pdf Kao. Elan. (2005). http://www. http://www.. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6341 Choy. Koono. Tennessee.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Software Agents to Assist in Distance Learning Environments.org/index. Do not reproduce 17 .pdf Jafari. 1503-1506. In Richards.cfm?fuse action=Reader. July. e-Learning 2005. Erfurt. Zahia (2004).. http://www. G. Clarebout.editlib..org/index.aace.org/index..org/pdf/02/p apers/malceb/0623. A. Sun. International Symposium on Multi-Agent Systems. J.

Proceedings. Cohen.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. (2005). Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems. Paper presented at the 1st International Workshop of Central and Eastern Europe on MultiAgent Systems (CEEMAS). & Lim.. http://www. http://citeseer. and Solomon. www. ED-MEDIA. Atreya. (2004). PA.. M. ED-MEDIA 2005.org/index. August.. Peter (1998). 1415-1420. http://www. In Proceedings.pdf Menczer. Doctoral dissertation..K. Government. Adebiyi. June 1-4. Animated agent to maintain learner’s attention in e-learning. (2004) Developing Intelligent Agent Systems. and Winikoff.. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. In The Symposium on Professional Practice in AI.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.5 First IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI). Retrieving Content with Agents in Web Service E-Learning. Paper presented at WECC'98 conference. Doctoral Dissertation. G. 3169-3176. 18 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. A Multi-Agent Architecture Implementation of Learning by Teaching Systems. (2006). Biswas. G. Pittsburgh.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Sandel.ViewAbstract&paper_id=7283 Mahmood.cse. http://www. (1998) Developing and Evaluating Conversational Agents. G.cfm?fuse action=Reader.html Shim. 17(2).edu/publications/ps/Ma ssaroCole_WECC98. 61-65. & Leelawong. http://www. L. 321333. Kommers & G. B. J. and Cole.psu. D. http://www..http://www.. O.cs. & Booth. J. In P.aace. http://www. Embodied agents in e-learning environments: an exploratory case study.org/index. R. Finland. (Ed. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Viswanath.aifb.com/gp/product/0470 861207/sr=11/qid=1155438530/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Pankratius. (1999). L. K.ist.lib. In Richards.ViewAbstract&paper_id=8833 Stone. 10 (3). and Higher Education 2004.vt. Effect of a Socratic Animated Agent on Student Performance in a Computer-Simulated Disassembly Process. and Stucky. 194-201. Intelligent Learning System Based on Tutoring Agent and VR Training Agent (TAVTA).ViewAbstract&paper_id=6285 Massaro. Virginia Poytechnic and State University..informatics. H.aace. V.edu/~pstone/thesis/ Sung.de/BIK/vpa/109.ogi.org/index. Paper for Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.ViewAbstract&paper_id=20277 Ueno. U. (2004). A. Multi-stage cooperation algorithm and tools for agent-based planning and scheduling in [a] virtual learning environment.amazon. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data. Cooperative Agents to Learn Mathematical Proof. (2005). R.uni-karlsruhe. 143-162.org/index. Russia.editlib.editlib. 14(1). M.edu/565321. Carnegie Mellon University. In Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Beskow.). Proceedings. (1999).indiana. L. of California.. ED. 1632. S. ROADS: An Environment for Developing Automated Intelligent Agents to Support Distance Learning. Healthcare.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Toulouse.org/index.org/newdl/index. E. Wesley.editlib. Daniel. Richards (Eds. M. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia. (2004).org/16968 Sahin. D. http://cslu. 47-59. A Bayesian Network Approach to the Self-Organization and Learning in Intelligent Agents.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11288 Ueno.). 1999.Media 2005. and Núñeza..edu/fil/ Padgham.pdf Perez. Ferat (2000). M. http://www. Petersburg. St. V. Doctoral Dissertation. S. W..editlib.editlib. 1999.amazon. K.com/gp/product/1591 405009/sr=88/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_8/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Luengo. http://www. http://scholar. (1999). IFIP WG12. Filippo (1998) Life-like agents: Internalizing local cues for reinforcement learning and evolution.. (2005). and Ferneley. France. http://www.edu/theses/available/e td-09202000-00230057/ Sheremetov. New York: John Wiley & Sons.utexas. http://dl. R.

edu/clag/cy_lanegoal_grid_service_conference. N.html Yan.org/index.org/papers/15 8bis.. New York: John Wiley & Sons.http://www. Chicago.upc.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Collaborative Learning Applications of Grid Technology. & Madsen.. Nel: An Interactive Physics Tutor. Agent Mediated Grid Services in e-Learning. http://research.pdf Williams. (2004). M.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/pr oductCd-047149691X.ac. April 18-21.editlib. (2004).ppt Do not reproduce 19 . 3000-3002. http://www.wiley. Chun. J. Paper at CLAG2004. 2004.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11101 Wooldridge. Gilbert. ED-MEDIA 2004. http://ca.teachableagents. In Proceedings. Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems. Michael (2002).

produced the best learning results. animations should be used sparingly in e-learning. This is an older animation technique that is not used as much today.” (Huk. Visual cues “such as arrows pointing to relevant parts of an animation. animation can add real educational value by illustrating a dynamic procedure that is relevant to understanding.com/Ulead-GIFAnimator-download-11513. 2003) Finally.html Real GIF Optimizer 3. and the uncertainty of its effectiveness. research to date has failed to provide unequivocal evidence that it is superior to static GIF animations can be constructed with several different shareware or low cost programs. with long hours spent to produce even a short sequence. Given that.htm For a selection of over 400.com/animatio ns/ 20 © Brandon Hall Research . improved the understanding of animated explan-ations. Description Animation has been a staple of e-learning since the start of computer assisted learning in the 1970s and 1980s. producing animations can be very costly.0 http://www. recently researchers have questioned whether animations make a difference. a static diagram.” Lowe adds that “in some cases.htm Ulead GIF Animator 5. However.com/Real-GIFOptimizer-download-2965. Rather. Lowe (2004) argues that “despite the plausibility of cognitively based arguments for the benefits of animation.. animations can be complex and move quickly through showing a process without real understanding being achieved by the learner. animations may even prejudice learning. including the following: Gif Construction Set Professional http://www.topshareware. like pictures in a flip book. animation for its own sake can often be distracting or misleading when implemented poorly.Animation Software Related terms Flash. The results of many experiments have been mixed.topshareware.05 http://www. go to the Animation Factory: http://www. motion graphics depiction. Flash animations are perhaps the most common form of animation used in elearning. Hegarty and his co-researchers found no advantage to using external animations. al. However.000 pre-built animated GIFs. et. Toth (2003) identifies three major formats for online graphics: > Animated GIFs: A series of still images shown in sequence.mindworkshop. (2003). Animations in e-learning range from simple swapping of successive images to highly complex 3-D motion graphics. animation tools can be divided into three groups: > > > Software for Producing GIF Animations Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations Software and Hardware for Producing 3D Web Graphics > In addition to adding “eye candy” to the presentation of educational materials. > Selected Examples Based on Toth’s (2003) types of animations listed above.com/alchemy/gi fcon. who suggest that stimulating a learner’s “mental animation” capacity may be more important for learning than watching a moving picture. Software tools for 3-D Web graphics are more expensive and complex to learn. Also. Dynamic 3-D Web graphics: Threedimensional motion graphics draw on large datasets to visualize dynamic processes.” This is echoed in research by Hegarty et al. Flash and Shockwave animations: Macromedia’s Flash and Shockwave have extensive abilities to produce sophisticated animation sequences. It is generally thought that adding animations to online materials can help as a learning aid.animationfactory. coupled with imagining how something worked.

2004). http://www.html Falling Bodies . Inc.as p?pageID=1 EI Technology Group’s Animation System and Amorphium.newtek. and rendering solution from Autodesk (formerly Alias). http://faraday. Macromedia Flash has based digital animation on traditional animation techniques.macromedia. http://www.” http://www.ViewPoint’s Enliven provides a simple visual interface for creating 3-D interactive Web content quickly and easily without programming.com/ Novices at animation can try the HTML and Flash templates from Animation Online. http://www. Version 9 is available: http://www..swishzone.Falling Bodies is a special purpose plug-in for Softimage|3D. a high-end editing and visual effects suite. Their VisionBlazer product is described as “easy to use. connected with its Director and Authorware content creation packages. For more information on Shockwave.eitechnologygroup. go to: http://www.com/finalcutstudio/motio n/ SoftImage|XSI .softimage. It animates fall stunts.utoronto.com/software/flas h/flashpro/ Shockwave is an older technique from Macromedia. the built-in programming language. It is part of Final Cut Studio..com A low cost alternative to authoring in the Flash format is SWISH.com/pub/products/e nliven. go to: http://www. See why it has won Academy Awards at: http://usa.com/gallery/default. some knowledge of computer programming is necessary.Character Animation Technol-ogies (CAT) has a set of advanced animation tools Do not reproduce 21 .catoolkit. For information on Flash. a subsidiary of Avid Technology. using accurate dynamic simulation techniques. More sophisticated procedures in Flash may require the use of Action-Script.animats. For a free demo.com/ Software and Hardware for Producing 3-D Web Graphics Numerous 3-D authoring packages range from relatively inexpensive to tens of thousands of dollars. Following is a list of leading packages with company Web sites: AfterEffects – An industry standard from Adobe.html Lightwave 3D is a modeling. animation.apple.com Enliven . animating.com/lightwave/lw9_bet afaq. http://www.com/products/aftereffec ts/main.autodesk. whereas Flash plays automat-ically within the latest versions of the most popular Web browsers.com Maya is a high-end modeling.ca/GeneralI nterest/Harrison/Flash/ that work in 3ds Max.animationonline.com/dynamics/demov ersion.viewpoint.php Massive software is used to add animated crowds to movies. http://www. have been used in a number of Academy Award winning films.com/ Eighty-five pre-built Flash animations for Physics are available under a Creative Commons license from the University of Toronto. go to: http://macromedia. To use ActionScript. http://www. has one of the world’s most advanced 3-D content creation tools.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=6871843&siteID=123112 Motion2 is professional level animation software from Apple that runs on both Macintosh and Intel platforms.adobe. It is popular because it is easy to use and is cross-browser compatible (Hess and Hancock. and rendering tool.Software for Producing Flash and Shockwave Animations One of the most popular software packages on the market is Macro-media Flash (Macromedia is now owned by Adobe).massivesoftware. http://www. effects.Softimage Co. Shockwave is a program that takes Director “movies” or Authorware animations and com-presses and readies them for play-back on the Web.physics. http://www. their 3-D character creation environment.html CAT . A downloadable “plug-in” is required to play Shock-wave.

learninglab. and Hancock.org/12937 Mayer. http://www. and Cate. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment. The educational value of cues in computer animations and its dependence on 22 © Brandon Hall Research . Learning Circuits. http://www. Animation as an aid to multimedia learning. Lehi. Proceed-ings of the ED-Media 2003 Conference. S.com.. http://www. R.au/conferences/per th04/procs/lowe-r. McBeath.learningcircuits.htm Bibliography Castillo. Animation and learning: value for money? In R. S. 14(1). T. Phillips (Eds.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. Animation – just enough. Jonas-Dwyer & R. Steinke.ascension-tech. go to AllWorldSoft. G. http://www. http://www. Thomas (2003).rapidintake. 2003.siggraph.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. Using Macromedia Flash MX 2004 as an ELearning Authoring Environment.ucsb. and Hess. http://www2. Using Flash MX to Create eLearning. M..cgi/d17506/Huk_E DMedia2003. never too much. D.de/pub/bscw.K.sjsu. 1046-1048. G.htm Huk. C.edu/depts/it/edit235/ha ndouts/mayer_mmlearn.) Beyond the comfort zone: Proceedings. R. Cognition and Instruction.org/2003/aug2 003/toth. (1). Paper presented at ED-Media 2003.. Flash Interactive Session. (2002).psych. and Floto.com lists almost 700 free tools: http://www.htm Hegarty. Learning Circuits.htm Hess. ASCILITE Conference.freedownloadscenter.org/2004/jul20 04/hess. R. 21(4). T. July 2004.com/books_catalog . (2004). G.allworldsoft. http://esub. Kriz.com/ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists hundreds of firms that develop animations or have animation software.pdf Lowe.org. The roles of mental animations and external animations in understanding mechanical systems.html&CategoryID=8 For a comprehensive list of animation software.pdf Hess. Hancock. Utah: Rapid Intake Press. Educational Psychology Review.learningcircuits.unihannover. (2004). (2003).. 87-99.com/Multi media_and_Graphics/Video_and_Animation _Tools/ individual learner abilities. M. Atkinson. (2004). and Hancock.. http://www. S. http://www. C. July 18. FreeDownloads Center.com/folders/page2 /graphic-apps/animation-tools/ Hundreds of tools exist for video production and animation.ascilite. March 2002. http://dl.edu/~hegarty/C&I% 20HKC. (2003).pdf Toth.learningcircuits. You will find a listing of over 60 software packages that can be used to develop animations: http://www. S. http://projekte. C. S.aace. (2004). and Moreno.Ascension Technologies has a wide variety of motion capture tools that will turn any sequence of movements into an animated 3-D character with the same moves.html Malheiro. July. Learning Circuits. 325–360. (2003).

cognitive informatics. expert systems. there are important and useful applications of artificial intelligence to online learning. A central topic of artificial intelligence is learning. making it clear that artificial intelligence is having a major impact on emerging e-learning techniques and technologies. multiagent systems. intelligent tutoring. The test is considered successful if the person is unable to tell whether there is a computer or another human being on the other end. Nevertheless.Artificial Intelligence Related terms Adaptive systems. artificial intelligence has not lived up to its initial promise or hype. no computer program has been able to pass the Turing Test. While it is beyond the scope of this research report to get into the technical details. personalization > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > E-business and E-commerce Evolutionary Engineering Expert Systems Fuzzy Logic and Systems Game Design Genetic Algorithms and Programs Human-centered Computing Hybrid Systems Information Retrieval Intelligent Control Systems Intelligent Databases Intelligent User Interfaces Knowledge Representation Logic Programming Machine Learning Man-Machine Interfaces Mobile Computing and Systems Model-based Reasoning Multi-agent Systems Neural Networks Neuro-Computing Probabilistic Reasoning Simulations Software Tools Temporal Reasoning User-profiling for personalization Virtual Reality Visualization Description Artificial intelligence uses computer programming to simulate reasoning and thought processes similar to those in human beings. Many of the topics listed above are included in this research report. here is a list of some of the many applications to which artificial intelligence is being put: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Adaptive or Intelligent Tutoring Affective Computing Agents Bayesian Models Bioinformatics Business Intelligence Systems Case-based Reasoning Causal Models Chaos and Complexity Theories Cognitive Processes Connectionist Models Context-aware Computing Cooperative AI Systems Data Mining and Web Mining Distributed Artificial Intelligence DNA Computing Given the high expectations. Having a computer learn is termed machine learning as opposed to human Do not reproduce 23 . Artificial intelligence initiatives encompass a wide range of computer programming techniques and systems. AI. agents. whereby human beings interact with a computer interface that may have a human or computer hidden from view. The success of artificial intelligence is sometimes measured against the Turing Test. data mining. So far. machine learning.

they can be frustratingly wrong about what a user wants and needs at any given time. algorithms are written to have the computer act as a tutor in that subject area. Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) that provide direct feedback to learners are part of an emerging and intense area of research in the use of artificial intelligence in educational environments.” Complexity – According to Thomsen-Gray et al. Moreover. The vision of a computer taking the place of a teacher has been around for quite some time.” On the other hand. but many of those working in the field of artificial intelligence see these two types of learning as converging and becoming the same thing. Whereas human tutors must teach students how to respond to unexpected results in a timely and appropriate manner. a building a system that infers tutoring suggestions from assessing the user’s 24 © Brandon Hall Research . recommender systems. We also found that students frequently avoided using help when it was likely to be of benefit and often acted in a quick. (2004) found that “72% of all student actions represented unproductive help. Others are skeptical and believe that another kind of intelligence will emerge from artificial intelligence.. While many systems purport to be personalized. ITS systems often use some version of natural language processing. The reality is that. There is debate in the literature over the use of user profiles vs. To achieve their goals. possibly undeliberate manner. the subject matter expert. it also inherits a ‘context gap’ at the points of divergence between the purpose of the tasks performed within an ITS and the purpose of the methodology. and to change it so as to be in the best conditions for learning. and data mining. and Aist et al. (2005) say that “students hedge and apologize often to human tutors but very rarely to computer tutors. (2003). in spite of progress in artificial intelligence. and the teacher.” Degree of Personalization and Use of User Profiles – Personalization using artificial intelligence depends on the set of assumptions made about the users and how user models are constructed. “While an ITS inherits powerful functionality at the points of convergence between its objectives and the capabilities of the methodology employed. AI scientists try to model how experts solve problems in a given domain. To seem humanlike. ” Hedging and Hostility – Bhatt et al. a major issue was too much “politeness” between the learner and the online tutor. The type of expressions also differed—overt hostility was not encountered in human tutoring sessions but was a major component in computertutored sessions. intelligent tutoring in “nondeterministic and dynamic domains” can be very complex and can lead to unexpected results. they may be able to recognize the emotional state of the learner. An ITS may use a variety of technologies. computer based systems usually have limited ability to do this. intelligent tutoring systems are not yet ready to replace human instructors. including collaborative filtering. there is some evidence that the emotion-al state of the learner is correlated with his performance…it’s important that new Intelligent Tutoring Systems involve this emotional aspect.” Ochs and Frasson (2004) also discuss how emotions affect learning with intelligent tutoring systems.learning. for Johnson and Rizzo (2004). one that is different from the intelligence of human beings and other intelligent life forms. Once the solutions to problems are encoded in the computer program. ITS systems create several different user models profiles of the learner. (2002) contend that “provision of human ‘emotional scaffolding’ made a positive difference (increased persistence and learning) for students using an intelligent tutoring system. using hints to find answers rather than trying to understand). Context – Kinshuk and Patel (1997) suggest that one weakness of intelligent tutoring systems is their lack of ability to understand the “context” of the learner. Emotional Effects – Chaffar and Frasson (2004) note that “emotions play an important role in cognitive processes and especially in learning tasks. Some current issues with using artificial intelligence and education include: “Gaming the System” – Aleven et al.seeking behavior…[W]e found a proliferation of hint abuse (e.g.

Selected Examples Artificial intelligence in e-learning has generated a wide range of approaches to improving computer-based teaching. http://www.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss. Relational knowledge concerns relations between entities of the domain.” The talking head agent metaphor may be more trouble (and expense) than it is worth. 2005b) develop-ed two natural language generators and “. (2004) show that “while a talking head displaying facial expressions.cs. http://lsa. Approaches include the following: Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems – Yang (2001) describes a system for taking turns in a dialogue-based intelligent tutoring system.pdf Hybrid schemes: Do not reproduce 25 . Difficulties in Representing Knowledge – Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) provide a comprehensive review of different schemes for representing knowledge.pdf Reasoning About Actions and Changes – Baldoni et al. concepts. They divide knowledge into the following types: Structural knowledge is concerned with types of entities (i. objects.interactions with the system (see Smid et al.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. rather than using a single type of knowledge.. gestures. (2004) use an agent logic language (DyLOG) to implement reasoning capabilities of agents to “dynamically build study plans and to verify the correctness of user-given study plans with respect to the compet-ence that the user wants to acquire.edu/papers/daveDissert ation. 2002).iit. A great deal of further development needs to occur before this technology becomes mature.cs.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05. (2005a. using artificial intelligence in e-learning is not a simple matter.uic. They advocate for a hybrid approach to knowledge representation.pdf Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) – LSA is a technique used for automatic scoring of essays.” http://www. Talking Head Tutor vs.unito.e. it also does not enhance performance when compared to a condition that includes only spoken narration.pdf Natural Language Processing – Di Eugenio et al.” practical knowledge about how to solve problems based on experience. Steinhart (2001) used this e for tutoring writing. found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning. etc) and how they are interrelated. Heuristic knowledge is knowledge in the form of “rules of thumb. and gaze during dialog does not produce a split attention effect and concomitant decrements in performance. Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Schemes for knowledge representation from Hatzilygeroudis and Prentzas (2005) include the following: Single schemes: > > > > > > > > > Semantic nets Conceptual Graphs Ontologies Symbolic rules Expert systems Case-based representations Neural networks Belief networks Fuzzy rules > > > > > > Connectionist expert systems Integration of rules and cases Description logics Terminological knowledge Assertional knowledge Neurules (integration of symbolic rules with neurocomputing) As the above list of issues shows.di.” http://www.colorado. Voice Only Tutor – Craig et al..

(2004a) argue that “a potentially powerful way to aid in the authoring of intelligent tutoring systems is to directly leverage student interaction log data.cmu.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04. so that these systems become more realistic.html Founded in 1988. designing a personalized sequencing strategy for each student quickly becomes unmanageable. http://www.” They propose an approach called “bootstrapping novice data” (BND) in which “a problem-solving tool is integrated with tutor development software through log files and that integration is then used to create the beginnings of a tutor for the tool.infrature. a knowledge representation framework that can be used to extract important concepts from a natural language text. question answering (QA) techniques. and engaging.” http://www.Davidovic (2001) describes and evaluates the Structural Example-based Adaptive Tutoring System (SEATS) and a number of other intelligent tutoring systems.pdf Teaching Metacognitive Strategies by Computer – Graesser et al.ca/People/far Precision Teaching/Programmed Learning – Precision teaching is a very systematic approach to teaching based on behaviorism. Stottler Henke’s products include the following: > SimBionic . Stottler Henke Associates. see: http://lsa.uc3m. They propose using an approach called hierarchical graphs. without programming.com/publications/pdf/ OguejioforIT-AEC2004.enel.com/doi/pdf/10. http://www. Aurora .library. and multiagents. (2004) also discuss an ontology-based approach to the design of intelligent tutoring systems.it.edu/pubs/ITS2004BND-Camera-Ready. applies artificial intelligence and other advanced software technologies to solve problems that defy solution using traditional approaches.A set of Java software libraries and applications for creating intelligent tutoring system scenarios quickly and easily.” http://www.” http://ctat.120 7/s15326985ep4004_4 Quantum Intelligent Tutoring Engines develop software for others to build intelligent tutoring applications. (2005) propose an Intelligent Tutoring Agent (ITA) that uses ontology. As a result. http://quantumsimulations. (2005) describe some of recent computer systems that were designed to facilitate explanation-centered learning through strategies of inquiry and metacognition while students learn science and technology content. describes this in a white paper on “learning theories. http://www.edu. > > 26 © Brandon Hall Research . and decision support to make scheduling faster and easier.uregina.edu. Task Tutor Toolkit .sinica. Inc. “Web intelligence researchers have applied Bayesian net-works to many tasks.leaonline.iis.colorado.pdf Far (2006) describes the use of Bayesian techniques in the development of a multiagent learning and tutoring system.au/unisa/adtSUSA20050922-010120/ Student Log Files – McLaren et al.cs.cs.A visual authoring tool and runtime engine for creating complex behaviors in computer-based training simulations and games more quickly and easily. intelligent conflict resolution.ucalgary. (2004) note that courses tend to have a high number of learning objects.kicinger.pact.tw/IASL/webpdf/p aper-2005-Designing_an_Ontologybased_Intelligent_Tutoring_Agent_with_Inst ant_Messaging.gast. challenging.pdf Side-By-Side Example Tutoring .htm Ontology Based Systems – Day et al.pdf Oguejiofor et al. e-commerce. including student monitoring. http://bach.unsw.com/Library/WhitePap ers/LearningTheories. and INFOMAP. Infrature.es/~sergut/public ations/Gutier04b.pdf Hierarchical Graphs – Gutierrez et al. http://ariic. (2004) describe Bayesian networks as a formal framework that uses probability techniques for uncertainty management. http://www.edu/ Bayesian Networks – Butz et al.For a portal on the latent semantic analysis.com/index.A sophisticated scheduling system that combines a variety of scheduling techniques.

org/ Worcester Polytechnic Institute – Tutor Research Group http://web.org/2000/feb2 000/ong. http://ctat.learningcircuits.” http://www.wpi.teluq.uk/aiedsoc.cs.htm The IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics is held every year. an adaptive testing algorithm. The 2006 conference is in Taipei.uquebec.pact. Taiwan. with the next one in 2007.org/2002/04 /25/artificial_intelligence_application_in_di stance_learning_and_education. skill gaps. see: http://www.masternewmedia.htm Carnegie Mellon University is a leading research institution that uses artificial intelligence in education.cmu.edu/ Other universities with research groups in intelligent tutoring and artificial intelligence include the following: University of Sydney . http://aied.uk/ The American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) maintains a listing of Intelligent Tutoring resources.its2006.usyd.cmu.edu/ Carnegie Mellon researchers are also developing a suite of authoring tools called Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT) to make tutor development easier and faster for developers and to make it possible for educators without technical expertise to develop such systems.licef.ht ml The LICEF Research Centre in Montreal is dedicated to cognitive informatics and training.ke-corp.com/s10. The AIED conferences are held every two years.ac. http://www. http://www.autotutor. It publishes papers on applying artificial intelligence techniques and concepts to the design of systems to support learning.ac.org/cfp. see the article by Ong and Ramachandran (2000) in Learning Circuits entitled “Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The What and the How.ed. taking personalized and adaptive learning to a new level.cs.enel.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.ucalgary.com The Reusable Artificial Intelligence Tutoring System Shell (RAITSS) from Knowledge Engineering allows users to build intelligent tutoring systems.gemini.ed. http://www. http://pact. and an interactive intelligent tutor.htm Do not reproduce 27 . China.htm University of Memphis – Tutoring Research Group – (developers of AutoTutor) http://www. and learning style.htm The Robin Good blog has a long list of links and articles on artificial intelligence in distance learning and education.htm For an introduction to intelligent tutoring.html The International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education (IJAIED) is the official journal of the International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED). preferred cadence.inf.cs.edu/Research/trg/ The Intelligent Tutoring Systems Conference is held every two years.stottlerhenke.ca/ICCI2006/ Online Resources The International Artificial Intelligence in Education Society (AIED) is an interdisciplinary community that organizes conferences and publishes a journal on AI in learning.virtuelage. http://aied. The 2006 ICCI conference was held in July in Bejing. http://www.Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research Group http://www. http://www.edu.com/ Gemini Performance Systems used artificial intelligence to build the SWIFT adaptive learning environment as an intelligent tutoring system comprised of an adaptive learning environment. For more info: http://www2.org/AITopics/html/tutor.For more information on Stottler Henke Associates.ca/eng/inde x. http://www.inf.com Virtuel Age International has an artificial intelligence-based intelligent tutoring system that “dynamically adapts the course according to the learner's existing knowledge base.it. Its Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center (PACT) develops “cognitive tutors” that have been used widely in constructing intelligent tutoring systems in a variety of settings.aaai.” http://www.

cs. In J.di.iit..ppt Butz. Roll.aspx?id=17164 approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions.1109/ITCC. http://www. and Penstein Rosé.edu/ITS2004WS/W8Proceedings1. and Koedinger. A Web-Based Intelligent Tutor-ing System for Computer Programming. ITS 2004. PA: Idea.. http://www. & F.org/materials/contrib/2 004/Barcena_Read. http://www. In J. Toward tutoring help seeking: Applying cognitive modeling to meta-cognitive skills. Mostow. (2004). (1997). Experimentally Augmenting an Intelligent Tutoring System with Human-Supplied Capab-ilities: Adding Human-Provided Emotional Scaffolding to an Automated Reading Tutor that Listens. S.it/~argo/papers/2004_ JAIR. (2004). V. In Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI'04). 482-487. (2004).doi. http://lingcog.B. http://www2.amazon.edu/pubs/pub_4073.2005.html Barker. http://dx.. Vicari. Twenty Sixth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society COGSCI 2004. R. http://www. (2005). Adaptive Spelling Instruction as part of an Online Language Learning Course. Kort. Distributed Intelligent Tutoring on the Web. Paraguaçu (Eds. Proceedings of the 8th World Conference of the AIED Society. R.pdf Aleven. http://imlab.edu/~bmclaren/HelpSeekin g-ITS04. E. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems: State of the Art and New Research Directions. Argamon. Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information Presentation and Transfer. and Read.nccu. and Schwarz.pdf Chaffar. Salzburger Beiträge zur Erziehungswissenschaft.). (2004). (2002). R. Bibliography Aist. Adaptive Hypermedia: From Intelligent Tutoring Systems to Web-Based Education. C.uregina. T..ri.pitt. V.technologyreview. S. Hershey. M. 22: 3–39.ht ml Aleven. Eshaa (Ed. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Program Semantics. In Proceedings.com/printer_f riendly_article. and F.wpi. Artificial Intelligence Review. 159-165. http://www. Web-Based Adaptive Tutor-ing: an 28 © Brandon Hall Research . P. http://www. Brazil.) (2006). Hermann (2002).J.Marvin Minsky. Vicari. Hua. M.tw/slides/200212-03/Distributed_ITS. Maceió.). Ritter. S. Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02). Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.sis. and Douglas.pdf Baldoni. Paper presented at the Third EDEN Research Workshop.pdf Barcena.sbg. (2004).. Peter (2000). In Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC'05) . http://www..pdf Brusilovsky. V. M. Reilly.ca/~butz/publication s/wi04.Volume I.eurodl. G. and Picard. C.edu. Towards Easier Creation of Tutorial Dialogue Systems: Integration of Authoring Environments for Tutor-ing and Dialogue Systems.edu/~peterb/papers/IT S00inv.html Brusilovsky. K. Paraguaçu (Eds. and Patti. a pioneer in artificial intelligence.cs.org/10. and Maguire. Lester. E. and Evens. M. McLaren. B. R. Lester.cmu.unito. 6(1).82 Bhatt.edu/doc/bhattevensargam onsubmit. Inducing Optimal Emotional State for Learning in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Baroglio. C. R. The Role of Scaffolding in a Learner-centered Tutoring System for Business English at a Distance.at/erz/salzburger_beitra ege/fruehling_2002/astleitner. I. and Frasson. http://nth. (2004). S. J. B. (2004). C.. http://www. Hedged responses and expressions of affect in human/ human and human/computer tutorial interactions. C.pdf Alkhalifa. P. C.pitt. Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2000 Conference (ITS2000). Chicago.. S. K.com/gp/product/1591 408431/sr=81/qid=1143215617/ref=sr_1_1/1021432436-8908931?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Astleitner.ac.. Kobe.. recently gave an interview to Technology Review magazine on the promise and limitations of AI.

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computer-based assessment tools. or performance samples. More sophisticated forms of automated. However. computer based assessment (CBA). Alternative ways of categorizing educational objectives include Säljö’s (1979) five “conceptions of learning.Assessment Tools Related terms Computer assisted assessment (CAA). samples. and (4) computer marking. This company has also been involved in developing interoperability standards for online assessments through the IMS Consortium. informal evaluations—especially in non-formal settings—may take place at any time.” Bateson’s four levels of learning. quizzes. In a business situation. Educational objectives are the key to assessing learning. These various schemes of organizing educational objectives are summarized and compared by James Atherton (2005) at: http://www. (3) tests and exams that can be taken at any place and time. Other types of assessment that go well beyond the tell-test model include “assessment for learning” or formative assessment that is used as feedback to the learner. practical abilities can be assessed using e-portfolios or simulation software. Online assessment can be used to assess both cognitive and practical abilities. and “assess-ment for credentialing” or Selected Examples Questionmark is one of the leading companies that produce online assessment tools. aptitudes. Assessment software can generate templates. The Web site contains a Do not reproduce 35 . For example. When combined into a “360° evaluation. online assessments are usually part of a formal evaluation plan. Several different taxonomies of educational objectives exist. is now possible with a tech-nique called “latent semantic analysis” (see Landauer. which is usually much more reliable than human marking. online assessment. We can expect that. in the near future. quizzes. rubrics. evaluation. While assessment in the workplace is often ubiquitous. latent semantic analysis will become part of the repertoire of assess-ment tools readily available to teachers and trainers. (2) instant feedback to students when desired.” these informal assessments are intended to reveal a particular person’s abilities. the automated scoring of essays.learningandteaching. affective. 1956). it is not uncommon for an individual’s perform-ance to be informally assessed by both peers and superiors. Cognitive abilities can be assessed by the right questions—questions that should relate to the educational objectives of teaching in formal settings.info/learni ng/solo. self-evaluation. eassessment. These advantages include: (1) lower long-term costs when questions/tests are reused. 1998 for an introduction to LSA).htm Computer assessment has many advantages over traditional (“paper-based”) assessment. ones that go well beyond the “tell then test” model. for example. and output. which was developed for three different domains of learning – cognitive. once only done by a human assessor. and documents for assessors to use. the initial setting up of an online assessment system can be expensive. and psychomotor. Description Assessment and evaluation are staples of almost all formal educational environments. Online assessment data can be derived from manual input by assessors or can be the results of automatically marked tests. The oldest is the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues (Bloom. testing summative assessment that is used as criteria for judging people in terms of awarding a certification or diploma. and Biggs and Collis’ (1982) five levels of learning described in their SOLO taxonomy. are already available. computer mediated assessment (CMA). making it hard to escape assess-ment. While many learning situations do not involve formal testing. and not all types of performances can be assessed by a computer.

the Educational Testing Service is dedicated to “serve higher education with an array of tests.respondus.epistema.com The National Institute for Science Education's College Level One Team. a customizable look and feel. http://www. learning tools.com/products/br ownstone/ XStream Software has produced Performance Analyzer. has recently won awards for its performance.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Easyquizz_productsheet_2006. a Web-based assessment authoring system from Ingenious Group. For information on latent semantic analysis.htm Easyquizz allows for media-rich quizzes and questionnaires without programming.com/wwwtools/magazines. an online assessment system with support for high stakes testing. multilingual support.htm WWWTools for Education is a resource site with articles on assessment and education. on its Web site. personality.horizonwimba. See more at: http://www.. Access the evaluation resources at: http://m.org Latent Semantic Analysis is a computerbased technique used automatically mark essays.edu/gened/ExemplarRubrics /Entry. skills. http://www.com For an online assessment of your foreign language ability.fasfind. Review it at: http://www. an assessment management system with extensive authoring. and services useful for outcomes assessment.com Hurix Systems has developed Red inQ. Diploma.K. Assessment tools are listed by discipline or technique.questionmark. from Resources Management Services in the U.pdf LearnFlex Evaluator is a new assessment engine with over a dozen question types that integrates seamlessly with the LearnFlex learning management system. You can also build adaptive quizzes depending on a user’s answers.com Horizon Wimba has acquired Brownstone Software and its assessment product.uc. http://www.edu/ Vantage Learning performs automatic computer-based assessments using its IntelliMetric and MY Access automatic scoring software.” http://www. http://nt.xstreamsoftware. (Full disclosure: I helped develop this software). http://www. http://www. offers a one-month free trial of their assessment product.htm Online Resources on Assessments The University of Cincinnati lists many “Exemplar Rubrics and Supplemental Assessment Tools. reporting. a completely customizable report engine. and adminis-tration features. html Brainbench Employment Testing provides assessments of knowledge. and adaptive question branching.flaguide.com/news_per formance_analyzer2. see: http://lsa.com/ Pedagogue Solutions has developed PedagogueTesting. http://www.com/evaluator Testcraft. institutional evaluation.com/redinq/html/index. http://www.colorado.ets.0. http://www. http://www. cfm?x=0&currentMagazineItemCategory=1 36 © Brandon Hall Research .dialang. http://www. has developed a Web site for FLAG – the Fieldtested Learning Assessment Guide. see: http://www. based at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. and self-study. preview pages for all question types.com The Evaluator.Glossary of Testing and Assessment Terms.org/ ETS. check out the Dialang web site.vantagelearning. and past work behaviors. Find them at: http://www.pedagogue. a 100 percent programming-free simulation-based assessment authoring technology.rmsuk.org/english/index.com Respondus is a powerful tool for creating and managing exams that can be printed to paper or published directly to many learning management systems.operitel.brainbench. For details. abilities.” organized by academic discipline.redinq.testcraft. surveys.

uka. Steps to an Ecology of Mind.html The Wolverhampton University “ComputerBased Assessment Project” can generate over 80.ac.cshe.tasainstitute. http://cba.. Online paper. http://www. Carro.au/assessing learning/03/online.health. A. with a list of 34 strategies. T. Do not reproduce 37 . Ortigosa. G.unimelb.ifets.uk/home.oir.edu. http://www.. 8 (3). http://www.000 different tests from its database.org/research/re views/10_01.htm Atkinson.heacademy. James (2005). http://www. http://www.html Bibliography Alfonseca. is available from: http://liinwww. (2004).html Online Resources for Assessment is a Web site developed by the Star Center in Texas.3 Bateson. R. Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT) Course Module 4.ira. M.edu/START/assess/ Quintessential Careers' Web site lists Career assessment resources.ht ml The 10th International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference took place in Scotland in July 2006. http://www. including a useful listing of assessments and rubrics.thinkinggear. http://www.learningandteaching. with over 1. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text Answers. http://www. Gregory (1973).htm#2.nestafuturelab.de/Bibliography/Misc /cba. Pérez.ulster. P. go to the University of Illinois’ Office of Instructional Resources.ict4lt. The Web page is entitled “Improving Your Test Questions.com/useguide/asse ssme/online.uk/handb ook/caa/ A comprehensive study of computer-based assessments in Canadian and American schools (K-12) is found at: http://www.discovery. (2005).learnflex. M.1: Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers. Explore the links at: http://www.com/whitepapers A major bibliography on computer-based assessments.pdf The University of Melbourne’s Centre for the Study of Higher Education has a guide to online assessments.ac.info/learni ng/solo.org/en/en_mod41.info/journals/8_3/6.html The Texas Center for Educational Technology lists five categories of assessment resources on its Web site. E.com/029. http://school. 5365.com/career_asses sment..umuc. D.scit.200 references. http://www. Educational Technology & Society.economicsnetwork. Freire. cfm The University of Ulster maintains a listing of tools and resources on Computer Assisted Assessment. and Davies.htm Nesta FutureLab in the UK has published a detailed literature review of all aspects of eassessment.htm A paper I wrote on the computer-based assessments of speaking and writing is at: http://www.html The Rubric Machine from Thinking Gear allows users to build performance-based rubrics for assessment use.html The Economics Network has placed a Computer Assisted Assessment handbook online. & Rodríguez.com/tools/rubrics.rmcdenver.ac.htm To improve your skills in question design and test construction.pdf Atherton.wlv. http://www. Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) and Language Learning..Kathy Schrock is a librarian with many online resources for teachers.unt.uk/cticomp/CAA.edu/distance/odell/irahe /arc/6too. Obtain a copy at: http://www. London: Paladin.uiuc.ac. http://www.uk/newsevents/eventsbox/10icaac/view The University of Maryland University College (UMUC) has a long list of assessment tools for the post-secondary level on its Web site. Learning and Teaching: SOLO taxonomy.” http://www.com/schrockguide/ assess.tcet.edu/dme/exams/ITQ..quintcareers.

.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23.com/TaxonomyEducational-Objectives-HandbookCognitive/dp/0582280109/sr=81/qid=1160618496/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Brown. Burstein (Eds. V.htm Burstein. Jill. & Leacock. Chodorow... K. (1989). (2003). August 2003.msu. Linn (Ed. Arlington Heights.) Special Issue on Advances in Natural Language Processing. L.htm 38 © Brandon Hall Research . In M. and Hirschman.computer. NY: Macmillan.pdf. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Online paper. Rethink testing for future success. Iwashita. Hillsdale.eschoolnews. Harabagiu and F. N. Ciravegna (Eds.amazon.com/Steps-EcologyMind-AnthropologyEpistemology/dp/0226039056/sr=81/qid=1157466914/ref=pd_bbs_1/0029253176-3276022?ie=UTF8&s=books Bernstein.com/news/showS toryts. C. and Knight. How to Assess Authentic Learning.assess. http://www. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. In R. In S. Daniel. T. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays.).amazon. (1982). http://www. and Chodorow. B. CriterionSM: Online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays. Marcu. (2003). Educational Measurement. 3rd Edition. Acapulco. Daniel. Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO taxonomy. IEEE Intelligent Systems.amazon. Jill.assess. 1. http://www. Burstein.org/research/dload/iaai03b ursteinj.iltaonline. B. McNamara.) Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspec-tive. http://www. Robert (2005). http://www. Hillsdale. S. Directions in Automated Essay Analysis. Kaplan (Ed. http://www. Mexico. Kevin (2003). Missouri..edu/vol1num1/brown/ Brumfield..amazon. A.com/gp/product/0195 187911/sr=81/qid=1156364470/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burstein.) Automated essay scoring: A crossdisciplinary perspective. http://www. (2001). (2003). and Marcu. New York: Academic Press.com/EvaluatingQuality-Learning-EducationalPsychology/dp/0120975521/sr=81/qid=1160618428/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Bloom.iltaonline. and O'Hagan. New York.cfm?ArticleID=5735 Bunderson. Evolution of Performance Measures for Language Technologies.org/intelligent/archives. http://www. J. Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence. St.amazon.com/gp/product/1575 171511/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Burstein. L. M.pdf Biggs. Kay (1999). www. eSchool News. Developing Technology for Automated Evaluation of Discourse Structure in Student Essays. Louis.pdf Brown J. J. IL: Skylight. C. The E-rater Scoring Engine: Automated Essay Scoring With Natural Language Processing. Martin.http://www. New York: McKay.com/Books/b39739. J. "Computers in language testing: present research and some future predictions". (2002). In the R.com/gp/product/1573 562211/sr=8- 1/qid=1156363927/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Burke. Burstein. http://www. S. D. http://www. K. June 22. New York: Oxford. & Olsen. Inouye.) Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/Books/b39739. Shermis and J. The four generat-ions of computerized educational measurement. the classif-ication of educational goals –Cognitive Domain. (1956). Burstein (Eds. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. Investigating Raters' Orientation in Specific-pur-pose Task-based Oral Assessment.com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. (2001). 2005. Jill C. Langu-age Learning and Technology. http://llt. and Collis.ets. J.. Jill.amazon. (1997). In M. Shermis and J.htm.

N. H.org/about/over/positions/ category/write/107610.msu. Millard.softwaresecure. http://www. D. Scott (2003) E-Learning and Paper Testing: why the gap? Educause Quarterly. http://www. Robert. http://www. 5. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.utas. v. 2.Proceedings from a Workshop. (Eds. Howell. Online paper. Language Learning & Technology 2. http://www.. http://wwwpsych.ac. PA: Information Science. B.. Micheline. Construct Validation of an Integrated Communicative Language Test.edu. 5. (2005).amazon. In Proceedings of 9th International CAA Conference. Language testing and technology: past and future.edu. Davis. M.ncte. (2001). Seven technologies for assessment. Online newsletter. Using and integrating CALL and multiple media for specific purposes in the teaching and learning process. Language Learning and Technology. (2002). Aggregating Assessment Tools in a Service Oriented Architecture.doc.html Chalhoub-Deville.. M.pdf Dunkel P. University of Tasmania. C. http://www.) (2005). & Landauer. National Research Council. Paper presented at the Inaugural WorldCALL Conference. W.au/worldcall/str5. (1998).html Davies.) (1999). and Grellett. Foltz. No.. March 9.pdf Hricko. Laham.htm. http://mason. "Considerations in developing or using second / foreign language proficiency computer-adaptive tests". EdMedia '99.amazon. K.pdf Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) (2004).com/gp/product/0465 025102/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Goodwin-Jones. S. Morgan.edu/vol5num2/Deville/defaul t. (Ed.Hershey. O’Reilly.amazon.htm l Center for Education (CFE) (2002).com/ILTA_archive/LT RC23. C. Automated Essay Scoring: Applications to Educational Technology. St. Chalhoub-Deville. Emerging technologies: language testing tools and technologies. and Sclater.gmu.uk/10940/03/a ggregating_assessment_tools_in_a_SOA. (2001).edu/vol2num2/article4/ Dunn. Howard (1993). Y. Gardner.edu/books/0309083206/ html/1.htm Cebrian. (2004). Technology and Assessment: Thinking Ahead -. http://eprints. and Parry. May. (2004). http://www. Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. M. The Student Assess-ment Handbook. (2001). 2: 77-93. (1999). W. www.html Frase. 2.com/gp/product/0415 335302/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Flexible Education Unit. Assessment and online discussion: Eight ways to incorporate online discussion into assessment. P. In Proceedings. http://llt.soton.edu/~amelmed/768%2 0Fall%2002/Frase. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium. n. T. Board on Testing and Assessment. http://llt. S. Nathan.com/pdf/Paper Tests. London: Falmer. Online Assessment and Measurement: foundations and challenges.edu/vol5num2/emerging/def ault.msu. Louis.edu/~pfoltz/reprints/Edmedia9 9. v. Micheline. L. Language Learning and Technology..hlc.Carr. May. Loughborough. Lawrence. E. and Howell.iltaonline. Writing assessment: a position statement.com/gp/product/1591 404983/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Do not reproduce 39 .html. College Composition and Communication Online. (1999). 4. D. Online newsletter.au/teachingonline/de velop/webct_tools/communications/assess _online_discussion. Issues in Computer-Adaptive Testing of Reading Proficiency. http://www. n. http://llt.unimelb.ecs.nap. New York: Basic Books. Howard.nmsu. http://www..msu. P.

(2005). P. A study of problem difficulty evaluation for semantic network ontology based intelligent courseware sharing.. Government.org/PUBLICATIONS_PR ESENTATIONS/Presentations%2071. pp. Burstein. (2006). and Hricko.com/gp/product/0805 835113/sr=11/qid=1155440128/ref=sr_1_1/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Williams. (1979). DC: U...S. S. & Leacock. H.com/exec/obidos/ASIN /B0008FG3V2/qid%3D1131404585/sr%3 D11-1/ref%3Dsr%5F11%5F1/1032496940-8161425 Mills. http://nces. http://www. Fremer.) (2002). M.Jones. http://www. http://www. M. D. Hillsdale.ed. Computerized Adaptive Testing: a primer.LSAintr o.amazon. N.medianet. (Eds. http://www. Howard. Hardas.. R. NY: Guilford Press. http://www. (Eds.proexam.edu/publications /WI05DL-problemcmplexity-KHM. Fitzgerald. (1998). D. J.. and Skinner. Compiegne. R (2002).) (2005). Peer and Group Assessment in e-Learning. and Assessment. K. 5(2). http://escholarship. M. (2000). W.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home. B. National Center for Education Statistics. New York. Advanced Measurement Models and Test Designs for Computer-Based Assessments..gov/pubs2000/2000195. C. Handbook of writing research.. T. W. Measurement and Evaluations. D. http://www.pd f Weiner. 4(6). and Ward. International Journal on E-Learning. J. McArthur. J. Language Learning and Technology.amazon. Comparing examinee attitudes toward computer-assisted and other oral proficiency assessments.bc.. Howell.edu/vol5num2/kenyon/defau lt. http://www. May.pdf MacDonlad. http://lsa. & J.ed. Weller. http://www.com/gp/product/1591 407486/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glanc Woodill. Foltz. Journal of Technol. http://eric. M. M. and Malabonga. D.edu/papers/dp1.cgi?article=1036&context=jtla Shermis.po rtal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetail s&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED1733 69&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_ac cno&objectId=0900000b8011c857 Scalise.com/gp/product/1593 851901 United States Department of Education. Learning.com/gp/product/1591 409667/sr=1- 2/qid=1155438114/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8&s=books Säljö. Information Science Publishing. Discourse Processes. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. and Writing.edu/cgi/viewcontent . A.colorado. The NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment.amazon. Proceedings of the International Conference on Web Intelligence. Volume 1: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Critical Thinking. Potenza. 259284. University of Gothenburg.com/gp/product/0805 837590/002-88673273277647?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Mogey. The use of computers in the assessment of Roberts. Computer-Based Testing: building the foundation for future assessments. and Watt.. The Design of LearnFlex Evaluator™: 40 © Brandon Hall Research . (2001).pdf Landauer. In C.. G.kent. J.. Online Assessment. M. Y. and Ma. Hershey. (2006). (Ed. Computer-Based Assessment in E-Learning: A Framework for Construct-ing “Intermediate Constraint” Questions and Tasks for Technology Platforms.) (2000). Self. & Laham. PA: Information Science. (2005). K. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Graham. 403-416. France.msu. Mahwah. Meeting the assessment demands of networked courses. (1999). Applications of computers in assessment and analysis of writing. S.amazon. Presentation to the Seminar on Innovations in Computer Based Assessment. Learning in the Learner's Perspective: 1: some commonplace misconceptions.pdf Kenyon. & Mason. http://llt. V.amazon. C.amazon. Reports from the Institute of Education. Patrick (2000).html Khan. Washington. Tim (2006). 25. Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis. Problem Solving. and Gifford.

com Do not reproduce 41 .a Web-based adaptable assessment and evaluation application. Operitel white paper.operitel. http://www.

Consumers view traditional radio as having too much advertising. Using sound to convey understanding and knowledge has a long history. is podcasting. depending on the file size). The file format for podcasting is usually MP3. The quality of online audio depends on many factors. Audio that is designed for iPods can be played on a variety of audio devices. Distributing audio on the Internet is done either by downloading files (which can take considerable time. You can’t add your own notes. This frag-mentation is being fueled. Podcasting is the name for 42 © Brandon Hall Research . With the advent of “broadband” or “high-speed” networks. podcasting. including the following: > > > > > > > Connection speed Sampling Rate Bit Depth Number of Channels Digital Audio Format Compression Techniques Amount of Available Disk Storage > > > But there are also limitations to the exclusive use of audio as an educa-tional medium.e. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) suggests that using audio files. Assists non-native speakers. helps learning in the following ways: > > > > > Assists auditory learners. including the following: > Podcasting allows listeners to engage in time-shifting while providing space independence. which is gaining in popularity. such as those for iPods.. the rest of the file has time to arrive. Description Audio is an important component of many learning experiences. while one minute of recognizable but very low quality mono audio can be stored in as little as . Provides another channel for material review.” whereby a portion of the audio file is fed into the Internet application as a “buffer” and. Audio in e-learning must reach an acceptable level of quality while maintaining file sizes that allow audio files to be rapidly sent via the Internet. the growth of podcasting is being shaped by a number of social factors. It is another way of distributing content online that is now being used in many educational settings. and you can’t put hyperlinks in the middle of an audio stream the way you can with text. (i.5 megabytes. We are seeing a fragmentation of traditional media — from mass broadcasting to media that is tailored to individual needs. (i.Audio and Podcasting Tools Related terms iPod. while it is playing. radio sharing audio files designed for devices like the iPod. One audio application of interest to educators. It is almost impossible to “skim” or “speed-hear” an audio file. including desktop computers fitted with a sound card and speakers. or by “streaming. which can be downloading from many sources on the Internet. to personalized media). one minute of high quality stereo audio sampled often and digitized using 16 bits at a time can require as much as 10 megabytes. in part.e. According to Crofts et al. compared with even a few years ago. to listen to media at a time and place that is convenient). Listeners are frustrated with the homogeneous nature of traditional radio programming. being the main form of communication in pre-literate societies. the quality of online audio has been greatly improved. by podcasting — a technology that allows individuals to share their expertise and interests with others.. For example. Provides feedback to learners. Enables instructors to review training or lectures. (2005).

http://sourceforge. freeware.thepodcastnetwork. playback. Microsoft Windows.scientificcomputing. http://www.rds. go to: http://www. and other operating systems.h tml The Envison Center at Purdue University allows discovery learning through the use of visualization and audio technologies. tools. > Dozens of tips on how to use audio and other media in an online classroom can be found on Pink Flamingo’s resource lists. htm RECAP Ltd. http://www. phrases. open source software for recording and editing sounds. http://www. http://www. http://www. CD audio extraction. enhancing. http://epnweb.com/ Robin Good has posted a list on his blog of sites that accept educational podcast materials. in the UK provides an online directory of educational podcasts and other podcasting resources.com/scwmarapr05sonification.elearningcentre.avsmedia. http://www.edupodder. shareware.> Replaces full classroom or online sessions when content simply requires delivery. listed on the Sound Resources page at the E-Learning Centre in the UK.com/itunes/ Audacity is free.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.podcasting-tools.uk/podcasting/index.com/ Sound Sense is an article by Ray Girvan in Scientific American on the sense of hearing. http://www.net/projects/audacity/ A downloadable business textbook using audio only has been developed by David Sturges at the University of Texas. http://www.html AVS Audio Tools is a suite of software utilities that can help with audio production and distribution.co.htm Meng (2005) adds that “the ability to timeshift content versus traditional broadcast distribution models expands student teaching and learning opportunities significantly. including software to record and play podcasts.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. It is available to download for Mac OS X. http://64. including podcasting. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. GNU/Linux.purdue.envision.48.com/resources/dc_media.php /archives/2004/11/02/the-textbook-isaudio/ A huge selection of educational and other content in audio format is available at the Podcast Network.com/AudioTools/inde x.htm For a list of podcasting tools.php Over 700 tools for digital audio are found at the Audio Tools Direct Web site.automaticsync. sound editing. and broadcasting are all found on this site. http://www. http://www. Audio and video software.uk/eclipse/Resources/so und. DJ mixing.com.org/ Check out the many helpful articles on using sound in e-learning. http://www. and utilities for conversion. http://www.htm#Teaching Do not reproduce 43 . or sentences from audio Web sites.71.aspx Everything you wanted to know about podcasting can be found at edupodder.ibritt.ltd. Can provide supplementary content or be part of a blended solution.com/ The Education Podcast Network (EPN) tries to bring together educational podcasts in a wide range of subjects that may be useful to teachers in a classroom.com/lipsync/ind ex. http://recap.com/ SearchSync software allows you to search for specific words.audiotoolsdirect. recording.edu/ Online Resources on Audio and Podcasting Teresa A.” Selected Examples Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable music tracks and other audio for playback on an iPod or a computer.apple.com/blogs/doug/index.

html Curtis. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2001(1).h tml Canali De Rossi. and Videoblogs in Higher Education. http://www. Audio on the Web: enhance on-line instruction with digital audio..scientificcomputing.html Kaplan-Leiserson.unl.multitrackstudio. RECAP (Russell Educational Consultancy and Productions). Podcasting and Vodcasting.) Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Luigi (2005).com/scwmarapr05sonification.edu/LibraryDetailPag e/666?ID=LIVE0514 Bibliography Buhman.com/ AudioLink employees are considered “narrative sound specialists. http://recap. http://digitalcommons. http://www.ViewAbstract&paper_id=14966 Gerth. http://firstmonday.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. Robin Good’s Blog.org/3455 44 © Brandon Hall Research .com/home. 10(9).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. http://edmarketing.edu/dissertation s/AAI9929186 Crofts.com/products/audition/ main. Retsema. Live Educause online presentation (PowerPoint slides). Fox. Podcasting: A new technology in search of viable business models. C. 2005..org/issues/issue10_9/c rofts/index.uk/articles/podguide. Richards (Ed.adobe. N.educause.” providing narration for Web sites in a variety of languages.com/ Sonic Foundry Mediasite http://www. Exploiting the educational potential of podcasting. Brenda (2001). and Higher Education 2003 (pp. http://www. L.org/index. S.cakewalk. Healthcare. and Lomas. In G. 417-419). White paper prepared for the University of Missouri. 45-50. and Williams. and Swenson. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. (2005) Narrowcasting 101: Using Blogs. Ray (2005). July 2005. A.aace.htm Jobbings. http://www. Following is a list of the Web addresses of some well-known sound editing software: Adobe Audition http://www. First Monday.editlib.bias-inc. April 2005.A number of audio editors are available on the Web. (2005). P. Scientific Computing World. Chesapeake. Dilley.org/news/20 05/05/20/where_to_submit_your_podcast s. (2003). Sound Sense.ltd.audiolink.masternewmedia. University of Nebraska. pdf Noakes. B. Podcasts.html Girvan.org/2005/jun2 005/0506_trends Meng. September. Peter (2005). http://www.com/ Cakewalk SONAR http://www. Dave (2005). M.html Bias Audio Peak Pro http://www. Dion Cory (1999). J. Where To Submit Your Podcasts: Best Podcast Search Engines And Directories. May 20. Doctoral Dissertation. http://dl. Government. http://www.learningcircuits. June 2005.com/ Bremmers Multitrack Studio http://www..apple. Exploring the Use of Data Sonification to Convey Relative Spatial Information. Trend: Podcasting in Academic and Corporate Learning.sonicfoundry. Eva (2005). VA: AACE. Learning Circuits.

and. No authoring tool does everything. (For details. Current Adobe offerings that are useful in creating online content include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Acrobat After Effects Audition Authorware Breeze Captivate ColdFusion Dreamweaver Director Fireworks Flash Flex FrameMaker FreeHand Do not reproduce 45 . and Evaluation) processes.Authoring Tools Related terms Assessments. in the end.microsoft. see: http://www. either directly or with third party tools. Selected Examples Microsoft Corporation produces content development tools that can be converted to Web content. many of their products form the basis for the infrastructure used by e-learning applications. entitled Emerging E-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content. Further.brandonhall. most of which I cover in my first book for Brandon Hall Research (Woodill. 2004) a systematic teambased approach to content development based on Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and ADDIE (Analysis. Reuban Tozman (2005) warns that simply having tools for creating e-learning content (a well-equipped kitchen) does not necessarily lead to great instructional design (outstanding food). In this vein. please see http://www. Adobe Corporation is probably the leading source of software tools for creating online content. Tozman argues for a Structured Content Development Model (Tozman. Learning content is a bit like the food served at an outstanding restaurant – creating it depends on having a great chef and a well-equipped kitchen. For details on each Microsoft product. content development. There are as many types of authoring tools as there are types of media. Design.com/publications/emerging/emerging. many learning management systems (LMSs) and learning content management systems (LCMSs) have built-in proprietary authoring systems that are not listed below. As well. simulations. rapid elearning. Implementation. The Microsoft products most commonly used for developing e-learning (aside from programming languages) include the following: > > > > > > > > > FrontPage Live Communications Server PowerPoint Project SharePoint SQL Server Visio Windows Server Word Description Great online learning content is created using sound educational principles coupled with robust content authoring tools.com/ Since its acquisition of Macromedia. all content needs to be combined with other content to produce a rich learning experience. 2005). The list of authoring tools below includes those tools that produce general Web-based courses or learning objects. Development. Please also see the sections of this report on assessments and simulations for a list of authoring tools developed for those specific content formats. There are other formal approaches to authoring great content.s html).

video.Content Point .turbodemo. pointers. http://www. http://www. Builds quizzes.Presenter – Create Flash presentations and e-learning content from PowerPoint slides. http://presentation. pop-up messages.anark. http://www. and PowerPoint slides.TurboDemo – Create demos in a few minutes with screen capture and assembly. Integrates various media.html 46 © Brandon Hall Research .CourseWare – Guild linear HTML pages with FlowHow and simulations using screen shots with ShowHow.htm ActiveSlide. and data output and instantly turns it into an online rich media production. http://www.com/powerp oint-presentations-index.com/ There are hundreds of other content creation and conversion tools used in elearning today.allencomm.uk/ DELFI Software – LERSUS – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming skills. Following is a master list of Web content authoring systems other than Adobe or Microsoft products: Accordent Technologies . http://www.thinkingcap. Flash.lersus.Brainshark Communications Platform – Upload PowerPoint slides and narrate them with this software.AcroTrain – Author e-learning courses using PowerPoint. Quest – A visual authoring environment with reusable templates. Webbased e-learning content quickly and easily. www.com/ CopyCat – Studio One – Has a Simulation wizard (MiMiC) to create realistic simulations.ilessons.com/ Counterpoint .Designer’s Edge.articulateglobal.com/index. http://www.0 – This device records and synchronizes audio.adobe. htm Composica .uk/contentpoint. http://www.A Webbased e-learning authoring system that offers real-time collaboration among team members and provides a powerful programming-free WYSIWYG environment to create high-quality interactive e-learning content. http://www.bridge-pt.atlanticlink.acroservices. and images and turn them into 3-D training.com/eng/index. video.elearningpowertools. hotspots. XML. visualization.accordent.> > > > > > > GoLive Illustrator InDesign PageMaker Photoshop Premiere RoboHelp Atlantic Link .Composica Enterprise . and marketing applications. video. rich text. http://www. including the following: Drag-and-drop images. .com/newAS/files/ products/acrotrain. as well as to integrate Flash and PowerPoint content.co.asp Bridge People and Technology .composica. http://www.Allows nonprogrammers to generate complex. http://www.copycatsoftware.com/products/ Articulate .com – Active Slide – Obtain help creating Flash movies.com/ Acroservices .Capture Station 2.A team-oriented authoring environment that uses a Structured Content Development Model to efficiently create consistent SCORMcompliant courseware that may be exported to any LMS.com Agile .iLessons – Capture and use Web sites to build online courses within a browser.htm Brainshark Inc. http://www.Media – Import 3-D Models.com Anark .Thinkcap Studio .info/ Allen Communications .brainshark.com/ Business Performance Technology . http://www.co. go to: http://www. music. buttons.activeslide.de/content/enu/productn-solutions/authoring-system/ For details on each Adobe product.com/presenter.Intiva Adds Flash animations and interactivity to elearning courses without programming.htm Bernard D&G . http://www.

http://www. stand alone .Seminar Author – A rapid development tool that produces SCORM-conformant e-learning modules. Import rich media and customize graphics. and installation files. http://www.com/ Eclipsys Corporation . audio. http://www.pdf Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.com/ Hunter Stone . without programming knowledge. http://www. HTML courses. and animation.uk/ INTEC .Opus Pro – Rapid development tool.iPerform Course Builder – A rapid and easy to use Do not reproduce 47 .intecllc.com/ka.dynamicpowertrainer.EasyAuthor Publishes newly developed courseware in one step through the One Button Publishing feature.impatica.elementk.e-learningconsulting. such as the following: Web. video.com/Solutions/Elearni ng.LECTURNITY – A rapid development tool that includes the ability to record and quickly publish lectures online.horizonwimba. http://www.com imc AG .htm Harbinger Knowledge Products .KnowledgeHub Authoring Services – Web-based tool using templates that facilitates rapid e-learning content development and deployment.com/reaxia_files/Epis tema_Epistudio_productsheet_2006. http://www.eclipsys.e2train. http://www. http://www.com/ Horizon Wimba – CourseGenie – Create content using Microsoft Word.com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Knowledge Assembler – A colorful graphical user interface and "drag-and-drop" design makes assembling and modifying courses a breeze.de/ Impatica .com Element K .Impatica for PowerPoint – A PowerPoint converter that enables content to be projected using a Blackberry PDA. DVD-video.asp Eedo Knowledgeware .com/index. http://www.WTDS-Web Training Development System . and then convert it to a SCORM-compliant course with this software. Finished Opus work can be published in a number of different formats.com/ Information Transfer . http://www. http://www.Dynamic Power Trainer – A rapid development authoring environ-ment with WYSIWYG real-time preview . and/or tests and quizzes with these authoring tools. http://www. multimedia training content without any prior programming knowledge.asp?orgid =22&storyTypeID=&sid=&menuID=127& (e)pistema . graphics.experiencebuilders.epistema.elicitus.sculptoris.eedo.com/products/forceten. Powerful Object Sharing and Versioning tools eliminate duplicitous work.Development Kits – Create Flash courses. CD Rom.Elicitus Content Publisher – Part of a suite of products for rapid online content development. Designed for subject matter experts – not instructional designers or programmers – with wizard-like functionality and graphical templates.seminar.gen21.Kallidus Authoring System – A WYSIWYG authoring tool with built-in support for graphics. http://www.ht ml E-Learning Consulting .com/products/ Pro.Sculptoris Voices Studio – Create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch with this tool set.com Imaira Digital Media . http://www.com/ Integrated Performance Systems .com/inde x_eng. http://www. http://www. or Macromedia Flash media presentations.exe files.Eedo ForceTen – Rapid content authoring with drag-and-drop tools.Epistudio – Import PowerPoint files and easily synch narration with slides.lecturnity.hunterstone.co.Enables courseware developers to create and publish interactive. http://www.digitalworkshop. creating a CD of courseware exercises that include all related files.shtml Dynamic Media .Thesis – Thesis takes Microsoft Office produced content and converts it to SCORM-conformant packages.Digital Workshop . Post the characters on any Web site. http://www. Has templates for authoring simulations without programming.php e2train .

com/home/home.asp?id= 178410&page=4&mode=show MaxIT Corporation .com/tbt/dac/index. and assessment content is input and uploaded into the course by the client administrator via the easy-to-use browserbased admin system.E-Learning in a Box – Use this system to author in MS Word or PowerPoint.knowledgeplanet.htm MediaMaker .com/ OPTX International .Firefly Publisher – Includes simulation authoring and drag-anddrop importing of rich media.Used to create presentations without programming skills.com .KnowledgePresenter – Tool to create fully interactive SCORMcompliant e-learning lessons.authoring tool based on Flash templates. http://www. http://www. .com/downloads/IPS_CourseBuilder_Bro chure.EasyProf .com MyKnowledgeMap .LEARNERLand – Text.pdf Intuition . and PowerPoint into a set of templates. from software simulations and multiple choice quizzes to fully synchronized multimedia presentations.easyprof.php MindOnSite .co. centralized knowledge base.com/index.ScreenWatch Producer – Records lectures. http://www. and other online presentations for play back to 48 © Brandon Hall Research .DazzlerMax – A template based authoring tool for rapid development that allows the user to embed multiple media types.com/ NetPlay Software .instant-demo.knowledgextensions. Works with SAP Learning Solution.Banshee – Rapid development authoring tool with templates for multiple kinds of screens typically used in e-learning.knowledgepresenter. create courses specifically on how to use computer software. http://www. http://www.customcourse.mckinnonmulherin.ipsinc.htm Kookaburra Studios . Has its own built-in learning management system.mindonsite.CourseMaker Studio – Multifeatured authoring environment that synchronizes text to audio and integrates with many other learning technologies.knowledgequest. http://www.learn. Built-in testing engine.ch/eLearning/EN/in dex. http://www.Intuition Publisher – A rapid development tool that allows users to import Flash.elearninginabox. and animations with tests and interactivity. http://www.com/ KnowledgeXtensions . with a built-in learning management system.intuition. with no programming and no plugins.com MaxIT Corporation – Visual Course Builder – A template based authoring tool for rapid development without the need for any programming skills.jsp Knowledge Planet . http://www.uk/ MindIQ . graphics.com/prods erv. http://www. audio.maxit.com/flashhom e. Ready-made button and navigation aids.maxit.ie/software/publisher.com/ KnowledgeXtensions – Kbridge – A tool that allows maximum reuse of content and scalability from an XML-based. shtml Itaca .asp Knowledge Quest .Integral Coaching – MOS Solo – A multilingual rapid development tool that requires no programming. http://www.mohive.html Mohive – Enterprise e-Learning Publishing System – An authoring environment with advanced workflow support and the ability to be integrated with a variety of learning management systems.learnerland. http://www. http://www.Custom Learning Studio – Rapid development tool set with a hotspot editor and storytelling templates. http://www. http://www.com McKinnon-Mulherin Inc.NetPlay Instant Demo – Screen recording software for developing online presentations and demos.Design-a-Course – A PowerPoint to e-learning courses converter. Word. PowerPoint slides.com/learncenter. http://www. combining multimedia content like video. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool. http://www.mindiq.com/ Learn.

http://www.In minutes. http://www. Courses can be posted.A free rapid development tool that is designed for authoring single courses.com Rapid Intake . French.Web Author – A rapid development environment that produces learning objects.com/sensasoluti on.rapidintake.podiaOnDemand .qarbon. or Spanish.htm Suddenly Smart .E-Learning Objects .com/ Savvica .ht m Techsmith . crosswords.Learning Composer – A tool used to easily author learning objects with a repository for SCORM-compliant content.pointecast.suddenlysmart. http://www.syberworks.com Respondus .techsmith. Provides a course design template using Microsoft Word. and course player all in one software package.Create and publish multimedia presentations on the Internet using Video.com/smartbuild er-web/sb_author.Flash Companion eLearning Studio – Create interactive Flash based courseware that is AICC.htm SoftChalk – LessonBuilder – A Web-based lesson editor with interactive learning games.com/ Percepsys .com/common/affili ateRefer.ViewletBuilder – Screen sequencing capture software that allows users to easily add narration to produce online demos. and assessments. http://www.Publisher Professional .ToolBook Assistant – A rapid development authoring tool that requires no programming knowledge. Microsoft PowerPoint. http://www. a customizable.shtml Reusable Objects .ReadyGo! – A PowerPoint to Flash converter.com/ SumTotal . http://www. GIFs. image labeling. http://www. customizable flashcards. either from scratch or by converting existing MS Office documents. and Flash.readygo.respondus. interactive Flash presentations and online training.Scribe Studio – A rapid development tool for the Web. http://www.reusableobjects. kiosks. http://www.SmartBuilder – Authoring tool that incorporates the capabilities of Flash into a visual working environment.podia. popups. image hotspot activities. http://nuvvo.net/ PointeCast . Audio.students.com/ Qarbon . http://www.p hp?from=menu SumTotal .screenwatch. password-protected Web site is automatically created for this content at the Web address of the user's choice. turn PowerPoint presentations into high-quality. Develop AICC-compliant WBT or CD-Rom courses in English.SNAP! Studio – A course builder. http://www.jsp?id=17558 Sensa – Sensa Presenter – Rich media course development software using comprehensive online development templates and tools.An intuitive environment embedded within Microsoft Word for easily creatiing interactive learning materials.cfm Serco (technical) .com/coursegen. and highly interactive elearning content.percepsys. http://www.Camstasia Studio – Record screens and inputs from Web cams.Nuvvo . http://www.com/products/study mate.sensalearning.htm Do not reproduce 49 . without knowing code.com/learn_assistant.com/Products/elearnin g_objects.ToolBook Instructor – A full featured authoring tool for creating simulations.toolbook.com/products/lc.CONSTRUCT Author –A tool that allows people without any HTML programming skills to rapidly develop SCORM-compliant e-learning courses and assessments.com/camtasia. course publisher.com/ Scribe Studio . http://www. JPEGs.scribestudio.com/product_sa.toolbook.com/learn_assistant. matching games. http://www.net ReadyGo . http://www. http://www.p hp?from=menu SyberWorks .teknical. When content is developed. http://www.teds.asp TEDS . http://www.htm podia .or SCORMcompliant.softchalk.StudyMate – Author ten Flashbased activities and games using three simple templates.

interactive and intelligent educational software. Adaptive E-Learning Content Generation based on Semantic Web Technology. Illinois. D.cs. http://www. L.htm l Travantis – Lectora – A full featured authoring system that includes drag-anddrop authoring. and Brusilovsky.A rapid development package that produces elearning content and assessments for Quick Delivery on the Web. http://www. Lin (2005). content conversion.oswego. publish blogs. Northwestern University. and rapid simulation.com/publications/atkb/atkb_firms.xstreamsoftware.lectora. http://www. Melia.AuthoLearn – An authoring tool that produces SCORM 1. (2003).com/gp/product/1402 017723/sr=87/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_7/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Qiu. http://www.2-conformant objects and assessments. http://www.cs. audio.com/Technology.com/ Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has an Authoring Tool Knowledge Base that compares 100 of the best elearning content development applications.Built-in authoring tools allow you to instantly create dynamic multimedia presentations by easily integrating PowerPoint slides.html Westcliff – SCObuilder.com/products/products _xwb. and host online discussions.nl/SW-EL/2005/swel05aied05/proceedings/5-Holohan-final-full.. and text. Hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA).pdf Murray. http://workforceconnections. S. or Network.westcliffdata. http://www.pdf Ramp.gov/ Webex .. CD.amazon. and Ainsworth. Doctoral Dissertation.brandonhall.php XStream Software – RapidBuilder – Completely (100 percent) programming-free simulation authoring tool. Blessing. P. Government. and Riesbeck. templates. Authoring and Delivery of Adaptive Electronic Textbooks made Easy. http://www.oswego. SCORMxt – Take content developed in other software packages and convert them to SCORM packages.dol. M.Bloki – Bloki is a Web site where users can create Web pages.bloki. T.com/products/tra inersoft/trainersoft8.com/services/webpresentation-svc. C. http://www.funeducation.time4you. E.trainvision. The Design for Authoring and Deploying Web-based Interactive Learning Environments. (2005). Evanston.. http://www. Proceedings of the SWEL/AIED 2005 Conference.php?c ontent=products/scobuilder Xplana .Presentation Studio .win. images.uk/index.. and Higher Education (E-Learn 50 © Brandon Hall Research . McMullen. P.tue. June 2005.sht ml Bibliography Holohan. Healthcare.com/download _rb40eval. and wizards.IBT Content Solution – A set of tools that allows for Web authoring. S. http://www. C. http://www. (2005).time4you GmbH . Proceedings of the World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. (2005).Workforce Connections – Free content development software that is available to individuals. and Pahl. E.xplana.asp TrainVision . Authoring Tools for Advanced Technology: towards cost-effective adaptive. http://www. De Bra. A Web-based Architecture and Incremental Authoring Model for Interactive Learning Environments for Diagnostic Reasoning.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Trainersoft – Desktop Author . www. www. Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia.XplanaWorkbook – A homework management system that allows teachers to create assignments and online courses without any technical knowledge.co.edu/~lqiu/ Qiu.webex.htm Zapatec . right in their browser with no additional software required. Montreal. Berlin: Springer.com/ US Government .edu/~lqiu/indie/publication s/edmedia2005. video.

Masters Thesis. June 2005. Eindhoven.edu/~paws/publication s. AACE.ViewAbstract&paper_id=21157 Ramp. CA: Brandon Hall Research.htm Tozman. Gary (2005). 2004.htm Woodill. (2005).sis..org/2004/nov2 004/tozman.editlib. A. http://www. Authoring through Concept Structure Level Translation of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems. Technical Univ. Reuben (2005). October 2428.org/2005/jun2 005/tozman. W. Emerging e-Learning: new approaches to delivering engaging online learning content.s html Do not reproduce 51 .2005).cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Reuben (2004). Vancouver. 2005.org/index.learningcircuits.learningcircuits. Learning Circuits. http://www. http://www. NL. Another new paradigm for instructional design. Learning Circuits. http://www. The myth about tools. BC. Canada. E.brandonhall.pitt.htm Tozman. Sunnyvale. http://www2. Nov.com/publications/emerging/emerging.

Seth (2003) says that “an avatar.com Second Life is a virtual environment where you can create avatars to represent yourself. http://www.html NOAH is a Flash-based system that enables you to use a NOAH avatar for Web-based or CD-based projects.codebaby. expose their weaknesses in this image and confront unpleasant situations to build confidence. In some situations. games.typepad. in the broadest sense.com/ Some aspects of Second Life have been used for education and training. In the area 52 © Brandon Hall Research . simulations Description The term “avatar” comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.” Technologies used to make avatars seem believable and socially aware include the following: > > > • Human-like face and body-generation and animation • Speech-recognition or at least textual or multi-choice input • Speech-generation with text-tospeech (TTS) systems with lip-synch speech synthesis • Emotion-simulation where appropriate and feasible • Chat and story telling capabilities of psychotherapy. and generally simulates human activity. An avatar is a virtual character that represents (or stands in for) a person in an online environment. Similarly.” This indicates that emotionally realistic avatars may be important in the near future as companions who can support positive learning outcomes.” Deuchar and Nodder (2004) are more precise in describing an avatar as “a computer generated graphic representation of a user within a 3Dimension (3-D) Virtual Reality (VR) environment therefore enabling the user to take on a visible persona. the avatar almost always operates as an agent of the e-learning application. http://www. a great deal could be learnt by observing psychotherapy patients as they project an image. as well as increasing perceptions of the character’s intelligence and credibility. but in e-learning. especially in gamebased learning activities. learners could enter the world of a sufferer of anxiety and panic. It is a safe way to practice to reduce social and physiological anxieties. See a case study and a presentation on how to create an online avatar at: http://www. In the context of elearning. http://blogoehlert.com/eclippings/ 2006/07/top_20_educatio. for example.telsim.” Results from their study of 76 Japanese college students showed that “cooperative co-learners have a positive impact on students’ performance and experience. the avatar may represent an actual human being.Avatars Related terms Agents. avatars are most commonly used as teachers and coaches but are also used to represent learners. Selected Examples CodeBaby is software that creates online talking avatars that can be used in educational settings. Pick a character at: http://secondlife.com/solutions/elearn ing/ With Sculptoris Voices Studio you can create 2-D and 3-D characters that speak in lip synch and post the characters on any Web site.sculptoris. Deuchar and Nodder (2004) give these examples: “Educators in various disciplines may offer their students the ability to assume a different persona to experience the world of another. is an image that represents one party in an interactive exchange. (2005) experimented with the use of avatars as “emotional companions.com/ > > Using avatars in educational 3-D environments allows individuals to immerse themselves in role-playing for the purpose of learning. NOAH can be used as a coach in an e-learning applications or to add life to your Web page.” Maldonado et al. Mark Oelhert provides a list of the top 20 educational destinations within Second Life.

oddcast. Avatar Technology: giving a face to the e-learning interface. and Morishima.naccq. In Proceedings of TESI Do not reproduce 53 . C. A. (2005).com/ Knowledge Avatars are intelligent tutors that emulate the knowledge of experts. Lee.daden.pdf Maldonado. 2005. K. Inc.. In the toolkit.. 2003.exodus. H. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. has designed software that enables businesses to set up marketing programs with avatars that talk to customers.uk/chatbots/ An avatar that signs in ASL has been developed by Vcom3D. Try them at: http://www. Suthers. Brave.elearningguild. Paper presented to the National Advisory Committee on Computing Qualifications (NACCQ) 2004 Conference. http://www. S.pdf Seth.pdf Online Resources In Europe.com/home/ The DA Group in the UK has a set of “eLearning Mentors.vcom3d. in cooper-ation with a number of groups. R. S. C. users are represent-ed as avatars.com/pdf/2/082 503DES-H.Training Education & Education International Conference.html 2005 .stanford.co. D. the AVATAR-Conference project aims to develop a toolkit to set up and administer virtual online confer-ences. H. We Learn Better Together: Enhancing eLearning with Emotional Characters. J. eLearning Developers’ Journal. B. Iwamura. http://www.com/ Advance Chatbot Solutions allows you to try talking to different avatars. offering a large number of supportive functions. http://www.co.. In T. Aug. Yamada. Nass. Nexus Media. (2004). modular application.edu/~kiky/CSCL2005Maldon ado. http://isnm. http://www..tmmy.uk/html/12_solutions/1-2-1_ementor. http://www. http://www. Koschmann.” which are avatars that teach. Nakajima..) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: the next 10 years! Mahwah. Y. www. (2005). http://www.. New Zealand.pdf Jung. Ideally they contain content knowledge as well as teaching expertise.ac.gr/Avatar_Conference/ Bibliography Deuchar. and T. Their Surveybots have been shown to be twice as effective in getting people to answer survey questions online.redwoodelearning. and Weber.Redwood e-Learning uses coaching avatars for online teaching. The Impact of Avatars and 3D Virtual World Creation on Learning.nz/conference04/proce edings_03/pdf/255. 25.com/ New York-based Oddcast Inc. The Affective Virtual Patient: An E-Learning Tool for Social Interaction Training within the Medical Field. Ahad. M.W. Chan (Eds. The system will be design-ed as a scalable. and Nodder. Raj (2003).de/~aahad/Downloads/AVP_TE SI....knowledgeenvironments. http://ww.

Blogs
Related terms
Crunkies, screencasting, video blogging, Weblogs

first few pages. Coursey (2005) quotes reader Curt Gowan, who wrote, “Blogging is this decade's citizens' band radio, a fad which booms insanely then drops back to a much, much lower level of activity that is sustainable and actually useful.” The Catalyst Group, in a 2005 study entitled “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability, cite the following as problems with blogs: > > > Visitors may not recognize they are on a blog. Blogs do not always identify themselves as blogs. The core purpose of submitting comments to a blog is not universally understood. Few, if any, blogs declare exactly what will happen when a post is submitted. Mainstream consumer expectations for assistance, education, and context far outstrip implementing the blog interface and feature elements.

Description
Weblogs or blogs are online journals that invite readers to add comments, thereby participating in an ongoing online conversation. Blogs are proliferating at a great rate in educational environments because they are so easy to use. A form of online publishing, blogs can be used within a classroom or a community, or they can be open to the general public. For teachers, one issue with Weblogs involves how to evaluate their impact on learners. However, there are many who think the use of blogs is changing the very fabric of formal education. Similarly, blogs are changing corporate training in profound ways. Some of the benefits of “Enterprise Blogging” as identified by Clyde (2005) include the following: > > > > > > > Blogs can be useful sources of information. Blogs are used for communication. Blogs can be used as a project management tool. Blogs can be used as a competitive intelligence tool. Blogs are used for marketing. Blogs are a tool for knowledge management and knowledge sharing. Customer service is an area in which the potential of blogging is being explored. A blog can be used as a newsletter or can take the place of a newsletter as a form of online publishing.

> >

Nevertheless, as the following examples show, the use of blogs in education is here to stay.

Selected Examples
A crunkie is a new type of blog posting that is linked to a certain geographical location. When someone the user knows arrives, if they have subscribed to the blog, their PDA will send them a message about the place they are visiting. Crunkies are the brainchild of Wavemarket, an applications company. http://www.wavemarket.com/ Sony Ericsson has developed a 3.2megapixel blogging phone. These new phones are integrated with Google's Blogger application. http://www.sonyericsson.com/spg.jsp?cc=c a&lc=en&ver=4000&template=pc3_1_1&z one=pc&lm=pc3&prid=4870 Most blogs are personal journals of individuals, although occasionally there can be multiple contributors to a blog. Most blog writing is unstructured, with a wide range of writing styles. This makes it difficult for search engines to sort out the content of blogs, other than simple word searching. One attempt to change this is called structured blogging. In this approach, the

>

However, in a note of caution, Clyde adds, “A potential problem is that blogging does not fit with the corporate culture of many organisations.” As well, hundreds of thousands of people have started a blog but have not added material to it beyond the

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structure of blog entries depends on the type of content – e.g; movie reviews look different than recipes. For more information, see: > > > http://structuredblogging.org/ http://carapace.weblogs.us/archives/0 26753.html http://radio.weblogs.com/0110772/st ories/2003/03/13/towardsStructured Blogging.html

Postgenomic (life sciences blogs) http://www.postgenomic.com/index.php

Online Resources
Teresa A. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online, including educational blogging. Find her work at: http://64.71.48.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.htm#Teaching There are hundreds of blogs on educational computing. A comprehensive listing is maintained by the e-Learning Centre in the UK. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/elb logs.htm The Pew Internet and American Life Project has published a report entitled Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf BlogCatalog is a listing of blogs of all types. In March 2006, there were 891 educational blogs listed. http://www.blogcatalog.com/directory/educ ation_and_training Susan Herzog, a librarian, has compiled a large bibliography on the topic of blogs. You can scan the entries in BlogBib at: http://blog-bib.blogspot.com/ Michael Bergman has written a very comprehensive guide to setting up a blog, based on his four-month diary of setting up his own blog with WordPress. Get the guide at: http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Shawn Callahan in Australia has written a white paper on building a “technician’s blog” to help technicians share information with each other and with the company’s sales force and customers. http://www.anecdote.com.au/papers/Conn ectingPeoplewithContent.pdf Danny Maas has produced a set of online videos on educational blogging that cover all the basics. View them at: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=54633740168105430&q=tilt

James Farmer is a frequent and critical contributor to the online debates on the future of technology and education. His blog is at: http://blogsavvy.net/category/blogging-foreducation/ Jay Cross has at least two blogs about elearning – Internet Time and InformL, both worth reading for the latest developments in thinking about e-learning (Jay coined the term “e-learning” back in 1997). http://www.internettime.com/wordpress/ http://informl.com/ Jenna Sweeny, President of an instructional design firm, has a blog on Corporate Training and e-Learning. http://www.cramersweeney.com/cs_id/trai ningblog/ George Siemens of Winnipeg, Canada, is a prolific source on many aspects of elearning. His blog, elearnspace, is a great resource. http://www.elearnspace.org/blog/ Scott Leslie is another prolific blogger in the education space. His matrix of uses of blogs in education is particularly interesting. http://www.edtechpost.ca/gems/matrix2.gi f BlogBurst – market a blog to mainstream media through the BlogBurst network. http://www.blogburst.com/ Track the blogsphere with Blogpulse, which analyzes trends in blog site topics. http://blogpulse.com/ Listings of subject area specific blogs are emerging in academic disciplines. These include the following: MetaxuCafe (literary blogs) http://www.metaxucafe.com/

Do not reproduce

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According to eighth graders, “blogs are cool.” For a huge list of educational blogs that relate to social studies, check out this site: http://www3.essdack.org/socialstudies/blo gs.htm WWWTools collects interesting links on a number of topics related to online education. To see their list of interesting links on educational blogging, go to: http://m.fasfind.com/wwwtools/m/10171. cfm?x=0&rid=10171 Stephen Downes, a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada, has written a guide on how to be noticed and attract readers to your blog. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1122588 384&format=full Waypath is a Blog Discovery Engine that helps users find new blogs to read from the millions in the blogosphere. http://www.waypath.com

Coursey, David (2005). Blogs Really Aren’t So Unique. eWeek.com, July 14. http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1895,18 37604,00.asp Davis, Anne (2004). Ways to use Weblogs in education. EduBlog Insights, Oct. 5. http://anne2.teachesme.com/2004/10/05 /ways-to-use-weblogs-in-education/ Downes, Stephen (2004). Educational Blogging. EDUCAUSE Review, 39(5), September/October, 14-26. http://www.educause.edu/pub/er/erm04/e rm0450.asp Lenhart, A. and Fox, S. (2006). Bloggers: a portrait of the Internet’s new storytellers. Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 19, 2006. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP%20Bl oggers%20Report%20July%2019%202006. pdf Pierce, Dennis (2006). Panelists: blogs are changing education. eSchool News Online, March 24, 2006. http://www.eschoolnews.com/news/showS toryts.cfm?ArticleID=6208 Torio, James (2005). Blogs: a global conversation. Master’s Thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. www.everyhuman.com/work/theses8.12.lo w.pdf

Bibliography
Bergman, Michael (2005). Comprehensive Guide to a Professional Blog Site: A WordPress Example. AI3 White Paper, September 2005. http://www.mkbergman.com/wpcontent/themes/ai3/files/BlogGuide/BlogG uide050919.pdf Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2004). Blogging Communities and the Knowledge Enterprise. Robin Good Blog, Sept. 29. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 04/09/29/blogging_communities_and_the _knowledge.htm Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Group And Multi-User Blog Platforms Compared. Robin Good Blog, May 16, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/news/20 05/05/16/group_and_multiuser_blog_platf orms.htm Catalyst Group (2005). “Net Rage”: A Study of Blogs and Usability. July 11. http://www.catalystgroupdesign.com/cofact ors/upload/Blog_usability_report.pdf Clyde, Laurel (2005). Enterprise blogging. FreePint Newsletter, January 13, No.174. http://www.freepint.com/issues/130105.ht m#feature

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Browsers
Related terms
FireFox, Internet Explorer, Netscape, thin clients, Webtops

browser. The Internet is treated as a virtual space, allowing users to move through it using 3-D tools. http://www.activeworlds.com/ The Mozilla Project set out to develop open source standards for Web browsers and mail clients. Their efforts have resulted in the FireFox Web browser and the Thunderbirds mail client. http://www.mozilla.com/ FireFox allows many “add-ons.” These include extensions (programs that add functionality to FireFox), plugins (programs that convert or play content within a browser), search engines, and “themes.” Themes allow the user to change the look and feel of the browser. For a complete listing of FireFox “add-ons” see: https://addons.mozilla.org/?application=fir efox Flock is an open source browser built on the FireFox code base. It integrates nextgeneration Web technologies such as RSS content feeds, blogs, bookmarking, and photo sharing. Flock was launched in October 2005. http://www.flock.com/ Mark Oelhert has been floating an idea on his blog for an alternative to browsers, called “Webtops.” Read two entries on this topic at: > > http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/05/an_evaluation_o.html http://blogoehlert.typepad.com/eclippi ngs/2006/07/continuing_to_p.html

Description
For many, using a browser is synonymous with the World Wide Web. Like all technology innovation curves, the history of browsers shows a “winner” and a number of “losers.” The browser wars of the late 1990s resulted in the demise of the Mos-aic browser, the defeat of the Netscape browser, and the rise to supremacy of Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser. Once it was clear that the Netscape browser was on the way out, America Online, which owned the rights to Netscape, turned it into an open source project – the Mozilla Firefox browser. (http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/). What most people don't realize is that there are hundreds of smaller browsers out there with very small market share. For example, while Opera, a browser that has been around for a long time, has a small following, it has never been much of a threat to Internet Explorer. (http://www.opera.com) The truth is that browsers themselves may be disappearing, or at least their influence is decreasing. Based on the metaphor of the World Wide Web as a book, they may not be necessary as navigational devices, as more and more applications become directly available through the Internet. This is especially true for business-to-business commerce, where many applications interact with each other automatically. Already there is talk of a "browserless Web” (Cox, 2001).

Online Resources
Wikipedia has the most coverage of browsers, across several articles. These articles include the following: > List of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_we b_browsers Comparison of Web Browsers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compariso n_of_web_browsers Web Browser: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_brow ser

Selected Examples
OmniWeb is a powerful browser with advanced features that is specifically designed to work with Macintosh computers. http://www.omnigroup.com/applications/o mniweb/ Active Worlds is an example of how to navigate the Web without a traditional >

>

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Well over 100 browsers for the World Wide Web have been developed. Most of these are archived at: http://browsers.evolt.org/ Another comprehensive list of browsers is found at the Web Developers Notes site. http://www.webdevelopersnotes.com/desig n/browsers_list.php3

Bibliography
Cox, John (2001). Make way for the ‘browserless Web’. Network World, Jan. 29, 2001. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2001/ 0129browserless.html Engst, Adam (2004). OmniWeb 5.0: The Powerful Web Browser. TidBits, No. 742, Aug. 16, 2004. http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart=07 775 Horton, W. and Horton, K. (2002). Picking the Right Browser: issues in specifying a browser for e-learning and knowledge management. William Horton Consulting, Boulder, CO, May 16, 2002. http://www.bestdegree.com/courses/mast ers/pdf/edu722_PickingBrowser.pdf LeMay, Renai (2005). Advanced browser gives taste of Web 2.0, ZDNet Australia, Oct. 21, 2005. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/s oa/Advanced_browser_gives_taste_of_Web _2_0/0,2000061733,39218173,00.htm Schonfeld, E., Malik, O. and Copeland, M. (2006) The Webtop. CNN Money.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/24/smbu siness/business2_nextnet_webtop/index.ht m Tedeschi, Michael (2006). Opera Browser, Still Perfecting its Pitch. WashingtonPost.com, July 30, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2006/07/29/AR2006 072900038.html?referrer=email

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classroom communication systems. Resembling remote controls used for home entertainment equipment. http://www. The use of clickers has several advantages. display. giving almost instant feedback. With this technology it is possible to do the following: > > > > Associate an individual with his/her answer Map the classroom and display student answers seat by seat Allow or require students to answer in small groups Support the creation. As multiple brands (typically not interoperable) yoked to different textbooks are adopted on a single campus. Beatty. the costs and headaches multiply. classroom response systems with clickers use either infrared rays or radio signals to communicate with a hub that is connected to an instructor's computer. There are time-consuming issues (and therefore costs) in terms of installing the receivers and software in a classroom. The devices keep students alert and involved. Student answers are available immediately to the instructor. This is especially true for postsecondary education where a lecture delivered to hundreds of students in a large classroom often results in alienation between the lecturer and the students. Students can “click in” at the beginning of a class to register their attendance and can click again to answer questions the instructor poses during the lecture.Classroom Response Systems Related terms Audience response systems. management. training the faculty member to use the software. The use of clickers can become an in-class Web application. One response is to try to make the traditional classroom and the large lecture hall more responsive and interactive. and military settings. as Stone (2004) points out: “…these systems come with many hidden costs.einstruction. including the following (summarized from Cassidy. many faculty members who use this technology are enthusiastic about it. increasing their motivation to learn. clickers. suggesting that it transforms the traditional lecture in many positive ways. and supporting students who have trouble ‘activating’ or ‘reactivating’ their clicker. 2006. costs can be an issue. corporate. The devices can instantly construct histograms of class-wide answers for the instructor and display the histogram to students using an overhead projector. integrated with other types of learning technologies. Clickers permit question types other than multiple-choice. 2004): > Students answer multiple-choice questions anonymously without fear of failure. voting systems > The devices give students feedback about the limitations of their knowledge. This includes the fact that faculty are also more involved and may enjoy the higher level of challenge an interactive class can produce. as is the case with a technology called classroom response systems. However. > > > Selected Examples The following are vendors of Classroom Response Systems: eInstruction’s Classroom Performance System is used in K-12. both for students and for those supporting their use in the classroom. higher education.” In spite of the costs. or clickers.com/ H-ITT Classroom Response System is a low cost system that is integrated with Pearson > Do not reproduce 59 . and archiving of questions Description The advent of e-learning has clearly put traditional classroom teaching on the defensive.

3.edu/academic/cit/servic es/cps/ECARCRS. http://www. http://www.utexas.cfm?fil e=/051103/story2.educause. Anne (2006).qwizdom. Tom (2004). http://www.active-learning-site. Ian (2004). No.com/index.” http://www. http://www.utexas. Volume 2004.pearsoned. 7 things you should know about…Clickers.umass. Comparison of different commercial wireless keypad systems.com/products_int erwrite. allowing questions beyond the simple multiple-choice type.pdf Mazur. E-Learning Dialogue. http://www. Peer Instruction: a user’s manual. http://www. 41(5).edu/tsec/jim/ CRS/pdf%20files/keypad%20comparisons.htm LearnStar is an interactive system where each student gets a QWERTY keyboard. 2006.html The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning. http://www. https://sharepoint. http://www.net/display. and Lederman.physics. including material on the use of classroom response systems. This class clicks! Wireless devices promote interactive learning. Feb.pdf Burnstein.com The University of British Columbia maintains a Wiki with a section on clickers.cisat. http://www.aspx Pearson USA adds a “challenge board” to its interactive clicker software.ubc.smartroom. pdf Cassidy. The Physics Teacher.ca/Clickers 60 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon. July 7.com/news_issue.htm SmartRoom Learning Solutions provides classroom response technology that is integrated with Microsoft PowerPoint software.gtcocalcomp. Eric (1997).cfm EDUCAUSE (2005). http://www. http://www.com/index.com/ The University of Texas has a useful Web site of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the use of clickers in the classroom. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research.Publishing textbook. Transforming Student Learning with Classroom Communications Systems. Paper presesented at the AUPEC 2002 Online Resources University of Massachusetts’ Physics Education Research Group’s Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology (ASK-IT) project has a list of resources on classroom response systems.elearning. Beware publishing reps bearing “free” gifts that click.com/cps/index. http://www. http://www.aclearn.optiontechnologies.edu/articleprinter1. 3. http://www. NJ: Prentice Hall.com/Default.h-itt.htm Qwizdom provides a well-designed set of keypads that younger students will likely find to be “cool.asp Pearson Education Australia has its own unique KEEPAD.html InterWrite Personal Response System (formerly EduCue PRS) is used in over 300 universities.com/gp/product/0135 654416/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Stone. Research Bulletin.com/audien ce-response-systems/index.htm Option Technologies Interactive has a classroom response system.jmu. 272-275.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.pearsonncs. 2004. (2003). The site contains reviews of classroom and online voting systems.edu/academic/cit/howt o/labinstructions/cpsfaqs.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7002. See “Clicker Links” at: http://wiki. Q. http://inside. Upper Saddle River.cua. March 3.edu/projects/ ASKIT The Active Learning Web site lists many resources for active learning.cfm?page= 966 Bibliography Beatty. Inside CUA. Educause Learning Initiative. R.learnstar. http://umperg.campustechnology.asp?id=154&I ssueDate=7/7/2004#view Su.com. (2002) Teaching innovation using a computerized audience response system.

pdf Do not reproduce 61 .au/~aupec/aupec0 2/Final-Papers/Q-SU1.itee. Australia.Conference.edu. Melbourne. http://www.uq.

collaborate. Selected Examples Hundreds of vendors are producing and selling collaboration software products.Teamspace is a groupware system for international Webbased collaboration and virtual teamwork. a Request for Proposal system) Team (a small group working together on a project) Community (e. Timothy Butler and David Coleman (2003) suggest five fundamental models of working together: > > Library (a few people place material in a repository. in its 2005 report Technologies of Cooperation. Facilitating collaboration is not an easy task. reduction. and collaborating.. as we move from a model of instructor-led teaching of individuals to one of learner-led finding.html AdventNet – Zoho Virtual Office is groupware that provides a virtual collaboration platform where individuals and groups can communicate. e.Annotea is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) LEAD (Live Early Adoption and Demonstration) project under Semantic Web Advanced Development (SWAD). This represents a fundamental shift in how learning takes place. http://www. identifies “eight key clusters” of collaboration tools: > > > > > > > > Self-Organizing Mesh Networks Community Computing Grids Peer Production Networks Social Mobile Computing Group-Forming Networks Social Software Social Accounting Tools Knowledge Collectives Following is a list of the best known in each of the above categories: Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software 5 Point – Teamspace . and There are many different ways to collaborate.. http://www. it requires skill and experience. The Institute for the Future. and share information seamlessly using a number of useful applications. social networking building. social bookmarking. many draw on it) Solicitation (a few people place requests.. and consensus 62 © Brandon Hall Research . These products can be divided into the following categories: > > > > > Collaborative Working Spaces and Resources Sharing Software Communities of Practice Management Software Project and Team Management Software Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Description The big news for emerging e-learning is the shift to collaboration tools and social software.com/products/i ndex. Annotea enhances collaboration via shared metadata-based Web annotations.Collaboration Tools Related terms Cooperation.g. through brainstorming). Create your own team and work together with colleagues all over the world.teamspace.zoho. doing. evaluation.g.Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.g. a Community of Practice) Process Support (systems that support repetitive workflows) > > > Processes supporting collaboration can include generation (e.advancedreality.html?ad-main Annotea .com/virtualoffice/index. clarification. many respond. organize. organization.com/ Advanced Reality – Jybe .

http://www. Their virtual “meeting room” can be embedded in existing infrastructures and customized in terms of look and feel. project planning and reporting. flexible workflow. markup of data. collaborative file management. expert location.com – Collaboration Suite – A collaboration suite for engineers that Do not reproduce 63 .bluetie.php BlueTie – Business Class Collaboration – Integrates e-mail. http://www. http://www.globalchat.htm courseforum technologies – Projectforum Web-based collaboration software that is easy to set up and use.com Central Desktop – Central Desktop .Offers tools and modules to support teams in a variety of environments. and instant messaging. calendar.Unified MeetingPlace . A Webbased service lets users make to-do lists.cisco.Web-based collaborative workspace that enables distributed teams to work together more efficiently. http://www.emc. http://www.com/microsites/eRoo m/index. and communicate with others.com/ourProduc t/index.Offers real-time collaboration through Web access. Presence (see who’s online).bantu.bookmarks.org Digi-Net Technologies – DigiChat . recordable conferencing.com/ Croquet – Croquet – A combination of open source computer software and network architecture that supports deep collaboration and resource sharing among large numbers of users. jot down notes.com BackPack – An organizational tool that allows collaboration with others.com/ EMC² . and meeting manager.inteam. non-profit.avecomm. document versioning.asp?contentID=13976 https://www.com/ Blenks – In-team .courseforum. http://www. Web conferencing.gotomeeting. and searchable discussion threads.com/services/faq_basics .org/2001/Annotea/ Atinav – aveComm .citrix. contacts. http://www. desktop and e-mail integration (Microsoft Office and Outlook).com/ Cisco . with templates and workflows for product development.digite. integrates with SharePoint and WebLogic. http://www.w3. Includes document organization and sharing. voice and data collaboration.backpackit. and upload photos. and information technology adoption. version control. Users can share Backpack pages with others by e-mailing the page address to the other person. http://www.This technology adds to a software/hardware application or product with Web-based video. and Alerts (timesensitive notifications) offer rich communications. http://www. It also provides Short Message Service (SMS) alerts. education. Cisco MeetingPlace is a complete rich-media conferencing solution. http://www. Bantu's secure Instant Messaging (real-time text communication).Web conferencing software to address the needs of business.com/info/ Bright Idea – On-Demand Innovation Management Suite – Software that assists managers in all areas of innovation.An integral component of the Cisco IP Communic-ations system. and individual users. and communication.com/ Bantu – Bantu Messenger . search.Webbased collaboration tool for business teams to manage projects.comotivsystems.jsp Engineering. robust document management. and collaboration. http://www.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index.Online meeting solution for sharing desktop resources. http://software.html Citrix Systems – GoToMeeting . http://www.brightidea. share information. and instant access to the group workspace. share files. alerts. http://www.com/English/ps2/product s/product.com/ Digite – Digite Enterprise . http://www. office. instant messaging. intellectual property management.centraldesktop.opencroquet.Bantu is a powerful communication and collaboration platform.Documentum eRoom . discussion forum. Features include IM.com/ Comotiv Systems – Comotiv Collaboration – Allows the sharing of files.

A system of carefully placed plasma televisions.ezmeeting. http://www.com/products/Collabor ation.hp.gliffy. meeting. 2001. Features include interactive data collaboration.The e-Synergy platform integrates and consolidates corporate data into a single database. and browse groups to discuss and share ideas.google.A Webbased collaboration environment for software development. share files and documents. secure. and reliable tools for collaborating more effectively across organizational and geographic boundaries.facilitate.exactamerica. with collaborators able to add to and change the diagrams. and corporate instant messaging. allow members to update and edit files. powerful. recording and playback. http://www. voting. invite workspace members. categorizing. Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact.com/ EPAM Systems – EPAM Project Management Center (EPAM PMC ) . universal file viewer for MS office documents. and team management.groupsupport. data and process tracking. and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. drawing tools. http://www.com/ Google – Google Groups – Create. http://www.cfm GroupSystems – GroupSystems II GroupSystems II includes several tools for group interactions – from brainstorming to voting. http://groups.forumone. http://www.net/ Groove Networks – Groove Virtual Office File sharing.GMS Collaboration Server provides a fully functional cross-platform alternative to Microsoft Exchange. require-ment and risk management.com/ Gordano – Gordano Messaging Suite Collaboration . assign file editing rights and completion dates. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of September 11. cameras. conducting surveys. Soon to be integrated with Microsoft Office. product quality assurance.com/ Flypaper – Teamspace – Simple. including whiteboards. attach threaded discussions to files. scheduling and using calendars. http://www.com/halo/index. It provides working groups with simple. http://www.com/ Forum One – ProjectSpaces . software construction. tracking the status of assignments.net/home/index.grapevinesoftware.shtml Hewlett Packard . and creating action plans. easy to use online collaboration system.ProjectSpaces is a password-protected. desktop sharing and remote desktop control. and images. http://www. interactive whiteboard. and shout over each other in an attempt to be heard – just like a real meeting.epam-pmc. http://www.html 64 © Brandon Hall Research .engineering. presentation tools.flypaper. project management.Halo Collaboration Studio . desktop sharing. mechanical CAD Viewer to compress and send CAD files over Internet.com/EN/products /GSII. and organizational process performance.Live meetings and Web conferencing. Web-based extranet tool. http://www.com/ Exact Software – e-Synergy . http://collaboration.com/section/services /projectspaces/ Gliffy – Gliffy – Provides the ability to diagramming in a Web browser. It has tools for managing multiple teams. Features include the following: Accessing documents. and sending workflow tasks. http://www. quantitative project management. http://www. The interactions can happen both in face-to-face meetings and in remote meetings run over the Internet.com/ Facilitate – FacilitatePro – Supports online meetings and collaboration with a set of tools for brainstorming.features a project navigator. The system streamlines project planning. search. snapshots.htm Grapevine Software – On Demand – Document management and collaboration software – share files. The company also has the Flypaper Enterprise Collaboration Platform.gordano.com/esynergy/ eZmeeting .groove. and document management. resource information sharing.

and secure peer networking architecture. search archiving. Web resources. and Microsoft Outlook integration. http://www. Outlook. private interactive access or exchange of text.uwc. customers.za/index. partners. scalable. security levels.inquesttechnologies. Learnlinc is an electronic classroom from iLinc. and more. structured.A peer-to-peer collaboration platform that is designed to leverage the 1stWorks Network.php?modul e=splashscreen L&W Interlab – Web Office Point .com/ IBM . contacts.iLincSuite Provides hosted Web conferencing and audio conferencing software. voice. an interface to a mailing list server.A collaboration suite for business or training/education. Features include the following: Shared calendars. http://kgroups.com/ iLinc Communications . and extensibility.com/hotComm. discussion forums.com/ Interwoven . link sharing). a powerful.com/html/produ cts. http://www. Customizable Web directory. versioning control. folders.A Web-based solution for creating team workspaces for collaboration. and provides search. Features include the following: Business email. and shared documents. realtime chat.WorkSite and WorkSite MP Collaborative Document Management Document management and team collaboration software that stores all project-related documents. http://www.jotlive. Functions include the following: Share documents.Lotus QuickPlace .com/office/uc/liveme eting/default. and photos. peer-to-peer. http://www. http://www. and secured fashion – up to 399 users. image libraries. data. online editor.iceweb. http://www.hyperoffice. bookmarks and bookmark sharing (kBookmarks. and partners in real time between either individuals or large groups—with just a PC and an Internet connection. and role-based access control provide the capability to share information with employees. http://www. and Lotus Notes.jsp Mayetic – Collaborative Workspaces – Teamwork collaboration tool. and customers on the Web.hotComm . A suite of integrated Web-based software for managing commercial resources. a Wiki. Features include the following: Document management. Integrated suite of multiuser. online contact management.ibm.An online groupware with integrated collaborative environment for Web-based business. http://www.ilinc. including versioning. hotComm is the desktop client that provides fast.html InQuest Technologies – InQuest IQ9 Document management and collaboration software.kGroups provides a number of tools.com/ JotSpot . efficient.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace/ IceWEB – IceMAIL – An enterprise class email and collaboration system for small businesses. instant messaging and presence indication.com/ Microsoft – Live Meeting . and applications between participating hotComm users on the Web.ac. http://www.interwoven.Jotspot Live. online document management. video.hotcomm. Using Mayetic collaborative workspaces.com kGroups – UWC kGroups Collaborative Workspace .com/products/docu ment_management/index.Live Meeting enables users to collaborate online with colleagues. and file commenting. online calendar. any workgroup belonging to an internal or external organization can publish and share information and documents in a collaborative.asp HyperOffice – HyperOffice Collaboration Suite – A hosted collaboration solution.microsoft.mspx Do not reproduce 65 . calendars. http://www03. http://www.com/Smart Apps.jdhtech. podcasting. and groupware tools for synchronous course delivery and instructor/student interaction. including file sharing.mayeticvillage. integrates with MS Office. http://www. blogs (Weblogs).A live group notetaking application for people collaborating on the Web. task manager.aspx JDH Technologies – Web-4M .webofficepoint.

com/ Same-Page.html Rallypoint .com – eStudio .com/collabsuite/index. http://www.santacruznetworks. and presence management solutions. author and review pages individually and across the group.Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services technology in Windows Server 2003 is an integrated portfolio of collaboration and communication services designed to connect people.Solutions to help people communicate in new ways on the Internet.com/ Ramius .Novell GroupWise is a collaboration software solution that provides information workers with e-mail. called an online community. and publish and broadcast your content to the Web.Community Zero .com/ Selden Integrated Systems – iKE . organize and discover content through categories and tags. and Remote Access 66 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. http://www.Combines the powerful features of a desktop word processor with the collaborative abilities of a secure hosted wiki. see each other in real time using cameras. audio and Webcam. http://www.rallypointhq.Corporate quality communications center.performancesolutionstech. and files. http://www. team events. http://www. and systems both within and beyond the organizational firewall.opentext.Oracle Collaboration Suite – Oracle Collaboration Suite 10g provides the tools an enterprise needs to seamlessly collaborate from within any application or device. text chat. and priorities and by receiving on-the-spot status reports. http://www. calendaring. tasks. Staff members can access the components they require to work effectively while customers view only the data that is relevant to their company interaction. and shared files in a hosted and secure collaborative environment.com/products/groupwise / Open Text – Livelink EMC Collaboration Open Text provides Enterprise Content Management (ECM) that allow managers to tightly control the project lifecycle by monitoring due dates.com/ Santa Cruz Networks . participants are provided access to a suite of powerful tools that enable a group to effectively get organized.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.microsoft.A suite of persistent group messaging. Enables individuals. resources.communityzero. and communicate.oracle. share knowledge. The administration of an eStudio tightly controls user access.Near-Time integrates a group Weblog with wiki pages.CommunityZero is an interactive Web site that allows a group of people to communicate and exchange information over the Internet in their own private and secure area.com/ Oracle .same-page. eStudio does not require an IT department to maintain it. Allows people to talk to each other.Microsoft – SharePoint .parlano. http://www. information. Workflow Automation. MyWorldChat Communicator .novell. file transfer. http://www. schedule and track events and activities. real-time application sharing.mspx Near-Time – Flow . and entire organizations to detect presence and collaborate instantly.com/ Novell – Groupwise .com/terms.com/ Raissa Publishing – MyWorldChat. Document Management.com/ Performance Solutions Technology – MproWeb – A browser-based tool that combines collaboration and performance management. and share data or applications while they are online. task management. The iKE Office software includes Secure Portals.Rallypoint . http://myworldchat.ht ml Parlano – MindAlign . Integrates with Microsoft SharePoint. and MP3 audio recording. instant messaging. instant messaging. Within each area. milestones.eStudio is a hybrid solution that offers over 30 software features needed for effective collaboration. http://www.near-time. providing the best of both worlds. and contact and document management functions.iKE is a ready-to-use application of personalized online workspaces and interactive solutions. http://www. processes. teams. moderator functions. Features include the following: Interactive whiteboard. Create a NearTime space to share ideas.

com/ Communities of Practice Management Software Tacit Networks – ActiveNet3 . http://www. newsgroup server. live video. store files.Collaboration software that includes document management.Processes email.com/ SiteScape . Webbased whiteboarding. http://www.com/content/default.WorkZone is the easyto-use extranet for organizing and sharing work with clients. or use it to build a Web application. view and edit documents or images together. and prospects – without leaving their desks.html Web Crossing – WebCrossing Core WebCrossing Core includes a Multi-domain Web server.com/index. and business relationships. http://www.com/contentmanagem ent/0. and document management in a Web browser without downloading additional software. interact. Use it out of the box. productivity applications.2097.00.webasyst.com/ Yahoo Groups – Yahoo groups give Yahoo! users a place to meet. and information sharing.com/company/news/press /2005. http://groups.04. instant messaging. Total Collaboration provides an easy way for employees to get information from company experts and an easy way for organizations to capture the knowledge transfer for future reference. and real-time communications such as presence confirmation. and share.yahoo.com/ ShareMethods – ShareMethods . application sharing. Tomoye Ecco rapidly creates an environment that supports context creation around new knowledge.com/product/ Vignette .Web-based solutions to enable face-to-face interaction with remote employees.1-1-1928-4149-19684491. partners. project. desktop document folders. http://www.html Tomoye – Tomoye Ecco . documents. collaboration.asp Stalker Software – CommuniGate Pro – This is claimed to be the most scalable and modern Internet communications application server on the market today. chat server.trichys. http://www. voice and Web conferencing. and auto-matically discovers each employee's work focus. http://www. collaboration.25.com SpiderWeb Communications .com/products /stcollab. search.html Trichys – WorkZone . http://www. and other business communications. Includes VoIP. calendar sharing. http://www. and use live audio.sumtotalsystems.TotalVCS delivers online training and enables live and "on-demand" communication.WebAsyst enables users to implement customer. and learning over the Web for the delivery of real-time online training. and breakout groups.tacit. shared workspaces that blend seamlessly with your current and familiar productivity tools such as e-mail. http://www.ht ml SumTotal Systems – SumTotal Enterprise Suite. FTP server.sitescape.cyber-grad. video. and calendaring tools. XML-RPC server.webcrossing.Vignette Collaboration – Webbased. and more.Communities of practice software that have received great reviews.writely. http://www.seldensystems. threaded discussions. with Total VCS and Total Collaboration . project teams. http://www. http://www.com/Home/ WebAsyst – WebAsyst Suite . and instant messaging.net/ Writely is an online word processor that allows real time collaboration with others.sharemethods. http://www. expertise. WorkZone can be accessed from any Web-enabled computer (Mac or PC) and requires no additional hardware or software.Forum ZX .vignette.Ondemand (ASP) product that combines document management. e-mail server.solutions. Web conferencing server (in-house). and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) integration in a single solution.viack.stalker. workflow and task management.com/ VIACK – VIA3 – Provides secure collaboration meetings over the Internet – see and hear all participants. Designed specifically for the non-technical user. stimulates idea Do not reproduce 67 . and business partners.

project planning.com/ applications. and promotes a culture of sharing across functional units.com/centra-saba/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Academic Edition 7. and payments.Intuitive project management software for work teams. set user permissions. http://www.shtml Centra – Centra 7 – Centra Live for Virtual Classes replicates typical classroom interaction with voice. discussions. video.0 . http://www. giving all team members constant online access to needed information.com/ PeopleCube – WebEvent Team . http://www. annotation tools.HP Virtual Classroom . Share multiple projects with multiple users. and e-mails. fostering the spirit of a team working towards a single goal.brevient.axista. http://www. simple.com/english/offshore_ software_development_project_manageme nt.teamdynamix.Easy-touse database that neatly stores and organizes project files.Features include Hands up.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions. and Web pages. content button. data. review button.projectdox." virtual collabor-ation. http://www.myonProject is an online team collaboration and project management solution that offers practical. whiteboard pages. files.com/index. http://www. http://www. scheduling solutions.tomoye. pay-as-you-go Web-based project management software.com/ onProject – myonProject .hp.Industrial-strength software package for hosting Web-based "online conferencing. private/group chat. and share documents.elluminate.nagarro. and collaboration to timesheet management.aspx Project and Team Management Software Axista – Xcolla .opmcreator.nexprise. online management for projects of any size and scope. Project managers have all of the tools necessary to monitor team progress.saba.com/project.htm Informative Graphics – ProjectDox . http://www. http://www. feedback. Users can store information and control where it goes and who can access it. print icon. affordable. and the system tells them exactly where their time should be focused. assign tasks. http://www.com/ Project/Open – Project/Consulting .com/ NexPrise – NexPrise Collaboration Centralizes all project-related documents. and save to disk icon.Web event calendaring. and communicate with their project teams. and human performance management Virtual Classrooms with Collaboration Features CaucusCare – Team .onproject. attendee list. connects peers. scaleable. http://www. and asynchronous group meetings http://care. navigation.generation. custom stamps.com/ HP . http://education. form to submit questions. and data into a single storage area.caucus.peoplecube. Access to the tool is also given to clients. and graphics in a structured online learning environment.com Nagarro .Projistics .0Project Suite – TDNext is focused on helping managers and project team members work more effectively.com/ OPM Creator – OPMCreator . Project team members have instant access to all project information that is relevant to their work. content. Tools include PowerPoint dragand-drop. applaud and meter.An integrated Web-based project management and PSA (Professional Services Automation) that helps a company to run its business by taking care of everything from CRM.htm TeamDynamix – TDNEXT V4. identify and resolve potential problems.com/hpvc 68 © Brandon Hall Research . calendars. http://www.com/Collaboratio nProducts/Products. exit and help.com/ Brevient – Brevient Project – Flexible online project management software with a dashboard management system. project tracking.Instant set-up. Works with Microsoft Project.In-house tool developed to assist in project management.project-open. http://www. invoicing.

and Webconferencing specialists. http://www.com/ LiveOffice – IMConferencing . guest lectures.com/ Linktivity Division. how often. virtual environment where business communities can exchange high-value information across enterprise boundaries.photoninfotech. desktop sharing. Multilingual. and videoconferencing. e-mail invites. http://www. private whiteboards for each participant.com/ Glance Networks – Glance Corporate Glance is a simple.asp Convenos – Virtual meeting spaces and collaborative tools. breakout rooms. http://www. http://www. remote control. polling and quizzes.ivocalize. http://www. attendee lists. http://www. and phone use.liveoffice. http://www.mixmeeting.asp Web Conferencing Software with Collaboration Features Adobe – Macromedia Breeze .com/products/liv eclassroom/ Interwise – Interwise Connect . record and playback. For example.com/ Elluminate – Elluminate Live! Enterprise Edition 7.com/ Intralinks .communiqueconferencing. http://www. and collaborative content-building sessions.LiveOffice provides Web-based. learning. including Web conferencing.com/ internet_conferencing. and Web conferencing with WebEx. and collaboration features. and real-time videoconferencing. e-learning classrooms. transparency tools.com/content/vi ew/16/108/ messaging. http://www. visual. Features include shared documents. live demos. http://www.batipi. synchronous online lectures. and more. http://www. shared desktop. session reports.convenos.intralinks. application sharing. keyboard and voice chat. http://www.com/website2/events _imc. Purdue University has extended learning with Breeze through blended learning activities. virtual office hours. and text chat.com/ Genesys Conferencing – Genesys Meeting Center – Audio. hand raising. integrated content management system. instant Do not reproduce 69 .A secure. URL sharing. instant messaging.Delivers unlimited voice. pre-recorded broadcasts.Photon Infotech – SPARK . toll-free conference calling. and collaboration that everyone can access instantly.iVocalize Web Conference Enables interactive Web conference meetings. Share and collaborate on any application or document in real time. compliance management solutions and conferencing collaboration technologies. Lead or attend virtual classes with full moderator control and participant interaction. online classes.0 . office hours. meeting management. Real-time reporting shows which information has been accessed. Webcasts. Inter-Tel – WebDemo Features include multipoint videoconferencing.elluminate. annotations.glance. Web.Breeze delivers rich Web experiences for online teaching. online seminars. http://www.adobe.linktivity.asp Horizon Wimba – Live Classroom – A fully featured live virtual classroom supporting audio. Allows holding live. quick desktop sharing tool for hosting live Web demos. and a change presenter ability.A real-time virtual classroom environment designed for distance education and collaboration in academic institutions.com/products/breeze/ Batipi – Batipi . teleconferencing. video. notes.com/ iVocalize . and by whom.Synchronous virtual classroom – Audio.interwise.Synchronous Webconferencing software. http://www.com/ Communique – Audioconferencing with PowerSlides. and presentations to audiences spanning the globe.com/ Brevient – Mix Meeting – Web conferencing software with scheduling. shared whiteboard and present-ation. and meetings. and content display.genesys.net/site/getglance/exa mples. sales presentations. http://www.horizonwimba. broadcasts files.IntraLinks On-Demand Workspaces . Record classes or Webcasts. video.

webex.com/action. The suite manages the creation. With the convenience of online access through an individual account.telnetz. surveys. BridgePoint allows companies to meet virtually anywhere to accomplish their goals. send text messages.radvision. course.Powers online meetings.vodium.webtrain. http://www. http://www.asp Terra Dotta – Edufolio – An online teaching environment with conferences. A 1994 article by Scardamalia and Bereiter explains the philosophy behind this project.com/ WaveThree – Sessions IP Communications – A conferencing service that allows users to conduct business meetings right on their computers.VMPS is a robust software suite used to manage the workflow of a live or on-demand Webcast. discussion forums. and into the enterprise. share other applications.netspoke. teleconferencing. remote support. the Internet.com/ Vodium – Media Publishing Suite . e-learning. Users can have face-to-face meetings with quality audio and video.com/ Online Resources One of the oldest environments for networked collaboration was the CSILE project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE).cfm/na _en/page=homepage NetSpoke . http://www.Raindance's SwitchTower multimedia network is the foundation of the company's collaborative Web. http://www. Click to Meet creates conferences across multiple servers and routes and connects conference participants to the server most applicable to their application and network configuration.jsp TelNetZ – BridgePoint .voxwire.wave3software.edu/~bwilson/build ing.com/bridgepoint. http://www. and desktop videoconferencing services. and document collaboration.com/rndc/services/s ervices. any application. conference calling.Combining audio and Web conferencing components.To support large deployments. tour Web sites. and system management. Webinars. publishing. It can be used for private communication or with large groups of participants.com/ WebEx – WebEx Meeting Center . show rich multimedia content and documents. and instant messaging capabilities. and see the same Web site or other presentation on their screens – from anywhere in the world. http://www. Present courseware in a synchronous online environment. http://www. set up labs and conduct quizzes. http://www.Meeting One – Click&Share. SwitchTower is a distributed network design allowing Raindance to deliver interactive online meetings and events throughout their network.htm l Voxwire – Meeting Room . Solutions include Web meetings. http://www. and provide effective distance education at a fraction of the cost of traditional classroom courses. or an entire desktop. BridgePoint users can establish conferences at a second’s notice from an Internet connection. Web conferencing. http://www.html 70 © Brandon Hall Research . and moderation of Webcasts. http://carbon.com/home/s_vmps. It was started by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter in the early 1980s.An unlimited computer-to-computer Web conferencing application that allows people to talk to each other. audio. or meeting. Training can be conducted in multiple simultaneous languages in the same training session.com/ Radvision – Click to Meet . Click&Meet Click&Share is a powerful. a graduate school of the University of Toronto. Click&Meet is an interface that allows users to visually manage a personal audio conference room. http://www. editing. Requires only a browser and a phone.cudenver. and videoconferencing services created for today's enterprise.Web and audio conferencing services.Web conferencing and collaboration solutions and a virtual classroom. easy-to-use Web conferencing solution that allows users to share and present any printable document.meetingone. present PowerPoint slideshows.edufolio. text messaging.com/ WebTrain – Communicator 4 .raindance.com/ Raindance Communications – Switch Tower .

educause. and Tate. 2002. September.htm Mitre Corporation. http://www.uk/12081/ Beshears. J. and cultural learning activities that prepare students for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens.txl Computer Supported Cooperative Work is a journal on collaboration in the workplace published by Springer. Bryan (2006). http://www. D. http://www.criticalmethods. Web 2.mitre. (2004)..globalschoolnet. T.com/(1y2d1on52jk gieqpokgy3tzh)/app/home/journal. http://www.htm Athabasca University maintains a Web site of reviews of online collaborative tools.org/collab/inde x. http://www. also has a great list of collaboration tools. Models of collaboration. Sign up for free at: http://www... M. (2003). Q2Learning White Paper. Komzak. and Coleman. S.org/tools.aspx?docid=a g9j97p7pg73_ahh5gqp63qx4 The Collaboration Loop is a Web site containing newsletters and articles on all aspects of collaboration in corporate environments.clomedia.com/publication/ne wsletter/publications_newsletter_septembe r03. http://www.asp?articleid=41&zoneid=3 0 Bruck.com/ The second international conference on Collaboration Technologies (CollabTech 2006) was held in Tsukuba.org Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) partners with schools. D. Shadbolt. Collaborative Tools for e-Learning.bruck. M.The 2006 Collaborative Technologies Conference was held in June in Boston. Brazil. http://www.html Athabasca University provides a list of “Collaborative Learning Activities Using Social Software Tools” authored by Donna Cameron and Terry Anderson. 2003.soton.asp?refe rrer=parent&backto=linkingpublicationresul ts. Collaboration in the Semantic Grid: a Basis for e-Learning.ac. http://www.collaborationloop.com/webconf/workspa ces. Maceió.writely. Fred (2002). De Roure. a not-for-profit organization chartered to work in the public interest. Buckingham Shum.. ChenBurger. Chief Learning Officer..com/writings.com/groupware/in dex.com Kolabora is a news site for the rapidly growing corporate collaboration community. 41(2).com/content/templat es/clo_feature.1:100250. http://eprints. http://cde.com/ The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook is a free e-book describing the entire domain of collaboration in e-learning. also known as “groupware.athabascau. In Proceedings of Grid Learning Services Workshop (GLS 2004).pdf Bonk.org/index..kolabora.. Potter. Nov. http://www. N. Page.” http://www. and businesses to provide collaborative educational. http://www.html Do not reproduce 71 .edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621. J. Eisenstadt. Presentation to the DLF Fall Forum.thinkofit.org/forums/fall2002/dlfnov2002. Curtis (2002).htm The Usability First Web site has built a comprehensive list on Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW).htm Butler. http://www.ecs.usabilityfirst. Michaelides. 4.. Nov.diglib. March/April 2006. 2006. communities. Dalton. E-Learning and the Digital Library: Opportunities for Collaboration. http://www.ca/softeval/ David Wooley maintains a very comprehensive list of Web-based collaborative work environments.collabtech..1 Bibliography Alexander. 2002. J. Its reviews of collaboration tools are also useful. http://collaboration. K. A.asp?bhcp=1 Bachler.com/View. S. D.. Collaborative Strategies. Japan on July 13-14.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review. scientific. Creating an eCommunity.collaborate.springerlink. http://www. Bill (2004).ctcevents.

ieee. W.. A. A. Price.PrintAbstract&paper_id=10622 Ewing. Scaffolding knowledge building strategies in teacher education settings. J. and Forster.. Implementing collaboration technologies in industry: case examples and lessons learned. London: Springer-Verlag. (2002). 5(1).. Institute for the Future White Paper. J. Luigi (2003b). Luigi (2004b). I.pdf Kaplan. http://ifets. K. (2005). (Eds. J. June 30. http://www. (Eds.masternewmedia. (2004). The Future of Collaboration Technologies At CTC2005. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools: a mini-guide. 3. Robin Good Blog. e-Book.org/2002/aug2 002/kaplan. Collaboration Technologies Empower the Enterprise.masternewmedia.htm # Clapp.html Institute for the Future (2005). Then Knowledge Management. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds.) (2003).org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /ewing.. D. Developing team skills and accomplishing team projects online.org/collaborat ion_technologies/collaboration_technologie s_conference_2005_Kolabora_reports. and Sharifi.masternewmedia.com/cooperation/Tec hnology_of_cooperation.zcu. McFerrin.pdf Strijbos. Best New Tools For Web Conferencing and Live Collaboration.masternewmedia. Robin Good Blog. R. Collaboration First. Chesapeake.Download FullText&paper_id=12386 Elliott. http://www. 2565-2569. 72 © Brandon Hall Research . Robin Good Blog. January 21. Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2004. D. In Crawford. Technologies of Cooperation. Live ELearning. http://www. http://www. and Martens. A. Learning Circuits.editlib. http://cde.amazon.ca/online_book/ch8 . 2004. The State Of Collaboration Technologies. A. Carlsen. R. CyberSession: A New Proposition for E-Learning in Collaborative Virtual Environments.. University of Athabasca. and Thomas. Kirschner. Soren (2002). Fitzgerald.cmswatch. Kirschner. P.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.athabascau. Transforming pedagogies using collaborative tools.htm Canali De Rossi. June 5.htm Canali De Rossi. Sept. P. http://www. Bjorn (Ed. http://ifets.htm Canali De Rossi. World Conference on Educational Multimedia. CMS Watch. Educational Technology & Society..ieee. C. and Jochems. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. Gibson. http://www. Building Communities--Strategies for Collaborative Learning. CA..cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. August 2002.htm Canali De Rossi.. J. K.cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full. http://www. Willis.rheingold..learningcircuits. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2002 (pp.. (2002). Robin Good Blog.html Kreijns.masternewmedia.com/gp/product/1852 334185/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Sadeghi. http://www. J. Robin Good Blog. Proceedings. (2004). (2002).) (2004). Paper presented to WSCG 2005 Conference. 2003.org/2004/01 /21/the_state_of_collaboration_technologi es. Luigi (2004a). http://www. http://www.org/index. The Sociability of ComputerSupported Collaborative Learning Environments.editlib.org/periodical/vol_1_2002 /kreijns. VA: AACE.... Luigi (2005). May 2. R.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.Canali De Rossi. January 2005.cfm/files/pape r_12386.com/Feature/109 Elliot.html Hurst.html Munkvold.org/index. Findlay. Aavani.).org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. http://www. R.org/news/20 04/06/05/collaboration_technologies_emp ower_the_enterprise. Educational Technology & Society. Matthew (2004).pdf?fuseaction=Reader. A framework for evaluating computer supported collaborative learning. June 22. and Miller. Palo Alto. & Weber. M. J. Luigi (2003a). What we know about CSCL and implementing it in higher education. http://wscg. 827-829). D. 5(1).N.

http://sleid. Callan. Online learning predicates teamwork: Collaboration underscores student engagement.Norwell.. J. & Purnell.edu. 24. Nov. 1(2). http://www. G. Studies in Learning. MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.au/include/getdoc.php ?id=84&article=40&mode=pdf Do not reproduce 73 .. (2004).com/gp/product/1402 077793/102-14324368908931?v=glance&n=283155 Whymark.amazon. Innovation and Development. Evaluation. K.cqu.

google.janison.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.conversate.jisc.org/ Description The use of various online communications technologies such as instant messaging. It is being developed into a transportable. telephony. Australia is a Web site for creating e-mail.htm#Teaching Many forms of communication are made possible by the computer. Hegarty et al. pedagogical approaches to dialogical learning.editlib.org/index. For example. messaging.71. teaching involves both levels and the interaction between them. a process referred to as “text mentoring. See research on how well AMANDA works: http://www. chat.Communications Tools Related terms Computer mediated communication. telepresence.asp AMANDA is an intelligent system for threaded discussion. The discussions are also RSS enabled to syndicate the content. blogs. 1993) has been used as the basis of course design in a number of educational settings. UK. developed in Brazil. and e-mail has become part of the “new learning landscape. Selected Examples In Buckinghamshire.ht ml The Learning Place in Queensland. and the level of action where the teacher sets out a task and the student responds with a specific performance of that task.” http://goldenswamp.48. discussion forums. Her influential Conversational Framework theory (Laurillard.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Find her work at: http://64.ac. discussion groups. labs.uk/deletacademictalk. and videoconferencing in an educational context: http://eq. http://www. These tools can add to the conversational aspects of teaching. instant messaging.com/2006/06/13/tex t-mentoring-is-here-or-at-least-atbuckinghamshire/ AcademicTalk is a tool used for synchronous collaborative argumentation. For Laurillard. including communications tools. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online. (2000) use Laurillard’s work to design a course using seven different teaching-learning activities that involve a combination of discussion and tasks: > > Delivery – student reception of conceptual materials Discussion of concepts – all interaction with the teacher and feedback on assessments Task goals – performance to achieve. re-usable.” Laurillard argues that learning can be seen as a series of teacher-learner conversations at multiple levels of abstraction. VoIP simple text-based instant messages to live videoconferencing. students send text messages to their teachers using cell phones and receive helpful messages in return.com. VoIP. and yet tailored and flexible. and computer simulations Reflection – on performance to enrich concepts Adaptation – of concepts to improve performance Collaboration – among students > > > > > Online Resources Teresa A. including criteria for assessments Interaction with the world – practice in the real world. whiteboards.au/eq/default. http://www. and adaptable tool that can be used in a range of educational contexts to realize structured. The theory distinguishes between the level of description where the teacher describes a concept then hears it back from the student. ranging from 74 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. the user can send a query to the Google Short Message Service (SMS) and receive an answer on via phone.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 If a cell phone has a Web browser.com/sms/ Create instant online discussion spaces with Conversate.

20-21. 31 (3).com Library. University of Warwick. June. He also has an extensive list on hosting services: http://www. S. htm The eLearning Centre also maintains a list resources on using instant messaging and chat in education and another Web page on the educational use of e-mail. Bostock. Staff development in information technology for special needs: a new.uk/eclipse/Resource s/usingoutlook. An Evaluation of the Implementation of a Short Message System (SMS) to Support Undergraduate Student Learning. Working Knowledge Newsletter.co. 199-212. 31. I. J. M. and Elliott.editlib. 13-20. and Cerri. > http://www..htm WWWTools for Education has gathered dozens of resources for online communications in education. D. http://cde.learningcircuits. http://hbswk.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Pattie (2005). http://www.org/2002/aug2 002/elearn.org/micte2005/4.thinkofit. (Mlearn 2002).uk/schools/document . Peer Conversations for e-Learning in the Grid. e-Book.com/wwwtools/m/2645. (2004). Mark (2004).php3?D=d54 Bibliography Childs.html Laurik. http://www. 2004.uk/uploaded_documents /sb%20cf%20tool.athabascau. and telephony tools. Developing a successful e-mail campaign. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning.) Theory and Practice of Online Learning.0: Using HTML Email to Deliver High-Impact Episodic Training.elearningcentre. (2005). The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences.pdf Eleuterio.htm http://www. University of Birmingham. Diana (1993). http://www2. (2004).org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session1/paper6.gov. James (2005). distance-learning course at Keele University.ViewAbstract&paper_id=4312 Do not reproduce 75 . E-Learning 1. British Journal of Educational Technology.jisc. September 23. S. Hegarty.charityvillage. http://www.bcs. J. Francis.pdf LaCroix.hbs.html Laurillard. (2000). J.amazon. 2002.uk/services/cap/r esources/pubs/eguides/cmc/ Eisenstadt. 2005 http://www. http://safety.formatex.ac. M.ac.elearningcentre. London: Routledge.com/gp/product/0415 256798/ref=pd_rvi_gw_2/002-92531763276022?ie=UTF8 McGreal.com/cv/research/ rmed35.ngfl. 2002. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005) http://www.edu/item. Nick (2002). Computer Mediated Communication. The Eleven Commandments for controlling your e-mail.co. (2002). J. http://m. In Terry Anderson and Fathi Elloumi (Eds. F.org/index. Sven (2002). http://www.htm Garner. CAP e-Guide. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology. Jan.pdf Kadirire.The eLearning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list of instant messaging. Technologies of Online Learning.com/webconf/hostsite s.fasfind. and Collins.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.jhtml?id=3103 &t=technology > A huge list of software for setting up and maintaining discussion forums has been compiled by David Wooley. Paper presented at the ELeGI Conference.html Morgan. CharityVillage. Aug.ca/online_book/ch5 .cf m?x=0&rid=2645 The Department of Education and Skills in the UK has an article online on the safe use of e-mail within schools.. chat. and Bortolozzi. JulySept.elearningcentre. http://ewic. Komzak. UK. M. 19.co. University of Athabasca. and Wales. Learning Circuits. http://www.. R. International Journal on E-Learning. AMANDA: an intelligent system for mediating threaded discussions.warwick.uk/eclipse/Resource s/im.

ITZ GD 2 TXT – How To Use SMS Effectively in MLearning. 2002. June.ac.doc 76 © Brandon Hall Research . (2002). J. 2002_412104/stone_briggs_post_peer_re view. and Briggs. A. http://dircweb.uk/papers/Stone_A.king.Stone. Proceedings of the European Workshop on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLEARN 2002). 20-21.

Competency tracking and gap analysis are features of more advanced learning management systems (for examples of LMSs that do this. abilities and behaviors of an excellent performer. Rigorous application of this competency definition in Singapore resulted in a Competency Definition Information Model with the following elements: > > > > > Identifier Title Description Definition Metadata For more on this model.itsc. and then having a mechanism to check off when competencies are achieved.html The IMS definition of a competency was developed as the IEEE Competency Definition Standard. 2005). hiring and appraisal systems are more fair and open. SchoolTool is a project to develop a common global school administration infrastructure freely available under an Open Source license. For a large list of competencies for physicians.pdf CanDo is an open source student competency tracking system.” it started in 1950 with Dr.org/competencies/in dex. performance appraisal. Competency tracking involves developing a competency model. entering defined competencies into a matrix. diagnose symptoms.org. 2000). In 1973.” Many training departments track employee performance by breaking tasks into required competencies and then testing for each one. The major problem with competency tracking is that there is no uniform or Selected Examples The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed a Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (RDCEO). see the competencies Do not reproduce 77 . Wagner (2000) defines a competency model as “a collection of related descriptions of the knowledge. talent management coordinate system for skills verification nor methods for tracking competencies. Competency-based systems can also be overly elaborate and bureaucratic and unresponsive to changing workplaces (Parkin. skills verification. skills. see below) and performance or talent management systems. a Harvard psychologist. who developed modern quality control methods for Japanese industries.sg/events/lstc_seminar_Oct04 /Competencies. W. Description According to Sanders (2001).imsproject. and carry out proper procedures. organizational and personal goals are tied together. a competency “is an area of knowledge or skill that is critical for producing key outputs. The idea of measuring and tracking competencies in the workplace is a legacy of the command and control experience of World War II and became an important management focus after the war ended. David McClelland. Organizations and individuals can have identifiable competencies (Cooper. and work processes are measurable and standardized across organizational and geographical boundaries. https://launchpad.net/products/cando Physicians need to be able to gather data. which can be used to identify gaps in competencies and recommend the necessary steps for remedial action.Competency Tracking Software Related terms Competencies. competency-based training.” Competency tracking allows a system to build an inventory of skills. Edwards Deming. CanDo is built on the SchoolTool platform. Known in the early days as the “quality movement. go to: www. advocated using competencies rather than IQ as criteria in hiring. Download the documentation on this definition at: http://www. The main benefits of a competency-based system are that employees have a clear set of objectives and expectations for job performance. skills inventory.

April 25. Learning management systems that have this functionality include the following (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corp. Read their white paper at: http://www.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.html The U. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.com/skillsman.com/gp/product/0814 405487/sr=11/qid=1156366446/ref=pd_bbs_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Dev. Building a skills inventory.asp?articleid=1320&zoneid= 187 Bloom.ibm. http://www. For example. http://www. a Canadian company.learningcircuits. Factsheet published online by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. activities.amazon.desire2learn.com/gp/product/0471 09031X/sr=81/qid=1156366415/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8 Cooper. see the 2001 article by Ethan Sanders at: http://www. Express Computer. See the list of competencies at: http://www. http://www.com/content/templat es/clo_article.hrsg. has a Comprehensive Competencies Dictionary that lists “41 competencies included in this dictionary are required of most employees.com/20 050425/technologylife01. htm Many companies have their own competency models.com/article16.ncrel. Ken (2000). Sudipta (2005). (1982). Departments of Labor and Education formed the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) to study the kinds of competencies and skills that workers must have to succeed in today's workplace. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.expresscomputeronline.clomedia. R. New York: David McKay. 2005. Chief Learning Officer. the company that develops the LearnFlex LMS): Desire2Learn (D2L) Learning Management System. Clare (2005). http://www.” http://www.matrices from the Physician Assistant Department at the University of Western Michigan.S. Benjamin (1956). April.shtml Hogg. Josh (2006).htm Online Resources HRSG. Competency-Based Learning: The Resurrection of a Classical Approach. the Carr Performance Group uses these headings to describe each competency: purpose. London: Wiley.com/developerworks/lotus/library /lms-iwcl/ LearnFlex Learning Management System http://www.htm SyberWorks LMS – Competency Management Module http://www. http://www. New York: AMACOM. regardless of industry or sector. http://www. and development interventions. http://www.wmich.amazon.edu/paprog/clin_events.cpgvision.amazon.com/gp/product/0582 280109/104-71320800775136?v=glance&n=283155 Boyatzis. Effective Competency Modeling and Reporting: a step-by-step guide for improving individual and organizational performance.com/ IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning Management System http://www128..cipd.html For a comprehensive list of the competencies needed to be an e-learning professional. measurement.ca/index.org/sdrs/areas/issues/m ethods/assment/as7scans.php?sctn=4&ctgr y=55#1 Bibliography Bersin. The competent manager: a model for effective performance. objectives.oracle. http://www.uk/subjects/perfmangm Learning Management Systems with Competency Tracking A number of learning management systems have built-in modules for tracking competencies and tying verification of a competency to an assessment engine.co.html 78 © Brandon Hall Research .org/2001/mar2 001/competencies.learnflex.com Oracle Learning Management System http://www.syberworks. Competency and competency frameworks.E.

(1999). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. L. Parkin’s Lot.aspx?ID=15&Source=http%3A% 2F%2Fwww%2Eoperitel%2Ecom%2FLists%2 FPublications%2FAllItems%2Easpx Zwell. and Grigorenko. http://www. American Psychologist. (2003). http://www.html Radsma.htm Parkin. http://www.amazon. Competency frameworks in UK organisations: key issues in employers’ use of competencies.amazon. New York: John Wiley. Competency & Emotional Intelligence Benchmarking Supplement 2004/2005. http://www. Sanders. v.com/gp/product/0521 809886/sr=11/qid=1156366692/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Wagner.com/gp/product/0471 350745/sr=11/qid=1156366788/ref=sr_1_1/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 79 . S. Cambridge. http://www.1/features/ewet te. (Eds.pdf Rankin. (1973).com/gp/product/0846 452448/sr=15/qid=1156366474/ref=sr_1_5/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books McClelland. (2004). Competency Frameworks. and Neathy. Fall 2000.htm?IsSrchRes =1 Incomes Data Services. The IRS handbook on competencies: law and practice.blogspot. Master's thesis. http://www. Rankin. Learning Circuits.linezine. S.amazon. April 30. Gary (2004). Creating a Culture of Competence. G. Michael.htm Whiddett.collectionscanada. UK: Cambridge University Press. N. (2000). (2001). R. Operitel Corporation. and Cahorn. P. University of Toronto.com Woodill. Ellen (2000). Competencies. Tracking Comptencies and Developing Skills Inventories with LearnFlex™. E. and Hollyforde. pp. http://parkinslot. http://www. A practical guide to competencies: how to enhance individual and organisational performance.com/gp/product/1843 980126/sr=13/qid=1156366723/ref=sr_1_3/1047132080-0775136?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill. Study 706. 2nd ed. N.com/2. P. Competency based learning management. Miller. F. E-Learning Competencies. Johanna. London: IDS. Competencybased Initiatives and their Users: an exploration of competency modeling from the perspective of employees and their supervisors in three Canadian organizations.) (2003). http://www.html Sternberg. David.operitel. Rankin.ca/obj/s4/f2 /dsk1/tape10/PQDD_0021/MQ45867.t/competnces/comptfrmwk. 2005. London: IRS. and Expertise.co.learningcircuits.uk/subjects/perfmangm t/competnces/comptfrmwk. (2001). The new prescription for performance: the eleventh competency benchmarking survey. White paper. 1-14. Testing for competence rather than intelligence. Ethan (2001). London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.cipd. March 2001.amazon. Emerging technology trends in e-learning.org/2001/mar2 001/competencies. N.com/Lists/Publications /DispForm. http://www.operitel. http://www. The Psychology of Abilities.. London: IRS. (2005). Godfrey (2005). (2001). Courses vs Competencies: a comparative analysis. LineZine: Learning in the New Economy. and Epstein.com/2005/04/c ompetency-based-learningmanagement. White paper from Operitel Corporation.28.

These systems usually contain a proprietary authoring system that builds “courses” by stringing together “learning objects” stored in a central database. First. displaying a course catalogue. Learning management systems (LMS) organize the administration of learning activities. Or you could build a railway line that connected to the standard gauge grid that was being laid down everywhere and buy your rolling stock from the same factory as everyone else.” Description Computer-based content management systems (CMS) that develop. not one based on memorizing discrete “chunks of knowledge. LCMS. “Drupal can support a variety of Web sites ranging from personal Weblogs to large community-driven Web sites.” He adds that “vendors such as Macromedia. too complex and are likely to fail for several reasons. functionality to an ECM. nonstandard gauge railway line and have the rolling stock and engines specially built to run on it. simply linking a group of de-contextual-ized objects into a course based on “gaps” in knowledge is poor instructional design because learning is a flow activity. rather than complementary. and reporting. manage. and railway cars (like packets) could be sent anywhere on the network. in fact.atutor. there is usually a trade-off for “easyof-use” in that it is often accompanied by an inability to produce complex and original learning experiences. whereas enterprise content management (ECM) systems are analogous to the corresponding industrial-strength solution. With the advent of learning objects. suggesting that companies use the “handy tool” to perform “industrial strength” tasks. This hybrid has been called learning content management systems (LCMS). Sold on the basis of being “easy to use.org/ 80 © Brandon Hall Research . which are mainly distinguished from learning management systems by having built-in authoring systems and repositories for learning objects. you could hire a company to build a private. As more and more railroaders built standard gauge lines and connected them. Unfortunately. and deliver content via the Internet have been available for quite a long time. This is a major reason why few companies have deployed an LCMS. the matrix of lines became a continent-wide grid.” Web Selected Examples ATutor is an open source content management system that has been especially designed for accessibility and adaptability. According to its official Web site. most LCMS vendors have failed to recognize this fact.” http://drupal. it seemed a natural fit to put CMS and LMS systems together. Topic maps services (see Woodill and Oliveira. Both are excellent tools if applied to the right business challenge. I feel that closed. Microsoft and Trivantis offer authoring tools far superior to any authoring tools contained within an LCMS.” As well. But perhaps most important is the fact that the emerging product design in e-learning is moving away from the LCMS model to the management of diverse and widely distributed educational content using “mashups. the standardized railway system still works while private. nonstandard gauge lines have mostly disappeared or now serve as tourist attractions. Ed Cohen (2005) comments that “learning content management systems (LCMSs) are akin to the Swiss Army Knife.Content Management Systems Related terms Learning content management systems.” such self-contained systems have been described as being. Today. They have designed competitive. and “topic maps. Repositories.ca/ Drupal is an open source content management system. such as registering users. to date. launching courses. Learning objects. If you could afford it.” Imagine the early years in the development of railroads. stand-alone learning content management systems (LCMS) will disappear over the next few years. 2006). http://www.

) (2005).cmsmatrix. It allows training and e-learning providers to author once. Curtis (2005). Proceedings of the 12th World Wide Web Conference. reuse in many places.com/global/EMEA/ciscoit atwork/pdf/Integrating_Rich_Media_White_ Paper.e-learningcentre. and Carmean. Why content management software hasn’t worked. Retalis. Building Interoperability among Learning Content Management Systems. Integrating Rich Media Communications with Learning and Content Management Systems. SOAP and Services: welcome to Web hybrid e-learning applications. http://sakaiproject.gr/~retal/papers/c onferences/www2003/Interoperability_post er. “Monoliths. Course Management Systems for Learning: beyond accidental pedagogy. http://www.uk Bibliography Bonk. March 3.edtechpost. Hershey.asp?articleid=881& Do not reproduce 81 . http://www.elearnspace. Scott (2005).topicmap.htm Siemens.html McGee. S. B. San Jose.org/ AuthorIT is a CMS that allows publishing in multiple formats from one source. McGovern.com/publications.operitel. TravelinEdMan blog. S. P.edu/apps/er/erm05/ erm0533. Gerry (2003).com/ Topic maps are an alternative to the present day LCMSs. June 9. Learning Solutions. PA: Idea Group. Content Management: our organized future. Mashups.ntua.. They map the distribution of resources on a topic as it is spread across a network. http://www. 2005.org/ Sakai is an open source learning content management system designed by a consortium of universities. George (2003).blogspot. Ed. > > http://www.com/2005/1 2/so-sad-and-silly-state-of-cms. 2003.topicmaps. May 15.ca/mt/archive/000 689. Budapest. http://www.asp Woodill. http://www.gerrymcgovern. (2006). C.cisco. and publish to multiple outputs. C. http://travelinedman. January 23.com/nt/2003/n t_2003_03_03_cms.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Van (2005).. http://plone. and Brantner.educause. (2003). (Eds.htm Simon. Cisco Corporation White Paper. 2003. March 2005. and Oliveira. (2005). 2005.softlab. http://www. EdTechPost blog. 40(3).clomedia. Dec. The So Sad and Silly State of the CMS. G. New Thinking Blog.aspx Online Resources Compare the features of up to ten different content management systems with the CMS Matrix. http://www. From Course Management to Curricular Capabilities: a capabilities approach for the nextgeneration CMS. http://www.com http://www.html Cisco Corp. A. (2004).pdf Cohen.pdf Weigel.org/Articles/conte ntmanagement. http://www. Educause Review. 2006.” APIs and Extensibility – a presentation on the past and future directions of CMS. 2005.org/ The e-Learning Centre in the UK has three different Web pages to learn about content management systems and learning content management systems. 18.org Leslie.co. 2003. May/June. http://www. Chief Learning Officer Magazine. http://www. Strategies for managing scalable content. Jafari.Plone is a user-friendly content management system with strong multilingual support.author-it. elearnspace blog.

Data Mining Related Terms Adaptive software. Mining data in this way provides ways to learn about learners in order to make effective decisions regard-ing teaching Pahl (2004) has a different but overlapping list of the functions of data mining in education and training: > > > > > > Usage Statistics – see what parts of the e-learning application are used Classification and Prediction – see where learners fall in preset categories Clustering – pattern recognition and grouping Association rules – interesting relationships Sequential patterns – order of events Time Series – variance of patterns and rules over time The major concerns with data mining in education revolve around issues of privacy. knowledge discovery. How can data mining be used in e-learning? Monk (2005) provides an example of trying to understand learner behavior in taking an online course: The initial investigation aimed to examine the paths learners followed…However. it quickly became clear that students were spending little time with the course materials online and the time spent with each page was usually less than 20 seconds. The Gene Ontology Knowledge Discovery System (GO KDS) is the first application designed to classify unstructured documents according to the widely used Gene Ontology. This emerging field is also known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD). As data mining tools and techniques evolve. Ueno (2004) lists the following as unique functions of data or text mining in elearning: > > > > > > > Summarization of learners’ knowledge states Summarization of learners’ learning processes Summarization of learners’ discussion processes Prediction of learner’s knowledge states in the future Detection of the learners who need teacher’s help Analyses of e-learning contents Analysis of each learner’s characteristics in discussion Description Data mining is a set of techniques and methodologies designed to extract useful knowledge from large amounts of data and to reveal patterns and relationships in large and complex data sets (De Veaux. 2000. De Veaux (2000) lists five data mining models: > > > > > Descriptions Classifications Regressions Clustering Associations Some data mining techniques touch on more than one model. GO KDS has 82 © Brandon Hall Research . Consequently. Luan and Willett. more sophisticated knowledge can be gleaned. personalization methods. Selected Examples Reel Two and GeneEd have launched a powerful new text-mining tool for life sciences research. a better understanding of how learners accessed the electronic course materials was needed to evaluate the effectiveness of developing and delivering courses in this way. Data mining can be used to map patterns and answer questions about group behavior that allow educational and training organizations to predict and plan for the future. By combining data on the activity with content with user profiles it was possible to examine alternate information per-spectives and reveal patterns in large volume data sets. 2001). delivery models and infrastructure investment.

In Pierre. 13-16 http://asbointl. http://pami. G. http://www. 1--34.com Dr Kalina Yacef is an Educational Data Mining Specialist at the University of Sydney. K. and Smyth. Data Mining: What’s New. Lange. Robert (2002).) E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: A Knowledge Processing Perspective.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning. text mining.kdnuggets.pdf Freitas. Presentation at the Data Mining Workshop.icosystem. G.amstatonline.usyd. What’s Not. 1996.pdf Fayyad. (2006).html Hammouda. Long Beach. by applying fuzzy logic. and Web mining. http://www. U. (2004). B. rule-based inferencing and data mining technologies. School Business Affairs. edited U. K. Grieser.pdf Excalibur is a deep search engine that organizes the Web into millions of categories and then uses a data mining approach to find information. P. (1996).org/sections/qp/qpr/QPRC2001/invi ted/Deveaux. pp. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Feb.wfu.ca/pub/hammouda/ hammouda-elearning.kent. http://www.reeltwo. M. http://www. 68(8).com/gpspubs/aimag -kdd-overview-1996-Fayyad. P. RetrievalWare is a knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data.au/%7Ekalina/inde x.kdnuggets.org/home/eng/p roducts/product_profile/smart.. http://www..uwaterloo. See a list of her research in this area at: http://www.ac. Data Mining in e-Learning.cs. Piatetsky.pdf SmartTutor is an innovative online learning platform for deploying e-courses.cs. California. Thalheim. and Kamel. AAAI Press/MIT Press. Samuel (Ed. and R.pdf Jantke. B.html Bibliography De Veaux. G.com/ Hammouda and Kamel (2006) have written a chapter in a new book that presents an innovative approach for performing data mining on documents.hkuspace. TADA-Ed contains preprocessing facilities so that users can transform the database tables to a format that. New York: Springer. Smyth. Data stored in a database often needs some transformation. Alex (2002). Grigoriev. (2000). Uthurusamy. New York: Springer. http://pami.. http://imej. In Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. SmartTutor can identify the weaknesses of a learner in an e-course and advise the learner on how to make efficient revisions. Piatetsky-Shapiro.. can generate meaningful results for the teacher. S. allowing them to visualize and mine students' online exercise work with the aim of discovering pedagogically relevant patterns. Both products are from Convera. http://www.. P.asp Icosystem creates customized tools that replicate the detailed behavior of real systems whose complexity pushes them beyond the reach of traditional analytical approaches. Data mining: a great opportunity for schools. which serves as a basis for knowledge extraction in e-learning environments. 2001) http://www. when used with a particular data mining algorithm.org/ASBO/files/ccPageCont entdocfilename000805705546SBA_Feb_2 002_pages.com/index.com/ Online Resources The KDnuggets Web site lists resources for data mining.pdf Iskander. One of the functionalities that differentiates SmartTutor from other online learning platforms is that. R. (cited in Luan and Willett.uk/people/staff/aaf/ book-springer-ukc.uwaterloo.convera.soul.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.. and Tschiedel. http://www. M Fayyad. From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. Do not reproduce 83 . Australia.classified the full set of more than 12 million MEDLINE documents classified against the Gene Ontology terms. knowledge discovery.php?page=n ews&article=2002100101 TADA-Ed (Tool for Advanced Data Analysis in Education) is a data mining platform dedicated to teachers.edu.

Billerica.pdf Merceron. David (2005).fr/docs/00/02/75/12/P DF/Merceron_Yacef. International Journal on ELearning.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.cabrillo. and Yacef. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. Data Mining in e-Learning. 2004 (7). and Cheung. 238-241.ViewAbstract&paper_id=6569 Merceron. Paper for International World Wide Web Conference.ccsd. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2004).editlib.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21811052.. E-learning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior.com/acatalog/1845 641523. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). http://csdl2. Hiroshima. http://www.html Ueno. Fuzzy logic and data mining for e-learning. RP Conference Presentation. http://archiveedutice. M. (2006).aspx? PaperID=15069 Luan. Yacef (2005).org/16915 Romero.com/PaperInfo. http://www. K.cnrs. Special Issue on the Education-al Semantic Web. and Minguillon. Oliveira. Maomi (2004). A.edu/articles/2005/1/03/in dex.Learning by doing and learning when doing dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. and K. 52-59. http://www. and K..org/volume-3/v3-i1/v3-i1art5-monk. Claus (2004). C. E.de/~cullrich/publications/MerceronetalMining-ISWC-2004. Data Mining And Knowledge Management: A System Analysis for Establishing a Tiered Knowledge Management Model (TKMM).pdf Loo. Advances in Management Information. http://www. Vol 4.ags.. Yacef (2004). analyze for more adaptive teaching. Gord (2004). A.pdf Monk. http://www. Data mining and text mining technologies for collaborative learning in an ILMS “Samurai”. http://wwwjime.-Dec. Porto. (2001). J. A.uk/2004/7/mccalla-20047. Train. C. Using Data Mining for e-Learning Decision Making. T. Paper presented at ICALT 2004 Conference. Oct.ejel. and Willett.aace. B. http://dl. Data Mining Technology for the Evaluation of Learning Content Interaction. Elect-ronic Journal of e-Learning.org/index. MA: WIT Press. Japan. 15(4).unisb. 47-55. NYC. http://www2004. Feb. http://www. Scholl. Proceedings of International Symposium Information and Knowledge Technologies in Higher Education and Industry (TICE2004). Portugal. A. http://www. store.de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of ComputerEnhanced Learning. and Ventura. Mining student data captured from a Web-based tutoring tool: initial exploration and results.wfu.unikiel.pdf Pahl. (2004).pdf McCalla.edu/services/pro/oir_re ports/dmkm. The Ecological Approach to the Design of E-Learning Environments: Purpose-based Capture and Use of Information About Learners.ac. TADA-Ed for Educational Data Mining. Innsbruck.actapress. (2006).open. 13-16. and Ullrich. In Proceedings.informatik.org/proceedings/docs/2p 264. 2006. Paper presented at the IASTED Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications. May 17-22. C. J. (2004).computer. K. 3(4). (2004). 3(1). 41-54. S. 7(1). http://imej. Mining for Content Re-Use and Exchange: solutions and problems. 39-40.asp Merceron.pdf Merceron. 319-346.2004. Austria.pdf 84 © Brandon Hall Research .compmech.pdf Mor.is.

and 6) document results.net/index.pdf The Adaptive Technology Resource Centre at the University of Toronto has an online Decision Support Tool.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. The software is also useful in teaching about decisionmaking processes.html Meetingworks for Windows is a local area network (LAN) based group decision support system (GDSS) used when decision makers Description In education and training we make choices all the time.utoronto. with tools for individual decision making and for group collaboration and negotiation.com/ Facilitate. Decision-support systems include the following: > > > > > Scoring systems (to add up weighted scores to guide decision making) Bayesian models (recommendations based on probabilities) Heuristic reasoning (expert systems based on empirical rules-of-thumb) Case-based reasoning (looking at the evidence for a decision) Artificial neural networks (using parallel processing to work through a mass of data) Cognitive agents (artificial intelligence routines that “think” about decisions) Intelligent tutoring (watching for patterns and errors.Decision Support Software Related Terms Artificial intelligence > Duplicate Programs That Run Effectively Selected Examples GrassGro is a commercial computer software package developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). The software then recommends books that you might like to read. 2) categorize. the using decision support software in corporate training can have the following benefits for a business: > > > > > Align Training with Organizational Goals Improve Human Performance Reduce Time to Competency Select the Right Blend of Delivery Options Consider Internal vs. http://www.une.whichbook. in their case study of medical education.decisionarium. http://www. http://www.bnhexpertsoft.html Decisionarium is a site for interactive multicriteria decision support.facilitate.au/dss/grassgro/index . 4) develop an action plan. Frize and Frasson (2000) point out that teaching decision making processes can be supported using decision support tools. http://www. http://www. It has been used for e-learning content in negotiation analysis. 5) carry out a survey. External Solutions Do not reproduce 85 .com/ Which Book asks you to make a set of choices based on up to four criteria.fi/ BNH Expert Software is a Canadian company that produces decision support software for e-learning.hut. The activities supported are 1) brainstorm. such as deciding which resources to deploy in a given situation. New software has recently emerged to help us make such decisions.edu. and recommending remedial action) > > According to Bahlis (2004).tkk.ca/atrc/research/deci sion_support_tool/index. GrassGro is being used at the University of New England to explore interactions within grazed ecosystems over time.sal. http://www. For example.jsp The Joint Gains software has been successfully applied as an interactive training tool in the e-learning of negotiation analysis. which provides predictive outcomes (both biological and economic) for agricultural systems in a wide diversity of environments.com is a Web site featuring online collaboration software for decision making. http://www. 3) vote/prior-itize.

html Hamalainen.org/Computers/Software/Data bases/Data_Warehousing/Decision_Suppor t_Tools/ dovetailing e-learning and decision support with a data mining tutor. Paper presented at the 36th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.pdf Power. Raimo (2003). 101-110.actapress. http://www. Dan (2003).are located in different places and have incompatible schedules. 6-9. B. White paper from BNH Expert Software. Enn (2004). Kauai.com/history/dsshistory .dssresources. August 16-18. (2004). Decision Support Models for Composing and Navigating through e-Learning Objects. Decision Support Systems in e-Learning.uottawa. http://www. (2003). Theresa (1998). 23(4).de/html/publikationen/DS E03DaMiT.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mham03.html Scott.pdf Jantke.pdf Frize.. 2005.): Proceedings of the 7th IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis.hawaii. For newsletters. http://www.unikiel.pdf Ehtamo. From Classroom to Boardroom: six strategies to maximize impact of training budgets and resources. Germany. http://www. Aachen.pdf Chakrabarty.hut.pdf Jantke. Lange. and Tschiedel. H. Thalheim. Enn (2005).de/~thalheim/psfiles/ICEIS. Grigoriev. Information Systems for a Connected Society. S. see: http://www.ca/~frize/victoriap aperapril. 2004.is. An e-learning approach for teaching mathematical models of negotiation analysis. R. Kankana (2005).2004. June 20-24. Rostanin. http://www.html Online Resources DSS Resources is a Web site devoted to all aspects of decision support systems. M.. http://damit. Jim (2002). SIGGRAPH publication. Learning by doing and learning when doing - 86 © Brandon Hall Research .bnhexpertsoft. Jan.com/PaperInfo.uniserve. Online manuscript. (2000). In Proceedings. http://www. B. C. Hamalainen. and Tschiedel.aspx? PaperID=17096 Ounapuu. A Brief History of Decision Support Systems. B. Negotiating and Collecting Opinions on the Web. 12(2-3). and information on this area.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. Porto. (2004).sal.. Manchester. K. http://www.pdf Knolmayer.com/english/pro ducts/advent/classroomtoboardroom. O.com/ The Open Directory Project lists over 30 companies under “Decisions Support Tools. and Frasson.hut. Gerhard (2003). Portugal. http://dssresources. Decisionarium – Aiding Decisions.meetingworks.com/index.edu. 317-328..dfki.hicss.. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS'2004). B.edu/HICSS36/HIC SSpapers/CLNGL03.mc. Paper by the editor of DSS Resources Web site. http://www.site. 238-241. Hawaii.au/pubs/procs /wshop10/2005Chakrabarty. UniServe Science Blended Learning Symposium Proceedings. DSE'2003 Workshops Proceedings. V. Decisionsupport and intelligent tutoring systems in medical education.informatik. Clinical and Investigative Medicine.” http://dmoz. Enhancing student learning using decision support tools across Bibliography Bahlis. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. http://www.pdf Ounapuu. Decision Support by Learning-On-Demand. Paper presented at the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference. USA. P. Hawaii.fi/Publications/pdffiles/mkos. Thalheim. Decision Support Component in Intelligent E-Learning Systems.. and Koskinen.html Rhyne.siggraph. http://www.manchester. Decision analysis under uncertainty for e-learning environment. Memmel. Jay (2004). http://science.ac.sal. G. Grieser. M.uk/eunis200 5/medialibrary/papers/paper_118. books. August. In Vladimir Uskov (Ed. K...

ideagroup.the curriculum. and Laurindo. 2002. 9.edu. M. T.uniserve. http://science. de Carvaho. Strategic Alignment Process and Decision Support Systems: Theory and Case Studies. Hershey. http://www..asp?id=5390 Do not reproduce 87 . Oct. Vol. PA: Idea Publishing. F.au/pubs/callab /vol9/scott.html Shimizu.com/books/details. CAL-laborate. (2006).

For some applications this means a much larger and clearer screen. has developed the world’s largest plasma monitor screen (102 inches) and the largest LCD display (an 82 inch screen). Finally. head mounted displays. still/video camera.io2technology. In regards to digital paper. For air displays.Displays Related terms Digital ink. New high definition computer displays are getting larger while the price is decreasing. In the near future. digital paper. projectors.co.com/technology/ overview NTERA.ices. By stacking a second projector. It can display and send data out through its wireless components. electronic paper.html Promera is a hand-held computer. This can be a holographic image.ntera. 88 © Brandon Hall Research . See their Grating Light Valve (GLV) technology on display at: http://www. including the human hand that which can draw or print directly onto the whiteboard.html The FogScreen is a new invention that makes objects seem to appear and move in Head-mounted displays and heads-up displays are increasingly being used in educational simulations and games.com/htmlpgs/home set/homeframeset. Inc.cmu. intelligent interfaces. > > http://www. digital ink and paper allow for large displays of information on flexible media.or a rear projection into a specially treated stream of air or fog.com/about. and solid state optics using proprietary electrochromic materials featuring uniquely transparent and natural colors. a whole variety of display technologies will be available to the elearning practitioners. and projector developed at Carnegie Mellon University.P rojector. But getting larger is not the only change in emerging display technologies. lighting up theater size screens. Screens in portable devices are becoming clearer and less susceptible to light pollution. big enough to be projected on large walls. eSchool News suggested in 2003 that “one possibility is electronic textbooks that can be refreshed with new content instantly. saving schools on the cost of textbook purchases. resolution can be increased to 8000x8000 pixels. whiteboards Description Given that a great deal of e-learning is visual.edu/design/Camera.uk/2004/12 /16/samsung_monster_telly/ http://www.co.theregister. http://killer. http://www. including the following: > > > > > > > > Head-mounted displays Monitors Portable screens Projectors Wall displays Air displays Digital whiteboards Digital ink and paper Digital whiteboards can accept input from a number of devices. monitors.html IO2 Technology features its “heliodisplay” that shows images hovering in mid-air.uk/2005/03 /08/samsung_82in_lcd/ Silicon Light Machines holds a number of patents on devices that allow for laserbased projectors that project over a wide area. Projectors can pump out images that are over 4000x4000 pixels. Electronic paper could change that some day.theregister. This is good news for those who want to create highly immersive virtual environments using extremely large screens. viewers see a floating midair image or video. is the leading enabler of electronic displays. display technologies are critical in delivering an outstanding educational experience online. in cooperation with Sony. A common complaint about the current generation of eBook reader devices is they don't replicate the experience of reading from an actual book. http://www.siliconlight.” Selected Examples Samsung.

fogscreen.com/tags/digital%20 paper?start=0 T. M.php/2 005/03/12/largest_lcd_and_video_projecti on Bibliography Advanced Display Technologies. T.pdf Wang. Canada. E. http://www. see: http://www.php writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.loaz. State. Livingston.com/ Online Resources The Technorati Web site contains numerous references and links to articles on digital paper.informatik. Hirota. See a demo at: http://www. 2005.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn.unifreiburg.com/timwang/index. see: http://ad.provisionentertainment. Richards (Ed. http://ad.H.com/the/topics/display/ First Monday is a journal on new technologies.E. 2005. Whitton.jisc.thin air! It is a screen you can walk through! http://www.ac. http://blog.” those giant electronic billboards that are becoming pervasive in our society.org/issues/special 11_2/ Khaireel Mohamed is a leading researcher in the area of digital ink and paper.com/ ProVision 3D display technology shows 3-D images that seem to jump right out of the screen. For a list of his publications.org/citation. JISC Technology Watch White Paper. S.acm. Vancouver.. pages 3053-3068.unifreiburg.). and Higher Education (E-Learn 2005). Dec. Tim Wang’s e-Learning Blog. http://www..technorati. W. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s Do not reproduce 89 . Hamburg. Oct. 3. London: Springer. M. Tim (2005).de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/publication s.cfm?name=tec hwatch_ic_reports2005_published Fuchs.informatik.uk/index.. H. In G. http://thejournal.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=718981 Mohamed. In 2005. Garrett. A. and Ottmann. and Pizer. Largest LCD and video projection. Journal has a list of the latest in advanced digital display technologies. Germany. (2005). Government. Healthcare.firstmonday. it published a special issue on “Urban Screens.. To access the articles. Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate. Pisano. (1996). K. He is programming computers to recognize and interpret gestures on whiteboards made using a digital pen. http://portal. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing Conference.. G.. Towards Performing Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsies from within a Head-Mounted Display.

educause.ac. maximum flexibility. thus. 2005). http://www. Based on a personal development planning (PDP) model. has an “E-Portfolio Best Practice and Implement-ation Guide” available for download.asp?url=129 063%2Ehtm eP4LL stands for “ePortfolio for Lifelong Learning. http://www. http://www2.elearningcentre.livetext.pebblelearning. has posted a list of Online Resources on e-portfolios.osportfolio.co.nottingham. In this report I look at the tools available for developing e-portfolios.com/products/ep ortfolio/default.pupilpages. Has a “visitor’s pass” that allows prospective employers to view contents http://college.co.edu/E%2DPortfolios/ 5524 The 2004 article on e-portfolios by George Siemens has an extensive list of online materials on this topic.htm The Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI) is a community of individuals and organizations collaborating on the development of a non-proprietary. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ep ortfolios.E-Portfolio Tools Related terms Assessment.foliotek. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a resource site with materials on e-portfolios. http://www.org/Articles/eportf olios.com/ LiveText – College LiveText Portfolio – An eportfolio based on a set of pre-designed templates. http://www.html Chalk and Wire – ePortfolio with RubricMarker – A customizable e-portfolio that is also compliant with Section 508 accessibility guidelines. http://www.com/college/portfolio s.imsglobal. helping to transform education and training. http://www. evaluation. reviewed e-portfolios as an online content format. open source electronic portfolio.com/eportfolio/in dex.com/ PebblePad – PebblePad ePortfolio – An eportfolio that is designed for advanced functionality.paisley.” This project in the UK has the goal of producing a reference model of an eportfolio that is capable of exchanging data with another e-portfolio.ch/dyn/9. http://isle.elearnspace.iwebfolio. and simple usability.htm IMS. Webbased personalized portfolio in a hosted environment.uk/ 90 © Brandon Hall Research .htm Educause.angellearning. http://www.html Nuventive – iWebfolio – A flexible.com/ ISLE stands for Individualised Support for Learning through ePortfolios.chalkandwire.html FolioTek – Portfolio Management – An institutional based system that gives each student his or her own portfolio. http://www. My first report in this series. This consortium of ten educational institutions in the UK has agreed to recognize work in portfolio format from any member. résumés Penchina Web Design – Pupil Pages – An ePortfolio designed for students K-12.educa.uk/epreference model/ Selected Examples Angel – ePortfolio – An e-portfolio that is meant to integrate with the Angel Learning Management System. a nonprofit organization devoted to e-learning research. http://www. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.ac.uk/default. http://www. the global consortium that sets standards for e-learning.org/ Description E-portfolios are online collections of digital works that highlight a person’s abilities and achievements. http://www.html EPICC is a European e-learning project for producing specifications for the interoperability of electronic portfolios (eportfolios) and.org/ep/epv1p0/imse p_bestv1p0.

thejournal. and Ittelson.elearnspace. 39.. April 1. (2002). http://www.asp?id=6984 Cohn. J. M.educause. Fall.cfm Dubinsky. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Recognizing Learning: educational and pedagogic issues in e-portfolios. March. Harvey. Frederick (2005).educause.. Dec.. J. P.. Online paper. and Haywood. D. elearnspace.pdf#search=%22Reflect ive%20learning%2C%20future%20thinking %3A%20digital%20repositories%22 Siemens.ac. http://www. D. and Wade.. Beyond the Electronic Portfolio: A Lifetime Personal Web Space.edu/blog/nils_pet erson/eportfolio_with_foaf_and_atom_proof _of_concept/1511 The Collaborative Learning Environments Sourcebook.becta. http://elgg. Gary (2004). Reflective learning. (2005). http://www. E.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq m0224.com/exec/obidos/tg/d Do not reproduce 91 .pdf Greenberg. THE Journal Online. has a section on e-portfolios. W. George (2004).... http://www.alt. and McKean. informal learning and ubiquitous computing.pdf#search=%22An%20Overview%20 of%20e-Portfolios%22 Roberts. Bibliography Achrazoglou. Business Communication Quarterly. Dublin.uk/docs/ALT_SURF_ILTA_ white_paper_2005. Dec. Cook.amazon.org/collab/v.pdf Batson. J.. Creating new views on learning: ePortfolios. http://www. Paper presented at the ALT/SURF/ILTA1 Spring Conference Research Seminar.doc Banks. (2005). Educause Quarterly. 2004 http://www. 4.campustechnology. J. Trinity College. Fleming. Aalderink. vol. Educause Review. Love. G.com/magazine/vault /A5260. Electronic Portfolios and Dimensions of Learning. B.Scott Wilson has an interesting concept of an e-portfolio based on content from various Web feeds.criticalmethods.pdf#search=%22Creation%20of%2 0a%20Learning%20Landscape%3A%20web logging%20and%20social%20networking%2 0in%20the%20context%20of%20eportfolios%22 Tosh.org/papers/Learning_lan dscape.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 3001.educause. and Hibbitts. Lee. Bryde. D.mv ?d=1_76 etail//B0008411NS/qid=1131423591/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/103-24969408161425?v=glance&s=books Gathercoal. and Werdmuller. (2005). http://www. V. Educause Quarterly. (2003). ePortfolios. G. e-portfolios. with many links. Graham (2005). S. 16. On implementing Webbased electronic portfolios.edu/ir/library/pdf/EQ M0441. Bob (2004). e-Portfolios: their use and benefits. (2004). future thinking: digital repositories. B. Vol 27 No 4. http://www. FD Learning White Paper. K. (2004). engagement with electronic portfolios: challenges from the student perspective.com/gp/product/B000 6S3GSE/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Attwell.net/gattwell/files/486/1465/ep ortfoliopaper. College of Education http://www. B.org.uk/content_files/ferl/r esources/organisations/fd%20learning/eportfoliopaper..educause. (2002). The digital convergence: extending the portfolio model. J.. 28–37. Creation of a Learning Landscape: Weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Light. July/ August 2004.. University of Iowa.amazon. (Focus on Teaching).pdf Conway. an online resource on collaboration. no. An Overview of e-Portfolios. J.educause. 37(2). The Electronic Portfolio Boom: What's it All About? Campus Technology Magazine. Online.. http://www.eradc.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0441. 2005.org/Articles/eportf olios. T. http://www. 31(3). G. http://ferl. http://connect. Feijen.pdf Lorenzo. Trent (2002). http://www.htm Tosh. An Educause Learning Initiative Paper.com/article. A white paper on performance assessment in teacher education: The Iowa ePortfolio model. Online Paper.

ca/content/vol31. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education. The QFolio in action: Using a Web-based electronic portfolio to reinvent traditional notions of inquiry. 2(2). & Figgins.A.ht ml Young.citejournal.org/vol2/iss2/englis h/article1.http://www. 144-169. (2002). research.cjlt.. http://www. M.cfm 92 © Brandon Hall Research . and portfolios. C.3/tosh.A.

com. and traditional educational publishers have announced gaming initiatives for their higher education markets. and learning (Amory. http://www.” says that “in the mod world.microsoft.facebook. which is an attempt to provide a framework to understand the relationships between story. allows members of a game development team to work together.clickteam. serious games. Educational games and simulations now appear on cell phones. Major learning management platforms have added simulation or gaming extensions that will allow them to launch games and track results. This game allows users to play. ought to be part of the educational research agenda” (quoted in Godwin-Jones. writing about “first person shooter games.com Thinking Worlds is an educational games authoring engine. The theory of educational games is developing as the Game Achievement Model (GAM). One interesting phenomenon is “modding” – modifying existing game engines to create new educational games. has found that massive multiplayer online games are “sites for socially and materially distributed cognition.” Freescale Semiconductor produces CodeWarrior Game Development Tools for both Sony and Nintendo game platforms.cyworld. Marc Prensky (2003).com/ http://www. identity work.secondlife.jsp?nodeId=0127268507 Microsoft has released a set of game development tools for the Xbox video game console. multimodality 'attentional spaces' and rich meaningmaking and. see: http://news.myspace. 2005). http://www.com http://us. create. Facebook. complex problem solving. helping speed up the game creation process. Dr.Gaming Development Tools Related terms Immersive environments. and Second Life.com/xna/ Softimage. MySpace.com/ In 2005. There is a free 30-day trial version.com Description Learning through playing games (also known as “serious games”) is one of the hottest areas of emerging e-learning. Examples include Hive7. ‘shooter’ should not necessarily be taken as a negative: the Shell players shot firefighting foam.hive7. as such. individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia. http://www. edit. Thinking Worlds is based on well researched and proven learning principles and has already been used to develop highly engaging games in many subject areas.com/ http://www. and even share games with other members of the Thinking Worlds community. games. Constance Steinkuehler. Try them out at: > > > > > http://www.thinkingworlds. Cyworld. 2003). The toolset. Microsoft announced a version of Visual Studio for producing computer games. Making such changes is part of what modding is about. the BT players shot ideas out of their cell phones. dubbed XNA Studio.freescale. has game development tools Do not reproduce 93 . virtual reality Selected Examples The latest trend in online games involves 3D virtual social environments where each player is represented by a changeable avatar and where the “play” of the game depends on the direction the collectivity wants to take. a subsidiary of Avid Technologies. play.com/webapp/sps/site /homepage. from the University of Wisconsin. Online gaming and role-playing games are expected to take in more than $3 billion in 2007.com/Microsoft+developer +tools+prep+for+next+Xbox/2100-1043_35603082.com/ http://www. For a brief review of these tools. http://www.html Clickteam in the UK offers its Games Factory software that promises the ability to produce a credible game in less than a half hour. simulations.

and speakers on all aspects of gaming.htm Dr.html The Serious Games Summit is another annual conference that brings together educational and business games developers. You can read about them at Pluginz. Magnetar provides authoring systems that allow even a nonprogrammer to become more involved in the game playing experience.com Programmers Heaven devotes a section of its Web site to game development for various platforms and lists of game development tools.aspx urces.ucalgary.com The North American Simulation and Gaming Association (NASAGA) is a growing network of professionals working on the design. They also hold an annual Game Developers Conference. NASAGA has members from more than 50 countries from around the globe.wisc.html&CategoryID=23 Rod Corbett at the University of Calgary has posted a page entitled “Cool Development Tools for Developing Games and Simulations (mostly freeware). Some of their games are played by simply using e-mail.” Find his list of publications at: http://www.edu/itforum/Games_Reso 94 © Brandon Hall Research . Get the latest information in this field from: http://educationarcade.html#Games_Gaming_for_Education_ The Education Arcade is a Web site managed by a partnership of MIT and the University of Wisconsin to publicize research and development projects that drive innovation in educational computer and video games.pluginz.digiplay. produces educational games for training. along with their Web sites. http://www.programmersheaven. http://it. http://www.org/ The Game Developers Conference is held each year and brings together developers. It presents sessions on emerging trends in game development.siggraph. http://www.coe.seriousgames. Many of their learning games resources are free. http://www.” Read her research at: http://website.com/news/548 http://www.softimage. Sign up at: http://www.org/ The Serious Games Initiative is the place for tracking the latest developments in the field of educational gaming. For example.com/zone 8/index.com or go directly to the Softimage Web site. implementation.nasaga. Constance Steinkuehler is a specialist in the cognitive effects of being involved in “massively multi-player games.education. Started in North America. Simon Egenfeldt-Nielsen at the IT University of Copenhagen has written many articles in English and Danish on “serious games.0@ Online Resources The ACM SIGGRAPH Web site lists suppliers of over 50 different game engines.it-c.edu/steinkue hler/ Magnetar Games Corporation is a researchoriented software developer based in Vancouver. See the selection of games at: http://www.com/ Thiagi.magnetargames.org.php The former Game Technology Conference is now called FuturePlay.com/ Muzzy Lane Software develops multi-player games for education that come with authoring tools.htm Dr.dk/people/sen/public. http://www.htm Beverly Farrell of the University of Georgia maintains a massive list of resources on educational games. see how to play the e-mail game Depolarizer by finding the “Free Resources” at: http://thiagi. http://www.seriousgamessummit.org/index2.uga.com/solutions/g ames/default. > > http://www.com/ The DigiPlay site is a place to keep up with the latest in online gaming for education.for the Xbox.org/?14@33. Inc. Review them at: http://esub. http://www.mpjgaBKQ dAe.gdconf.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatResults. researchers. and evaluation of games and simulations to improve learning results in all types of organizations.futureplay.muzzylane.ca/~corbett/gamers/t ools. Canada.uk/index2.” http://www.

Clifton Park.edu/steinkue hler/papers/Steinkuehler_0.edu/vol9num1/pdf/emerging . 2006. 2005. and Inform. and Michael.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt. Train.pdf Egenfeldt-Nielsen.edu/iicm_papers/Gameba sedLearning_ED-MEDIA2005. “Modding” – The Newest Authoring Tool. Bob (2005). Xplanazine. 2005. http://www. http://jason. D. R. January 2. G. Mayer (Ed.amazon.pdf Godwin-Jones. http://llt. and Biswas.org/uk/catalogue/ca talogue.ac.pdf Bergeron..itc.org/publicatio ns/RiverAdventureAIED2005Handouts. Alan (2003). Marc (2003).amazon. Computer Games as Intelligent Learning Environments: A River Ecosystem Adventure. 9(1).iicm. Cognition and Learning in Massively Multiplayer Online Games: a critical approach. Clifton Park.za/ited/amory/edmedi a2003.com/gp/product/1584 504447/sr=82/qid=1145998935/ref=pd_bbs_2/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Chen.. Proof of Learning: assessment in serious games. University of Wisconsin Madison. Multimedia learning in games.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Constance (2005). (2005). Serious Games: Games That Educate.asp?isbn=0521547512 Steinkuehler. March 10.ukzn. June 25-28.msu. Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Montreal. Technology Trends for the Year. 2003.pdf Swamy.edu/atc/web_casts/games /Gamasutra%20-%20Feature%20%20_Proof%20of%20Learning_%20Assess ment%20in%20Serious%20Games_. Paper presented at EDMedia 2003 Conference.pdf Prensky. (2005). (2006). Honolulu.com/archives/2006 /03/games_and_educa. 2003.Bibliography Amory. Simon (2005). Game-based E-Learning Applications by applying the E-Tester: A Tool for Auto-generated Questions and Automatic Answer Assessment.php Rieber. June. Another Country: Virtual Learning Spaces. S. http://www. see: http://www.pdf Do not reproduce 95 . D. http://www. (2005). Xplanazine. pdf Reynolds.teachableagents. Rob (2006b). http://www. Oct.) The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. N. and Swamy. (2005).com/gp/product/1592 006221/ref=pd_bxgy_img_a/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 For an online excerpt.com/gp/product/1584 504463/sr=81/qid=1145999026/ref=pd_bbs_1/0023215669-7528032?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Tan. Beers. Dreher. Developing Serious Games.education. and Maurer. Lloyd (2005). Fourth Quarter. N. S. IT-University Copenhagen. H. and Chen. 549-567. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Boston: Thomson Course Technology PTR. http://www. NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. http://www. In Richard E. C.xplanazine.com/archives/2006 /01/technology_tren. Emerging Technologies: Messaging. Bryan (2006). http://www. J. Hawaii. Gupta. Games and Education = Oil and Water.. http://website. Chapter 33. Language Learning and Technology. http://www. 19. Paper presented at the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) Conference.xplanazine.com/writing/Prens ky%20-%20Modding%20%20The%20Newest%20Authoring%20Tool.uwf. Paper presented at the ED-Media 2005 Conference. http://www. Gamasutra. Learning on Demand Bulletin.uwf.marcprensky. Gaming.cambridge. H. http://www. Rob (2006a). Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.php Reynolds. C.pdf Michael. Williams. SRI-BI. R. Jan. 2005. simulations and microworlds.wisc. 2006.pdf Guetl. 17-22. Basic Game Design & Creation for Fun & Learning. http://www. Doctoral dissertation.amazon. New York: Cambridge University Press..

Methods and Considerations in Designing Web-based Real-Time Strategy Games. http://woz. 2004.edu/courses/ theses/mudcraft/thesis. Masters Thesis. Jason (2004).commtechlab. Michigan State University.msu.pdf 96 © Brandon Hall Research .Tye.

Munich.html Research by Dr. artificial intelligence. http://www.tudelft. Report No.ecs. Evoking Gestures in SmartKom − Design of the Graphical User Interface. Learner-interface Design: recognizing learner gestures.smartkom. play an important role in gesture and facial expression recognition.pdf Beringer. 3.Gesture and Facial Recognition Related terms Affective computing. The same techniques can be used to automatically scan and index video. UK is on interactive actions and intentions for achieving multimodal human-machine interaction: http://mmi.. Advances in Do not reproduce 97 .elearningguild. eLearning Developers’ Journal.uk/ The 8th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition.pdf Borghi. will be held in Amsterdam on September 10-13. Lombardi. March. was held in Southampton. Basic Hand Gesture Recognition for Human- The major educational purpose of gesture recognition is to enable the computer to have a better model of the user in order to respond more appropriately. Recognizable learner gestures can include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Cursor movement Single-lick Double-click Rollovers Drag and drop Click and place Keyboard response Voice command Drawing with a stylus Iris tracking Head pointers (mainly used for persons with a physical disability) Online Resources The 7th International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition. robotics this area will have a major impact on the effective use of artificial intelligence. looking for particular sequences. F.com/~ccohen/gesture . and robotics in elearning. UK. L. FG2008. Gesture and facial recognition technologies refer to a combination of computer hardware and software that can sense and understand a user’s gestures and facial expressions. affective computing. 2003. Maja Pantic of Imperial College. Selected Examples The Institute for Neural Computation – Machine Perception Lab. M.soton. For a list of papers: http://www. Artificial intelligence techniques. FG2006.fg2008.. (2005). http://www.” http://mplab. The end goal of using this technology is to create a system that can identify a gesture or facial expression and then use that information to personalize the interaction or to control a particular device attached to the system.fg2006.nl/ Charles Cohen maintains a Web site on gesture recognition research. including identifying commercial products. 2008.nl/~maja/ Bibliography Allen. 18. Porta. Michael (2003). April 10-12 2006. Ludwig-Maximilians University. http://www.com/pdf/2/081 803DES. haptics.edu/ Description We all use gestures and facial expressions to communicate. http://www. Nicole (2001).ucsd.org/reports/ReportNR-03.cybernet. at the University of California. London.ac. is investigating “how the brain works by developing embodied systems that solve problems similar to those encountered by the brain. A system’s recognition of the user’s actions and intentions becomes another form of communication between computers and humans. Aug. such as Markov models.

2004.com/PaperInfo. Lee. Sentient Map and Its Application to E-Learning. J. A Natural Hand Gesture Human Computer Interface using Contour Signatures. Chen. 57-64. IEEE Transactions. Park.aspx? PaperID=21655 Ezzat.actapress.edu/CHCC/Publications /a_map_based_system_using_speech_3d_ gestures_corradini. W.recveb..edu/jpreston/8530/Pap ers%20Not%20used/p242-ou. T. (2005). Las Vegas.F (1999). PA. Imaging and Image Processing 2005 Conference. and Kim. and Carreira.ucsb. S. 47(1). Michael (2004). C. Y.edu/research/geometrica l_ representations_of_faces/PAPERS/survey_ Daugman. J. and Poggio. http://www. July 22-27. X.ieeecomputersociety.2000. R. http://cbcl.research. Proceedings. 884 – 900.pdf Peixoto. Lai. P. G. (1997). (2004). (2004).edu/~chansu/ paper/1997/VRSJ97_CS. Face and gesture recognition: overview. 675 . A. Nevada. (2003). M.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc. http://doi. Korea. J. P.pdf Lee.. and Yang.edu/projects/cbcl/publicatio ns/ps/siggraph02. (2005). Geiger. September 2002. 242-245.pdf Loi. Y. A.1 50 Nakanishi. 19(7).org/anthology/200 0/paper/or03/027. Y.2005.Computer Communication. L. Setlock. and Bobick.. http://www. Wesson. http://portal.. H. C. Real-time Gesture Recognition for the Control of Avatar. 442-446. Gestural Communication over Video Stream: Supporting Multimodal Interaction for Remote Collaborative Physical Tasks. A Map-based System Using Speech and 3D Gestures for Pervasive Computing.Twenty-Fourth Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference. http://www. A. In Proceedings. Proceedings of VRSTAC'97 Conference.org/citation. (1997). http://www. M. Shi-Kuo (2000). Hand gesture recognition based on decision tree. Fussell. http://csdl2. (2005).cse. C. A.. 21(9). Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation. and Ma. Communications of the ACM. M.aspx? PaperID=22470 Turk. Canada http://cims. Facial Expression Analysis in E-Learning Systems — The Problems and Feasibility.stat.ercim. http://www.pdf Ou. Vancouver..xml&DOI=10. http://www. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. J. http://www.html Chang. and Bender.. (2002).pdf Corradini. IEEE Transactions.org/10. 2000. July 1997. and Chang. Fifth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). D. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. Wong.acm. and Wong. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.edu/pdfs/5_Turk% 202004. T. Proceedings of Ubicomp2002 Workshop on Collaborations with Interactive Walls and Tables. British Columbia. Sato.ogi.clayton. Parametric hidden Markov models for gesture recognition. J. (2002). and Cohen. S.676 http://lcv.pdf Ebert.fsu.pdf Wilson. Pittsburg.cfm?coll=GUI DE&dl=GUIDE&id=317049 Yang. J.D.com/PaperInfo. Human-Computer Interaction Conference (HCI2005).. Robust face image matching under 98 © Brandon Hall Research . In Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FGR2004) Seoul.. (2000). October 14-16.. http://interact.pdf Daugman. Computer vision in the interface.rutgers. 191-196. L.mit.mit.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces. In Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI'02)..iscslp2006. Gao.edu/mas963/enh encedwall. In Proceedings. An Immersive Gesture Controlled Interface for Virtual Document Information Spaces.884693 Chen.media. C. Sept. Visualization..1109/ICALT. Deller. EnhancedDesk and EnhancedWall: Augmented Desk and Wall Interfaces with Real-Time Tracking of User’s Motion.. 27-30. Y.org/publication/Ercim_Ne ws/enw63/hci. January.computer. and Koike.actapress. 1999.110 9/CMPSAC.

illumination variations.aspx?pii= S1110865704410014 Do not reproduce 99 . 2533–2543.com/GetPDF. http://www. Journal on Applied Signal Processing. 2004:16.hindawi.

com Advanced Visual Systems GSharp http://www. Horton applied these in his 2000 book. Download a copy: http://www.broderbund.Blender is the open source software for 3-D modeling.blender3d. Consider the topics and sub-topics in the first ten pages of William Horton's Illustrating Computer Documentation (1991): Why Graphics Make Documentation Work Better > > > > > > > > Graphics aid job performance Graphics help documents go global Graphics reach nonreaders Graphics seduce reluctant readers Graphics add credibility Graphics aid thinking Graphics promote more efficient reading Graphics can explain visual and spatial concepts Vision is our dominant sense Graphics are compact Graphics escape the limitations of linear text Graphics are readily understood Graphics are remembered Graphics are self-correcting Adobe Corporation has been a leader in graphics tools in multimedia for the past 20 years.com/ 100 © Brandon Hall Research . the same principles apply to user interface design. post-production. Following are the ones most commonly used: http://www. they provide a very competent set of tools for the lower priced end of the market: > > > > > Corel Draw Corel Painter Corel PaintShop Pro Corel Photopaint Corel Picture Publisher Why Graphics Work > > > > > > While Horton's 1991 book is about enhancing documentation and help systems. Following is a list of the major graphics software packages from Adobe: > > > > > > Adobe Fireworks Adobe Flash Adobe FreeHand Adobe Illustrator Adobe InDesign Adobe Photoshop http://www.techillustrator.com/TechIllustrator. and playback. visualization Description The visual dimension of software information is important for a number of reasons.com/adsk/servlet/inde x?id=2753027&siteID=123112 AutoTrol – Technical illustration tool http://www.acdamerica.h tml Broderbund Printmaster http://www. interactive creation. rendering.com/ Canvas Professional http://www.adobe.org/cms/Home. Designing Web-Based Training.Graphics Tools Related terms Design. given that the majority of online developers use Macromedia and Adobe tools.com/software/soft_t/gshar p. In acquiring Macromedia. e-Learning By Design. animation. Nevertheless.html Blender .2. Selected Examples There are many graphical design tools on the market.0.com/products-x/ Corel Corporation is a distant second in the graphics tools space in terms of market share.autodesk.avs. and in his recent 2006 book.html Autodesk AutoSketch http://usa. Adobe has strengthened its position in the e-learning world.corel.

http://www. Illustrating Computer Documentation: The Art of Presenting Information Graphically on Paper and Online .php?p=d ir&viewCat=7 Bibliography Horton.smartdraw. (2005). Report by the Society for Technical Communication (STC). Online Physics Forum with Integrated Web Editor Integrating Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). S.ibm.com SmartDraw http://www. http://www. Germany.ucs. http://www. June 1-3.google. In P.com/E/1335. New York: John Wiley. http://www.itedo.. and Uyar.com/exp/ste/home/ Xara Xtreme – open source graphics software http://www.com/ToolsSurveyResults04.uk/index. Paper presented at the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Conference. Tokyo. Richards (Eds. ED-Media Conference. Proceedings.org/cgibin/cgi/idCatList.elearningcentre. Fu-Kwan (2004).ViewAbstract&paper_id=12808 Neuman. William (1991).htm Several thousand graphics tools are listed by Google Directory. http://www. http://esub.carto.com/index. e-Learning by Design.pdf McConnell. William (2006).uk/index.html&CategoryID=1 The Virtuality Web site in the UK lists both 3D editors and tools and 3-D models.edu/ptliupages/pu http://www.editlib. Do not reproduce 101 . The most listings are for 3-D software. (2004). ISPRS Workshop Commissions VI/1 – VI/2. NY: John Wiley.org/ Online Resources By now there are hundreds of 2-D and 3-D software tools on the market.cfm The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a comprehensive listing of graphics and animation tools. Pallickara.uk/eclipse/vendors/grap hics.microsoft.com/Top/Computers/So ftware/Graphics/ The ACM SIGGRAPH Industry Directory lists thousands of graphics companies offering a huge variety of 2-D and 3-D services and products. http://www.co.indiana.3dlinks.org/index. http://www.).com/gp/product/0471 35614X/sr=81/qid=1154298806/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Horton.IBM CATIA http://www306. Tools and Techniques for ELearning.com. One of the best sites to locate reviews and ratings of 3D software is 3DLinks.php Microsoft graphics software applications are used by many e-learning developers. http://grids.pdf Qiu. A.net/papers/svg/articles/p aper_use_of_svg_and_ecmascript_for_elear ning_isprs_workshop_potsdam_2005.xaraxtreme. Designing WebBased Training. X. The most commonly used packages are the following: > > > > > Microsoft Image Composer Microsoft Paint Microsoft PowerPoint Microsoft Visio Microsoft Word Drawing Tool > > http://virtuality3d.siggraph. Potsdam.co. Gloria (2004). Making SVG a Web Service in a Messagebased MVC Architecture.co. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.com/software/applications/plm/c atiav5/ ITEDO IsoDraw – technical illustration http://www. Japan · Sept 7-10.amazon.stcphoenix. Tools Usage Survey Results. A.amazon. William (2000).amazon. http://www. Pheonix. Kommers & G. http://www.com/gp/product/0787 984256/sr=15/qid=1154298858/ref=sr_1_5/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8&s=books Hwang.com/gp/product/0471 538450/qid=1152417819/sr=17/ref=sr_1_7/104-98511511919955?s=books&v=glance&n=283155 Horton.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. The Use of SVG and ECMASCRIPT Technology for E-Learning Purposes.php?p=d ir&viewCat=9 http://virtuality3d.

org/51stConf/sessionMateri al/dataShow. http://www.asp?ID=167 102 © Brandon Hall Research .amazon. Evidence and Narrative . Edward (2001). 2nd Ed. CT: Graphics.stc. Cheshire. Carolina Chapter. http://www. STC. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information.amazon. Frances (2004).blications/MakingSVGaWebServiceinaMess ageBasedMVCArchitecture_final.com/gp/product/0961 392118/sr=84/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_4/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www. Visual Explanations : Images and Quantities. The Tech Writer’s Essential Toolkit. Envisioning Information. Edward (1990). Cheshire.amazon.com/gp/product/0961 392126/sr=83/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_3/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Tufte. http://www.com/gp/product/0961 392142/sr=81/qid=1152418193/ref=sr_1_1/1049851151-1919955?ie=UTF8 Wirth. Edward (1997). CT: Graphics Press.pdf Tufte. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire.

Haptic devices and interfaces are generally used with 3-D virtual environments to give a sense of realism to the action taking place within the virtual world. haptics helps make elearning more relevant to the learner. HAPTEX is a research project on multimodal perception of textiles in the virtual environment. > > http://wwwpercro.com/fd/avs/ho me/ Handshake proSENSE™ 2.unige.now allow the nanotechnology and nanoscience community not only to look at atoms and molecules but even to touch them.org/ Description Haptics involves transmitting information through the sense of touch or force feedback.forcedimension. and force-feedback mice. http://www.Create networkable force feedback programs using drag-and-drop program blocks. and exoskeletal devices can be obtained from Immersion Corporation. Do not reproduce 103 . There are distinct subcategories in the field of haptics. active object manipulation is more engaging than passively watching something happen on a screen. Technology has advanced to the point that the sense of touch and force can be experienced in real time over a network.immersion. gloves.com/ Touch is one of the most important sensations for growth and learning. Haptic devices come in many forms.html “Force Dimension's haptic force feedback devices .handshakeinteractive.se/index. who becomes directly involved in experiencing something.mpbtechnologies. a “surgeon” in Canberra was able to teach a “medical trainee” in Montreal the different steps to a gall bladder extraction.in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope .html SensAble Technologies develops haptic devices that make it possible for users to touch and manipulate virtual objects. especially when training motor skills and physical relationships. suits.com/products/phanto m_ghost/phantom. http://www. touch Selected Examples The “Museum of Pure Form” is a virtual reality system where the user can interact through the senses of touch and sight with digital models of 3-D art forms and sculptures. joysticks/ joypads.Haptics Related terms Force feedback. http://www. including the following: > > > > > Proprioceptive (general sensory information about the body) Vestibular (the perception of head motion) Kinaesthetic (the feeling of motion in the body) Cutaneous (sensory information from the skin) Tactile (the sense of pressure experienced through the skin) Using the CANARIE advanced high-speed network CA*net 4. Haptic devices can also be used to provide feedback from hands-on models or simulators and to try out procedures at a nanotechnology level. http://www. When used approp-riately.miralab.it/projects/pureform.sensable.sensegraphics.” http://www.asp Body-based devices include gloves. including pens. such as docking two molecules to see if they fit together.pureform.ch/ SenseGraphics is a company that specializes in open source development of haptics and graphics software.ca/mpbt/haptics/hand_contro llers/freedom/f6_news_touching.sssup. Read the press release at: http://www. Finally.html http://www.0 Virtual Touch Toolbox for Control Systems . http://haptex.com/secti on/view/?fnode=24 The project "HAPtic sensing of virtual TEXtiles" (HAPTEX).

S. Y. Abbott.1109/ICALT.pdf Hespanha. Proceedings. Sukhatme. Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts Conference http://infolab. McLaughlin. (2004).Online Resources The Robotics Group of the University of Pisa maintains a list of publications on the “fundamentals of haptics. Laurie (2004). Vincent (2005).pdf O’Modhrain.com/gabriel/ha pticsl/ The International Society for Haptics is a new.com. J. Iwane. M. http://web.” http://www.isfh. G. Technology and Haptics. J. Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS’03). M. G. Haptics: cybertouch and how we feel about it. Bibliography HAPTEX Project (2005). Upper Saddle River. R.computer. Reality bytes.ca/~haptic/pub/VLCIM-TR-05. Daithí (2003).matr. Deliverable D4. http://www.pdf Rowell. http://www.pdf O’Modhrain. Blindness. Proceedings of the Third WWW6 Conference. PebbleBox and CrumbleBag: Tactile Interfaces for Granular Synthesis. (1997). Japan.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.it/newrobotics /robpublications/Keyword/FUNDAMENTALS -OF-HAPTICS.xml&DOI=10. Simplified Authoring of 3D Haptic Content for the World Wide Web. CA.mit. David (2003).. http://www. Santa Clara. M.net/article-7304.org/ The World Haptics Conference was last held in Pisa. (2002). A. Research report.phptr. and Ichitsubo. Matsubara. Specification of the Whole Haptic Interface.miralab..html Haptics-e is an online journal on haptics research. M.pdf Ó hAnluain.. McHugh.ch/public/HAPT EX-D4. Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems.ht ml Kushner.usc. M. 2004. 2003. (2005). July 31. Wired News. http://www. 917-921. Chapter on Haptics. M.informatik. M.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.ethz.ra.au/articles/2003/07/ 30/1059480393138. L.unipi.. 22. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. http://www. New York Times (Online).. Find a list of papers on haptics at: http://www. International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT'05). http://www. The Moose: A Haptic User Interface for Blind Persons.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/icalt/2005/2338/00 /2338toc. Report delivered January 15.html O’Malley.cim. July 3. VRBased Dynamics Learning System Using Haptic Device and Its Evaluation. G. (2005). http://www.S. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on new interfaces for musical expression. C. 3-5 June 2004.1. and Sukhatume. S. and Rusbridge. http://www.smh. (2003).. April. http://haptex. Shahabi. (2000).edu/~sile/palpable/N IME04-grain-revised2..digicult.1_release-public. G.B. Oct. Medioni.piaggio.pdf McLaughlin. professional. D.roblesdelatorre. M. Italy in March.de/~ley/db/conf/haptics/whc2005. and Jaskowiak. Nakamura.. McGill University. The Haptic Museum.S. Proceedings.computer.haptics-e.edu/DocsDemos/eva200 0.. Haptics Laboratory.ccii. and Hughes.” http://www. and Essl. Donnelly.. Centre for Intelligent Machines. not-for-profit group that brings together researchers interested in haptics. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 2005. M.unige. Dobreva.html Ross. 2003.com/title/0130650978 Inoue.3 06 104 © Brandon Hall Research .media. http://csdl.2005. http://csdl2.ch/CDstore/www6/Acce ss/ACC239.. Reaching through the net to touch. Prentice Hall online article. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3.org/ Haptics-L is the “electronic mailing list for the international haptics community.. 2005.org/comp/proceeding s/haptics/2003/1890/00/18900428. A.mcgill. and Gillespie.unitrier.html Levesque. M. N.

Y.org/1/3/250/ Do not reproduce 105 . K. Journal of Vision. (2001).http://www.journalofvision. H. The effect of haptic learning on the integration of disparity and perspective for the dynamic and static slant perception. http://www. 1(3). & Uchikawa.informit. Kaneko..asp?p=345621 Sakano. 250a.com/articles/printerfrie ndly..

This is the apparatus that takes human input and digitizes it for use by computer programs. Now in the research and development phase. display technologies.edu/reporter/vol35/vol 35n17/articles/Accuscript.edu/~kimiko/iobrush / 106 © Brandon Hall Research .buffalo. whiteboards Having more kinds of input devices allows for a much richer e-learning experience. Major technological improvements are being made in all of the above interface devices. gesture recognition.edu/design/Folda bleDisplay. textures." http://web.html MIT Media Lab's I/O Brush. Selected Examples Accuscript and AuthentImage are two technologies for handwriting recognition and authentication.Interface Devices Related terms Digital ink.edu/design/Digita link. and some. projectors. electronic paper. However. and movements found in everyday materials by 'picking up' and drawing with them.mit. and digital paper pioneer EInk have announced an electronic book reader that is due to go on sale in Japan in late April for $375 (£204).fujitsu.html Digital ink is a pen that writes on foldable digital paper.com/b/archives/00 2571. tangible computing. For a review.ices.” http://www. Philips.com/global/news/pr/arc hives/month/2005/20050713-01.html Description For humans to use a computer. flexible digital paper should become commonplace over the next few years. instructional designers will need to learn about the various possibilities of each device in order to incorporate them into producing e-learning content.html http://killer.dottocomu.cmu. haptics. Writing will require special digital pens. experience computing. handwriting recognition. like digital ink and paper. In 2005.cmu.html Sony. the device will be the size of a paperback book and can hold 500 texts in its onboard memory. digital paper.com/technology/howitwork s. although writing using a finger or hand is now becoming possible. Called Librié. are just emerging as viable ways of connecting with a computer. see: http://www. Both technologies were developed at Carnegie Mellon University. monitors. human-computer interaction. head mounted displays.media. which "is a new drawing tool to explore colors. This requires a move towards better training of elearning developers and instructional designers to advance the quality of elearning experiences.ices. wearable computing. Examples of interface devices include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Digital ink and paper Foot pedals Gesture technologies Haptics devices Handwriting and printing recognition Instruments and sensors Joysticks and wheels Keyboards Mice Microphones and sound cards Tablet PCs Video cards Whiteboards Wireless technologies Many of these technologies are covered elsewhere in this report so will be only mentioned briefly here. http://www. input devices. they must interact with it through an interface device.html For an explanation of E-Ink’s proprietary technology that uses microcapsules of positively charged white pigment and negatively charged black pigment. see: http://www. > > http://killer. Fujitsu announced that it had “developed the world's first film substratebased bendable color electronic paper featuring an image memory function.eink.

com/index.lifehacker.usask.com whiteboards.Logitech has developed the io2 Digital Writing System.05/ff_digitalink_pr. The “Weapons of Maths Construction” project at the University of Swansea in Wales can do just that. Although this technology has been around for a few years.thegrid.com/stories/ afp_asiapacific_business/view/126978/1/. 3) throw.swan. http://www.channelnewsasia.edu.edfacilities.shtml PC Tablet Developer is an online serial that publishes all types of material on tablet computer use.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.thewirelessdirectory.edna. 4) bend. http://www. html Smart Technologies makes a series of interactive whiteboards.uk/learning/ict/man aging/resources/whiteboards.htm The Wireless Directory Web site lists Bluetooth products and services and provides extensive information on this wireless format.wacom. These methods are 1) touch.net/display. it is constantly being improved and updated.com/TabletPC/Door/2030 1 Over the years.html Online Resources The National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities (NCEF) has a resource list of links. http://www. http://www. See their advice and resources at: http://www.cfm?page= 961 The Hertfordshire Grid for Learning gives teachers many resources on the proper use of interactive whiteboards.becta.cs.logitech.com/ Microsoft Corporation has developed a footpad computer interface.smarttech.ca/~gutwin/gi/ Becta is a UK agency that supports education departments in UK in their use of computers. This device allows handwritten notes to be downloaded to a computer via a USB interface.h tml The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of resources on using electronic whiteboards. consisting of a pen and a charger.php Wacom Technology Corporation is a supplier of graphics tablets and pens.co.aclearn.devx. http://www.uk/calculators/ On their “Experience Computing” Web site.org. http://www.com/wired/archive/5 . and 5) build.uk/ The Community Learning Resource Web site supports adult and community learning.cfm The Education Network Australia has a Web page of links to articles on interactive Do not reproduce 107 . http://www. http://whiteboards.com/software/gadge ts/microsoft-prototypes-footpad-computerinterface-157916.cs.uk/eclipse/Resources/wh iteboards.htm Graphics Interface is the oldest continuously scheduled conference in the field. Wired Magazine has published a number of articles on digital ink and digital paper.ac. http://www. http://www. books and journal articles on the educational uses of interactive whiteboards. GI consistently attracts high-quality papers from around the world on recent advances in interactive systems. The site contains reviews of interactive whiteboards and tablet technologies.com/Bluet ooth-Overview/Bluetooth-Training. http://www.au/edna/page4588. http://www. Users can dial by waving the phone to write the number in the air instead of pressing a keypad and to erase items by shaking the phone up and down. The agency has a comparison page of different brands of interactive whiteboards. human computer interaction. 2) roll.html Samsung's new SCH-S310 mobile phone is equipped with motion-recognition capabilities. Following are three such articles: > http://www.wired.sony. http://www. Sony Corporation demonstrates five futuristic ways of interacting with a computer.cfm/product s/features/digitalwriting/US/EN Imagine writing mathematical equations on a whiteboard and having them solved in front of your eyes. http://www.net/Fun/SonyDesign/200 3/home.elearningcentre.org. and graphic. http://www.

10577.html eSchool News.devx. 2005.com/article.com/wired/archive/9 .htm Zeichick. http://ad. http://www. Whiteboards are doing the chalking. Springer. January 6. Edinburgh. 26. is described in a 2002 press release. (2005). N.uk/elearning/ story/0. King’s College.04/anoto. In Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems. Vancouver. Disoriented PenGestures for Identifying Users around the Tabletop without Cameras and Motion Sensors. Dal-RI.guardian. (2004). (2006). Adelaide. http://dl.com/presspass/featu res/2002/oct02/10-29tabletinking. Haag. and Nakagawa. with its use of digital ink. The Usability of Digital Ink Technologies for Children and Teenagers. Fri.1116483. http://education.uclan.pdf Cross. June 1. NewScientist Magazine (Online).de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2006-tabletop.com/mld/mercury news/business/technology/14286388.com/wired/archive/8 .pdf Revell. H.. Educational software employing group competition using an interactive electronic whiteboard. 2006. Will (2004).uk/elearning/ story/0.org.00. K. Tablet PC Developer. M. and Ottmann. Jan.mspx Bibliography Cogill. Kato.ns?id= dn4602 Mohamed. University of London. Nicole (2006). The most flexible paper yet revealed.00. Michael (2005). http://www.uk/facs/destech/com pute/staff/read/Publish/ChiCi/references/t he_usability_of_digital_ink.eschoolnews. Going beyond the alphabet: keyboard pad frees user from Western model.pdf Mohamed. Phil (2004).microsoft.10577. Indurkhya. 15(3). Richards (Ed. HCI2005. http://www. K. Peltason.. http://www. New ultra-thin screen could lead to electronic paper. eSchool News Online. Julie (2002). http://www. 2006. 2003. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.co. April 7. http://www. Bandoh. Chalk one up to the whiteboard. J. (2005). T..> > http://www. B. C.cfm?ArticleID=4436 Knight.uk/whiteboar ds/IFS_Interactive_whiteboards_in_the_pri mary_school.de/mitarbeiter/khaireel/authorsCo py/2005-eLearn. Why the Pen and Digital Ink Will Change Mainstream Computing.guardian. (2003). 2004. Guardian Unlimited.org/16321 Read.wired.informatik.informatik. Australia.html Wong. Controlling the electronic whiteboard’s writing surface without cluttered toolboxes: Shifting the focus back to content delivery.unifreiburg. Jan. S. December 22.aace...com/ Microsoft’s Tablet PC.anoto. 6. Guardian Unlimited. 2004. Scotland.virtuallearning.ac.. 2004.newscientist.08/epapers. J.html In G.com/TabletPC/Article/266 67 Anoto is a digital pen and ink company in Sweden. http://www.com/news/showst ory. 108 © Brandon Hall Research .). Proceedings of E-Learn 2005. and Ottmann. Oct. How is the Interactive Whiteboard being used in the primary school and how does this affect teachers and teaching? Research report.mercurynews. http://ad. http://education.unifreiburg. F. T.html http://www. Read all about their award winning technology at: http://www. 257-269. Y.co.wired. Alan (2004).1585516.pdf Otsuki. The Mercury News.

Innovations include the following: > > > > Adaptability/Personalization Artificial Intelligence/Intelligent Tutoring Automatic generation of motivational messages Move from managing presentations and testing to learner control. Course Management Systems (CMS). But there are a number of innovations in LMSs and VLEs that distinguish an “ordinary” system from one that is more advanced.” Others are developing new views of what a learning management system can become.e. thus reducing the usability challenge of mixing applications that were designed by different groups of people. Content management. especially human resources/“talent management” systems Description Learning management systems (LMS) – the term used in North America – and Managed Learning Environments (MLE) or Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) – terms used in Great Britain – are not “emerging technologies” per se. Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS). conversation.. Whenever possible. and there are a number of significant innovations in 4th generation learning managements systems. Part of what the framework should provide is a set of user interface primitives. as this category of software has been around for about ten years. > > > > There is considerable debate in the elearning field as to whether or not LMSs have a future (Farmer. 2005). learning integration MLE/VLEs is in danger of creating a de facto global e-learning monoculture. But those primitives should be inheritable by applications with as little specific programmer effort as possible (i. There have been several “generations” of learning management systems: > 1st Generation LMS – Stand-alone application running on a single computer with or without timesharing terminals 2nd Generation LMS – Web-based application with client-server architecture 3rd Generation LMS – Web-based application with N-tier architecture (separation of application into components and independent layers of functioning) 4th Generation LMS – Web-based application with distributed content that uses Web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) > > > Feldstein (2005) suggests that the nextgeneration of learning management systems should have the following characteristics: > LMSs should provide a framework that makes it as easy as possible for programmers with different skill levels in different programming languages to build and integrate learning tools to serve specialized teaching and learning needs. elearning portals. and collaboration Use of 2-D and 3-D Virtual environments Service Oriented Architecture integration with other enterprise systems. while others worry that the current model of LMSs has become entrenched to the point of inhibiting innovation. they should mostly come along automatically when the developer chooses to use the framework). Morrison (2004) contends “that because key decisions and investments are already being (or have been) made.Learning Management Systems Related terms Campus portals. the technology standards implemented by the framework should be general rather than education-specific to encourage the re-use of relevant groupware applications not originally designed for e-learning purposes. the widespread adoption by institutions of the current generation of Do not reproduce 109 .

com/ Frontline Data Solutions. are: Allen Communication Learning Services Allen Communication Learning Portal http://www.Cornerstone OnDemand Enterprise Suite http://www.GeoMaestro http://www. . > > > > Manipulation of Users/ Objects Presentation Table Application Sharing Break-out session rooms > http://lttf. .” http://elgg.gen21. which has the following aims: > > > > For students. more ability to share computing resources without sacrificing needs of individual members Selected Examples Academici is a “virtual classroom” environment with a global peer to peer network. a leading open source learning management system.academici. To quote the developers.php EVE.com Gyrus .avilar.com/ GeoMetrix Data Systems Inc.com/ Element K . .pdf An e-book by William Rice on how to use Moodle. has the following functionality: > > Communication Channels User's Representation and Awareness using Avatars 110 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. The roles.cornerstoneondemand.trainingpartner. http://opensourceschools. in alphabetical order.compendiumcorp.gyrus. The LMS companies.pdf Over 50 leading learning management companies and their LMS systems are listed in the Brandon Hall Research LMS Knowledgebase (Full disclosure: I work for Operitel Corporation. and other academic services. more integration with their other campus IT systems For consortia.allencomm.TrainingMine http://www.com/ IBM . a communic-ation platform.net/index.IBM Lotus Workplace Collaborative Learning These ideas have gelled into a concept called the learning management operating system (LMOS). more control over the learning environment For institutions.WebMentor LMS http://www.Learn Enterprise Learning Management System http://www.fldata. instructors and resources creating communities of learning.KnowledgeHub http://www. content-driven forums run by experts. groups.com/ GeoLearning Inc.elementk.geolearning. a search engine. and Brandon Hall Research is the publisher of this report).org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103.com Elgg is an open source “learning land-scape platform” that integrates a number of learning tools and information systems. and permissions structures to be used by the various learning applications.ieee. the combined calendar dates in several courses plus club and campus events).Training Wizard MX/SST http://www. http://www. . roles.> Another part of what the framework should provide is strong and flexible groups.com/ Avilar Technologies Inc. a prototype of a new type of learning environment that uses 3-D graphics. one of the LMS vendors listed below.Training Partner http://www. more control over their own data For faculty.org/download/M oodle_Sample_e-book. “Elgg is a personal learning landscape with the goal of connecting learners.com/ Compendium Corporation .com/ Generation21 Learning Systems Generation21 Enterprise http://www.g. is available as a free download. and permissions framework should also provide the capability of a user-centric view in which users can get roll-up views of data in applications that they use across several different groups (e. . Inc. a contact management system..

com/ TTG Systems Incorporated – TRACCESS http://www.learnsomething.asp SumTotal Systems Inc.LearnFlex LMS http://www.com/redbooks.howtomaster.DOTS .com LearnSomething Inc.CourseMill LMS http://www.com/overview.knowledgeplanet.sap.com/ Syntrio .html IntraLearn Software Corp.intellinex.com/2004/index.teralearn.Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) http://www.mgen.risc-inc.vuepoint.com/ Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corp.Plateau Learning Management System http://www.aspx RISC .TeraLearn LCMS http://www. .com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index. Tracker.com/ SSE .Vuepoint Learning System http://www.com/isnm2005/in dex.netdimensions.jsp Operitel Corporation .operitel.Dynamic Online Training System http://www.redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.intralearn.ca/en/default.LearnCenter http://www.com/index.technomedia. . – TEDS http://www.meridianksi.novasys-corp.com/ TeraLearn.syntrio.cfm TEDS Inc.Virtual Training Assistant http://www. .Ed Training Platform http://www. .com/ Technomedia Training Inc.sselearn.vbtrain. .InfoSource http://www.htm SAP . TrainingOffice Audit http://www.ssaglobal.learn.com/ NetDimensions .Saba Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.LearnerWeb http://www. .saba.http://www.strategia.com/ Saba .sumtotalsystems.trivantis. .iPerform http://www.com/products/saba/learni ng/index.com .websoft.Syntrio Enterprise LMS http://www. – KnowledgeBridge http://www.Oracle Learning http://www.Net http://www.maxit.Isoph Blue http://www.oracle. .PeopleSoft Learning Management http://www.com/ WBT Systems .com/ Interactive Solutions New Media Inc. .KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite http://www.html Trivantis Corporation .com/applications/huma n_resources/learning. Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre http://www.aspx Oracle USA Inc.teds.com/ Strategia .com/ mGen Inc.com/ MaxIT .jsp PeopleSoft (Oracle) .Intellinex LMS http://www.html OutStart Inc.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt.ibm.SAP Learning Solution http://www.isnewmedia.OutStart Evolution LMS http://www.TotalLMS http://www.com/ KnowledgePlanet Inc.com/ Do not reproduce 111 .com/flashhom e.html Plateau Systems .net/trackerinfo.com Websoft Systems Inc.ttg-inc.TM SIGAL http://www.OnTracker LMS http://www.com/ Intellinex LLC.oracle.webraven.com/ Vuepoint . .com/ Integrated Performance Systems.plateau.com/ Novasys Information Services Ltd. .SSA Learning Management http://www.com/ Wizdom Systems Inc.com/ Meridian Knowledge Solutions Inc.TopClass LMS http://www.com/portal/index.LMSLive http://www.html?Open InfoSource Inc.ips-inc.com/ WebRaven Pty Ltd .asp Learn.outstart. .mGen Enterprise http://www.com Inc.ca/en/htm/en_00 _01_01.wbtsystems.epx SSA Global Technologies Inc.SSElearn Portal http://www. .IntraLearn XE http://www.wizdom.

Proceedings. Each profile is 30 to 50 pages long and contains a re-view of the system and detailed specifica-tions regarding the system's features. separating these from “educational course management systems” and “virtual learning environments. James (2005). http://www. .com For a review of leading open source learning management systems. D’Eca in Portugal maintains a fantastic list of Web resources on all aspects of learning online: http://64.htm The Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET) maintains a Web site called EduTools. June 20-21. Paper presented at ASCILITE 2003 Conference.edu. University of Birmingham.pdf Dalziel.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long).XStream RapidShare LMS http://www. For LMS buyers who already have a short list of systems.ieee.cfm?name=elp _lams A detailed diagram of the future of virtual learning systems according to Scott Wilson is available at: http://www. and Trifonova. http://www. Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System. Ed.jsp?pj=8&p age=HOWTO#productinfo The e-Learning Centre in the UK combines reviews of corporate learning management systems (LMS) and learning content management systems (LCMS). 2005. by Sam Adkins.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins.xtention. Sam (2005). http://incsub.uk/index.ac. C.71.unitn. Implementing Learning Design: the learning activity management system (LAMS).melcoe.Worldwide Interactive Network Inc. Pierre (2000).uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050125170206 Bibliography Adkins. Building educational virtual environments.nxtbook. Wake-Up Call: open source LMS.eun. A. 21.The Learning Manager http://www. see the recent article in Learning Circuits. Chief Learning Officer.mq.org/blog/2005/un- Online Resources Brandon Hall Research (publisher of this report) has a section of their Web site called “LMS Central.info/static.org/2005/oct2 005/adkins. ICALT2002 Conference.uk Teresa A..48.com/nxtbooks/Mediate c/clo0806/ Colazzo.org/icalt2002/proceedings/ p103. M. Jan. (2002).learningcircuits. . http://www.Xtention Learning Management System http://www.com XStream Software Inc. (2006). The Learning Horizon: tomorrow’s technologies. Un-Managing Learning Management Systems . The site contains a large number of reviews of "course management systems.htm Bouras.xstreamsoftware. (Online edition). October. http://www.org2/eun/html/m m1010/public/d05_7. Paper presented at the European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning. (2002).org/eun. http://www.A possible future for online learning. Brandon Hall Research provides access to individual profiles of more than 50 learn-ing management systems. 2006. T. http://www.” where they publish extensive documentation on learning management systems. James (2003).pdf Dillenbourg. Paper presented at the EUN Conference 2000: learning in the new millennium .ac. http://www. Workshop on virtual learning environments. .brandonhall. and Tsiatsos. A.building new education strategies for schools.” and open source course and learning content management systems." http://www.learningcircuits. UK.. Incorporated Subversion.e-learningcentre.com/ from the JISC in the UK. http://lttf. Molinari.htm#Teaching An evaluation report on learning activities management systems (LAMS) is available 112 © Brandon Hall Research .edutools.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments.co. http://www. Learning Circuits. Virtual Learning Environments.com/ Xtention Inc.cetis. Ronchetti.jisc. L.PDF Farmer.science.thelearningmanager. http://www. August.au/documents/ ASCILITE2003%20Dalziel%20Final.pdf Cohen.

Proceedings of ALT-C.Monash Collaboration in Educational Technologies.ucisa. and Quealy.unimelb. October 2005. 2005.infodiv.bath. May 2006 http://www. 5(2).pdf Tsinakos.zcu. http://www. May-June. Educause Review.pdf Morrison. CyberSession: a new proposition for e-learning in collaborative virtual environments. Intelligent LMS with an agent that learns from log data.what criteria should be present in the ideal VLE? Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE)..au/telars/t almet/melbmonash/media/LMSGovernanc eFinalReport. Vancouver. http://www. (2006). Report for the Melbourne. and Higher Education 2005. The puzzle: virtual learning environments .edu.ac. March 2003 and March 2005 for higher education in the United Kingdom.. Proceedings. Exeter. Avgoustos (2004).. 40(3). (2005). 2005.ViewAbstract&paper_id=216 87 Wiegel.org/newdl/index.anadolu. and Sharifi. Report published by UCISA.edu.uk/elearning/Download/DM20040909. Plzen. T. L. http://wscg. Aavani. VLE Surveys: a longitudinal perspective between March 2001. J. http://tojde. Healthcare. M (2005).tr/tojde14/pdf/tsi nakos. Derek (2004). M.pdf Sadeghi. Government. 31-Feb. From course management to curricular capabilities: a capabilities approach for the next generation course management system. April. A. http://www.cfm?fuse action=Reader. E-Learning Flexible Frameworks and Tools: Is it too late? – the Director's Cut. Browne. Proceedings of World Conference on ELearning in Corporate. Van (2005).cz/wscg2005/Papers_200 5/Poster/J03-full.pdf Wise.edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0533. Czech Republic. Jan.educause. R. 4. J. WSCG Conference 2005.pdf Do not reproduce 113 . and Walker. http://www.ac.aace.uk/groups/tlig/vle/vle_ survey_2005. November 2004. LMS Governance Project Report.manageing-learning-management-systemsa-possible-future-for-online-learning Jenkins.pdf Ueno. Maomi (2005).

there is no agreed upon definition of what learning objects really are. rapid learning. The vision of the learning object model (LOM) is to have computer programs organize personalized courses of study using many learning objects that are selected based on gaps in knowledge determined by computerbased assessments. There is nothing inherently wrong with the concept of reusability. behaviorist concepts of “programmed instruction” that have now been replaced by newer cognitive and constructivist learning theories of education. At the simplest level.” To facilitate searching and retrieval. learning objects are really software objects built to be reusable so that programmers or graphic artists do not need to reconstruct them. curriculum. Learning objects have several uses.” where a particular learning object is served up in response to a specific user's immediate need for information.” such as a graph. but it is important to understand that the act of reassembling parts on a screen is not an adequate instructional design model (Krauss. While older adults may be impressed by a program’s ability to provide a custom mix of items to view on the screen. culture. and pedagogical approaches of the potential learners and their instructors. sharable content objects (SCOs). As Collis and Strijker (2003) note. Learning objects are also referred to as “reusable learning objects” (RLOs) and “sharable content objects” (SCOs).Learning Objects and Repositories Related terms Artificial intelligence. a well-known standard for learning objects. Learning objects are often referred to as “chunks of learning. the reassembly of learning objects results in the same old “tell-test” presentations. learning object model (LOM). This application of learning objects is sometimes referred to as “just-intime learning. this model does not work for the younger generation of adults now in educational institutions or work settings.” But people do not learn much in de-contextualized discrete chunks. However. Beyond that. Another use for learning objects is in the area of “rapid learning. they often end up in online aggregations of learning objects. of learning objects. reusable learning objects (RLOs). stands for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. One use is to improve the efficiency of producing educational materials by reusing learning objects in new curriculum units (which themselves may also be learning objects). The acronym SCORM. in practice most uses of learning objects fall far short of that ideal. This idea is based on older. “The reusability of an electronic learning resource depends on its fit with the language. SCORM. A more soph isticated version of this model is the vision of giant repositories of reusable objects that can be assembled into a “course” or “teaching moment” based on the results of continuous online assessments. 2006). metadata is used to describe objects in repositories.” Description Learning objects are a unit of software that is produced about a particular aspect of a subject and that has educational value. does not mean the intended learning has taken place. Rather. Wiley. While there is a vision of both reusability and interoperability 114 © Brandon Hall Research . computer-use practices. As online educational materials are produced. and the presentation of a particular “chunk of learning. as the learning objects do not need to make sense linked together because they are used to deliver specific pieces of information.” This use has been more successful. usually referred to as “learning object repositories. it has been difficult to show a working demonstration of this vision that makes sense from a pedagogical point of view. learning object repository (LOR). Learning objects range from a single image or piece of text to full Web-based units on a specific curriculum. intelligent tutoring. Making this fit has proven to be very difficult.” a central concept of object-oriented programming that provides for the reusability of coherent pieces of code. 2004. They are emulations of “software objects.

au:8010/ The Maricopa Learning Exchange is a warehouse of learning objects at the high school and college levels.com/ IDEAS provides Wisconsin educators with teacher reviewed resources for grades K-12.html EducaNext is a service that supports creating and sharing knowledge for higher education.profetic. stores.php LoLa Exchange is a place for sharing high quality learning objects.net/project. http://dlist.oise.cdlib. http://www.ca/hrd/flore/ Gateway to 21st Century Skills contains thousands of lesson plans and teaching Do not reproduce 115 .000 items.aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LLEARN is a repository of materials for language learning. What is stored in learning object repositories is not standardized in terms of formats but represents a wide range of educational media. a consortium of colleges and universities who have agreed to share learning objects.arizona.info FLORE stands for the French Learning Object Repository for Education.goenc.org/ The Ontario E-Learning Object Management Repository has been set up by the Ministry of Education to serve learning objects to Ontario schools and post-secondary institutions. with almost 15. It is open to any member of the academic or research community.llearn. http://www. http://ideas.org/ CLOE stands for the Cooperative Learning Object Exchange.wisconsin.uvic.html The Digital Library of Information Science and Technology is based at the University of Arizona.edu/ DLORN (Distributed Learning Object Repository Network) is a repository set up by Stephen Downes. and distributes digital research material.educanext.lrc3.unsw.maricopa.ca/projects/CCC O/cloe_stories. which profiles innovative research projects and researchers. http://www. http://www. hosted by the University of Victoria in Canada. http://www.uwaterloo.edu/mlx/ MERLOT is the largest repository of learning objects.utoronto.lolaexchange.rice.org/index. http://www.org/ Selected Examples Following is a list of some of the many learning object repositories: The California Digital Library supports the libraries of the University of California. http://mlor.org/ubp Fedora is a general-purpose repository system developed jointly by Cornell University Information Science and the University of Virginia Library. a senior researcher at the National Research Council in Canada.thegateway.ca/acg/eduontari o_d/secure/elearning/ PROFETIC is a French learning object repository. http://www. http://www.mcli.downes. http://dspace. http://www. http://www.org/Home. indexes.edu Koha is a New Zealand based online library covering all subjects. http://www. http://learnware.koha. http://www. with a focus on information literacy.edu.dist.ca/cgibin/dlorn/dlorn.org/ LESTER (Learning Science and Technology Repository) is an online community and database focused on innovations in learning science and technology (LST). http://web. http://lester. http://www. and they can be general or subject specific.merlot. preserves.org/ LRC is an international community for sharing materials in higher education.cgi DSpace is a digital repository system that captures.edu/DesktopDefault.Repositories for learning objects can be simple or complex (“rafts” or “battleships” to use Derek Morrison’s metaphor).fedora. resources for grades K-12. http://nsdl.po National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is a great source for learning materials in science fields.sir.org goENC contains resources for K-12 science and math.

authored by Rachel Smith.ht m The Joint Conference on Digital Libraries holds an annual gathering. International Journal on E-Learning. Version . Feasibility of Course Development Based on Learning Objects: Research Analysis of Three Case Studies.uwm.irrodl. Re-Usable Learning Objects in Context.html LORNET is a consortium of Canadian universities who share research on learning objects and their use. (2004). M. B. http://www. EdTechPost. http://www. is available at: http://www. http://portal.com/application/pdf/en/ us/guest/netsol/ns460/c654/cdccont_09 00aecd800eb905.org/?item=learningobjects-is-the-king-naked Scott Leslie’s reply to the above article is found on his blog.org/guidelines/index.Public Library of Science is a nonprofit organization of scientists and physicians committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature a freely available public resource. The Need for and Nature of Learning Objects. Stephen.. & Strijker.html http://www.lornet. F. M. Online document. and Alderman.cisco. http://www.it/~lhci/002.ca/mt/archive/000 681. C. 2(1).jcdl.html#com123 Online Resources Cisco Systems has been a leader in promoting “reusable learning objects.org/blog/archives/ 002089.elearnspace. http://www. Bibliography Barritt. http://www. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. CANCORE. http://www.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee also maintains a list of “learning object collections. And Longo. (2004).cancore. http://www.html Norm Friesen has written a review of implementing learning object repositories that use the Canadian standard.edu/podcasting/projects/in dex. http://www.unesco. http://www.org/eng/scientifiques. A.nmc.dicole.html For a highly critical view of learning objects..org/ The Higher Educational Podcast Repository is a place for storing educationally useful lectures and other educational events. (2000).1/downes . Celentano.org/ci/en/ev. 2(4). see Teemu Leinonen’s article. (2004).aace. Software Architecture Document.htm Collis. “Learning Objects: Is the King Naked?” http://flosse. Creating a Reusable Learning Objects Strategy: leveraging information and learning in a knowledge economy.L.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_bi b. and Anderson.amazon. March.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP/LO_co llections.itdl. T. 5-16.shtml An audio discussion of learning objects with several of the leaders in this field is available at: http://www.phpURL_ID=12034&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.org/14190 Downes.” also known as LORs – learning object repositories.pdf A primer on how to design and author learning objects. 116 © Brandon Hall Research . International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. http://www. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.doc Christiansen.9.uis. SCX 2004: a SCORM 2004 – based tool for the real-time production of Learning Objects. http://dl. (2003).org UNESCO maintains the Free & Open Source Software Portal.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787964956/qid=1131924725/sr=82/ref=pd_bbs_2/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 Bochicchio.” A 2003 white paper on the company’s RLO strategy is available at: http://www.publiclibraryofscience. http://www.html Edusource (2003). 1(3). A. Online paper.ca/implementing_proje cts.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 02.dis.uniroma1.html The University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hosts a large bibliography on learning objects.edtechpost.org/content/v2. J.

org/Journal/Mar_04/article 03.ca/protocols_en.Rafts or Battleships? .. Online paper.cfm/files/pape r_11841. G. http://www. 2004. The Reusability Myth of Learning Object Design. N.com/lo/2004/01/the_re usability. CanCore: connection collections – an overview of approaches.uk/foundation/publ ications/roadmap-apr06/rep-roadmapv15.cancore.Download FullText&paper_id=11841 Longmire. Paper presented at eLearn 2004 conference. (2005). J. Research Report. March. A Repository for the Teaching Experiences..itdl. S.learningcircuits. D. (Learning) Objects of Desire: promise and practicality. Rory (Ed. T. Do not reproduce 117 . V. http://www.cancore.. Richards. (2004). Paper presented at the Workshop on E-Learning and Human Computer Interaction. http://www.informingscience.. INTERACT 2005.ca/documents/Key% 20Planning%20Documents/Software%20Pl an/SA%200. Learning Circuits.Rafts or Battleships? . T. July 14. http://www. Learning Material Repositories . N.bath.ac. http://www. Hatala.htm Morrison. Universities’ Collaboration in eLearning (UCeL): Post-Fordism in action.eduserv. R. (2004).pdf Krauss. M. Online. and Mohammed. McGreal. G. Aug. (2002). Jan. Learning object repository technologies for Telelearning: the evolution of POOL and CanCore. Learning Material Repositories . Babin. 1 (3).ac.. G. CanCore: in your neighbourhood and around the world. Paper presented.htm Friesen.org/Journal/Mar_04/article 01.pdf?fuseaction=Reader.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more. 2004.Part 2. Derek (2004a). April 2002...pdf Richards. March. R. Derek (2004b). 7(1). http://ideas. Design Issues Involved in Using Learning Objects for Teaching a Programming Language within a Collaborative eLearning Environment. and Morales.org/IS 2002Proceedings/papers/Richa242Learn. Friesen. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Warren (2000).editlib. M. A Primer on Learning Objects.au/electpub/ejist/docs/Vol7_No1/content.org. http://www. Auricle: learning technologies in Higher Education. Personalized Access to Distributed Learning Repositories (PADLR). Norm (2005).itdl.http://www. Rossano. 14.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_comments. D. March. http://www.learningcircuits. Fredinand (2004). Mattson. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0415335124/qid=1131924607/sr=81/ref=pd_bbs_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books&n=507846 McGreal.learninglab.) (2004).html Leeder. http://www. and Pragnell. Harrigan.blogs. Norm (2006).edu.html Murphy. M. and Freisen. Paquette. EduSource: Canada’s Learning Object Repository Network. March.org/index. S.se/documents/ PADLR-final-report. Downes.edusource.htm Nejdl. InSITE conference.. http://www. 1(3). Rachel (2006). Final Project Report.bath. Digital Repositories Roadmap: looking forward.php?id=291_0_4_0_M Morrison.Part 1. http://proceedings.kth. Roberts. Elizabeth (2004)..usq. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Wolfgang (2004).org/mar2000/p rimer. T. Anderson. 2004. (2004). June.9%2015-11-03. Moving from Theory to Practice in the Design of WebBased Learning Using a Learning Object Approach.. http://www. S.ca/implementing_proje cts.org/2002/apr2 002/mortimer.p df Roselli. http://www. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. London: Falmer.doc Fiaidhi. Lori (2002)..html Heery. Online Education Using Learning Objects.html Friesen. http://www.php?id=P292_0_4_ 0 Mortimer.amazon. http://www. MacLeod. and Schafer. G.. R. K... 12.html McGreal. IDEAS: Instructional Design for Elearning ApproacheS. Learning Circuits.

.it/~lhci/rossa no-pres. Objects of Interest.htm Shepherd. Doctoral dissertation.org/read/ Wiley.org/blog/archives/230 118 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. M. Iterating Toward Openness. David A.dis. Learning Object Design and Sequencing Theory.co. (2004). White paper for Fastrak Consulting.uniroma1. (2000). (Ed.htm Wiley. David A. (2000). and Senteni.uk/tactix/features/objects/ob jects.pdf http://www. 9. http://www.p df Wiley. Agency for Instructional Technology and the Association for Educational Communications. The Instructional Use of Learning Objects. http://opencontent. Reusable Learning Objects Aggregation for e-Learning Courseware Development at the University of Mauritius. Govinda. (2006). David A..dis.uniroma1. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. M. 1(7).it/~lhci/rossa no-paper. Brigham Young University.pdf Santally.). RIP-ing on Learning Objects. (2002).org/docs/dissertation.org/Journal/Jul_04/article0 2. A. : http://reusability.fastrakconsulting.itdl. http://opencontent.> > http://www. Clive. Online. Jan.

including to do the following: > > > Enhance visitor experiences using dynamic location-based content Provide access to specific content irrelevant roams. location-based systems are found in museums. gaming consoles.http://www. there are potential disadvantages to locationbased technologies. Usually these visualizations are overlaid onto a map.com/ Frapper is a Web site that allows you to create custom maps and tags them with information. geocaching. tours and exhibits for a variety of purposes. with abilities to show the location of almost any service or feature that is > > > In the cultural sector.http://www. proximity tools. The Global Positioning System consists of 24 satellites owned by the U. and wearable computers. Do not reproduce 119 . galleries. However.mapinfo. Department of Defense.com/ Clark Labs . laptops.intergraph.clarklabs. galleries. personal media players.cadcorp.esri. This allows GPS receivers to triangulate their own position to within a few meters by taking bearings from at least three visible satellites. A Geographic Information System enables the geographic aspects of a body of data to be visualized. as with any new technology. users will be able to use a variety of devices. The two technologies most prevalent in locationbased e-learning are the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). navigation. and security issues. including better security due to location tracking capabilities Analyze visitor traffic (for planners) Help users access relevant content from the Web during and after museum tours Improve accessibility for visitors with disabilities Description Location-based technologies are used in elearning when geographical position is important to an educational experience.Location Based Technologies Related terms Ambient content. more demands for a person’s attention. including privacy concerns.http://www.http://www. Bensford (2005) identifies some of the educational uses of location-based technologies. PDAs.com/ MapInfo . including the following: > > > Information services and tour guides delivered in place Educational games that have a geographical component Support for field trips in which locationbased technologies provide learning materials during a visit to a specific place Gathering data in a specific location for later analysis Personalization of a visit in real-time based on where a person is located at any given moment Learning games within a specified geographical area > > > > As computer devices become smaller and more mobile. http://www.org/ ESRI. to track their location and interact with educational experiences that use that information. findability.com Google Earth is an amazing view of the earth.S.com/ Intergraph .http://www. or exhibits Improve visitor services by providing information on nearby facilities such as restaurants and gift shops Provide tour management information. including cell phones. Selected Examples The main players in the GIS market include the following: Cadcorp .frappr. Each satellite continually broadcasts its position and the time.

http://www.com/mars/ Mapquest is a mapping service that covers the globe.searchable from a database. http://www. at: http://www. The vision is to show scenes of the areas on the maps. See how this system is being used to plot changes in biodiversity around the world.google. See their complete range of products.ac.org/index.30670 The goal of the Degree Confluence Project is to visit the intersection of every degree of latitude and longitude in the world (except those in the oceans and near the poles) and take a picture to post on the Web.uk/Lists/Publi cations/Attachments/1/CAERUS_CAL.cetadl.com/ Google Maps is an intuitive map of the world that allows the user to zoom in and out for various levels of details. The map is continuous and can be dragged in any direction.org/ At the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology.il. GIS also is being used to create several new exhibits in the coming year. http://www. http://www.com/ The GIS Laboratory at Springfield’s Illinois State Museum uses GIS to create and maintain a database of over 40.000 archaeological sites in the state.google.edu/ PanGo offers a “location management system” that can store and report on geographic data. as well as papers on trends in GIS.uk/odl/ GISAS stands for Geographical Information Systems Applications for Schools.com/ CHIMER is a partly EU funded project aiming “to capitalise on the natural enthusiasm and interest of children in developing new approaches to the use of evolving technologies for documenting items of cultural interest in their local communities.berkeley.bham. A kiosk on the museum’s exhibit floor features interactive maps of the St Croix River valley.leeds. and use meaningful maps of places that matter to them. http://www.geog.org/ Platial enables anyone to find. http://mvz.com/ Google Mars is a composite of the mapping of Mars. http://www.asp ArcGIS by ESRI is used to teach geography in schools. http://portal.museum.” http://www. http://platial. The Laboratory’s Web site includes a GIS animations gallery.5372.greatestplaces.com/index. similar to what a GIS system uses.google.org/ Greatest Places allows students to explore a variety of interesting places worldwide and to learn about them using a Geographic Information System.pdf Online Resources The British Ordnance Survey. maintains a Web site on educational uses of its maps.com/ CAERUS is a context aware educational resource system for outdoor sites.html The University of Leeds and the University of Southampton in the UK offer a joint Masters degree in using GIS systems in distance education. http://www. create. the national mapping agency for Great Britain. http://www.google. http://www. http://local.fi/english/page.com/mars/ Windows Live Local is the new Microsoft mapping service.asp?path= 500.chimer. http://earth.state.biogeomancer. http://earth. The site also contains a great list of links to geographic data and maps.smm.pangonetworks. it is a great tool for teaching science.org/ Georeferencing is the process of converting text descriptions of locations to computerreadable geographic locations.edu. While not very useful for most people. Geographic Information System (GIS) specialists have developed a WORLDCLIM to model the climate in any place in the world.ac.us/research/GI Slab/ The Science Museum of Minnesota in St Paul has GIS-based projects for public display and ongoing class work.confluence.esri. This project's objectives are to introduce geographical information systems into European secondary schools and to show how it can be used in geography and environmental education.live. Enter an address to find a local map for almost anywhere in the world. http://www. 120 © Brandon Hall Research .

http://elearningeuropa. http://www. Steve (2005). location and context aware solutions for the European publishing industry.com/ Intergraph is a company devoted to products to store. Jan 2004. manipulate. Earth. S.php?pag e=doc&doc_id=6231&doclng=6&menuzon e=1 Hightower.geocomm.com/ Directions Magazine is a huge resource on geospatial technologies. http://www. see: http://www. G. J. 38(4).. Mapping. Fabrizio (2005). IEEE Report. http://www. and Chamzas. 2005.. Dec.edu/sco/gis/his tory.com/journal/sj/3 84/spohrer.pdf Tsirliganis.htm McLean.1642288. A. Learning Circuits.. (2005). C. We learning: social software and e-learning.opensourcegis.com/geo/ Cardinali.com/gis4mt/index.cf m The theme of the 2005 Geography. Part II.learningcircuits..ac. IBM Systems Journal. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.00. and Environmental Sciences (GEES) conference at Leicester University was “The Place of GIS in the Curriculum. and Rusbridge. J. Pavlidis.pdf Spohrer. Towards narrowcasting and ambient content: new mobile. (2003). McHugh.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.directionsmag. Chapter on Location Based Devices.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_01. M.uk/events/2005/gis05 /gis05. (2001). Information in places. http://www.pdf The GeoCommunity is the place for the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). G. Future LocationBased Experiences. M. http://pngis.bc.ca/ Geotags.com has a scheme for embedding geographic information in HTML pages. http://www.uk/oswebsit e/education/index..info/downloads/TWR3lowres.ac.C.gees.jisc.info/index. DigiCULT Newsletter. http://education. 15.intergraph. F. 3DArchGIS: archiving cultural heritages in a 3D multimedia space.info/downloads/dc_info _issue6_december_20031. January.digicult. 2005. Location systems for ubiquitous computing.digicult. and visualize spatial information. Arnaoutoglou. Eva (2004). Online article.html Ross. and Location-Based industry professionals.org/ The University of Montana offers an “earth observing system” on its Web site that is used for students in schools doing geographic projects. Nov.co. enthusiasts.guardian.. http://www. Koutsoudis. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. Heather (2005). Issue 6. and students. Abbott.intelresearch. 1999.wisc.research.html For a history of Geographic Information Systems in education. N. 2003. A. Dobreva.http://www.net/Publications/Seattle/062120 021154_45. GIS adds fresh dimension to field work.ordnancesurvey.” Conference abstracts are available at: http://www.htm#abs The Petroleum and Natural Gas International Standardization (PNGIS) Joint Task Force has a Web site on geographical information systems.co.eoscenter... JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. and Borriello.ibm. CAD. > > http://geotags.geography.pdf Do not reproduce 121 .org/2004/jan2 004/kaplan2.. http://www. D.uk/elearning/ story/0. http://www.html A large resource list of links to open source GIS software is available at: http://www. (1999).com http://geotags. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A.com/ Bibliography Benford. Donnelly.

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. Some Web services are public and can be linked to by any software that knows how to read the information from the Web service. to a lesser extent. is the trendy name (borrowed from the practice of mixing music) for a composite or hybrid Web application.” then.” “Web Services” is the name given to a method of connecting a function in one application to a Web page in another application so that the function appears to be part of the Web page. 122 © Brandon Hall Research . Web application hybrid Description E-learning in the workplace and.” that is. Programs can be “stand alone. etc. such as those for collaboration. Similarly. For two or more programs to talk to each other.Mashups. It is about to change again into a highly fragmented “learning landscape” where online presentations will be only one option in a myriad of choices for learners and instructors. A “mashup. in schools and universities. Instead of moving among discrete applications in courses. while other Web services require authorization through the use of security procedures. SOAP and Web Services Related terms AJAX. This is all possible because of an explosion of innovation in information and communications technologies (ICT) that help individuals and collectives learn. Mashups are constructed in several ways. communications. and relevant to each person’s learning needs and goals. Such programs can “expose” their functions or data to other programs and be “consumed” by them. The meaning of SOAP has since broadened to include rules on how two software programs can communicate and work with each other. 2004).” and the organization of software to facilitate these arrangements is called “Service Oriented Architecture” (SOA) (Erl. Multi-channel distributed learning will combine many forms of face-toface learning with dozens of learning technologies and data sources to produce a rich learning experience that is dynamic. which can range from a single statement to massive amounts of computer code. run all by themselves. or protocol. personalized. all expressed in binary code. such a site is referred to as a mashup or Web hybrid application. including a Web site that provides access to the API of another Web site. programmers can build programs that communicate across the Web and exchange data with other programs. When a Web site takes data from several Web services and perhaps mixes it with its own data. also called “object interoperability. The Web is made up of an extremely large collection of software objects. The programs that do this are call “Web Services. the rules for sending files across the Internet. thereby making the LMS capable of tracking the formal aspects of learning while. or they can depend on other programs to supply data or specific functions. API clouds. has moved from early text-based CBT systems to full-scale multimedia presentations. composite applications.. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is the set of rules for how a request for a specific Web page can be made to a Web server. hybrid applications. the set of rules for accessing a software object on the Internet. SOAP originally stood for Simple Object Access Protocol. learners in the near future will be able to access “hybrid applications” or “mashups” in which data is mixed together from many different sources in a unique blend for that learner at that moment. For example. providing an informal collaborative environment. Any learning management system (LMS) with built-in Web services can be part of a mashup by integrating data and functions from other types of programs. at the same time. of how to communicate with each other.” Using SOAP. integration. Many of these objects are software programs. they need to have an agreed-upon set of rules. tag clouds. or through “Web services. document management. The “content” for educational experiences will be based on distributed applications and data sources. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA).

com/mashups/MashUps ResourceCenter.htm Siviter. a writer for Business Week. 2005. E-Learning Interoperability & Web Services. http://www. 2006. and Oliveira. match. Vol.businessweek.ieee.com/ Emily Chang is a San Francisco Web designer with a large offering of Web links. http://blogs. E-Learning for the BC Tech Industry. Bibliography Gruman. Learning Technology newsletter.icio.html Rob Hof. SOAP. and Padron. > > http://www.us/Mike_Malloch/webtech/M ASHUP Online Resources Mashup Feed gives the latest and greatest examples of actual mashups. Paul (2002).infoworld. Dodero. A Framework Based on Web Services Composition for the Adaptability of Complex and Dynamic Learning Processes. Enterprise mashups. Elearnspace. online curriculum is more and more becoming a mashup. Mix.wikipedia.operitel.icio.us.emilychang.html Warlick. 6. Curriculum as Mashup. 2002.aspx Selected Examples Mike Malloch has posted a set of examples of educational mashups on del. has produced about a dozen articles on mashups in business for his magazine. May 15.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. http://www.com/@@76IH*oc Q34AvyQMA/magazine/content/05_30/b3 944108_mz063.org/learn_tech/issues/janua ry2004/learn_tech_january2004. July 28. and mutate. Learning Technology newsletter. J. http://del.pdf Stacey. 6.jsp?link=/article/06/07/28/31FEma shup_1. http://www. Issue 1.com/publications.com/go/ehub/cate gory/C49 Programmable Web claims to keep “you up to date with the latest on mashups and the new Web 2. Mashups. http://www. J. 2006. as it draws materials from many different sources in a network of distributed servers.com/ http://www. http://www. Galen (2006). January 2004 http://lttf.ieee. http://en.com/the_thread /techbeat/archives/mash-ups/index.elearnspace. Learning Solutions. C.com/products/print_fr iendly.” It has many examples of mashups.mashupfeed. http://www.html Woodill. Dec. 2006. January 2004 http://lttf.com/blog/main/ar chives/2006/03/curriculum_as_m. C. (2004). (2006).0 APIs. As Warlick (2006) has noted.htm Torres. Issue 1. Vol. Business Week Online. including a matrix of 87 sites with APIs that interact with each other.pdf Seimens.techlearning.html The Wikipedia entry for Mashup (Web application hybrid) contains links to other mashup sites. Adopting and Adapting Enterprise Technologies for Use in Education.deitel. http://www.bctechnology. G..businessweek.Mashups and Web services are alternative ways of accessing educational content that need to be taken into account by any LMS that is tracking learning activities.com/ma trix Deitel maintains a “mashups resource center” with diverse articles and resources on this topic. 6. Robert (2005). David (2006).programmableweb.html Hof.programmableweb. Infoworld. July 25.com/statics/pstac ey-dec0602. techLEARNING.org/wiki/Mashup_%28 web_application_hybrid%29 Do not reproduce 123 .org/resources/web services. George (undated). Her links in the category of mashups are found at: http://www. and Services: welcome to web hybrid e-learning applications. March 6. http://ww6. Douglas (2004). Many have educational value. Web Services.

ifets. http://www. http://metadata.. D.umbc.. metadata. so are ways to describe data so that it can be used by programs in a variety of ways.xtm SIMILE seeks to enhance interoperability among digital assets. to develop metadata standards. http://www.info/issues. All of the above are used to classify and store data for later use by a program. Ontologies and Taxonomies Related terms Folksonomies. SOUPA: standard ontology for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. and Joshi.edu/o4e/viewhome. Barry.uk/guides/ The MIT Libraries has produced a Metadata Reference Guide.edu/ 124 © Brandon Hall Research .ac. MA.asp?pag e_id=645&PARENT_ID=794&bhcp=1 The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed guidelines for using metadata with learning objects. and artificial intelligence are being developed. Data can be classified in a formal manner or classified by individuals who place their own tags into a database as they enter data.org/metadata/mdv1p 3pd/imsmd_bestv1p3pd. Ohio.Metadata. It is based on and fully compatible with the IEEE Learning Object Metadata standard and the IMS Learning Resource Meta-data specification.org/ The Ontologies for Education project is a portal maintained by three universities to disseminate information on ontologies. A... http://iiscs. A taxonomy is a hierarchical listing of topics or subject categories in a particular area. search engines. Delphi Group report. Information Intelligence: content classification and the enterprise taxonomy practice.wssu. schemata/vocabularies/ ontologies. pervasive computing. Benayache. An ontology. Selected Examples The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative is an industry group that initially met in Dublin. Lenne.imsglobal. International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services.ca/en/ Online Resources CETIS – the Centre for Educational Technology Interoperability Standards – in the UK has published a list of “guides to metadata” and the learning object model (LOM). In Proceedings. B. This approach is sometimes called a folksonomy. http://ebiquity. (2004). and Chaput. (2004). 7(4).cancore. C.mit. June 2004. social bookmarking Cancore is a Canadian initiative to develop metadata standards for e-learning. Finin. Computer algorithms are then used to group similar or related tags into a tag cloud.edu/get/a/publication /105. Bibliography Abel. repositories. Journal of Educational Technology and Society. http://www. M. http://www. and services. F. 98-111. Ontology-based organizational memory for e-learning. in the context of information technology.edu/content. A key challenge is that collections that are to interoperate are often distributed across individual. H. Boston. http://dublincore.html Description At the same time that learning objects.cetis.edu/guides/subjects/me tadata/index. and institutional stores..do?tm =O4E. C.educause.html Educause lists resources on “folksonomies. Moulin. http://libraries. This “data about data” is known as metadata and has a critical role in many emerging e-learning technologies... community. refers to the formal description of the network of relationships used to track how one item or word relates to another.php?id=25 Chen.mit.pdf Delphi Group (2004).” the practice of social bookmarking whereby users assign their own freely chosen metadata to learning objects. http://simile. Perich. T. A. which is a visualization of the metadata used in searches.

Reuben (2004).pdf Friesen. and Poulymenakou.learningcircuits.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.boxesandarrows. (2004). http://www. Norway. May 22.info/issues. 7(4). M. Invited paper/keynote to the First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05).html Gruber. http://www. http://www. 26-28. Infotangle. http://tomgruber. 2006. http://www. 2005. 2004. http://tomgruber..ca/editors. D-Lib Magazine. http://www. April 21. Reasoning and ontologies for personalized e-learning in the semantic web. Online article.pdf National Information Standards Organization (NISO) (2001). Pouloudi. Defining “taxonomy”. Wagner. Border crossings: reflections on a decade of metadata consensus building. http://www.greenchameleon. 7. Learning Circuits. and Diaz. Incorporating Educational Vocabulary in Learning Object Metadata Schemas. N. Presentation to Tag Camp. S.dlib. Chen. 2003. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. Thomas (2005b).adammathes. October-December. Can Core: learning object metadata editors. TagOntology .boxesandarrows.org/standards/resources/ UnderstandingMetadata.. Another new paradigm for instructional design. D. Developing and Creatively Leveraging Hierarchical Metadata and Taxonomy. G. BoxesAndArrows. April 9. P.boxesandarrows.cancore. Building a Metadata-Based Website. 2002. Unraveling the mysteries of metadata and taxonomies.com/research/whit epapers/20040601-taxonomy-WP. http://www. Folksonomies – Cooperative Classification and Communication through Shared Metadata. A.. Christian (2004). 2005.pdf Henze.. Understanding Metadata.a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data.ifets. BoxesAndArrows.com/gc/blog_ detail/defining_taxonomy Lider. J. http://www. and Mosoiu.htm Weibel.org/writing/tagontologytagcapm-talk. Journal of Educational Technology and Society.org/dlib/july05/weibel/07w eibel.com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies.com/view/buil ding_a_metadata_based_website Lytras. BoxesAndArrows. 2004. Stuart (2005).aace. The Hive Mind: folksonomies and user-based tagging. A.tagcamp. 82-97. PowerPoint Presentation at the 7th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL2003). October 29.htm Gruber.org/presentations/pa pers/session2b/Qin/ecdl2003_presentatio n. M. Nov.org/. (2002). Ontologies and the semantic Web for e-learning. 7(4). Green Chameleon. http://www. (2004). Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Thomas (2005a). Dec. International Journal on E-Learning. April 18. J.. I. http://dl. November.com/2005/12/ 07/the-hive-mind-folksonomies-and-userbased-tagging/ Lambe. (2004). Lytras. and Shao.org/10614 Mathes. Ontology enabled annotation and knowledge management for collaborative learning in virtual learning community. A. Dynamic e-learning settings through advanced semantics: the value justification of a knowledge management oriented metadata schema. University of Illinois graduate paper. 2002. P. and Godby.org/2004/nov2 004/tozman. and Nejdl.ppt Ricci.ifets.. http://www. Trondheim. (2003). Patrick (2006).php?id=25 Tozman. B.com/view/unr aveling_the_mysteries_of_metadata_and_t axonomies Yang. N. W.ecdl2003.pdf Oin. Norm (2005). (2003). 11(7/8). July/August. Adam (2004).niso. http://infotangle. Christina (2002). http://www. Do not reproduce 125 . Ellyssa (2005). http://www.info/issues. Dolog.html Wodtke. http://www. NISO Press.php?id=25 Kroski.blogsome.com/view/dev eloping_and_creatively_leveraging_hierarch ical_metadata_and_taxonomy Sampson.http://www.delphigroup.

php?id=25 126 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.Journal of Educational Technology and Society.info/issues.ifets. 7(4). 70-81.

He found that 90 percent of cell phone users were still accessing the lessons after 15 days. pervasive computing. MP3 players. improved identity creation. wearable computing. and performance-based assessment… e-learning independent of location. and mentoring. personalization. Masayasu Morita evaluated the use of English language lessons formatted differently for computers and cell phones. and wearable computers in teaching and learning. there were estimated to be 1. podcasting. The key benefits of using mobile devices for learning include the following: > > Portability Any time. and these sophisticated phones have the processing power of a mid-1990s PC. cellular telephones. location-dependence. rich interaction.6 billion units in operation by that year. particularly those in dispersed communities Active learning experiences > Description Mobile learning (“m-learning”) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices.” Two years ago. such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Clark Quinn (2000) sees m-learning as “…the intersection of mobile computing and eLearning: accessible resources wherever you are. 2003). brokerage. it is predicted that there will be 2. tablet PCs. personal digital assistants (PDA). video) and distributed databases. In addition to sales of one billion mobile phones in 2009. This is more than three times the number of personal computers (PCs). cell phones. instant messaging (text. However. it is learning and knowledge sharing that takes place when a learner is using a mobile device. mLearning. multimedia.5 billion mobile phones in the world (Prensky. Do not reproduce 127 . collaborative learning. tablets. powerful support for effective learning. (2004). Essentially. 2004).Mobile Devices Related terms Ambient computing. in Japan.” The Mobilearn Project (2003) advocates for “a new mlearning architecture [that] will support creation. strong search capabilities. location based technologies. laptops. including the following: > Small screens limit the amount and type of information that can be displayed Limited memory and storage capacities for mobile devices Batteries have to be charged regularly Mobile devices are more fragile than other types of computers and can more be more easily stolen or lost Intermittent connectivity Interoperability among devices is difficult Links to learning management systems and other enterprise IT systems are primitive or non-existent Existing applications need to be adapted for mobile devices at considerable expense Network access costs can be significant Security is a major issue There is little stability in the market because of rapid development > > > > > > > > > > On a positive note. wireless > > > Flexible and timely access to e-learning resources Immediacy of communication Empowerment and engagement of learners. such as increased computer literacy. delivery and tracking of learning and information content. time and space. Cited in Prensky. communicative skills and community building. personalization. using ambient intelligence. there are potential disadvantages in mobile computing (McLean. any place connectivity Researchers point out other benefits. compared to only 50 percent of computer users. conversational learning.

of the University of Oulu in Finland.edu/~hdul/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform in Central London. links. This prototype allows users to access and create location-specific content.co. Users can access and create The Mobile Learning portal lists loads of material on mobile learning.tw/~yschen/my papers/AINA2004-final.knowledgepulse.cs.mobilearn. movies.tw/~yschen/my papers/JECR-2005. or a combination of media. http://news.ccu.edu.pdf http://www.cs.ccu. http://www.” a “butterflywatching learning system.” “Mobile/Cell Phones in Education. http://www.com/wwwtools/m/890 7. and a glossary. http://urbantapestries. http://www3.pdf location-specific text. US.htm Jari Laru. Israel.elearningcentre.uk/1/hi/technology/22 25255.com/home_en.asp?id=5&projectid=4572 The Tate Modern Art Museum has launched a pilot multimedia tour of its galleries using handheld computers.Selected Examples Employees at the Malmo Hospital in Sweden access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning.com/wwwtools/m/273 7.com/wwwtools/m/271 7.computer.org/comp/proceedin gs/icalt/2004/2181/00/21810910. http://gseacademic. http://urbantapestries. Its mandate is to develop technology and services for mobile learning using an open servicebased architecture.stockholmchallenge. http://spotlight-mobile.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=2717 http://m.pdf MOBIlearn is a worldwide European-led project with 24 partner organizations across Europe.cfm?x=0&rid=2737 http://m. including issues.cfm?x=0&cuID=76&rid=8907 The Mobile Technologies for Mobile Learning (MoTFAL) Project involves a variety of researchers and educators.fasfind. audio.bbc.edu.fasfind.co. http://www. http://www. activities.mobilelearning.cs.harvard.ccu.telus.stm Researchers at a university in Taiwan have developed various mobile systems for learning about “outdoor ecology. http://csdl2.tk/ 128 © Brandon Hall Research .fasfind. Australia.” They have a “firefly watching system.pdf http://www. technologies.uk/eclipse/Resources/ml earning. and pre-service teachers. Learn more at: http://www.htm WWWTools for Education has articles on “Handheld Computers in Education. applications.it/past/ Urban Tapestries is an experimental location-based wireless platform covering the Bloomsbury area of central London in the UK.com/ Knowledge Pulse is flashcard lessons for mobile phones that automatically adjusts the order and complexity of the lessons to match the learning pace of the individual.edu. http://www.” > > > http://m.se/projectd ata.” and “iPods and Podcasting in Education. Visitors are given a Pocket PC that uses a wireless network to track where they are in the gallery.” > > > http://www. pictures. maintains an extensive Web site on everything related to mobile learning. resources.net/~kdeanna/mlearnin g/index.” and a “bird watching learning system.org/ The Handheld Devices for Ubiquitous Learning Project (HDUL) at Harvard is studying how wireless handheld devices can enhance learning and teaching for faculty and students.beta80group.net/ The PAST Project involves using hand-held electronic guides to archaeological sites. html Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a long list of mobile and wireless learning content. adult participants in the School’s professional development programs.net/ Spotlight Mobile is a group developing software for the use of hand-held devices in museums.tw/~yschen/con papers/bird.

Towards a MultiVendor Mobile Learning Management System.itdl. Ronchetti. No. 39.educause. (2003).au /edition06/download/geddes. A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Emerging technologies: Messaging.ac. E.com/mobile_learning/i ndex.it/~foxy/docs/To wards%20a%20multivendor%20Mobile%20LMS%20(long). Going Nomadic: Mobile Learning in Higher Education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Report.msu. and Trifonova.kaywa.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault. http://www.6. 17-22 http://llt.org/ml2006 Bob Godwin-Jones.jisc.uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_04pdf. Jill (2005).pdf Do not reproduce 129 . Mobile Learning in the 21st Century: benefit for learners.html Kadirire. http://www. and Sheu.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0451.One of the best ways to find out what is happening in a field is by attending conferences. Gaming. Open and Distance Education through Wireless Mobile Internet: A Learning Model. Mobile Technologies and Learning: a technology update and mlearning project summary. http://mobile. M. and Pagani. T.formatex.uk/handler/public ations.” concludes his article with an extensive resource list on mobile learning.bham.org/Journal/Sep_05/article 04.m-learning. http://www. http://llt. S. (2005). and Sharma. 5.flexiblelearning.pdf Godwin-Jones.J. No. European Workshop on Mobile Contextual Learning.. Kao. January 2005. James (2005).idi. L. Paper presented at the UBILearn2005 Conference. the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2006 was held on July 14-16.eee. Knowledge Tree e-Journal. Learning and Skills Development Agency.htm JISC (2005).pdf Attewell.pdf Bibliography Alexander. http://www. of Birmingham http://www. Gaming. Vol.ac. EDUCAUSE Review. Sept. (2004). JISC Technology and Standards Watch.unitn. (2002).science. 9(1).net. 19. The short message service (SMS) for schools/conferences. http://www.. 347-359.pdf Anderson.ac. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.org/docs/The%20mlearning%20project%20%20technology%20update%20and%20proj ect%20summary.uk/eli_practice.jisc.pdf Geddes.html Grew. P.135/ipodined/news.edu. September 2005.no/~divitini/ubilearn20 05/Final/pagani_ubilearn.pdf Jasola.94. Towards a Wireless Architecture for Mobile Ubiquitous E-Learning. J. http://www. 2(9). Mobile and PDA Technologies: looking around the corner.ntnu. R. Y.pdf Colazzo.iadis.html Chen. http://knowledgetree. B.php All About Mobile Life is a blog devoted to all aspects of mobile technologies and their use in learning and in everyday life.cs. Bryan (2004).ccu. Molinari. Bob (2005). Language Learning and Technology. http://www. A. Peer-toPeer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation.tw/~yschen/mypape rs/JCAL-2003. Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies. Innovative Practice with eLearning: a good practice guide to embedding mobile and wireless technologies into everyday practice. Paul (2005). Ireland. For example. http://213. JISC Guide..232. A. in a recent article entitled “Emerging technologies: Messaging. (2005).org/micte2005/4. 2006 in Dublin. http://www. Univ.msu.html The HandLeR IHandheld Learning Resource Project at the University of Birmingham in the UK has a list of publications associated with the project.asp The iPods in Education Web site is a portal on these mobile devices being used for learning. http://www. http://www.edu/vol9num1/emerging/def ault.

Teleborg Campus.uk/elearning/ comment/0. Peter (2005). 2004. Sweden. Applying Wireless Technologies to Build a Highly Interactive Learning Environment.org/10.ac..pdf Thomas.info/index. Towards a Philosophy of M-Learning. S. April 2005. The mobile learning engine (MLE) – a mobile. Draft paper submitted for publication.org. 2005..edu/ir/library/pdf/er m0532. A theory of learning for the mobile age. Pigozzi. Chan. T.. Archeology. Neil (2003).com/news/article 2490.html von Koschembahr. Kristóf (2002). Wang. http://www. Vecchietti. Malavasi. Augmented reality and mobile systems I: Exciting understanding in Pompeii through on-site parallel interaction with dual time virtual models. Mobile Learning: The Next Evolution of Education.acm. http://www.1039222 McLean.pdf 130 © Brandon Hall Research .eee. May 23.open. M. and Cultural Heritage.. MA: HRD Press. M. J.educause. (2004).at/mle/docs/Matthias_Meisenbe rger_MApEC_Paper_mLearning. (2005). Mobile Age: learning as conversation in context.. D.info/downloads/twr_2_ 2004_final_low.cfm?id=5850 18&dl=acm&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTO KEN=6184618 Sharples.ox. http://www. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation..phil-inst. Learning in the Mobile Age. (2001). Ann (2005).00. L. and Sforza. M-Learning: Mobile e-Learning. Marc (2004). M. 40(3). Romagnoli. June/July 2005.2.pdf Sharples.co.usabilitynews.innovateonline. Australia.. May/June 2005. Brisbane. 40-53. Liang. Ellen (2005). E-Learning on the move.Light. 1(5).htm#Implications Prensky. J. UsabilityNews. Coralini. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything! Innovate.asp?articleid=849&zoneid=7 1 Wagner. H. Galasso. Växjö. (2002).au/conferences/bris bane05/blogs/proceedings/53_Mellow. and Nischelwitzer. E. http://drei. A. 2005.doc Meisenberger. David (2006). computer-aided. and. Multimedia Applications in Education Conference. http://21st. E. Budapest. T.digicult. Emerging Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector.. ASCILITE2005 Conference. Paper presented at Conference on Seeing.org/citation.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Learning as Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. M. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report No.ac. Enabling Mobile Learning. Cinotti. June 27.com/gp/product/0874 259061/sr=82/qid=1155438843/ref=sr_1_2/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Nyíri.pdf Scagliarini.fhjoanneum. Feb.php?v iew=article&id=83&action=article Ross. Greece.bham. http://www. Amherst. (2005). http://www.uk/sharplem/Pap ers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mo bile%20learning. http://www. and Vavoula. T. Conference on Virtual reality. Feb. The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview.2002. Guardian Unlimited.guardian. http://doi. A..hu/eng/mlearning/nyiri_mlearn_philos. Presented at WMTE 2002.uk/ltg/reports/mlear ning. Hungary. http://kn. Understanding.110 9/WMTE.clomedia. http://portal. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE'02).. Roffia. Michael (2005).asp Liu. The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile.cfm?doc umentfileid=7298. G.century. August 29-30.. http://www. Donnelly. Chief Learning Officer.pdf Metcalf. M. Växjö University. Proceedings. Glyfada.fil. http://education. and Dobreva.. http://www. Christopher (2005).pdf Mellow. http://www.uk/public/getfile.ieeecomputersociety. F. 2005.amazon..hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_fin al. M.. multimediabased learning application.oucs.ac.ascilite. and Yang.1490476. Taylor. http://www. Mike (2005). EDUCAUSE Review. 2002. Proceedings. J. S.

found that the generator which intuitively produces the best language does engender the most learning.html The Open Directory Project lists about 150 Web resources on natural language processing. rather than just returning Web pages. ‘Natural language processing’ (NLP) is a convenient description for all attempts to use computers to process natural language.itc. http://tcc.Natural Language Processing Related terms Conversational learning. It can be used as an interface for many different devices.upenn. it is not surprising that it has great potential in emerging e-learning technologies.ldc. http://wwwusers. TCC is a member of the European Network of Excellence in Natural Language and Speech (ELSNET). an alternative communication strategy to improve accessibility.york. (2004). http://dmoz. research. (2005a. Do not reproduce 131 . machine translation..lexxe. http://www. and to teach foreign languages or improve nonnative speakers’ accents. natural language generation.it/index. html Eduforge lists 26 natural language processing projects in education in English and another 13 in other languages.org/aitopics/html/natlang.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelli gence/Natural_Language/ The Linguistic Data Consortium supports language-related education. natural language understanding..elsnet. et al. speech recognition.cs. and technology development by creating and sharing linguistic resources: data. a component of intelligent tutoring systems. tools. 2005b) developed two natural language generators in e-learning applications and “. (2004).com/ Description According to Coxhead (2001). Italy is a European research group for natural language processing. Di Eugenio. and Zhou (2000) for more on natural language approaches to intelligent tutoring. and standards. not an artificial or man-made language such as a programming language. speech synthesis. a graduate student at the University of York in the UK. i. “a 'natural language' (NL) is any of the languages naturally used by humans. Online Resources A very useful literature review of the use of natural language processing technologies in education is provided by Silvia Quarteroni. http://www. voice recognition Selected Examples The Cognitive and Communication Technologies (TCC) in Trento. http://eduforge.uk/~silvia/litReview.edu Natural language processing is one of the featured topics on the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Web site.” Examples of natural language processing include the following: > > > > > Speech synthesis Speech recognition Natural language understanding Natural language generation Machine translation . Kim (2000).” See also Jordan et al. Lee et al.html Lexxe is a search engine powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions.aaai.org/ The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has a Voice Browser Working Group that has published a number of specifications for Given that spoken language is an important component of many learning situations.translating one natural language into another. http://www.org/softwaremap/trove_list .php?form_cat=274 ELSNET is a European Network of Excellence specializing in natural language processing.ac.e. http://www.

this activity. http://www.w3.org/Voice/Activity.html

Bibliography
Bagshaw, Paul (1994). Automatic Prosodic Analysis for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Teaching. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. http://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk/research/projects /fda/Bagshaw_PhDThesis.pdf Coxhead, Peter (2001). An Introduction to Natural Language Processing (NLP). Online. http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/%7Epxc/nlpa/2 002/AI-HO-IntroNLP.html#fn1 Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005a). Aggregation improves learning: experiments in natural language generation for intelligent tutoring systems. Paper presented at ACL2005. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/ACL05.pdf Di Eugenio, B., Fossati, D., Yu, D., Haller, S. and Glass, M. (2005b). Natural Language Generation for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: a case study. Presented at AIED2005 Conf. http://www.cs.uic.edu/~bdieugen/PSpapers/AIED05.pdf Drigas, A. and Vrettaros, J. (2004). An Intelligent Tool for Building E-Learning Content Material Using Natural Language in Digital Libraries. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, Issue 5, Volume 1, November 2004 http://imm.demokritos.gr/publibations/intel l_tool.pdf Eskenazi, Maxine (1999). Using automatic speech processing for foreign language pronunciation tutoring: some issues and a prototype. Language Learning and Technology, 2(2), January, 62-76. http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article3.p df Jacquemin, Christian (2001). Spotting and Discovering Terms through Natural Language Processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 100851/sr=81/qid=1153674463/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Jordon, P., Makatchev, M. and VanLehn, K. (2004). Combining Competing Language

Understanding Approaches in an Intelligent Tutoring System. In J. C. Lester, R. M. Vicari, and F. Paraguaçu (Eds.), Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. http://www.pitt.edu/~vanlehn/Stringent/PD F/04ITS_PWJ_MM_KVL.pdf Jurafsky, D. and Martin, J. (2000). Speech and Language Processing: an introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0130 950696/ref=pd_bxgy_text_b/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Kim, Jung Hee (2000). Natural Language Analysis and Generation for Tutorial Dialogue. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ kjhdiss.pdf Lee, C.H., Evens, M. and Glass, M. (2004). Looking at the Student Input to a NaturalLanguage Based ITS. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Dialog-based Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Maceió, Brazil, August 31. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ chldial04.pdf Linckels, S. and Meinel, C. (2004). Automatic Interpretation of Natural Language for a Multimedia E-learning Tool. Proceedings of ICWE 2004 Conference. 435-439. http://www.linckels.lu/Publications/ICWE2 004.pdf Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8 Ram, A. and Moorman, K. (Eds.) (1999). Understanding Language Understanding: computational models of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0262 181924/sr=81/qid=1153674317/ref=sr_1_1/1043077212-1261530?ie=UTF8

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Ross, S., Donnelly, M., Dobreva, M., Abbott, D., McHugh, A. and Rusbridge, A. (2005). Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. Chapter on Natural Language Processing. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3. http://www.digicult.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.pdf Steinhart, David (2001). Summary Street: an intelligent tutoring system for improving student writing through the use of latent semantic analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of Colorado. http://lsa.colorado.edu/papers/daveDissert ation.pdf Yang, Feng-Jen (2001). Turn Planning for a Dialogue-Based Intelligent Tutoring System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ fydiss.pdf Zhou, Yujian (2000). Building a New Student Model to Support Adaptive Tutoring in a Natural Language Dialogue System. Doctoral Dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. http://www.cs.iit.edu/~circsim/documents/ yzdiss.pdf

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Peer to Peer Technologies
Related terms
Collaboration, sharing

Description
Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) involves sharing resources over a network with other users, thus bypassing a central server. As personal computers become more powerful, each one of them can act as a server in terms of processing power, memory, and storage. All that is needed is peer-to-peer software to enable this way of working. Peer-to-peer (P2P) software has mostly been associated with downloading music, movies, and games. Now there is a movement to use it for sharing work and collaborating in educational environments. There are three distinct P2P computing models (Farago-Walker, 2003): > Multiple Peer Relationships - PCs are connected/networked to each other through servers, and files can be shared and collected from anyone else on that same network. Distributed Peer Relationships – A group of computers connected together to combine their computing and processing abilities to search the Internet or solve very complex problems requiring massive process crunching. Collaborative Peer Relationships - A small group of people agree to collaborate through a common interface such as on-line gaming, chat rooms, instant messaging, or e-learning environments.

paradigm. In the future, the key to the learning process will be the interactions among students themselves, and the formation of virtual learning communities will be the neces-sary qualification for effective e-learning. The potential development of learning communities will also be studied by using a metaphoric term “peerto-peer learning.” The younger generation already does a lot of sharing and exchanging of resources. This ethic is sure to spread to learning in the near future.

Selected Examples
SETI@home links and uses donated computer processing capacity to analyze data collected from a radio telescope located in Puerto Rico. It is an example of grid computing and the power of peer-topeer technologies. http://www.seti.org/science/setiathome.ht ml Campus Movie Fest is the world’s largest student film festival, where students meet to share and exchange their productions. http://www.campusmoviefest.com/ The Worldwide Lexicon Project is an open source initiative to create a multilingual dictionary service for the Internet and to create a simple, standardized protocol for talking to dictionary, encyclopedia, and translation servers throughout the Web. http://picto.weblogger.com/ eduCommons - The eduCommons is an open system for creating, sharing, and reusing educational content and discourse to support people's learning. http://cosl.usu.edu/projects/educommons Edutella is a peer-to-peer service for the exchange of educational metadata. Edutella lives on top of the Semantic Web framework as a distributed query and search service. http://edutella.jxta.org The Chord Project aims to build scalable, robust distributed systems using peer-topeer networks. http://www.pdos.lcs.mit.edu/chord/ Groove Networks has developed software tools that provide multiple users real-time access to information simultaneously. Groove is now owned by Microsoft

>

>

Peer-to-peer e-learning is not yet prevalent, as most formal learning is based on individual learning and not on collaborating or sharing work. Jokela (2003), whose research is based on activity theory, predicts that this will change: The current problems of the higher education, combined with the potential development of e-learning may eventually lead to the introduction of a new learn-ing

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Corporation. http://www.groove.net Sun Microsystems Project JXTA standard is a set of peer-to-peer protocols that allows any connected device (cell phone to PDA, PC to server) to communicate and collaborate. http://wwws.sun.com/software/jxta/ Stanford University Library Systems LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keeps Content Safe) project aims to create a "low-cost, persistent digital cache" of e-journal content. http://lockss.stanford.edu/ The Metadata3 project (also known as md3) is a peer-to-peer application that provides access to quality metadata and the ability to translate between different metadata schemes. http://www.md3.org Do you have unused storage capacity on your computer? OceanStore is a global persistent data store designed to scale to billions of users. Any computer can join the infrastructure, contributing storage or providing local user access in exchange for money. http://oceanstore.cs.berkeley.edu/info/ove rview.html Piazza peer data management system (PDMS) project uses mapping to provide "semantic mediation" between an environment of thousands of peers, each with its own data schema. http://data.cs.washington.edu/piazza.html Publius is a Web publishing system that is highly resistant to censorship and provides publishers with a high degree of anonymity. http://publius.cdt.org/ Tapestry is a location and routing infrastructure that provides locationindependent message routing using only point-to-point links and without centralized resources. http://p2p.cs.ucsb.edu/chimera/ Advanced Reality has a set of P2P collaboration products that allow users to work directly together on various applications. http://www.advancedreality.com/products/i ndex.html MoveDigital, the online P2P distribution service for independent artists, musicians, and videomakers, allows anyone, for a small

fee, to distribute content on the Web using P2P techniques. http://www.movedigital.com/ Overnet is an open source, cross platform application (Win, Mac, and Linux) that allows people to share files with millions of others across the globe. http://www.overnet.com DigitAlexandria is a peer-to-peer scientific digital library with interesting free resources. http://www.bdaweb.net/index.php FreeScience software from DigitAlexandria allows any researcher to share his or her scientific papers (as well as notes, data, and drawings) into a P2P network so that his works will be instantly available to hundred of thousands researchers worldwide. http://www.bdaweb.net/freescience_learn more_it.php# LimeWire claims to be “the fastest P2P file sharing program on the planet.” It also says that there is “no spyware, no adware, no Trojan horse” bundled with this program. http://www.limewire.com/english/content/ home.shtml LionShare is an open source P2P collaboration among several universities, headquartered at Penn State University. http://lionshare.its.psu.edu/main/project_i nformation The Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level) has built-in P2P functionality. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. http://www.llearn.net/ The Malmo Hospital and Malmo University in Sweden are enabling employees at the Malmo hospital to access videos on how to use various pieces of equipment in the hospital's intensive care unit (ICU) using handheld computers and peer-to-peer learning. http://www.stockholmchallenge.se/projectd ata.asp?id=5&projectid=4572

Online Resources
The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an extensive list on the use of P2P software in education. http://www.e-

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learningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/p2 p.htm Internet 2’s Peer to Peer Working Group keeps an up to date list of educational projects using P2P technologies. http://p2p.internet2.edu/apps_list.html Clive Shepherd from Fastrak Consulting in the UK has an introductory white paper on peer-to-peer e-learning, including a case study entitled “Learning Swap Shop.” http://www.fastrakconsulting.co.uk/tactix/features/swapshop. htm

Jokela, Paivi (2003). Peer-to-Peer Learning: an ultimate form of e-Learning. Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2003, pp. 1624-1631. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=12187 Nejdl, Wolfgang (2002). Semantic Web and Peer-to-Peer Technologies for Distributed Learning Repositories. Proceedings of the IFIP 17th World Computer Congress Stream on Intelligent Information Processing. http://www.kbs.unihannover.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2002 /nejdl_iip02.pdf Ratti, R., Bokma, A., Ginty, K., Tektonidis, D. and Koumpis, A. (2004). P2P Interactions for the Support of Knowledge Sharing in Networked Enterprises. In Cunningham, Paul & Cunningham, Miriam (Eds.), eAdoption and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS Press, pp 1051-1058. http://voyager.sunderland.ac.uk/Download s/P2P_in_Networked_Enterprise.pdf Vassileva, Julita (2004). Harnessing P2P Power in the Classroom. Paper presented at the ITS2004 Conference. http://julita.usask.ca/Texte/ITS2004camera.pdf

Bibliography
Boettcher, Judith (2006). How P2P will change collaborative learning. Campus Technology, June 1, 2006. http://www.campustechnology.com/article.asp?id=18570 Canali De Rossi, Luigi (2005). Why P2P file sharing is good: the P2P Manifesto. Robin Good Blog, January 17, 2005. http://www.masternewmedia.org/2005/01 /17/why_p2p_file_sharing_is.htm Cross, Jay (2001). eLearning Forum Update: peer-to-peer. Learning Circuits, July 2001. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2001/jul20 01/Cross.htm Farago-Walker, Susan (2003). Peer-to-peer Computing – Overview, significance and impact, eLearning and future trends. Online paper, University of Texas, Austin. http://www.edb.utexas.edu/multimedia/PD Ffolder/PeerComputing.pdf Farges, N. and Guergachi, H. (2002). P2P and its impact on the enterprise. Intranet Journal, Online article. http://www.intranetjournal.com/articles/20 0109/tm_09_26_01a.html Fletcher, Martin (2004). Peer-to-Peer Networks and Opportunities for Alignment of Pedagogy and Technology. AACE Journal 12(3), 301-313. http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11303 Hofmann, Jennifer (2002). Peer-to-Peer: the next hot trend in e-learning? Learning Circuits, January 2002. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jan2 002/hofmann.html

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.uk/ilogbook/d efault. whiteboard). and social bookmarking sites. LMSs offer collaboration tools (discussion. http://portal. etc. such as search engines. Individualization in an LMS is weak. Although the learner sees his own selection of courses and may be able to make some graphical modifications > > > Personal learning environments are in the early stages of development. learners need to be in real-world situations. and review his or her learning activity. and.ac.). discussion forums. track. (Cortlett et al. a live connection to the Internet is not possible (in various laboratories. without an offline client to the LMS. Courses are largely created and structured around the curriculum and administrative organization of the institution. A personal learning environment can be self-contained on a user’s computer or can connect to the wider Internet. This requires support over time. e-portfolios. An LMS cannot be ubiquitous. they may need to learn new interfaces for different learning management systems. A PLE contains the tools of the learner’s choice and resources as chosen and managed by the learner. for the learner. Learning happens everywhere and at all times. This means that the learning environment also needs to be present and appropriate to the situation. To practice real-world situations. manage. but these are only available to members of the course. Running on the learner's PC. The demand for personal learning environments comes from the fact that learning management systems are not easily customized to suit the needs and preferences of individuals. Here are the disadvantages of learning management systems/virtual learning environments compared with the advantages offered by personal learning environments: > LMSs are not intrinsically learnercentered. libraries. This concept is quite removed from formal teaching in an educational institution. there is little scope to choose a personal suite of tools or resources according to individual learning styles and work habits. Technology needs to be situated. A PLE is structured by the learner. learning management systems. wikis. chat. A PLE contains collaboration tools that can connect with anyone. which leaves little freedom for the learner to be involved in the design. and through a variety of technologies. amongst institutions.Personal Learning Environments Related terms ePortfolios. Selected Examples Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool brings together all the tools and networked resources required by the learner. A personal learning environment would be portable and would interact with institutional learning management systems as well as other sources of online content. social environments.cetadl. it helps the user plan.bham. blogs. 2005) Description The concept of a personal learning environment (PLE) is similar to a learning management system but designed for an individual learner. there can be no electronic interaction. Secondly. A PLE must support lifelong learning. In many cases. personalization > (mostly in the interest of accessibility).aspx > > Do not reproduce 137 . It is a virtual space that brings together a multitude of software and data that can be available for individuals to use for learning. as learners move between institutions. and it remains to be seen if they will become commonplace or will replace learning management systems. often only for the purposes of the course. work places. The idea is to have an application that tracks learning achievements controlled by a single user for his or her benefit.

Terry (2006).. http://www. J.bath.jisc.ac.org. O. 11. UK. T.. Edinburgh.. http://www.ac. 2006. PLE Reference Model.org/blog/2006/the-inevitablepersonal-learning-environment-post Milligan. Supporting personalised learning – the 138 © Brandon Hall Research .cfm?name=ceti s_ple In a post on his blog.uk/dacs/cdntl/pMachin e/morriblog_more.ac.doc Online Resources Coverage of a June 2006 conference on personal learning environments held in the UK and a long list of relevant PLE links can be found at: http://www. Las Vegas. Colin (2005). and Westmancott.edublogs. http://www. http://elgg. James (2006).net/ Personal Learning Environments is a funded project of the Joint Information Systems Committee in the UK.ac. Jan.org/2006/01/09/pl es-versus-lms-are-ples-ready-for-prime-time/ Corlett. Interactive Logbook: a Mobile Portfolio and Personal Development Planning Tool. Proceedings of HCI International 2005.cetis.uk/uploaded_documents /birmingham.pdf Farmer.mlearn.za/CD/papers/Corle tt. 2006. Sharples. (2005).ELGG is an open source personal learning environment that is already working.jisc. http://www.uk/index. Presentation to the 2005 CETIS Conference.uk/members/ple/ Bibliography Anderson.ac.uk/members/ple/resou rces/cdm_ple_session. M. http://www. Ting.cetis. D. Derek Morrison has suggested that a PLE could be in the form of a smartcard that learners can carry.uk/news_folder/pl e%20event The personal learning environments blog is maintained by Bolton University in the UK.php?id=521_0_4_0_M Interactive Logbook.ac. 22-27 July 2005. Online case study paper. PLEs versus LMS: are PLEs ready for prime time? Virtual Canuck. Incorporated Subversion. A personal learning environment based 0 on WPMU. http://incsub. http://www. Nevada. http://terrya.elearning. January 9. Chan.ppt University of Birmingham (2005).

keeping track of what has been offered to each learner as an educational experience. Keenoy et al.) automatically adapt their behaviour to cater for the needs or preferences of different individuals.ac. Adaptive navigation is providing a personalized set of links to the user. 2005) Once the user data has been collected. describe the state of personalization in software today: When we talk about personalisation. Furthermore. In this case it is not just remember-ing a setting for something that the user knows about (which font size. Examples of customisation are things like setting the desired font size in a Web browser.g. through a questionnaire).hcrc. Selected Examples The ELANA Project features “Personal Learning Assistant Services.. These techniques include content-based filtering. The trails can be related to a learner’s interests or Do not reproduce 139 . and/or presentation of materials. but actually adapting new behaviour to what the user is most likely to want.html The Kaleidoscope TRAILS Project is based on the fact that learners engaging with learning objects leave “trails” .asp?p=1-1 The ILEX Project uses natural language generation techniques to generate descriptions of museum artifacts that consider both the level of user knowledge and the history of previous encounters with the artifact.uk/ilex/final. and Web usage mining (Filippini-Fantoni. there are many techniques to turn it into a personalized experience. or it can be an implicit model.).g. collaborative filtering. navigation.org/en/index. using dynamic profiling techniques such as cookies or log files). a Web site that “remembers” if the user prefers a yellow or blue background as the background on a PC’s “desktop.time-ordered sequences based on a learner’s path through educational materials. personalized applications use both explicit and implicit approaches. the personalization can be applied to content. Real personalisation begins to happen when the system uses the information it has about the user to anticipate their needs and provide them with some-thing that they want or need.” All personalization schemes in software utilize a user profile or model.ed. At the simplest level this takes the form of customisation – users can adjust various system settings stored in a profile and the system will reflect the changes. artificial intelligence. This can be an explicit model based on information directly supplied by the user (e. etc. we mean a process whereby mach-ines (computer systems. have proven to be too complex in most traditional classrooms and training programs. However.” All of these systems remember a user’s preferences and adjust their behaviour accordingly. Adaptive content is when different information is retrieved based on personalization techniques. Description: Individualization has been the “holy grail” of progressive teaching..” Access through a Web browser or the user’s history of interaction with the site allows different device preferences (e. http://www. learning environments. it has been difficult to achieve because it requires different materials to be prepared for each learner.elenaproject. Once a personalization algorithm has done its work. yet we would heistate to call this real personalis-ation – customisation is just remembering some user settings for a predictable behaviour. etc. Often. PDAs).. picture. intelligent tutoring personal learning environments colour. 2005). Adaptive presentation is the changing format in which the content is presented. http://www. (Filippini-Fantoni. based on inferences from user behavior in navigating or interacting with the personalized application (e. rule-based filtering.Personalization Software Related terms Adaptive software. and the results of testing to allow appropriate materials to be served and to track each learner’s progress.g. The goal of personalization software is to change that by having software adapt to the user's needs.

. G. Ler. Calimera Guidelines: personalization.hatii. with a particular focus on the museum sector. http://arxiv.pdf?PHPSESSID=cbl7ltb6bnsklh3e95g gchc021 The PAST project was a prototype exploit-ing a number of key technologies (handheld PCs. Each of the profiles resulted in different content being delivered to each user. T.ascilite. A. dynamic scheduling and planning techniques.uk/courses/chc materials/access_lecture. New York allows Web site visitors to build a My Met page where they can gather information together on their favorite works of art. Bowen. and Cook J. http://adiret. Nifty Technologies you might never have heard of!).pdf Beler.org/issues/issue9_ 5/hamma/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2005). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized An article on the “Getty Guide” describes a handheld device for navigating the Getty Museum. Workshop on Smart Environments and Their Applications to Cultural Heritage at UbiComp 2005.noekaleidoscope. (2004).emarcon. De Carolis. D.au/conferences/mel bourne01/pdf/papers/boylet.cs.net/home.ac.org/public/pub/researcher/ac tivities/trails/kal_activity_sheetsA018. Using a Domain Ontology to Mediate between a User Model and Domain. W.aspx Electronic Maritime Cultural Content project (eMarcon Project) has several European Maritime museums sharing personalized content. William Niu. A. The Building of Online Communities: an approach for learning organizations.pdf m/index.CY/0409055 Boyle T. University of Glasgow.nl/publications/paper s/Museums%20with%20a%20personal %20touch. A demo is available at: http://www. and FilippiniFantoni.org/default. S. C.umuai. Daisy (2002).. allowing the user to change the online experience of visiting the museum. http://www.org/Lists/Guidelines% 20PDF/Personalisation. http://www. (2005).. Online paper. Melbourne. and XML technologies) to create a wireless e-guide for archaeological sites. > > http://www. Cozzolongo.pdf Callaway..html http://www. B. PowerPoint presentation.pdf Cavalluzzi. EVA 2004 London Conference ~ 26–31 July 2004..arts..metmuseum.beta80group. and Kuflik. A.org. http://www. http://www. Pizzutilo. Adaptively Recommending Museum Tours.asp?HomePageLink=mymetmuseu m_l Online Resources User Modeling and User-adapted Interaction: the Journal of Personalization Research publishes research on personalization studies. HATII. dynamic user profiling techniques.it/past The Calimera Project has issued a set of guidelines with links to museums with personalization projects.html The Web site architecture of the Virtual Museum of Canada includes My Personal Museum.pdf Bright.firstmonday. http://smart.calimera. http://www. https://www..ca/English/Pers onal/index. S.html The Carrara Marble Museum in Italy allowed visitors to choose one of four possible profiles . Ngo.virtualmuseum.unimagdeburg.de/pia2005/docs/CalKuf05. J. A. http://www. http://www.cognitive traits.org/mymetmuseu 140 © Brandon Hall Research .org/pdf/cs. wireless networks. Towards a pedagogically sound basis for learning object portability and re-use. Kay.three pre-defined profiles and a user-defined profile.arces.(2001). Borda.ecdc. (2004)..calimera..org/ Bibliography Abbott.it/pdf/04Adaptively-Recommending_Bright. Supporting Personalized Interaction with an ECA in Public Spaces.unibo. and Nuguid. http://www. http://www. ASCILITE 2001 Conference proceedings.net/toscana/events /museomarmo. A. J.pdf Calimera Project (2005). Online paper.directa.gla. K. The Future of Access (or.

2005 www. George (2005).. P. Personalization Issues for Science Museum Websites and Elearning. (AVI 2004). and Vazirgiannis. and Tasso. FutureLab. O.. Pianesi. (2004). V.Conlan/publica tions/eLearn2002_v1. O. Dominik (2003).jpbowen. Using Shared Ontologies for Communication and Personalization. http://w5.Info.. and Verdaguer. (2005). interactive services in home automation. Spain. and Numerico. Online paper. G. http://www. Online paper. 2004. Report 9: Learning with Digital Technologies in museums. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology.. N. 3(1). Comparison of museum/city tour guides. September 2002. April 2004.. http://www.com/articulos/MagicalMirr or200406.1153634601 Filippini-Fantoni. May 25. P. Emerging Ideas that are Reshaping Education.it/papers/gorenbar2005. (2002).ichim. Dillon. Facer.2004-1213.tcd. C. Personalization and Digital Technologies. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. (2005). Bowen. https://www. Integrating Privacy Aspects into Ubiquitous Computing: A Basic User Interface for Personalization.org/10.acm.ppt Correia. URL: http://doi. (2004). Rudd. http://www. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.. (2003). Using RFID smart tags for ambient learning and training. Soro.org/posters/ moulin.. Ecole du Louvre..pdf Goren-Bar.pdf Copa. In Mizzaro.org/proceedings/doc s/2p170. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.. H. Montreal. P.6434 78 Faculty of Education and Social Work. Kuflik. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.pdf Dolog.dimi.www2004. Henze. (AVI 2004). http://www. R. Italy. http://www. PEACH http://peach.ie/Owen. T. New York. I like it – An Affective Interface for a Multimodal Museum Guide. (2005).pdf Ceccaroni.au:8200/group s/informal/resources/File. University of Sydney (2004).uk/research/pers onalisation/report_01. A. C.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/pdfs/1correja. C.edu. K. (2002). and Cardinalli.1145/643477.pdf Eirinaki. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. 2004.pdf Heckmann. Hershey. In Proceedings of WWW2004 . Moulin.. Gallipoli. D. and Paddeu. Rocchi.. S. http://www.. http://www. In R. http://iswc2002. T. F.The Thirteenth International World Wide Web Conference. Sanna.com/pub/evsc05b. Issue 7. L. Barcelona. W. and Sintek.pdf Giroux. and Boavida. http://www.org. M. D.usyd.uniba. 1–27. Italy.. Roy (2004).designshare. Towards an Integrated Personalization Framework: A Taxonomy and Work Proposals. M.itc.cs.it/intint/people/papers /aims04.futurelab. Paris. (2004). I.. February. Does it really work? The case of the marble museum website.org/images/dow nloads/futurelab_review_09.learnexact. Towards a Standards-based Approach to eLearning Personalization using Reusable Learning Objects. S.org/ichim03/PDF/070C. Nejdl. M.cs.pdf Fuschi.24_Conlan. Personalization in distributed elearning environments. Personalization through IT in museums. X. F..com/barcelona/presentat ions/copa-reshaping-education. Web mining for web personalization. S. http://tmtfactory. M. http://lrnlab. Dagger.p df Green. T. Silvia (2003). J. Gallipoli. (Eds. Wade. DigiCULT .edfac. Magical Mirror: multimedia. (2003).p df Filippini-Fantoni.. Presentation at DesignShare World Forum. May 2002.htm Hawkey. and Humphreys. Stock.Information Access.di.nestafuturelab. science centres and galleries. M. FutureLab report. Paper presented at ELearn 2002..pdf Conlan. and Zancanaro. Málaga. Paper presented at the ICHIM Conference.uniud.uni- Do not reproduce 141 . Subramaniam (Ed. N. May 25. May 2004.com/download/Astra l4RESULTS2004V2. D. PA: Idea Group Publishing.) ELearning and Virtual Science Centers. Graziola.semanticweb.) (2002).

. 23-30 July 2005. A. Online paper.) Proceedings of Second International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems (AH'2002) http://www. C. http://peach. M..2. (2005).kbs.cs.sb. Personalised trails and learner profiling within e-Learning environments. In Mária Bieliková.org/uploadedFiles/projects /PL%20paper%20for%20publication.de/pia2005/docs/PIASlides_Ka yNiu05. Niu . B. Brasher. Privacy issues of a smart space for learning. de Freitas.pdf Kuflik. May 25. J. Jones.org/comp/proceedin gs/icce/2002/1509/00/15090941. WP4 Deliverable 4.de/~dolog/pub/ifets_final. Educational Technology & Society. T. Gallipoli.. D. 2004 http://www.de/~butz/events/mu3i05/submissions/p08-Lum. pages 249-256. Proceedings of IIT.pdf Klobučar. (2004)..stuba. 142 © Brandon Hall Research ... and Niu.it/papers/avi2004.SRC 2005: Student Research Conference in Informatics and Information Technologies.edu.. Italy. http://www. Personalisation and Trails in Self eLearning Networks.. (2004). and Montandon.ac. Levene.cs. T. Your Guide 2… E-learning: personalized learning.. Brusilovsky. (2004). Penserini.ac...pdf Learning and Skills Council (LSC) (2004). M... P. Seničar. S. J. Personalized Information Delivery in Dynamic Museum Environment by Implicit Organizations of Agents.usyd. Kaleidoscope Deliverable D22. K. http://www. Personis: A Server for User Models.uk/selene/reports/ Del22. The Museum Network and on demand system for school education based on XML.pdf Kay. and Lauder.p df Iwazaki. and Conejo. Levene. Goren-Bar.unihannover. Turcsanyi-Szabo. W.de/~krueger/aims2003/cameraready/heckmann-14. M. Online paper.inf. (2002). T. Callaway. SeLeNe . K. and Zancanaro.ed. D.pdf Johnson. 7(4):70-81. and Lauder.. http://eprints. October 2004.bbk.. (2005).PDF Kay. http://www. Kummerfeld. LSC.computer..pdf Kuflik. Edinburgh. Online paper.usyd.uk/ccallawa/pa pers/PeachUM2005. and Nejdl. 2004. editor.sk/iit-src/38-kuruc. Lum. J. B. T. A.bbk. (2004).fiit..cs. Adapting Information Delivery to Groups of People.l3s. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Dolog...au/~piers/papers/ pums. W.Self E-Learning Networks.pdf Kay. IEEE Computer Society. and Okamoto.. Yasuda. and Zancanaro. P. Stock.pdf Henze. J.. Online paper.au/~piers/papers/ scrutable_pums.e5. http://csdl2. V. Busetta. Bratislava. UM 2005.. Non-Intrusive User Modeling for a Multimedia Museum Visitors Guide System. http://www.edu. (eds. B. Special Issue on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning. P. (2001)..4. (2004). Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access.pdf Keenoy. W. P. Sharing User Model between Several Adaptive Hypermedia Applications. M. http://www. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE ’02). Foundations for personalised documents: a scrutable user model server. Rocchi. S.dcs.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. (2002).ippr. O. Nicola (2005).ijs. http://www. A Scrutable Museum Tour Guide System. R.1. N. J. C. UK.. Kaszas. PIA Conference..itc.pdf Henze. P. P. http://adiret. M. .uni-sb. P. Waycott.. 2005. (2005). Personalised Learning – an Emperor’s Outfit? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Final Version.. A. Kummerfeld. T. and Peterson.ac.cs. In: De Bra. L.unimagdeburg. Yokoi. Jaroslav.pdf Keenoy.uk/archive/0000019 9/01/keenoy1.. Martin (2004). (2005). UK http://homepages. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004). Reasoning and Ontologies for Personalized E-Learning in the Semantic Web. K. http://w5.si/eng/ijceel.pdf Kay. and Blažič.pdf Kuruc. P. Proceedings of ICALT 2004 (4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies).

. A. Z. Jones. pp.... C. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science (JUCS)..pdf Reeves. Stewart. J-P. May 25.html Schmidt.de/papers/2005/SeBS05a.learninginprocess. Pluhar. C. Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web Based Systems. In Proceedings of WWW2004 --The Thirteen International World Wide Web Conference.. D.it/~mizzaro/AH2002 /proceedings/PerElPub.cs. Elearning Personalization based on Itineraries and Long-term Navigational Behavior. Proceedings of the AH’2002 Workshop on Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing.tuharburg. (2005).uk/mediastore/image2 /ldr12-supplement. Málaga. August.ac.pdf Martinez. (2004a).2.. Kaszás. (2002).. and Levene.. and Modritscher. Turcsányi-Szabó. (2000).ac.. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2004).ac. Winterhalter. C..) (2002).uk/guide2/elearnperso nalise/G2elearningpersonalisedG069...org/proceedings/doc s/2p264. Kaszás. Spain.. January 2004. (2004b). What is personalized learning? eLearning Developers Journal.bbk. http://www. M. and Srivastava.pdf Pivec.pdf Schoonenboom.depaul. J.org.dcs. David. M.. A. Margaret (2002).gov. Armstrong R. Communications of the ACM.de/~mehta/uuc m. Personalization Techniques in Electronic Publishing on the Web: Trends and Perspectives. 43(8):142–151. B. available from www.1.. Lejeune.uk/6832/01/ah 02.bbk. Maier P.. Trummer... ACM Press.uk/~str/doc/report_ 0605.pdf National College for School Leadership (2004). Online paper. F.428-431. Keenoy.pdf Sakamura. http://www.ecs.www2004. (2005). 2002.soton.uniud. M. R. Automatic personalization based on web usage mining. (2004). http://www..com/publicati ons/schmidt-context_aware_delivery. Adaptive knowledge transfer in elearning settings on the basis of eye tracking and dynamic background library. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. H.dcs.um. http://www. (2004). Cooley. New York. P. A.edu/~mobasher/per sonalization/ Mor.. M. A. and Hemmje. May 2002.pdf Ng M. Kaleidoscope deliverable D22. Enric and Minguillon. Spain. Mehta.. Budapest.. Goita. A. Italy.utokyo.lsc. available from www. Bossung.. F.pdf Mobascher. Digital Museum Distributed Museum Concept for the 21st Century.sts. May 7.. C. Turcsányi-Szabó. Personalised Learning: a special LDR supplement. C. Montandon. Julia (2004).pdf Do not reproduce 143 .jp/publish_db/2000dm2k/english /01/01-01.. Unified User Model for Cross-System Personalization. http://www. Diagne. Using Effective Reading Speed to Integrate Adaptivity into Web-Based Learning.http://senet.. M. http://www. Keenoy.. Y. L..2. A. (2004). M. http://eprints. 2004. Schmidt.ncsl. Flypad Report. The University of Tokyo Digital Museum 2000.uk/trails Sehring.. J-P. K.. Muller. H. C. Barrios.ac. Faure.fraunhofer.2. and Tasso. Online paper. Blake. Gutl. J. (Eds. P. V..H. David. S.iicm. K. Ken (2000).uk/trails Schoonenboom.. http://www. Visualising trails as a means of fostering reflection.. A Multi-Dimensional. B. Preis. Malaga.com/pdf/2/050 702dss-h.pdf Niederee. Special Issue on Human Issues and Personalization in ELearning.edu/cguetl/papers/adele _eden04/EDEN_AdeLE_final.elearningguild. Active Learning by Personalisation: Lessons Learnt from Research in Conceptual Content Management. Hungary.dimi. A. User Context Aware Delivery of E-Learning Material: Approach and Architecture (Extended Version).ac. http://www. 2004 http://www2. J.ipsi. URL: http://maya. S. Gallipoli.nott.pdf Mizzaro. Jones. Lejeune. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environments for Personalized Information Access. Stuart. http://www. and Levene. Trails of digital and non-digital learning objects. Paper presented at EDEN 2004. Hall W. May 2004.mrl. Montandon. L. J.

media. context-sensitive guided tours of indoor and outdoor cultural sites and museums. Online paper. A Case Study of Museum Exhibition: historical learning in Copan ruins of Mayan civilization. 27-31 March 2004. M. Design and Application of an Augmented Reality System for continuous. Kuzuoka.. Wang.. http://www. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors’ interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. H. IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 (VR 2004).. Proceedings of: Museums and the Web (MW 2002). 2002.miralab. A. April 17-20.org/comp/proceedin gs/vr/2004/8415/00/84150257. N.. Ando. T.computer.Sparacino. T. (2004). Y.pdf Tanikawa. Yoshida. Pliakas.. USA. V. IL. (2003). and Ioannidis..edu/~flavia/Paper s/flavia_mw2002. Chicago. http://csdl2. Boston. M.. Proceedings.unige. K. Yamashita. IEEE Computer Society. Flavia (2002).mit.ch/subpages/life plus/HTML/papers/LIFEPLUS-VAST2003revised.pdf Vlahakis.. Demiris.. http://alumni.pdf 144 © Brandon Hall Research . J. and Hirose.

Both internal and external to the organization Description Portals are Web sites that aggregate and integrate content and links from many different sources. Knowledge Management. vendors. collaborative environment.Portals Related terms Collaboration.elearningeuropa.000 projects on e-learning and thousands of articles. Collins (2001) identifies nine types of corporate portals: > > > > > > > > > Information Portals Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Portals Electronic Commerce Portals Employee/Human Resources Portals Corporate Interest Portals Internet Hosting Portals Collaborative Portals Expertise Portals Knowledge Portals A complete e-learning portal represents the total integration of multimedia. There is also a directory of publications and a directory of authors and contributions. which form a dynamic user profile. including the following: > > > > > > > > > Value Chain Integration Client Relationship Management (CRM) Knowledge Bases. instructorled. and real-time training and documents in a supportive. Learner profiles can be used to personalize learning portals and to help form “communities of practice” among the portal users. and Knowledge Flow Document/Content Management Information Integrator – Deep integration Information Filter Search Collaboration Polls and Surveys Selected Examples Elearning Europa is a portal on all aspects of e-learning in Europe. and other roles outside an organization (Collins. learning management systems. In the business world.Push information to where it is needed Communications Tools Applications Integration Consistent Brand Experience . As of early 2006. 2001). 2004) > > > > Corporate portals can have many functions within an organization. corporate portals are usually structured around roles that are found inside an organization. content management. The interaction of the learner with a portal's information can be personalized based on previous and current user choices.info/ Microsoft SharePoint is portal software that allows “team members” (who could include Do not reproduce 145 . http://www. the portal offered information on more than 20. Some uses of e-learning portals include: > > > Acting as the initial interface to live presentations Providing access to online classes or seminars Using collaborative options to allow for whiteboards along with demonstrations through application sharing Using Web instructor-led learning solutions that can automate the attendance process Allowing for the administration of exams and other forms of assessment Providing access to searchable educational content Effectively delivering learning to a geographically dispersed workforce (Ateshian. while enterprise portals are expansions of corporate portals to include customers. resource sites > > > > > Communities of Practice Personalization .

Campbell.mspx HP offers an eLearning Portal Solution that is based on Microsoft SharePoint.www2. instructors.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.aspx Bibliography Ateshian. audio and/or video. and their families together in a virtual environment to enable stronger collaboration and communication through a single sign-on portal.com/services/cac he/259662-0-0-225-121. school administrators.com/office/sharepoin t/prodinfo/demo. Corporate Portals: revolutionizing information access to increase productivity and drive the bottom line.executrain. document management information.students. Demystifying eLearning Portals: The Convergence of Enterprise Intelligence and Learning.700 online courses http://www. http://www.asp?id=9028 Barron. Heidi (2001). In Jafari. and Sheehan.com/ Training Registry – Large online training directory www. HP Services delivers eLearning Portal Solutions for Education that are designed to provide an equally powerful educational resource that brings teachers. Bray (2001).fathom.300 online courses http://www. online meetings with text. instant messaging. May 2000. http://www. calendars. March 1. Valuesbased design of learning portals as new academic spaces.com/gp/product/1591 401089/104-13480924859103?redirect=true Collins.trainingregistry.co m/documents/peerpublishing/demystifying-elearning-portalsthe-convergence-of-enterprise-intelligenceand-learning-1458.com/home. New York: AMACOM.com/article. Tom (2000).microsoft. You’ve come a long way. e-mail distribution lists.proquest.html Other e-learning portal vendors include the following: Centra Knowledge Center (now Saba) http://www. (2003).) Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges.campustechnology. and technical staff) to access a series of shared content libraries. administrators. M. and shared lists for tasks.htm CyberU – Access to over 3. PA: Information Science Publishing. category.com/gp/product/0814 405932/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 146 © Brandon Hall Research .com/ Online Resources Mart Muller maintains a blog on all aspects of SharePoint. http://blogs. All of this activity can be archived within SharePoint.cyberu.com/ Executrain – Access to hundreds of online IT courses http://www. R.com/ Teach-nology – Access to over 27. 2004.000 online courses http://www.htm Brockbank. Hershey.amazon.. and universities. baby! E-learning portals.asp Element K – Access to over 2.saba. including educational uses. Ron (2004).000 publishers worldwide http://www.com World Wide Learn – Access to over 16. http://www.teach-nology.learningcircuits.Education.com/ ProQuest – Agreements with more than 9.org/2000/may 2000/Barron.ittoolbox.com/products/centra/kno wledge_center/index. interactive discussion groups.worldwidelearn. http://www. go to: http://www.nl/mart/CategoryView.microsoft. A. students. Campus Technology Magazine. museums. http://h20219. and Aucoin. http://knowledgemanagement. A Portrait of Learning Portals.hp.mspx For a demo of SharePoint.000 lesson plans http://www.tamtam.amazon.com/ Fathom – Large archive of courses and learning materials maintained by Columbia University on behalf of a number of libraries. news and announcements. Learning Circuits. (Eds. http://www. K. http://www. and schedules.elementk.

amazon. C. E-Learning Portals--Who Needs Them? Learning Circuits.htm Do not reproduce 147 . http://www. Designing Portals: Opportunities and Challenges. A.edu/apps/eq/eqm04 /eqm04113. September 2000. J.. http://www. Reviewed at: http://www. (2003). Cornelia (2000). PA: Information Science Publishing. http://www. http://www. Richard & Associates (2002). Web Portals and Higher Education: technologies to make it personal. (Eds. and Gordon.com/gp/product/0814 407080/104-13480924859103?v=glance&n=283155 Jafari.Collins. Enterprise Knowledge Portals. New York: AMACOM. Hershey.org/2000/sep2 000/Weggen.asp Katz. and Sheehan. San Francisco: JosseyBass. M.learningcircuits.amazon.educause.edu/ir/library/html/p ub5006.) (2003). Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann. Realizing the Promise of Corporate Portals: leveraging knowledge for business success.educause. Heidi (2003).asp Terra.com/gp/product/0750 675934/ref=ase_ebizq-20/104-13480924859103?s=books&v=glance&n=283155& tagActionCode=ebizq-20 Weggen.

the quality of a lecture depends on the performance skills of the presenter.” In the Middle Ages.com/resources/el earning/presentations/ Replay Rich Media supplies the facilities for producing and distributing Webcasts. an online lecture or Webinar may be the most efficient way of accessing an expert’s knowledge. WebTrain is a new Web conferencing system that has received a very favorable review from the Robin Good Blog.lsc.htm Another powerful Web conferencing system is the software by Elluminate. While it is expensive.htm The practice of presenting a live lecture remains a staple of university and college teaching. webcasting. when experts are not readily available.edu/TEAL).org/2003/09 /22/how_do_i_review_and_approach_Web _conferencing_companies.org/livefrom/cardiac/cardia c_home. Description Lecturing has been a method of transmitting information to students since the Middle Ages. New Jersey has a “Cardiac Classroom. there is still a wide demand for live and archived presentations using the Internet. Even though lecturing and presenting is considered part of traditional education and training. See the TEAL Project at MIT.com/site/index. webinars Consequently. Guests can watch the operation in progress and speak with medical staff as it takes place. 148 © Brandon Hall Research .html Macromedia has a set of e-learning recorded seminars that provide a flavor of what live presentations are like on the Internet. http://www.masternewmedia.mit.replayhq. In fact. the word “lecturing” means “to read. This was how manuscripts were reproduced before the advent of the printing press. http://www. web conferencing. The presentation mode of teaching is supported by various kinds of meeting and Web conferencing software and through a technique called screencasting. However. http://icampus. A number of emerging e-learning technologies try to replicate the experience of a presentation by a teacher in a traditional classroom or lecture hall. virtual classrooms. The actual presentations are often called online lectures or Webinars. has created an amazing live online conferencing system called Halo. Duckworth (2001) suggests the following tips for successful live presentations: > > > > > > > > > > Begin and end on time Ask for support Establish a group identity Review the virtual classroom’s features Establish ground rules State objectives Suspend spelling and grammar accuracy Promote interaction Keep the class on track Communicate effectively Selected Examples The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. in partnership with Dreamworks.com Hewlett-Packard. http://www. http://www.macromedia. a lecturer would read to a group of monks who would then copy down his every word. It is clear that in this age of entertainment. if lecturing or presenting is going to be done on the Web. Skypecasting. just as live lectures can be boring in a classroom.” a unique two-way audio and video interactive surgical experience. it points to the standards that will be used in the near future for remote meetings. although many are trying to change this practice. Experience them at: http://www.elluminate. Online presentations can be very boring. it should be done with the highest quality audio and video available.Presentation Tools Related terms Screencasting.

” > http://www.co.com/eweek/web conferencing.athabascau. http://www. http://www.ccimeet.com/webconf/index. Captivate.humanresourceWebinars. http://www. videoconferencing. virtual teams. presentation and streaming presentation tools.html#a1185 http://weblog.com/news_radars /web_presentations. http://www. Do not reproduce 149 . http://www. and kidneys. Webcasts.uk TimelyWeb lists and reviews over 25. Web seminars. independent listing of Webinars.co. and using PowerPoint and Breeze.000 software programs for business and presentation tools.com/cxoextra/0.com/udell/200 5/01/22. The e-Learning Centre maintains a list of online teaching resources.elearningcentre.acue. and seminars relating to the field of human resources.htm An example of an online lecture from the University of Adelaide in Australia using RoboPresenter. forums and message boards.co. http://ajax.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a comprehensive list of online presentation tools and resources on “live e-learning.kolabora.htm http://www.ca/softeval/ A comprehensive “Web conferencing guide” is maintained by David Woolley.00.uk/eclipse/Resource s/live. See live video from the operating room at: http://www. http://www.infoworld.edu.pdf Brandon Hall Research (publishers of this report) has a report entitled “Live E-Learning 2004”. Breeze. http://www. online meetings. > > http://www. and Web presentations. virtual classrooms. and Flash.html#a1156 Live from… is a site for simulated medical procedures on the heart.org/livefrom/in-theor/livefrom_videos.ht m Human Resource Webinars is a free.co.htm eWeek Magazine has lists of resources for videoconferencing.com/hpinfo/newsroom/ press/2005/051212xa.> > http://www. intranets. groupware. videoconferencing. and whiteboarding.com/ Communiqué Conferencing has a useful white paper on how to choose a Web conferencing system.au/~calgary/ partone/# Presentations that are based on screen captures and narration are sometimes called screencasting.brandonhall.htm http://www. Authorware.com/udell/200 5/02/25.hp.htm Online Resources Athabasca University in Canada has a software evaluation site that lists and describes various online meeting and discussion packages.thinkofit. a columnist at InfoWorld.htm Teaching is often equated with live presentations.eweek.htm http://www.elearningcentre. It covers “real-time” Web conferencing.uk/eclipse/vendors/p resentations. http://cde. http://buyersguide.com/choosingawebcon ferencesolution.adelaide. > > http://weblog.infoworld.asp_Q_sitename_E_eweek_w ebconferencing The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a list of resources and links on live e-learning.html The Kolabora Web site lists reviews of various resources on Web conferencing.com/news_radars /web_conferencing. virtual meetings.co. instant messaging. although it does not have to be.uk/eclipse/Resources/usi ngadobe. social software for online collaboration.lsc.elearningcentre. online communities.380 0005416. Coursebuilder.uk/eclipse/Resources/te ach.39155030. brain. and e-learning. Dreamweaver.silicon.e-learningcentre.shtml > The e-Learning Centre in the UK has a specific list of resources on how to use various Acrobat/Macromedia Products such as Acrobat.elearningcentre. Web conferencing.com/publications/lel/lel.kolabora. Two interesting examples are both narrated by Jon Udell.

Jennifer (2004). An Instructor's Guide to Live E-Learning.timelyweb. May 15.jsp FilesLand is another site offering a long list of software for a variety of types of presentations. http://www. http://www. Christine (2001)..masterviews. Luigi (2003c). K. http://www.html Using Apreso software.html Canali De Rossi.com/ There is no shortage of presentation programs at Program Junction. April 30. 2003.htm Canali De Rossi. July 26. Best new tools for web conferencing and live collaboration. http://www. Are Web Conferencing And Live Presentation Tools McFerrin.learningcircuits.downloadjunction.pdf http://www.apreso.php?string=presentation&search=All&m atch=Any&search_btn=Search+%3E%3E%3 E Presentations. July.aln.htm Canali De Rossi. http://www.masternewmedia.amazon.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/ v7n3_lazarus. K. http://www. Sept.pdf Bibliography Agarwal. (2002).com/product /software/795/index. http://www.. Luigi (2003b).pdf Scott.com/Breeze Part1. How to Become an eLearning Guru: It’s a Breeze. Live ELearning.asp McNally. Best Online Resources For Web Conferencing. and Quick. http://www. http://www. July 8. 7(3). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.blogspot.html WWWTools for Education has a listing of resources on screencasts and screencasting. http://www. Heroic failures in disseminating novel e-learning technologies to corporate clients: A case study of interactive webcasting. 3. (2004). 150 © Brandon Hall Research . 2005. http://www. Or Is It? eLearning Developers’ Journal.filesland.com/Breeze Part2.com/software/present ation. capture the classroom lecture experience and offer it online for those who were not there in person.htm Duckworth. (in two parts) > > http://www.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail//0787969788/qid=1131986202/sr=11/ref=sr_1_1/002-46096590461665?v=glance&s=books Lazarus. 2003. 2004. http://m. P.htm Hofman. techniques and ready to use activities for the virtual classroom. Belinda (2003). Robin Good Blog.com/cat_busin essproductivitytools_presentationtoolssoftw are_1.org/2003/05 /02/best_online_resources_for_web_confer encing_live_elearning_realtime_collaboratio n_and_live_presentation_tools.com/2003/05/15 /are_web_conferencing_and_live_presentat ion_tools_ready_for_primetime. Luigi (2003a).com/presentatio ns/index.fasfind. cfm?x=0&rid=21593 Ready For Prime-Time? MasterViews International. 2003. http://labnol. http://www.01.programjunction.russellmcnally.presentations. Learning in Online and Desktop Video Conferencing Courses: Are Some Students Plugged In and Tuned Out? Paper presented at the 2002 SITE conference.html Download Junction lists almost 200 online presentation tools of various types. Rapid E-learning a Breeze with Macromedia Captivate 1.com/2005/07/rapide-learning-breeze-with.org/2003/09 /03/best_new_tools_for_web_conferencing _and_live_collaboration. Armit (2005).com is a Web site and newsletter devoted to reviewing the best products and practices for making presentations. and Furr.org/conf/site/pt3/paper_ 3008_148. Knowledge Media Institute Technical Report. Robin Good Blog. P. Learning Circuits. Russ (2004). Sept.http://www. Real-Time Collaboration and Live Presentation Tools.com/downloads/sear ch.org/2001/jul20 01/duckworth. Live and Online!: tips.masternewmedia.com/wwwtools/m/21593.russellmcnally. Digital Inspiration. Teaching Courses Online: How much time does it take? Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN).aace.

Software.html Zielinski.jsp?vnu_content _id=1816615 Do not reproduce 151 .com/presentatio ns/delivery/article_display. http://www. Jon (2005) Let’s hear it for screencasting. and Winfield. Choose the Right Vendors..com/article/05/02/1 1/07OPstrategic_1. Dave (2002). but… Presentations Magazine.infoworld.ac. http://www. 2005. Choose your presentation tools carefully. Feb. and Equipment. S. Dec.com/exec/obidos/tg/d etail/-/0814471749/002-46096590461665?v=glance Udell. InfoWorld. L.pdf Spielman. http://www. Choices are great. The Web Conferencing Book: Understanding the Technology. (2003).http://kmi.amazon.open. Start Saving Time and Money Today.presentations. AMACOM. 11.uk/publications/pdf/kmi -05-1.

but not always good for you. rapid e-learning tools need to quickly and easily create content. Integration with LMSs is built in – no advanced skills are necessary. where subject matter experts act as the primary development resource. low. Assign SMEs who are committed. 2003). easy to use. Clark Aldrich (2005) has likened rapid e-learning to producing fast food – edible. such as creating links. and clip art is straight forward and supported . microlearning > down pages. Leverage professional project management methods and tools. or HTML knowledge. Does not require the course developer to know how to create a course’s look and feel. or it can mean a very fast timeline in producing online learning materials. very short segments of online content are used to convey essential information about a topic.” Efficiency improvements can be achieved if efforts are made to do the following: > > > Standardize development processes. Advanced features. 2003). and produce data showing that the content was actually viewed and retained (Vidal. are built in. deliver that content in a rich and engaging manner.automatically assures that all navigation works. Does not require any advanced skills. Define development approaches that satisfy different needs (i. or where the online information frequently changes. learning objects. Description The term “rapid e-learning” has two different meanings. LTI Magazine defines rapid e-learning as courseware (live or self-paced) developed in less than three weeks. In the first case. and based on preformed templates for layout and design. Bringing in learning objects such as Flash. just-intime e-learning. For example. > > > > > > > > > > To be effective. Reduce the number of development vendors. and communicate deliverable expectations. Tools for rapid e-learning are. rapid elearning is any educational online content that is produced much faster than by normal processes by those with knowledge of the content. following are characteristics of a rapid e-learning tool: > > Short learning curve. simple. graphics. a vendor of rapid elearning tools. Standardize approaches. especially if the same templates for a course are used repeatedly.versus high-interaction). Van Dam (2005) says that we “must take a hard look at current e-learning development models and identify areas for business process improvement. so is often used as a quick way of getting “legacy’ materials online. including tools and templates. programming. tests. a demand to produce online content very quickly. Use the right blend of onshore and offshore e-learning development resources. and drill Rapid e-learning is best for situations where there are budget constraints. That means that anyone engaging in the rapid development of content must have 152 © Brandon Hall Research . E-learning produced this way can be very boring. Instructional design built in. usually when it is needed (Brodsky. virtual classroom. extreme e-learning.does not require any plug-ins. Does not require any programming or HTML knowledge.. According to Ready Go!. Navigation built in . glossary. It can refer to learning something quickly.e. manage the content and the users. FAQ. Deploys easily . This type of e-learning is sometimes referred to as microlearning. by necessity.Rapid e-Learning Tools Related terms Authoring tools. In the second sense of the term. The downside of rapid e-learning is that it often produces materials that are not optimal in terms of instructional design or graphic design. It is best suited to text-based materials.

raptivity.learningcircuits. Reusability. software that builds online content in four steps – Capture.co. June 30.com/pdf/2/012 306dev-h. January. Penny (2004). techniques and best practices for building Selected Examples The world of microlearning is covered by the microlearning. July 2004. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations. 2006. Rapid Instructional Design: a breakthrough.microlearning.org/2005/jan2 005/archibald.html SCATE Technologies produces Ignite.asp?articleid=1008&zoneid= 62 Brandon. version control protocols. conferences. Jennifer (2004). January 23.com/resources/File /US/English/managing_knowledge1.bersin.scate. http://www. April. Josh (2005). Managing Knowledge in Internet Time: the growing role of rapid elearning in corporate America.htm Bibliography Abell. tools.access to a clear project plan. When 15-Minute eLearning Doesn’t Work. LTI Newsline.asp Bersin.jsp?id=102399 DeVries.com/ ReadyGo Web Course Builder is a tool for rapid development of online courses. Making rapid e-learning work. http://www.ltimagazine.clomedia. June. centrally located files. Rapid eLearning: what works – market. Lane (2002). computer games. (2004).elearningmag. Transform Magazine. Learning Circuits.meetingone. and Bersin. http://www. http://www.pdf Crosman. J. jhtml?articleID=22101169 Cross.amazon. E-Learning for short attention spans. schedule and due dates. July 2. LTI Newsline.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains an up to date list of Rapid E-Learning resources.com/content/templat es/clo_article. Bill (2005).jsp?id=59278 Cooper. and the Technology Side of Rapid e-Learning.com/content/templat es/clo_article.htm Bersin. http://www.com Raptivity claims to be “the world’s first rapid interactivity builder.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail.transformmag. Extreme Learning: Decision Games.” a form of rapid learning with much shortened timelines. San Francisco: Pfieffer.com/ltimagazine/ article/articleDetail. Chief Learning Officer. and competent subject matter experts (Mayberry.org/ Elliott Masie is one the leading advocates for “extreme learning.com/pdf/4/rapid _elearning_whitepaper_3-2-05. http://www. and other good stuff. http://www.elearningguild. Chief Learning Officer.elearningcentre.asp?articleid=899&zoneid=1 07 De Vries. http://www. Tips and Techniques. Edit. Templates.elearningguild. Josh (2004). http://www. Kendrick (2006). Mark (2003). which contains information on resources.com/gp/product/0787 977357/sr=81/qid=1154628579/ref=pd_bbs_1/1042921152-9837507?ie=UTF8 Archibald. Rapid e-Learning: a growing trend.articulate. J. Clark (2005). Paper. 2004).com/studio.” Find out more: http://www. http://www. Larstan Business Reports. Future-Proofing. Jay (2005).readygo.pdf Aldrich. http://www. Rapid E-Learning: Groundbreaking New Research.masie. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences.com Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio is a software package that includes Articulate Presenter and Articulate Quizmaker.com/tips_techniques/julaug_04_rapid_ID.com/showArticle. http://www. Enhance. Exploring the Definition of “Rapid e-Learning”. Learning Solutions. 2004. See a demo at: http://www. Dianne (2005). and Publish.clomedia. Do not reproduce 153 .pdf Brodsky. http://www.uk/eclipse/Resources/ra pid. http://www.org Web site. August 2004. See sample templates at: http://www. http://www.

http://www.com/pub/ele arning/virtual_classrooms. http://www. 2006. Stephanie (2006).com/content/templat es/clo_col_elearning.clomedia. Rapid e-Learning: software reusability and rapid production process. http://www. June 2004. A team of one: rapid e-learning environment at break-neck speed. Press release.pdf Jimenez. Ray (2006).learningcircuits. 2002.elearningguild.net/acme/elearn/rapid/ra pid_vft_v1.macromedia.asp?PageID=2542 van Dam. Garin (2004). http://www.pdf Jimenez. http://vftraining. 10. Speed Is King: Rapid Creation and Deployment of Enterprise E-Learning Solutions. Nov. The Training Foundation online article. 2005. 2006.e-learning programs in weeks.jsp?id=150619 Hess.clomedia.com/content/templat es/clo_lettertoeditor. Vignettes for Training White Paper. Simulation. What is Rapid eLearning? Chief Learning Officer.asp?articleid=86&zon eid=76 154 © Brandon Hall Research . Eric (2003).asp?articleid=850&zoneid=1 11 Vidal.htm Masie Center (2005). Chief Learning Officer. 2006.com/products/breeze/w hitepapers/bersin_elearning_study. Creating a Rapid eLearning Development System using Flash and XML. Ray (2005). (2004a).com/new sstory.org/2004/jun2 004/mayberry. Ed (2004).elearningguild.com/wpapers/vendor/Rapid_e Learning. Learning Solutions. Extreme Learning Lab Created by MASIE Center to focus on Gaming. Mar. Learning Circuits.com/ltimagazine/ar ticle/articleDetail. April 20. E-Learning Development at the Speed of Business. Rapid e-Learning: content design and development. Online learning for tough times: keys to rapid development. http://www. Chief Learning Officer. e-Learning Crop Circles. Making the most of virtual classrooms and self-paced presentations: Guidelines for Rapid eLearning. http://www. Nick (2005). (2004b).pdf Gustafson.trainingpressreleases. Kevin (2002). http://www. Jan.com/pdf/2/011 606dev-f.com/content/templat es/clo_article. http://www. http://www.com/pub/ele arning/rapid_deploy_elearning.cfm?action=viewonly&id=168 Kruse.clomedia. http://download.ltimagazine. January 2003.asp?articleid=65&zon eid=44 Macromedia Inc. http://www.adobe. Macromedia White Paper.trainingfoundation.pdf Macromedia Inc. Mobile and Device Based Learning.pdf Mayberry.macromedia. http://download. Macromedia White Paper. Clive (2006). Joe (2005). Rapid Intake White Paper.pdf Shepherd. Rapid e-learning gets the job done. LTI Newsline. February 2005.com/articles/abs tracts/index. 9. Bersin and Associates White Paper. http://www. Project Management in the Age of Rapid E-learning.com/articles /default.elearningguru. Learning Solutions. January 16.asp?NewsID=1390 Sanford.

technology.gov/ The Antarctica Online project involves students in South Australia using robots located at the Australian Antarctic Davis Station to conduct remote telecontrol experiments.org/ The LEGO Mindstorms Robotics Invention System allows children to produce their own working robots and learn how to program them.” Find out how you can become involved at: http://wwweducation. http://mindstorms. http://www. which is used to control both physical and virtual “turtles” with simple commands. engineering. It is also highly effective in developing team-work and self-confidence.nasa. engineering.evolution. http://www.whmsi.aad. Robots are becoming more prevalent in educational settings and can be used for the following: > > > > > > > > > Teaching Objects of study Tour guides Welcoming devices Providing information Assisting in difficult situations such as archaeological digs or in space Remote sensing Underwater study Accessibility for persons with a disability Robotics is a great way to get students excited about science. The "RB5X: Mission to Mars" materials are available at: http://www.euron. http://www. > http://www. Papert and his colleagues hoped the children would naturally learn mathematical relationships.php NASA has a robotics program aimed at teachers and students.cmu.edu/index. Their main client is the Mystic Aquarium’s Institute for Exploration. This initiative has developed into several educational products that use LOGO and robots for teaching.html The KISS Institute for Practical Robotics (KIPR) is a private non-profit communitybased organization that has worked since 1993 with all ages to provide improved learning and skills development by applying Description The use of robots in education has a history going back to the 1960s. http://robotics.rec.com/education/ The European Robotics Research Network (EURON) Web site provides a platform for collecting and sharing information about robots in education. By immersing children in “microworlds” the children themselves controlled. simulation > http://www.gov.com/ Botball is a hands-on learning experience in robotics designed to engage students in learning the practical applications of science. Seymour Papert and his colleagues at MIT developed the LOGO computer language for children. for underwater exploration.com/ Do not reproduce 155 .org/ General Robotics Corporation has developed a robotics curriculum for schools. Learn all about future space robots and participate in the activities on the site. http://www. Check out the ROVs made by Woods Hole Marine Systems.edurobot.Robotics Related terms Artificial intelligence.lego.com/r_home.com/ Active Robots in the UK sells a wide variety of kits for building educational robots.ri.html Evolution Robotics offers its robot kits to schools at substantial discounts. Check out their online catalogue at: http://www.ife. technology. Inc.botball.au/ Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Academy claims to be “building engineers. and mathematics. one child at a time.active-robots. and math. Selected Examples Remotely Operated Vehicles (or ROVS) are one type of robot.org/aboutbotball/overview.

(2001).ac. http://zeus. The Microworlds EX Robotics Edition is a kit for building educational robots. D. Heinsohn.edu/~sklar/er /edu. Ishiguro can deliver lectures through the robot even when he is outside of Osaka.amazon. http://robotics.profetic. Kumar. http://www. and vocal tics. (2004).. D.l3s. B.ed. lip movements. and Wagner.org/robotics/us_workshop /June22/educational-robotics.pdf Boersch. Proceedings. S.edu/~dblan k/papers/aaaiss04-pyro. Basic Books. H. Educational Robotics: assessment of the state of the Art in the US.edu/user/fduvalle/ robo_ed/robots_accessible_education. H. D.brynmawr.com/solutions/mw exrobotics.. D.pdf Nourbakhsh. Paper at the American Assoc.microworlds. and Dautenhahn. J.amazon.cs.edu/~holly/papers/blan k-et-al-pyro-aaai05-abstract. Building Robots with Lego Mindstorms.de/morob/pdf/iCEER_P oster. (1980). go to: http://www. and Mataric..atr. and Loose. (2004).de/~loose/Texte_PDF/49IWKI lmenau2004F.andrew. http://robothaven. D. I.pdf Ferrari. Artificial Intelligence Conf.html Professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan has designed a robot in his own image that lectures for him. New York: Syngress Publishing. I.uml.pdf http://www. It features news. Presentation to the 2004 National Science Foundation Conference.pdf Online Resources The City University of New York maintains a repository of links on educational robotics. > > http://www. Keating.nasa.. http://www.pdf Papert. (2005). Mindstorms: Children.cuny. http://www. and other information on robotics.. links. and Yanco. Solutions to Meet the Requirements of Educational Robotics. New York. U.irc. L. Germany. (2004).. The robot can accurately mimic Professor Ishiguro’s posture. M. Germany. Kumar. M. K. Meeden. Autonomous and Mobile Robots in Education. Seymour Papert to commercialize many of his ideas about teaching children using the LOGO computer language. and Meeden. AAATE Conference 1999. Computers. http://www.net/ Run by NASA. Ferrari. Sept.php Bibliography Blank. Miller. http://www. L.kipr. C.tools for accessible education.brooklyn. P. By donning motion sensors..jp/ Blank. June.fhbrandenburg.. M.osaka-u. Hohmann.. Yanco. Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education and Research (iCEERO4).com/Building-RobotsLego-MindstormsUltimate/dp/1928994679/sr=84/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_4/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Gerecke.jp/ See also: http://www. November. Robots in the classroom . the Robotics Curriculum Clearinghouse stores lesson plans on robotics for all levels.cmu. To find the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Osaka University. (1999). Pyro: An Integrated Environment for Robotics Education.html Robot Haven is a community-run Web site on robotics. http://dangermouse. http://www. H. particularly robotics.ams.sci. http://www.. Harwin.org/article. R. (2004). Find out more about this group at: http://www. Düsseldorf. Mr.php3?id_arti cle=8252 Professor Ishiguro is the leader of a group of robotics researchers at the Intelligent Robotics and Communications Laboratories in Kyoto. and Hempel. Lathan. Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium.wtec. D. W. Avoiding the Karel-theRobot Paradox: A framework for making sophisticated robotics accessible.eng. http://www. and Powerful Ideas.com/MindstormsChildren-Computers-PowerfulIdeas/dp/0465046746/sr=8- 156 © Brandon Hall Research .org/ LCSI is a company founded by Dr.l3s.gov/rcc/index.pdf Cooper.de/morob/pdf/iCEER04 _79_Gerecke_Hohmann_Wagner.technology.. G. Paper at the American Association for Artificial Intelligence Spring Session.

S. 28-30.info/downloads/TWR3lowres.. http://rob..ccmlab.. A.8/qid=1157038194/ref=pd_bbs_8/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Ross. Dobreva. T. Ontario. M. Sept.pdf Do not reproduce 157 . Abbott. Paper presented at PHICS – Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conference. http://www. D. Donnelly. Levels of Description: A Role for Robots in Cognitive Science Education. DigiCULT Technology Watch Report 3..digicult. M. McHugh. (2001). (2005). Ottawa. and West. Core Technologies for the Cultural and Scientific Heritage Sector. A. and Rusbridge.ca:8080/~terry/papers/2 001-Robots_Education. R.pdf Stewart.

Google is only one of hundreds of search engines. search results still often require careful sifting to retrieve useful information. Aharoni (2005) identifies three main types of search engines: > Crawler–based search engines. and many other specialized capabilities that make information more productive. > > Each of these search engine types can be divided into one of the following: general search engines that cover a wide range of topics. usually after merging and ranking them in a single list.so they take the structure of the Web into account. Click on each of the following search engines to see their unique features: 158 © Brandon Hall Research . which depend on humans for their hierarchical listings. searching for what we are looking for is a form of informal learning that we have come to take for granted. Selected Examples Search engines can be divided into three groups: general search engines that search for all topics. for a variety of reasons. information retrieval. It is estimated that the “deep Web” contains approximately 500 times the amount of information that is actually posted on Internet servers (Geser. These may be thought of as second-generation search engines. They bring into the equation user preferences. collaboration. 2004). a rich user experience. While search engines have improved over the past several years. One interesting distinction is between “retrospective search” and “prospective search. data mining. such as Google and Altavista.” in which a single query is used to find information across multiple databases and other data sources. federated search. each with their own defining feature sets. in parallel. dependable information. Federated searching is just one of the approaches to finding hidden information currently being researched. Third-generation search technologies are designed to combine the scalability of existing Internet search engines with new and improved relevancy models. especially information stored on proprietary systems that are not on the Internet.” The first type searches the Web as it exists. as this section of the report shows. Because of the vast store of available information on the Internet. to several other Web search engines and display the search results to the user. which use programs that crawl the Web and create search engine indices. One is the problem of finding relevant. But. while the latter alerts you that new information has been posted somewhere on your topic of interest. such as Metacrawler and Vivisimo. 2006b) divides the history of search engines into three “generations”: > First-generation engines search ranked sites based on page content .Search Engines Related terms Boolean searches. Much of the World Wide Web is hidden to search engines. > Description Search is probably the most used e-learning application. collective intelligence. search engine optimization. Examples are Google and Overture. Web directories. Ezzy (2006a. Searching the Internet has become so commonplace that ”to Google” has become a well-used verb for many people. There are a number of problems with search engines that are being dealt with by researchers. resource discovery. or specialty search engines that cover a more focused range of topics or specific audiences. which submit queries. meta-search engines.com and Alta Vista. such as Yahoo. Meta–search engines. and meta-search engines that combine the results of many individual search engines.examples are early yahoo. social bookmarking > Second-generation engines rely on link analysis for ranking . specialty search engines that are confined to specific subject areas or types of media. One new approach is called “federated searching.

http://www.com AOL Search – Allows searching in a local area (USA only).hotbot. http://dmoz.com/ Gravee .com’s search service http://a9. http://www. It searches the Web as well as a large number of well known reference works.grokker.com Gada. http://www.com/aolcom/webhome AskJeeves (now Ask) – Ask questions using a “natural language” approach.com/ Fagan Finder – A search portal with many different ways to search for information online. http://www. http://www.com/ HotBot – Allows users to set filters on search results.netscape.be – Narrow a search to specific categories for better results.net Google – The top search engine in the world – has roughly 85 percent of all searches. http://www. rather than just returning Web pages.lexxe. http://www.otavo.com/ IceRocket – Searches images.com/ Mooter – Sorts results into visual clusters. http://www. http://search.answers. http://www.umich. http://www. get answers http://www.gravee.edu/o/oaister/ Octavo – A collaborative search engine.com – (incorporating Gurunet) – ask questions. and text.google.com/ Jookster – A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other.gnod.alexa. blogs. http://www.convera. then fill in the search box.org/ Outfoxed – See a visualization of the “informer” network. Clicking a cluster makes search more accurate. http://search. http://www.com – Features hundreds of searchable topics.com/ Lexxe – A search engine that is powered by “advanced natural language technology” to find the answers to questions. http://search.com/search/defa ult. http://www. Shares advertising revenues with content owners.be/ GigaBlast – Cluster results by top correlations.General search engines: A9 – Amazon.aeiwi.jookster.A social search engine with tagging and community-based ranking.gada.com/ Look Smart – Narrow a search to specific categories.alltheweb. http://getoutfoxed.looksmart. http://www.faganfinder. http://www.com/home PubSub – Search the future – This search engine notifies the user when his or her Do not reproduce 159 . http://www.com/ Alexa – Search results with Web traffic rankings.aol.about.com/ Open Directory – Search categories and subcategories to find a desired item.icerocket.com Grokker – Clusters results by subject.com/ AlltheWeb – Search audio. and the Web. http://www.jsp OAIster – Search for hard to find library information.gigablast. http://www.com About.altavista.umdl.ask. http://channels.mooter.com/ Netscape Search – Allows searching within a local area. http://www.com/ Answers.com/ Gnod – A self-adapting discovery engine.msn.com/ Excalibur – A deep search engine by Convera that organizes the Web into millions of categories.com/ MSN Search – The “search builder” option can make a search more accurate. video. http://oaister.com/ Aeiwi – Search by clicking on common keywords related to a topic.com/ AltaVista – Features Babel Fish translations of entries. http://www.

http://www.com/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries. Clicking a cluster further refines a search.gov/ IceRocket – Searches blogs only. http://www.ucr.blinkx.pubsub.com/ StumbleUpon – Search collaborative recommendations on great Web sites.Clusters results. http://kids. http://www. cast lists and theatre schedules. & KidsClick!.imdb. http://swicki.com/ TagJag – Find items from over 200 resources and see the results of other peoples' searches. http://www.com/ Ithaki 4 KiDs – Helps users find the best sites just for kids by searching several other search engines for kids in real time.ist. ArtKIDSRule.gpoaccess. http://www.eurekster.com/%7Eappelt/fastus. AwesomeLibrary. users tag their favorite results and block spam.edu/ Internet Movie Database – search within plot summaries.acronymfinder. http://www.topic appears.com/ Infomine – Searches scholarly Internet resource collections by subject category.ai. reviews.com/ Specialty search engines: Acronym Finder – A search engine for acronyms http://www.ht ml FirstGov and GPO Access – Allows a Web site search of the US Government. http://www. reviews. http://www. Clicking a cluster further refines a search. Yahooligans. http://icerocket.ithaki.com/v2a/flash.qelix. Other engines that are searched include DmozKids. > > http://firstgov. http://www.healthfinder.com/ Google Scholar – Search for scholarly articles only. http://infomine.wink.php?langu e=en Vivísimo .gnoosic. http://www.gov/ http://www.koders. http://rollyo. http://tagjag.squidoo. http://www.com/ Gnoosic – A search engine for music. http://scholar.com/ Blinkx TV – A search engine for TV and Video.com/v2/index. http://qube. and movies. http://froogle.google.com/ Yahoo – The second most popular search engine on the Internet – about 9 percent of searches.govmine. Wink then diplays the results.com/ Qube – Qube is based on “browserless search” with user collaboration and networking.psu.com/ Wink – Using social networking.gov/ Froogle – Google’s shopping search engine.tv/ Citeseer – Citations of academic literature. books. http://vivisimo. http://www.com/ Swicki – A search engine that learns from a community’s search behavior.yahoo.com/ Squidoo – A searchable hand built catalog of what individual contributors think are the best resources on a given topic. FactMonster. http://www.ujiko.google. Much of this information is hidden from view.htm Rollyo – “Roll your own” search engine that uses only trusted sources.imdb.net/ Koders – A search engine for developers that searches for code.com/ Govmine – Search engine based on typical queries of government workers.stumbleupon.com/ts/10/ HealthFinder — A medical search engine.sri.com/ FASTUS – Extracting information from real world texts.google. http://citeseer.com/ Ujiko – Clusters results.edu/ 160 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com Google Book Search – Search just for books. cast lists and theatre schedules. AolKIDS. http://books.

nlm.htm Do not reproduce 161 . http://www.com/ Truveo – A search engine for video on the Web.org/citation.com/srsapp/ SearchEdu . http://www.4 billion links.krugle.com/ LitLinker .cgi SMEALSearch – Search for academic business literature.ee.liveplasma. http://wwwqbic.com/ VisualSEEk – A joint spatial-feature image search engine.1057022 LivePlasma – A search engine for music and movies.rrzn.nih.ncbi. http://www.last.com/projects/MediaFinder MESA (Meta-Email-Search-Agent) – an agent that searches e-mail (interface is in German) http://meta.rawsugar.acm.searchedu.com/products/retrieval ware/ Scirus – Search for scientific information only. http://www.convera. is tracking over 38 million sites and 2. http://wang16.cmp. http://lawcrawler.omgili.htm WebSEEk – Web image/video search engine. http://www.seekport.f cgi QBIC .com/search/ RetrievalWare – A knowledge discovery engine for unstructured data (by Convera). http://www.psu.A legal search engine.com/ PubMed – Search engine for medical information.com Pandora – A search engine for music artists or individual songs.fm/ LawCrawler .truveo. http://smealsearch1. as of this writing.Krugle – A search engine for developers.edu/cgibin/zwang/regionsearch_show.findlaw.uni-hannover.ibm.com/ SearchKing – Search for Internet communities on specific topics.com/ MediaFinder .IBM's Query By Image Content – A visual search engine.ist.cfm?doid=10 56808.com/ Simplicity – Stands for “Semantics-sensitive Integrated Matching for Picture Libraries. http://www.org/ Omgili .technorati.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VideoQ/Vid eoQ.columbia.A specialty search engine devoted to university and education related Web sites.com/ Last.htm VideoQ – A fully automated object-oriented content-based video search engine.gov/entrez/query.Uses literature-based discovery to find new connections between biomedical terms that could lead to new directions in research. http://www.com/ TechSearch – A search engine specifically for technology topics. http://www.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk. http://portal. http://www.merl.” Content-based search engines for pictures. http://www. http://www.columbia.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/WebSEEK/ WebSEEK. http://www.The MediaFinder project is developing prototype products for navigating and finding music files.psu. http://www.com/ Technorati – Searches the “Blogosphere” and.edu/ Sound Spotter – Software that allows computers to listen for sounds and retrieve audio materials.A search engine designed to index Web-based discussion forums.fm – A music search engine that connects people with similar musical tastes. http://www.soundspotter.searchking.almaden. http://techsearch.columbia.scirus. http://www. http://www.ee.com/ Raw Sugar – Refine a Web search by first choosing broad category tags such as health or education.pandora. http://www.de/ Newslink – search newspapers from around the world http://newslink.com SeekPort – Used to find items in Europe. http://www.ee.

http://www. http://www.trovando. flights. Unlike other search engines.com/ clusters. http://www.uk/ SearchTools. is a valuable resource for researchers.com provides reviews and links to several hundred search engines. classifieds.xcavator. bookmarks.net/indexu. and tracks a user's search history. http://vivisimo. Known as “meta-search” engines. http://www. http://nlp.bolton. tickets.com Clusty – A clustering meta-search engine that groups similar items together and then puts them into separate folders.zapmeta. http://www. news sources. http://a9.com/ Meta-search engines: Some search engines collate search results from several different search engines.com/ Ithaki – Software that allows metasearching in at least 14 languages. eBay. Eliminates duplicate entries and broken links. therefore. and links the clusters. health information sources. shopping sites. lottery results.com/ A comprehensive set of guidelines on the use of search engines is provided by Bolton University in the UK. focused searches on topics they care about.copernic. http://www. weather.com/ Search – A useful meta-search engine that allows exact phrase searching. http://www. http://www. greeting cards.kartoo. hotels.com/ Research Buzz has been tracking search engine news since 1998 and.net ZoomInfo – A search engine for discovering people.searchtools.com/ Dogpile – Searches a number of different media with a variety of search engines. and it 162 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. the user's community has total control over the results. yellow pages. or federated searching.info.com/ Trovando – A meta-search engine that allows users to specify which search engine(s) to use.cs. games. http://searchenginewatch. http://www.com/ Info – Searches reference works.com/ Copernic – Uses 90 search engines grouped into 10 categories. http://www. Subject specialists select and evaluate the Web sites in Intute's database and write high quality descriptions of the resources. http://www. http://www. http://www.dogpile.ac.inria.intute. audio. and Web mail for the topic entered. white pages.it/ Vivisimo – A quick meta-search engine that clusters the results. video. city guides.zoominfo. companies. and notes.com/ Kartoo – S search engine that clusters results.htm Ixquick – Searches many sources. jobs. produces a visual display of the Online Resources The main goal of the IMEDIA project is to develop content-based image indexing techniques and interactive search and retrieval methods for browsing large multimedia databases by content. and their relationships.ac.ithaki.uk/elab/guidelines/s earcheng. http://www.ixquick.fr/imedia/ Intute is a free online service created by a network of UK universities and partners. movies. dating and personals. with specially-created national meta-searches of at least 15 countries. http://clusty. they include: A9 – Searches many different sources in addition to the Web.html#top#top SearchEngineWatch is an online newsletter on search engine marketing. apartment rentals. maps/directions.com/ A swicki is new kind of search engine that allows anyone to create deep. http://www-rocq. including a set of international telephone directories.com/ ZapMeta – A meta-search engine that allows the user to set preferences on how it works.edu/ Xcavator – Uses visual clues provide by the user to identify and extract similar pictures from large groups of digital images.search.Voice searching – Proteus project at NYU.nyu.researchbuzz. pictures.

http://www.uk/european_se arch_engines/ One effective way to improve search results is to limit the scope of the search and to employ techniques to look at the semantic meaning of changing structured data from dynamic Web pages. Do not reproduce 163 . July 20. http://www. Much of this information is hidden to ordinary search engines. Read/Write Web. 6. O.downes. http://www. http://www. 7-12. 2006.eurekster. July-Sept. In Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. Traditional Search. or topic .Position Paper: Putting the Users First. http://www. or swicki. No.html Battelle. http://swicki. Ebrahim (2006). Online resource provided by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA). See what is happening in New York at: http://newyork. 6. (2004).com/ The International Directory of Search Engines lists local search engines for 319 countries and territories.uk/features/searc hprojects Bibliography Aharoni.readwriteweb. This search engine.editlib. http://www.gpoaccess. For example. phrase. Part 2. (2005). Find out why in this presentation: http://www.searchenginecolossus.org/ala/lita/litaresources/to olkitforexpert/toolkitexpert. Ebrahim (2006). DigiCULT Thematic Report. DigiCULT Thematic Report. A.gov/ http://www. John (2005). http://www. With a fast growing network of stations monitored worldwide. Guntram (2004)..readwriteweb. Y.com/ Netmasters in the UK provides a country by country listing of search engines used in various European countries. a senior researcher with the National Research Council of Canada.citysearch. Infomine searches scholarly Internet resource collections.amazon.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr_1. can be published on the user's site..netmasters. > > http://firstgov. http://www.php Geser.com/gp/product/1591 840880/sr=81/qid=1146838091/ref=pd_bbs_1/1023258918-6488923?%5Fencoding=UTF8 De Pietro. Tool Kit for the Expert Web Searcher. Users can also browse by subject category. July 25.com/ FirstGov and GPO Access allow Web site searches of the US Government. Pat (2005).php Ezzy.gov/ http://www.. S. and Shoham. Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector. http://infomine. New York: Portfolio.ViewAbstract&paper_id=11427 DigiCULT (2004).org/issues/issue10 _12/aharoni/index. TVEyes provides the technology and the content.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Advanced Technologies for Contents Sharing. 10(12).ca/files/KnowledgeNet works. The Search: how Google and its rivals rewrote the rules of business and transformed our culture.edu/ TVEyes makes Radio & TV searchable by keyword.ppt#263 This site lists search research initiatives including federated search projects being funded in Europe.just as a search engine is used for text.co. http://www.tveyes.ala. December. First Monday. Frank. F.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. Finding information on the free World Wide Web: a specialty meta-search engine for the academic community. No.digicult.uses the wisdom of crowds to improve search results. Part 1.firstmonday. June. Resource Discovery . 2006.0 vs. http://www. June 2004. Search 2. 2004. Most search engines just look at “simple text” when analyzing the content of a Web site.htm Ezzy. and Searching in eLearning Systems. is against the idea of federated searches.pdf Ensor. Traditional Search.com/ Stephen Downes.org/index. Search 2. CitySearch provides up to the minute data on events happening in various US cities.ac.com/archives/se arch_20_vs_tr.0 vs. Exchanging. Read/Write Web.elearning.ucr. International Journal on e-Learning. and Apprato.

html Kumar. Part I: http://www.isnoldenburg. 15. 10. Corey (2005). 2004. InfoWorld.com/main/2005/ 05/mary_hodder_poi. S. Doctoral dissertation. http://www. Parts I and II. A. Mike (2004). and Hilf. 4(1).pdf Murray. http://www. html Porco. W. Jakob (2003). http://www.ac.http://www. J. and MacColl.edu/iMed/P ublications/dissertation.00. http://www. P. Stanford University. Oct. http://dl. Carmine (2006).washington.pubsub.ht m Pratt.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearch_1.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d__Part_II__Well_Beyond_the_Search_Box. Information foraging: why Google makes people leave your site faster. SearchEngineWatch.html Heck.useit.htm Part II: http://www. Paper presented to the EUNIS Conference. Lisa (2005).asp Wyman. Searching Heterogeneous e-Learning Resources. 2005. they’re just limited. Richard (2004). http://bobwyman.. It’s Gada. 2004.ed.info/downloads/digicult _thematic_issue_6_lores. A fully automatic questionanswering system for intelligent search in elearning documents.prescientdigital.infoworld. http://searchenginewatch.com.eweek.digicult. Oct. J. 3.pdf Schlenker. April 28.com/Prescient_ Research/Articles/Search_Articles/Search_ Engines_Don_t_Suck__They_re_Just_Limite d_-_Part_I. June 30.html 164 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.. When the Gray Web meets up with Structured Blogging and Prospective Search… As I May Think…. M. Dynamic Categorization: A Method for Decreasing Information Overload. Simple advice for complex search solutions. Paper presented to the DELOS2005 .ischool. E.org/16955 Low. 2004. Oct. Mittal.1759.18 69408.pdf Sullivan. Dynamic Thesaurus and Dynamic Discovery of Distributed eLearning Materials.com/links/article .aace.cfm?ArticleID=5898&page=2 Nielsen. (2000). Refining enterprise search. International Journal on E-Learning.eschoolnews. White paper. 2003. 2004.com/alertbox/20030630. http://homepages. ‘Intelligent’ tools lead to smarter searches. eSchool News. Major Search Engines and Directories. Mimkes. 2005. Search engines don’t suck. S.uk/boon/delos200 5.Digital Repositories: Interoperability and Common Services conference.infoworld. Prescient Digital Media.com/article2/0. http://www. May 8. eWeek.php/2156221 Vaas. Bob (2005). 2005. Oct. Kashyap. and Gupta.prescientdigital.. B. Be the First Metasearch Engine Powered by RSS. (2004). 149-166.com/news/showS toryts. (2005). 15. Jacob Nielsen’s Alertbox. (2005). Danny (2004).pdf Gincel. http://www.de/projects/engine/publikatione n/eunis04. InfoWorld.com/article/04/10/1 5/42FEsearchcase_1.

metadata. are now falling short of earlier promises. microformats. semantic grid. The major arguments for an educational semantic Web include the following: > > > Better information storage and retrieval The use of agents Improved communications and collaboration Description The Semantic Web is a concept from Tim Berners-Lee. taxonomies. the idea of the semantic Web is progressing. Web feeds semantic Web is that the meaning of raw information is always ambiguous and needs interpretation (Shirky.org/en/index. and Peter Van Dijck (2003) summarizes the arguments and the cast of characters in the debate. (2005) note that “historically. http://www. Abbas et al. One of the major criticisms of the Major points raised by skeptics of an educational semantic Web include: > > The idea of a semantic Web is complicated and difficult to implement A single unifying ontology under which all information can be classified is likely impossible Tagging content depends on voluntary labor > In summary. Like it or not. Instead of simply finding items on the Web by locating their Universal Resource Locators (URLs). http://www.” There are many views on the potential of the semantic Web for resolving some of these problems. each piece of information is tagged with additional information that can be read by computers. Selected Examples In Europe. They also create prototype applications that demonstrate the new possibilities of semantic technologies.alphaworks.elenaproject.Semantic Web Related terms Learning objects. The two main technologies involved in the Semantic Web are the Resource Description Framework (RDF).aktors.ibm. near Boston.com/tech/sem anticstk The Advanced Knowledge Technologies Web site at the University of Southampton in the UK uses ontologies for its ability to link various research resources. Lack of machine readable content coupled with information overload has put strains into the traditional knowledge delivery model of WWW.org/akt/ The Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology researches machine-processable semantics. Paul Ford (2003) refutes Shirky’s arguments. ontologies. producing metadata always implies a particular worldview. but due to largely unplanned and unanticipated growth. http://www. and the OWL Web Ontology Language (OWL). the Internet and the World Wide Web gave birth to the concepts of e-learning and collaborative knowledge sharing across the globe. the international organization that sets standards for the technologies underlying the World Wide Web (WWW). This helps the computer program understand the meaning of the content it locates at each location. The Semantic Web is now an initiative of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). the ELENA project has employed a novel infrastructure and software solution using various semantic Web technologies. It has both its advocates and its critics. search. but it will not be in general use for some time. In an article that identifies many of the problems involved with implementing elearning on the Web. 2003). Berners-Lee remains involved with this initiative and works with the W3C from its headquarters at MIT. The situation is especially serious in the e-learning domain where the success and usefulness directly correlates with the effectiveness of knowledge delivery in a dynamic setting. founder of the World Wide Web. but it is important to realize that the semantic Web is an idea in development. such Do not reproduce 165 .asp?p=1-1 IBM has developed an Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit (IODT) for creating ontologies to use with the semantic Web.

Brantner. Mozo. Simon. http://arxiv. http://www.hp. Mark (2005). May 9-12. Z.ifets.pdf 166 © Brandon Hall Research .info/issues.de/html/ Aguirre.. http://www. Miklos. O.. May 29 June 1.pdf A special issue of the Journal of Educational Technology and Society in 2004 focused on Ontologies and the Semantic Web for ELearning.upm. Cambridge. J. http://www. S. http://www. and Ahmed. Special Issue on the Educational Semantic Web. S. McClatchey. J.ac.com/downloads/samples/JSWIS. G...ideagroup. L. implementing. K. xi. (1). (2005).es/~saguirre/publicati ons/eswc2005_elena_demo-v2005-0420_final... The semantic web. Markus. (2001). http://kaon. http://www. T. Cambridge. D.. 2005. http://www-jime. Olmedilla. http://www. Obrst. http://jungla. M.php?id=25 The Journal of Interactive Media in Education also had a special issue on elearning and the Semantic Web in 2004. Is the Semantic Web Hype? Hewlett-Packard Presentation.org/ The Personal Reader Project has developed a framework for designing. T.org/ Edutella is an open source project that applies Semantic Web concepts. and Whitelock.) (2003).. and ontologies and tools for creating semantic applications. Z. The Educational Semantic Web: Visioning and Practicing the Future of Education: Journal of Interactive Media in Education. and van Harmelen (2004).ac. the International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems has been available from Idea Publishing. D. http://www. (2003).. Web Services.amazon.php?http://www .pdf Daconta. and Hendler.info/index. B.com/gp/product/0471 432571/ref=pd_sim_b_3/104-91433617575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance& n=283155 Online Resources Since the beginning of 2005. Hendler.amazon. and Lassila. http://www-jime. New York: Wiley.as semantic portals for end-users. In Fensel. Huber. MA: MIT.seco. F.hpl. M.sciam.uk/2004/1/ Antoniou.com/article.com/personal/marbut/is TheSemanticWebHype. It includes a comprehensive tool suite allowing easy ontology creation and management and provides a framework for building ontologybased applications... http://www. semantic infrastructural services. http://www. Greece. and Knowledge Management. Umer. A. Tim (2003). Wahlster.fi/ KAON is an open source ontology management infrastructure targeted for business applications. A.dit. D. Corner Stones of Semantic Interoperability Demonstrated in a Smart Space for Learning. Paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005). The first issue is free.ifets.. Proceedings of the Cluster Computing and the Grid conference.personal-reader. Scientific American. A Semantic Grid-based E-Learning Framework (SELF).tkk. (2004).. T..open.org/ftp/cs/papers/0502/0502 051. and Smith. J. May 2001.jxta. Odeh.cfm?articleID =00048144-10D2-1C7084A9809EC588EF21 Butler. Lieberman.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee.pdf Anderson.uk/2004/1/ AIM@SHAPE is a project funded by the European Commission to develop semantic based systems for describing and handling multi-dimensional objects on the Web.open.net/ Bibliography Abbas. R. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. G. and maintaining personalized “Web Content Readers” using Semantic Web technologies. W. http://www. Sobernig. Ali..semanticweb.com/gp/product/0262 012103/sr=81/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Berners-Lee. The Semantic Web: A Guide to the Future of XML.. H.amazon. http://edutella. S. Forward. Salvachua.. and Zillinger.aimatshape. (2005). MA: MIT Press.. A Semantic Web Primer. (Eds. M. S.

us/fulltext/jcs/jcs14500 -504. Paper presented at the GLS conference. 2006. Online article. M. Lieberman. http://www. Palmer. http://www.. CETIS Online article. htm Dorai. A.189 5.kbs.1961106. Stephen (2005).ac. L.ac. M.jisc.pdf Henze. and Gouarderes.. http://www..uk/uploaded_documents /jisctsw_05_02bpdf. http://www2002. Proceedings of the 2nd European WebBased Learning Environment Conference (WBLE). Journal of Computer Science.asp Hatem. From RDF to Topic Maps and back again. W. and Neagu. CT: Manning. D.cetis. http://www- Do not reproduce 167 . Paper presented to the 2nd International Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and reusability (WASWBE'05) at AIED'05. N. (2004). H.. D. Rutledge. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective.com/ContraShirky. PA: Information Science Publishing. 10. http://www. Jennings.. Semantic Web Technologies.com/gp/product/0262 062321/sr=81/qid=1148755116/ref=pd_bbs_1/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Ford. A.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /waswbe05. Hershey. http://www.ftrain. Paper presented at the 2005 AIED conference. L.Some Architectural Guidelines.well.) (2003). JISC Technology and Standards Watch Research Report.org/v1.. Semantic Networks and Social Networks.pdf Kraan. D. Personalization Services for e-Learning in the Semantic Web. Interactive-Event: Personalized e-Learning Services for the Semantic Web. Oct. T. Cambridge. Paul (2003). France. Ontology based User Modeling for Personalization of Grid Learning Services.com/gp/product/1591 405033/sr=84/qid=1155437833/ref=sr_1_4/1041348092-4859103?ie=UTF8 Matthews. Wilbert (2005). Wahlster.. Amsterdam. http://www. C.) (2005). http://www. Brian (2005). 2005. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World Wide Web to Its Full Potential. and Hendler. A.. Research Agenda for the Semantic Grid: a future e-science infrastructure. 500-504. http://homepages. G. and Naeve. H.html Haack.ca/cgibin/page. http://www. http://www. Cory (2001). Metacrap: putting the torch to seven straw-men of the metautopia. http://www.com/gp/product/1932 394206/sr=83/qid=1148754663/ref=pd_bbs_3/1049143361-7575956?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Razmerita.pdf Downes. F. Phil (2006).org/CDROM/alternate/74 4/ Passin.pdf Nilsson. E-Learning Based on Context Oriented Semantic Web.com/article2/0.kbs.00. (2001).cwi. Oct. N. (Eds.amazon. Greenwich.scipub. and Zetti. Explorer’s Guide to the Semantic Web. http://www.amazon. Semantic Web Metadata for eLearning . Mauthe. 1(4).com/~doctorow/metacrap.amazon. Report commissioned for EPSRC/DTI Core e-Science Programme. Lund. Juan-les-Pins. M. Sweden.de/Arbeiten/Publikationen/2005 /ie_aied05. Online article. pdf Doctorow. J.unihannover.downes.unihannover. The Netherlands.cgi?post=31624 Fensel. http://www.9/semgrid. Media Semantics: Who Needs It and Why? Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Multimedia.uk/content2/2005042 1195933/printArticle Lytras. and Shadbolt. (2002). Syllogism. http://www. May 27. (Eds. H. Nicola (2005a). Stephen’s Web. Nack.. (2001). A developer’s introduction to micro-formats. 2001. and Naeve.devsource. and Worldview”. (2005). Sikora.nl/~media/publicatio ns/nack-acm-panel-2002. Thomas (2004).De Roure.pdf Henze. Nicola (2005b). A Response to Clay Shirky's “The Semantic Web. M. 18-22 July 2005. Ramadan. MA: MIT Press.semanticgrid. DevSource.

A. http://www. D.aifb. F.html Wilson. L. 7.w3. 7 (4). Bootstrapping the semantic Web: Tim Berners-Lee's quest to give the Web meaning receives aid from unexpected quarters. Wagner. (2005). (2003).bbk.org/2001/sw 168 © Brandon Hall Research .com/login/sign up.pdf Samaras.uk/elearning/ story/0. Karenos.co. M. Economics and Culture. and Davis.pdf Sampson. Syllogism..com/ease/semantic/ Weinberger.sop. John (2004). January 17.uk/selene/reports/ Del3. D. 2005.com/writings/semantic_s yllogism. The Semantic Web. Networks. 2005. http://eprints. Semantic Resource Management for the Web: An ELearning Application..cetis. http://poorbuthappy. and Diaz.fr/acacia/personnel/Liana. (2004). Schmitz.bcs.com/article/04/12/0 3/49OPstrategic_1. Semantic Grid based e-Learning using the Knowledge Life Cycle. The Semantic Aspects of eLearning: Using the Knowledge Life Cycle to Manage Semantics for Grid and Service Oriented Systems. USA. http://www. http://www. Peter (2003). B. A. Who said that? Metadata. http://www. http://www. Online article. F. Staab.html Stojanovic..org/proceedings/docs/2p 1. http://www. http://www.ac.. New York. K. C. Andy (2005). http://education. Ontologies and the Semantic Web for E-learning.ifets. Davis. H. Marketing Profs.infoworld. CETIS Online article.. http://www. Scott (2005). http://ewic. Clay (2003). (2004)..uk/content/20020514 171444/printArticle Wilson. 2003. Lytras. http://www. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion. David (2002).Razmer ita/PublicationsWeb/GLSGridLast. Proceedings of the WWW2004 Conference. R.cetis.ac. Online article. Millard. A New Vision From the Inventor of the World Wide Web: An Interview With Tim Berners-Lee. Scott’s Workblog. and the Semantic Web. and Christodoulou.soton.. New York. L. (2001). G. Semantic Web.981948. eLearning based on the Semantic Web. Millard.asp?source=/5/updegrove1. Course Definitions in XML/RDF: first steps.ac.pdf Tane. http://www. (2003).asp Udell. H.pdf Tao.html Van Dijck. Paper presented at the first ELEGI conference.de/~sst/Research/Publications/ WebNet2001eLearningintheSemanticWeb. (2005).ac. Report on the Self eLearning Networks (SeLeNe) Project. Woukeu. Scott (2002). G.info/journals/7_4/5. August 2.p df Tao. and Worldview. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT Conference. 2004. http://www2004. WP3 Deliverable 3: A Grid Service Framework for Self eLearning Networks. Darwin. The semantic web: a touch of intelligence for the internet? Guardian Unlimited.org/conferences/2005/1st elegi/session2/paper12. Nov.com/read/swiftkick /column. and Miller. trust. J. InfoWorld. and Studer.dcs.uk/10742/01/I CALT_SW-EL_workshop_submit.inria. 2628.shirky. S. P. June 14. 2002. and Woukeu. Paper presented at the WebNet 2001 Conference.html?ArticleID=421 Williamson.pdf Updegrove. Journal of Educational Technology & Society.00.. G.. May 17–22.pdf Shirky.10577. and Stumme.darwinmag. December 3. The Semantic Argument Web: what really scares me.marketingprofs. E.uk/members/scott/blo gview?entry=20050117180353 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (2001).ecs.guardian.unikarlsruhe. June 21. 2003. D. 2004.

Description The use of educational simulations is currently the hottest trend in e-learning.ncsa. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing simulations.edu/ Advanced Simulations of Organizational Dynamics are experiential learning systems exploiting technologies such as multimedia or virtual reality to accelerate the understanding and learning of organizational processes. reviewed simulations as an online content format. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.gov/ Winters et al. participants will be motivated to evaluate.pdf The CAVE is an immersive virtual reality facility designed for exploring and interacting with spatially engaging environments.insead. http://cave. especially ones set by themselves. http://www. “Simulation has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the e-learning market.it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. According to High (2004).arcscience. “The idea is that in attempting to achieve game goals.uiuc.insead. in a dynamic and reflexive environment.calt.noaa.edu/?pagename=L2 C CHANGEMASTERS provides e-learning simulations that put users in role-playing situations where they can develop their skills in interacting with others.insead. (2003) present a prototype learning environment for children to create their own knowledge about multivariate systems. It was decommissioned in 2005. 2005).calt. http://www.” My first report in this series.edu/?pagename=Pr ojects The L2C (Learning to Collaborate) project provides the opportunity to address and significantly advance the state-of-the-art (both theory and practice) in educational simulations. http://www. scenarios tabletop–sized physical dome in which children experimented with environmental parameters affecting plant growth. microworlds. i. See a variety of such projects at: http://www. and exercise the necessary skills required to be successful in order to reach these goals and in the process acquire the knowledge and understanding needed.” Selected Examples Need a spherical display to show a simulation? Consider using OmniGlobe from ARC Science Simulations.edu/?pagename=VE RDI The EdComNet Project is an educational communal network that acts as a portal for practicing better citizenship and decisionmaking skills. http://www. http://www. games. role-playing.com/omni.Simulation Tools Related terms Experiential learning.insead. but information about it remains on the Web. http://sos.calt. a strategy that leverages the experience and motivation of participants trying to reach a goal. Educational simulations involve learning through experience or what Linser and Ip (2002) call dynamic goal-based learning.calt.insead. learn. It is an innovative solution to showing global visualizations.icherubini. This virtual world was linked to a Do not reproduce 169 .e.edu/?pagename=EI S%20Simulation The VERDI Project (Virtual Environment for Real time Distributed applications over the Internet) is a 3-D multi-user change management business simulation that uses a satellite network.calt. http://www.edu/?pagename=Ch angeMasters The EIS Simulation Project is a computerbased multimedia business simulation involving implement ing organizational change. one which continuously emerges from the impact of their own actions.htm Another spherical display system is the Science on a Sphere project from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

forio.gov/ Simulations are available that illustrate the dynamics of the complexity of living things.edu/geowall/ Celestia is a free space simulation that lets users explore the universe in three dimensions.shatters.net/celestia/index.html ThinkerTools is a set of online conceptual tools that enable children 11-12 to experience and play with physics. A guide’s voice prompts the employee.edu/?pagename=Ed ComNet The GeoWall is a new projection technology that uses stereo sound and fast computers to simulate many different environments. and murmurs. and Mac OS X.umich.adobe.atghome.com/izeng/ Kaplan IT Learning . Mass. http://www. http://www.med.com/company/ At the Earth System Research Laboratory.insead.lsa.soe.Forio Broadcast – Web simulation authoring software at three pricing levels. http://www. pulse rate.com/ Adobe – Macromedia Captivate . http://www. see which simulation tools are used by meteorological researchers to try to improve 170 © Brandon Hall Research . to play in a virtual fishtank. http://www.stt-global. http://www. Harvey simulates nearly any cardiac disease at the touch of a button by varying blood pressure." the first offering in a planned series of computer programs called "Making History.assima.com/products/captivate/ Adobe – Macromedia Flash – Create animat-ions and videos that play in any browser.edcenter.experiencebuilders. breathing. However. http://www.edu/ Harvey is a life-sized manikin used as a cardiology patient simulator.edu/hardware/G eoWall/index. http://www. http://www.berkeley. with many examples to try.ht m Intermezzon . http://thinkertools. html Muzzy Lane Software of Newburyport. For example. they are only available for Macintosh computers.virtualfishtank." http://www.sdsu. http://www. http://www.Has an instructional agent that interacts with a knowledge base.calt. has issued "The Calm and The Storm. http://www. http://crme.ISLE . without programming knowledge.sdsu.intermezzon..com Software for authoring simulations: Access Technologies Group – Simentor Character images respond with facial expressions and body language. It runs on Windows.making-history.fsl.Wizard Training Suite – Web cloning engine for building simulations.biographix.com/products/flash/flas hpro/ Assisma .umich.edu/harvey_about.edu/ http://um3d.miami.Intermezzon Designer – Simulation authoring that allows users to reuse previous work.com/broadcastoverview. Linux.geo.net/ Biographix . > > http://geowall.com/ Knowledge Director – LearningDirector Template-based game and content development software used to create Flash animations and highly interactive content at The Education Center on Computational Science and Engineering at the San Diego State University has a site on “Interactive 3D Modelling” using the Geowall.adobe.dc.edcenter. http://www.htm l The education center on computational science and engineering at San Diego State University has a Web site of 3-D simulations for geoscience education. heart sounds.Records all on-screen actions and instantly creates an interactive Flash simulation. Doctors in training can examine the Harvey just like any other patient.html weather forecasting.http://www. go to: http://www.com/ Forio .edu/geowall/ind ex.noaa.com/ Experience Builders LLC – Experience Builder – Build online role-playing simulations with this tool.STT Trainer – Build simulations and assessments with documentation and help files.

ca/Libraryfiles/main/Fin d/Links/Simulation_Training.com/ MaxIT . http://www.com/products/sim. including simulations.uk/eclipse/Resources/si mulation. http://www.Firefly Simulation Records a sequence of actions performed within an application. http://www.ExpertAuthor – With the built-in software simulation tool.com/portal/index.xstreamsoftware.the click of a mouse.learning2005.com/learnland/ The Justice Institute of British Columbia has a Web site that lists simulation resources. http://www.com/products/ TEDS – SimCorder – Record applications and then author simulations with this software.teds.” http://www. http://www. http://www.maxit. http://www.qarbon.jsp Percepsys – SIMSTUDIO – Use this authoring system to build 3-D scenarios with multiple paths.com/products /firefly.knowledge-director.org/ Mauro Cherubini wrote a Masters thesis on microworlds for children to learn about biology.edu/eet/articles/mededuca tion/index. Integrates with many media types. http://www. http://www.com Outstart – SoftSim – With this software.KnowledgePresenter Simulator .htm The Learning and Skills Research Centre in the UK has an extensive list of research projects on simulation and gaming.asp Knowledge Quest .stottlerhenke. has built a virtual environment for simulations called LearnLand.com/ Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of articles on “simulations in e-learning.com/3dTraining.htm StageCast – Creator – A simulation authoring tool specifically designed for use by children. create courses specifically on using computer software. develop one simulation for multiple delivery modes.com/ MaxIT . a well-known e-learning consultant and speaker.com/ Knowledge Planet .com/ Kookaburra Studios .Visual Course Builder – Build simulations using templates without learning any programming.reusableobjects.stagecast.co.htm Want to learn about space missions? What about trying the virtual space center control room modeled on the Houston Space Control Center? http://www. http://www.htm Qarbon – ViewletCam – Captures screens and screen actions.icherubini.outstart. http://www.com/product_r pe.knowledgequest.CONSTRUCT Roleplaying Engine .it/mauro/projects/biosphera/thes is/ Elliot Masie.jibc. http://www. http://www.htm XStream – RapidBuilder – An interactive Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) content and animation authoring system that can be used to build graphical simulations.DazzlerMax – Build simulations with programming.com/ Reusable Objects .maxit.percepsys. which can then be used to build simulations. http://www.Develop interactive role-playing scenarios using a graphical interface without any programming knowledge required.knowledgeplanet. http://www.bc.elearningcentre. Do not reproduce 171 .virtualcontrolroom.Create live screen movies by capturing actions at up to 25 frames a second.knowledgepresenter.nexlearn. http://www.com/ NexLearn – SimWriter – Use this authoring tool to build social simulations that are scenario based.com/ Stottler Henke – SimBionic – Drag-and-drop authoring of complex simulations are possible with this authoring tool. http://www.sdsu.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology contains descriptions of educational technologies in medicine. http://coe. http://www.

Sept. http://www. Viswanathan. Computer simulations in distance education. 1(10).html Sobeih.. A.org/2004/sep2 004/estabrook.ft. and McCloughlin. (2002). Clark (2005). http://www.org/research/li brary/Cherubini_Digital_2002. Learning Circuits. P. Learning Circuits. Simjour.learningcircuits. July. M. eSchool News. J. Learning Circuits. H. U. http://www. Implementation and Evaluation. and pedagogy and elearning and other educational experiences. J. September. The SimAgent TOOLKIT -.com/Learning-DoingComprehensive-SimulationsEducational/dp/0787977357/sr=82/qid=1157039788/ref=pd_bbs_2/1048461686-1018359?ie=UTF8 Billhardt.eschoolnews. A. A.learningcircuits.projects.learningcircuits.html Linser.com/news/showS tory. T. June. In Interaction Design and Children.simplay.medialabeurope.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent. Gash.pdf DeVries. http://www.html Learning Circuits. F. & de Jong.pdf Swaak. M. Discovery simulations and the assessment of intuitive Bibliography Aldrich. October. L. Rasmussen. (2004)..amazon. http://www.com/paulo/documents /papers/BliksteinWilensky-LessIsMoreAAMAS2005.htm eSchool News (2004).learningcircuits. http://www.ncassr.bham. September. 4. A.htm High..org/2004/jun2 004/bersin. Learning by Doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations.cs. http://www.uk/ccs/elearn/resource s.com/content/templat es/clo_feature.. Beyond the current e-learning paradigm: applications of role-play simulations (RPS) .clomedia. A. Technical Report UIUCDCS-R-2004-2466. Jennifer (2004). International Workshop. http://itdl. http://www. 172 © Brandon Hall Research . Clark (2004). Feb. B.bbk.org/multicast/p apers/sobeihTR04. 12. J.http://www.org/Journal/Oct_04/article02. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Simulation levels in software training.. http://www. Bjorn (2004). Chief Learning Officer.com/cms/s/60205728-00f211d9-9d96-00000e2511c8. Les (2004). 2004. (2005). Montréal. (2002). Character simulations make e-learning come alive. Taghiyareh. (2001). http://www. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.pdf Cherubini. 2004. A.org/2004/oct2 004/aldrich. A.uva.ht m Sloman. 2002.net/papers/ELearning. How playing power drives lessons home.PDF Blikstein.html Lunce.ac.org/2001/sep2 001/karrer. Online report. Paper presented at Robocup conference. DigitalSeed: An interactive toy for children’s explorations of plant growth and life cycles. The promise of online simulations. http://www. (2001). 8.html Karrer. UTEternity’s Team Description : Layered Learning in RoboCup Rescue Simulation. Department of Computer Science. San Francisco: Pfieffer. Utrecht. Mazloumian. and Hou. Financial Times. http://www.case studies.. computer games. Paper presented at “E-Learn 2002”. 2004.. Laser. Holland. Aaron (2005). October 15-19. Med students practice on ‘virtual patients’.htm Aldrich. R. and Ip. and Sund Martin. Shannon (2004). Paper presented at the fourth International Joint Conference Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2005). Kamau (2004). T.science.for Philosophers and Engineers.nl/~arnoud/resear ch/roboresc/robocup2004/tdps-RescueSimulation-2004/21. p. Less is More: Agent-Based Simulation as a Powerful Learning Tool in Materials Science. http://www. and Bostan. (2004).cfm?ArticleID=5212 Estabrook. and Wilensky. Making the most of software simulations. October 2004. Six criteria of an educational simulation.ac. Aug.asp?articleid=382&zoneid= 29 Bitaghsir. AACE conference.blikstein. Incorporating Bounded Model Checking in Network Simulation: Theory.. http://www.

knowledge. Seeing through computers: education in a culture of simulation. In Association for Computing Machinery.-Apr.pt/ribie/docfiles/txt20037 291013Discovery%20simulations. Technologies for Interactive Real-Time Simulation of the Doctor’s Office Drug-Sales Process.dei. Online paper at: http://lsm. Biosphera: a prototype design for learning about multivariate systems.icherubini. Mar. http://www. April. The American Prospect. USA. Sherry (1997).it/mauro/publications/Cherubini_ Winters_Strohecker_chi03_mc. http://www. C. Cherubini..protonmedia. N.com/protonMEDIA _white_paper.pdf Turkle. Gary (2003).uc. (2003).prospect..html Winters. White paper commissioned by protonMEDIA LLC.pdf Tjaden. 284-294. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Florida.. M. Fort Lauderdale. CHI2003 Learning Workshop proceedings. 1997.pdf Do not reproduce 173 . http://www. 8(31).org/printfriendly/print/V8/31/turkle-s. 17. and Strohecker.

RFID technology is developing rapidly. according to their application: > > > > EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance) systems Portable data capture systems Networked systems Positioning systems Description Smart tags and labels refer to a variety of technologies that allow mobile devices to read information from different points in an environment. http://www. The major concern with using smart tags and labels is a perceived threat to privacy. Smart tags and labels may be considered like an intelligent barcode replacement with the following advantages: > > > They do not require line of sight or close proximity to the reader to be read.iu.uk/projects/prolearn/m obiles/m02. easily changed.iu. While controversial.ala.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview Prolearn has developed “Treasure Hunt” types of games for learning. or water. Three types of smart tags and labels can be identified: > > > Optical codes such as barcodes and symbology tags Infrared tags Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags (flat. therefore. see the American Library Association Web site on the opposition to the misuse of RFID tags. The RFID computer interface was developed by Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University.aspx?page=epcrfid The Ruth Lilly Health Education Center (RLHEC) has students studying nutrition by picking up food models and placing them on a cafeteria tray. this older technology is being supplanted by newer technologies. this technology is built into many of today’s laptop computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).open.com/default . 2005). some schools use RFID tags to keep track of the location of students for security purposes.” http://vis. RFID systems may be roughly divided into four groups. Selected Examples Checkpoint Systems offers RFID solutions for a large number of industries: http://www. For a full discussion of this issue. especially for tagging retail items in stores. Consumers use RFID readers or “smart carts” to gather information such as the latest price from an item’s RFID tag. Infrared tags use the infrared frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data to a reader.edu/102605_meal. http://uitspress. while passive RFID tags rely on radio frequency energy transferred from the reader to the tag.html Symbology tags are scrambled markings that can be read by special readers that are used in cell phones in Japan (Osawa et al.cfm?Section=i fissues&Template=/ContentManagement/C ontentDisplay. optical tags. Active RFID tags use an internal power source within the 174 © Brandon Hall Research . Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags.Smart Labels and Tags Related terms Barcodes. They are programmable and.cfm&ContentID=77689 While most people are familiar with barcodes and barcode readers. ultra-thin RFID tags are usually called smart labels) Educational applications of RFID technologies are on the rise. which transmits over short distances. infrared (IR) tags.. grease.org/Template. symbology tags tag to continuously power the tag.ac.checkpointsystems. They are physically durable and not susceptible to damage from dirt.html The Pervasive Technology Lab at Indiana University does research on “visualization and interactive spaces. especially in museums and for outdoor education.edu/index. http://cnm. using both infrared (IR) and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and handheld devices.” RFID tags are part of their work on “physical object interfaces.

standards. http://www. & Kondo... Shibuya. Ando. http://www. RFID Technology Creeps into the Toy Box. C.cfm?fuseaction=Reader. A. http://csdl2.asp?id=1222 Ross et al. A.msu. http://www. R.eschoolnews. and Backhouse.. IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education (WMTE’ 05).66 Ward. http://www. 261-263.html Osawa.org/newdl/index.pdf Salcedo. (2003).ViewAbstract&pa per_id=20093 Andrew Robinton. (2003) discuss “Smart Tags and Labels” in their review of this technology in museums and other cultural sites. http://www. S.). Oct. 2005. DIGICULT: new technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. G. Plant Scanner: a handheld PDA using RFID tags for child visitors to the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal.pdf Murray. in a 2005 online article.html?s=feature Heining. 276-283.Aparna Ramchandran wrote a thesis on a Plant Scanner that allowed children to use a PDA connecting to RFID tags to obtain more information about a particular plant. van Kranenburg. March. Corey (2004). 4(3).aace. (Eds. http://www. http://www. James (2006). N.cfm?fuse action=Reader. http://www. Proceedings. T.msu. Infoworld. K. Tsukagoshi.uk/uploaded_documents /TSW0602.edu/~ramchan1/pda/ArrT hesisFinal. Towards a New Digital Library Infrastructure with RFID for Mobile ELearning.. M. R.. Michigan State University.1109/WMTE. Noma. K.cfm?ArticleID=4813 Ramchandran.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low.com/monthly/articl e.2005 . RFID: frequency. http://www. M.org/persagen/DLAbs Toc.digicult. 2004.infoworld. January 1. Aparna (2004).toydirectory. H.. Noda.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/proceedings/&to c=comp/proceedings/wmte/2005/2385/0 0/2385toc. (2005). Donnelly.org/ Bibliography Borck..aace.asp?id=1222 Ross.info/downloads/twr200 3_01_low. and Yano..toydirectory.com/article/06/04/1 3/77019_16FErfidsoft_1. http://www.pdf Osawa et al.. Ogata. (2004). Technology Watch Report 1. 5. Outdoor education by locationawareness using RFID and two-dimensional symbology tags. (2005). M.jisc. Controversial radio ID tags keep track of students.ac.. S. Next-gen RFID tools expand the market. TD Monthly. adoption and innovation. Are book tags a threat? Christian Science Monitor (Online). & Richards..pdf Online Resources For the latest developments in RFID technologies and their uses. Masters Thesis.pdf Robinton. (2005) presented how outdoor education can be enhanced by locationawareness using RFID and 2-dimensional symbology tags. P.computer. Y.ViewAbstract&paper_id=200 93 Do not reproduce 175 .xml&DOI=10. http://www.csmonitor. see the online journal RFIDNews and RFIDOperations. and Dobreva. April 13.com/monthly/articl e. eSchool News Online. Andrew (2005).rfidnews. http://www. and Case.org/newdl/inde infrared tags x.org/news/showsto ry. In Kommers.com/2004/1005/p1 7s01-legn. Proceedings of EDMedia 2005: Montreal. 2004. G. http://www. June 27.. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Y. (2006).digicult. describes the increasing use of RFID tags in toys to increase interactivity and realism.

or check out what everyone wants to do.com/ Ask MetaFilter – A knowledge sharing site where users can post questions and share answers. Also. and to share them. researchers at all levels (students. following a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s (or owners’) research. search. metadata.org/ 176 © Brandon Hall Research . or distributed in e-mails.connotea. users can see what others are Blinking. music. social bookmarking does not fit the traditional methods of teaching and learning. http://www.Get a button to “blink” interesting Web sites. Selected Examples 43Things – Users can write down up to 43 things they wants to do. and organize the academic papers they are reading. tagging.A free service to help academics share. can learn from their professor’s discoveries.citeulike. Fifth. printouts. store. Flickr allows users to post photographs and put tags on them. search others’ references.Social Bookmarking Related terms Folksonomy.com/ Blinklist .com/ BlogMarks – A collaborative link management project based on sharing and keyword tagging in a blog format. For example.” a location to store links that might be lost to time. faculty. share references with colleagues. Flickr held over 100 million images.net/ CiteULike . which could play well in a classroom setting as an instructor tracks students’ progress. Third. and search for a specific user's Blinks. describe.us Web site (http://del. as each member can upload resources discovered. get inspired. There is software to collate and display the main categories and to show the relative frequency of various terms. All of this activity adds up to a collaboratively generated open-ended labeling system for Web content. Different Web sites specialize in different kinds of media. share their stories. finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations. and Web links.metafilter. taxonomies Description Social bookmarking refers to the practice of users posting materials to the Internet and adding tags and labels that identify the content of the materials they have posted. Tagging can then surface individual perspectives within the collective. As of April 2006. so it may take some time before being accepted by the educational/training community.icio.First. the ability to create multi-authored bookmark pages can be useful for team projects. which are then posted to a user's Web site from Blink. in turn.” However. How can social bookmarking play a role in education? Alexander (2006) suggests the following: “Pedagogical applications stem from their affordance of collaborative information discovery. scattered across different browser bookmark settings. while users of the del. For instance. much of it educational in the informal sense of the term. they act as an “outboard memory.us) post their favorite Web sites. http://ask. as clusters of tags reveal patterns (or absences) not immediately visible by examining one of several URLs. ontologies. the practice of user-created tagging can offer new perspectives on one’s research. a visualization of what users as a group think is important.org/ Connotea – A free online reference management system for clinicians and scientists. staff) can quickly set up a social bookmarking page for their personal and/or professional inquiries…. They can save references. http://blogmarks. The result is something called a tag cloud.blinklist.icio. http://www.43things. connect with others. The body of metadata that is built up through social bookmarking by large numbers of people is sometimes referred to as a "folksonomy" in that there is no central authority approving the descriptions that have been posted to the Web. Students. and books. Second. Blink also provides tools to sort. no matter their location or timing. http://www. http://www. Fourth.

com/ Project Pad .simpy.clipmarks.edu/ppad2/ index.shadows. and share photos with others. http://www. http://www.memeorandum.A free.linkroll.com/ Del.pageflakes. http://www.eu/products/networ k_menus.kaboodle. http://www. http://www.com/ MyWeb – Save bookmarked Web pages and share them with others. http://projectpad.A Web site that allows users to both easily store their favorite bookmarks online and find new Web sites based on what other people have suggested.com/ Simpy – Search tags. and a "personal Virtual Private Network" capability to securely connect Kaboodle-enabled LANs together across the Internet.com/ Do not reproduce 177 . Webbased RSS/Atom aggregator with bookmarks and tagging. the users decide.netvouz.A tool that lets users clip and save pieces of Web pages. http://jots.Linkroll is a free link blogging service that allows users to store links to blogs and share them with others.com/ Netscape – This venerable brand has become a social bookmarking site. http://www. and/or books and find them again. and non-hierarchical editorial control. blogging.com/ Magnolia .com/ Netvouz – Create pages of favorite Web bookmarks and then decide to keep them private or make them public. http://myweb2.com Clipmarks .A project to build a Web-based system for media annotation and collaboration for teaching and learning and scholarly applications.feedmarker. http://consumating.A social bookmarking Web site that allows users to keep their favorite Web sites.com/ Jots .com/ Kaboodle .html Feedmarker – Feedmarker is a free. http://ma.html PageFlakes – Allows users to put all Web bookmarks from different sources on one page. With digg. or enter new items and tag them. http://www.northwestern. and discover relevant links.com/ Eventful – Lists events that are happening in a community and tries to match users up with others who are going to events.us/ Digg . http://www.search.com/ Flickr – Store.com/ Furl .Browse the Web and save any page with a single-click. http://www. updated in near real time. http://www.A collaborative bookmarking system that allows users to store. but.jookster.net/ Jookster .us .html Linkroll . Tags can be shared or kept private.com/ Network Menus – Manage Web bookmarks by placing them within a menu structure.netscape.furl. http://www. http://del. They can then share these bookmarks with others and browse related topics.digg. similar to Digg. Also retrieve it easily. music.icio. http://www.Consumating .gnolia.A social search engine that also allows users who are searching for the same things to contact each other. rather than allow an editor to decide which stories go on the homepage.yahoo.org/news. open source Internet application that provides a complete visualization of a user's LAN. RSS.rojo. http://www. http://www. sort. http://flickr.icio. share. http://www. search.A new way to find and connect with people who share hobbies and interests.A technology news Web site that combines social bookmarking.com/support MemeOrandum – This site generates a news summary every five minutes.networkltd. http://blog.eventful.com/archives/beta_up date/index.com/today/ Shadows – A link sharing Web site based on social tagging. based on what is happening in the news media.html Rojo – An RSS feed reader based on adding tags to information. users submit stories for review.

zvents.html Clay Shirky regularly debates the usefulness of ontologies.us. http://upcoming.quickonlinetips. If a city is not there.cfm?x=0&rid=7172 Bibliography Alexander. http://unalog.html http://atomiq.html http://tagsonomy.com/studio/ Tagzania – Add geographical locations to documents and tag them with keywords.com/ Yelp – Find out what is happening in different cities around the U. a technology columnist for InfoWorld.com/archiv es/2005/03/great-flickr-toolscollection/ http://www. Post what a user is buying or what is on his wish list.com/index.com/ Zvents – Events calendar for particular cities. http://www. Web 2.peterme.com/archiv es/2005/09/complete-digg-toolscollection/ > > WWWTools for Education has a page of resources on “Tags.com/ Spurl – Store interesting Web sites and bookmark them.net/SWiK Tabblo – Put photos and words together to tell story.” > > http://magazines. http://www. Online Resources Jon Udell. and social bookmarking.com/wwwtool s/m/7172.yelp. and Digg.infoworld.pdf The Quick Online Tips Web site has hundreds of links to tools to manage social bookmarking with del. tags. and share it with others. allowing them to be divided into sections and to be searched.com/ SWiK . Flickr.com/archiv es/2005/02/absolutely-deliciouscomplete-tools-collection/ http://www. Follow the thread in the following four postings: > > > > http://shirky.com/ Wink – A social searching engine based on tags entered by users. http://www. Bryan (2006).tagzania.com Wists – A social shopping site.” http://www.com/archives/000 558.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7001.net/ Suprglu .smugmug. http://www.fasfind.quickonlinetips.S.com/ Unalog – See what other people are reading on the Web. > http://www.cfm?x=0&rid=6350 http://magazines. Folksonomies and Social Bookmarking” as well as “Sharing Photographs and other Still Imagery.icio.Gathers content from popular Web services and publishes them in one convenient place. http://www. http://swik.suprglu.org/ Veotag – Place tags within video or audio clips.fasfind.A.com/udell/gems/d elicious.org/archives/2005/08/o ntology_is_overrated_followup. March/April 2006. http://www. http://tabblo. http://www.us.educause.spurl.com/writings/ontology_ov errated.veotag.A project to help people collaboratively document open-source software by using tags and notes.html http://www. http://www.quickonlinetips. has an audio presentation online 178 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www.com/ about how tagging works with del.wists. with contributions from users.wink. http://weblog.php/semistructured-meta-data-has-a-posse-aresponse-to-gene-smith/ EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Social Bookmarking.com/ Upcoming – An events calendar by place. anyone can start a directory of events for their own town.0: a new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? EDUCAUSE Review.Smugmug – A site for storing and tagging digital photographs.icio.com/wwwtool s/m/6350. 41(2). This site then displays a map of the location of the posted items.

June 21.. http://www. http://www. http://dlib.sid19_gci1195182. Flack. 2006. Keynote address. and Hannay. First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research (MTSR'05). Tag – You’re Delicious! PBS TeacherSource.00. Hannay.com/originalCo ntent/0. Many2Many. Jon (2005). 2005.org/dlib/april05/lund/04lu nd. http://tomgruber. Social Bookmarking Tools (I): a general review. 11(4). 2004. http://www.com/ideant/files/mej ias_dtd.ejournal. Folksonomies Cooperative Classification and Communication Through Shared Metadata.289142. Tags vs. HP Labs Report.now/2006/05/tag_youre_delicious. B.org.html McGillicuddy. April 2005. http://www.html Mote. SearchCIO. July 20.pdf Gurber. Jan.pbs. Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-up of Apples and Oranges. 2.ascc. J. 2006. M. Tag mania sweeps the Web.infoworld. Collaborative knowledge gardening.weblogged. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Instructional Technology Institute Conference at Utah State University. 2005. Nicholas (2004). Andy (2006). Jon (2004). Ulises (2004). Webblogg-ed. Sept.com/article/05/07/2 0/30OPstrategic_1.infoworld. (2005). T. http://www.php Lund.edu/~mote/papers/Folksono my. Tom.com/article/04/08/2 0/34OPstrategic_1. May 5.html Mathes..com/academic/co mputer-mediatedcommunication/folksonomies. D-Lib Magazine.techtarget. The Structure of Collaborative Tagging Systems. http://ideant.html Coates. http://www.html Udell. Hammond. http://searchcio.hp.adammathes. Ideant.asp?bhcp=1 Carvin.corante. How to build on bubble-up folksonomies. Aug. Facilitating the social annotation and commentary of Web pages. Social consequences of social tagging. 2005. Lund. Will (2005).isi. Social bookmarking tools (II): a case study – Connotea. Shamus (2006).http://www..htm Hammond.. http://ideant. (2005).com/ideant/2005/0 5/facilitating_th. Distributed Textual Discourse: A New Approach to Online Discourse. Plasticbag. Tom (2005). http://www. April 2005.pdf Richardson..org/teachersource/learning . http://www. and Scott.org/writing/ontology-offolksonomy.net/dlib/april05/h ammond/04hammond. May 20.com/2005/08/02#a3841 Udell. 2005.hpl.dlib.html Lawley.com/archives/2005/0 1/20/social_consequences_of_social_taggi ng. Ulises (2005).org/archives/2005/ 09/how_to_build_on_bubbleup_folksonomi es. The New School of Ontologies. Adam (2004).educause. 2..shtml Golder. http://www. 20. InfoWorld. Online Paper. Liz (2005).html Do not reproduce 179 . InfoWorld. B. T. (2005). Trusted Sources.typepad. D-Lib Magazine.ht ml Mejias.pdf Mejias. 2005. B. Online paper.com/research/idl/paper s/tags/tags. T. 11(4). http://many. S.plasticbag. T. August 20.typepad.com. (2005). Social Bookmarking: pushing collaboration to the edge. and Huberman.edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0621.

photo albums. etc.Social Networking Related terms Collaboration. text messaging (SMS) Social Networking Sites Classmates – Connects friends and acquaintances from school. while SNA software analyzes and displays representations of actual social networks. etc. social software. teambased or free-for-all First Person Shooters. (2005) call an “architecture of participation.al. reviewed social networking as an online content format. Networks > > Social networking is a process that can result in many different kinds of learning. etc) > Relations > > Ties > > > Collaborative or Competitive Gaming (MMORPGs. work.) Experience Sharing (blogs. e-mail. Social networking using computer technologies takes a number of forms: > Communications software: Instant messaging. communities of practice. peer-to-peer sharing software Discovery of previous and new contacts: Online personals.” that is. The sites are places to meet people with common interests. family. classmate location sites Sites for linking of trusted friends. They identify five broad classes of social software: > > Communication (IM. shared links. online personals such as Match. social networking sites such as Friendster. an infrastructure that supports and gives life to online communications and collaboration. dating sites. and the military.classmates. and acquaintances: Friend of a friend sites. Friendster.) Relationship Management (Orkut.com. connected by one or more relations Whole configuration of lines and actors Result from the combined set of actors and ties > > > Social networks require what Hammond et. shared link libraries such as del.us. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. tagging. online versions of traditional games such as Chess & Checkers. e-mail. http://www. etc.com 180 © Brandon Hall Research . etc.) Discovery of Old and New Contacts (Classmates. Haythommthwaite (2005) characterized social networks as having the following components: Actors > > Nodes in the network Interact and maintain relations with each other Lines in the network Connect actors in specific kinds of interaction and joint experience Lines between actors Exist between actors. photo sharing sites.icio. 2005).com. SMS. My first report in this series. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing social networks.) Selected Examples We need to distinguish between social networking sites and social networking analysis (SNA) software. Web feeds > Sharing software: Blogs. genealogical boards Collaboration software for working on joint projects Competitive and/or cooperative gaming sites > Description Social networking is one of the major advantages of e-learning when compared with traditional classroom based learning.

documents.com/ introNetworks – Software for connecting people with each other at events. upload photos.com/ My Diary – Keep a diary on the Web at this site. which includes telephone-based support of social network analyses run by the user. It is a comprehensive system designed by academics for academics.com/signin/index.codeville. and within “communities of interest.” this site seems to be aimed at youth over age 16. http://www. Share it with others if desired.org/ Diaryland – Registered users can each keep a diary on this Web site and share it with others with the same interests.friendster.com/ Friendster – Build a network of friends on this site.spartasocialnetworks.com/ Stumble Upon – Discover Web sites a user likes by looking at the recommendations of others online.my-diary. and rate local restaurants and businesses – then share with friends online.com Open Diary – Anyone can keep a diary on this site. in associations. photos.orgnet. http://www. Features photographs of members and ways to connect and communicate. http://www. or as a social network. http://www.com For an example of the use of social networking analysis.faceparty. NetMiner draws an interactive picture highlighting them.com/inflow3.orkut.facebook. as a blog. high schools. http://360.com Platial – A site to create social maps.jsp Face Party – Billed as “the biggest party on earth. which is then open to other readers. http://www. audio.com/ Yahoo 360 – Create an online blog or journal.livejournal. It costs several thousand dollars. see the PBS map Do not reproduce 181 . http://www.linkedin.htm InFlow is targeted at businesspeople who only want to see the most important and basic social network analyses.xanga. workplaces. http://www.” http://www. and geographic regions.esnips.com/ Live Journal . http://www. http://www.fm/ LinkIn – Develop a social network with this software. which are groups of people who can see each others' profiles.com/ Orkut . http://www.com/reg/sample.CodeVille – A site that allows programmers and developers to share code and merge algorithms.com/ ESnips – Add Web snippets and links. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/splash Sparta Networks – Set up a private social network to support an online community using this company's tools.html Last.com/ Xanga – A site devoted to online diaries and journals.html Social Networking Analysis Software UCINET is the most popular and fullfeatured system for social network analysis.stumbleupon.last. http://platial.org/ MySpace – Set up a personal space on this Web site and then search for others with similar interests. Users share their writings and meet each other.freeopendiary.yahoo. http://www.html NetMiner is designed for exploratory visual analysis. List who a person knows and find out who others know. https://www. http://www.intronetworks.com/ucinet.fm – A place to listen to music online and to meet others with similar tastes. If a user asks for the key players in an organization.netminer. Facebook has networks for colleges. video.myspace. https://www.com/introNetwor ks.analytictech.LiveJournal can be used in many different ways: as a private journal. and files and then make them available to others.diaryland.com/ Facebook – An online directory consisting of networks. with a way to annotate the world as you move through it.An online community that connects people through a network of trusted friends. http://www. with a very steep learning curve that can easily discourage novices. http://www.

“Connecting the Dots: How Al Qaeda's global network slowly came into focus for U.S. intelligence (1993-2001).” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ shows/knew/etc/connect.html To see the relationships among all the highjackers during 9/11, check out the map at org.net and the list of related articles using social network analysis. http://www.orgnet.com/hijackers.html Org.net licenses the InFlow set of software tools for social and organizational network analysis. This software produces great graphs of social networks. http://www.orgnet.com/index.html UCINET 6 is inexpensive social network analysis software that, coupled with NetDraw, can produce detailed graphs of social relationships. http://www.analytictech.com/index.htm

links to similar sites. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/ Social Networks is a multidisciplinary scholarly journal on social networking. http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/sae/ son/menu.sht The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a list of social software. http://www.elearningcentre.co.uk/eclipse/Resources/so cial.htm The Social Software Wiki has many materials on social networking. http://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SocialSoftware The Social Software Alliance is a group dedicated to all aspects of social networking. http://www.socialtext.net/ssa/index.cgi For a comprehensive listing of social networking sites, see the list in Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_ networking_websites Social software report from FutureLab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf

Online Resources
For a review of a variety of types of social software, see the JNthWeb Wiki. http://jnthweb.pbwiki.com/SocialSoftware The syllabus for a graduate course on social software at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ideant.typepad.com/ideant/2005/0 8/syllabus_for_gr.html The International Network for Social Network Analysis has resources on social network analysis. http://www.insna.org/ A free introductory text and major bibliography on “social network methods” by Robert Hanneman and Mark Riddle. http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/nettext/ Another free textbook on social software entitled “You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software” by William Davies. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_contents.jsp SocioSite: Networks, Groups, and Social Interaction contains many links to conceptual analyses of the Web. http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/sociosite/topics/in teraction.html Social Network Analysis Instructional Web Site has many downloadable items and

Bibliography
Allee, Verna (2004). Knowledge Networks and Communities of Practice. OD Practitioner, 32(4). http://www.odnetwork.org/odponline/vol32 n4/knowledgenets.html Allen, Christopher (2004). Tracing the Evolution of Social Software. Life with Alacrity, Oct. 13, 2004. http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/10/tr acing_the_evo.html Anderson, Terry (2005). Educational Social Overlay Networks. Virtual Canuck, Nov. 28, 2005. http://terrya.edublogs.org/2005/11/28/he llo-world/ Anklam, Patti (2003). KM and the Social Network. Knowledge Management Magazine, May 2003. http://www.kmmagazine.com/xq/asp/sid.4 CFEAD99-8731-11D7-9D4E00508B44AB3A/articleid.F79B4E31-7854-

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4B6A-9202164FB18672D3/qx/display.htm Barabási, A. L., (2002). Linked: The New Science of Networks, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0452 284392/sr=81/qid=1149214637/ref=pd_bbs_1/1040312434-8042331?%5Fencoding=UTF8 Boyd, Stowe (2003a). Are you ready for social software? Darwin, May 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/050103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2003b). Cracking the social code. Darwin, September 2003. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/090103/ social.html Boyd, Stowe (2004). The Barriers of Content and Context. Darwin, January 2004. http://www.darwinmag.com/read/010104/ context.html Cross, R., Borgatti, S. and Parker, A. (2002). Making Invisible Work Visible: Using Social Network Analysis to Support Strategic Collaboration. California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002. http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/pape rs/borgatti%20%20making%20invisible%20work%20visibl e.pdf Cross, R., Liedtka, J. and Weiss, L. (2005). A Practical Guide to Social Networks. Harvard Business Review, March 2005, http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/hbsp.j sp?doi=10.1225/R0503H Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004). The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =2705 Cross, R. and Prusak, L. (2002). The People Who Make Organizations Go—or Stop. Harvard Business Review, June 2002. http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard. edu/b02/en/common/item_detail.jhtml?id =R0206G Dalsgaard, Christian (2006). Social software: e-learning beyond learning management systems. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, July 12.

http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2 006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm Davies, William (2003). You Don't Know Me, but... Social Capital & Social Software. Research Report, The Work Foundation. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/researc h/isociety/social_capital_main.jsp Downes, Stephen (2004). The Semantic Social Network. Stephen’s Web, Feb. 14. http://www.downes.ca/cgibin/page.cgi?db=post&q=crdate=1076791 198&format=full Downes, Stephen (2005). Emergent Learning: social networks and learning networks. OLDaily, Feb. 11, 2005. http://www.downes.ca/files/osn.html Dvorak, John (2004). Business Networking Systems, Dead Already? PC World, September 20, 2004 http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,16 48185,00.asp Feenberg, A. & Barney, D. (Eds.). (2004). Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers http://informationr.net/ir/reviews/revs163. html (Review) Gladwell, Malcolm. (2000). The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, New York: Little, Brown. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0316 346624/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Gretzel, Ulrike. (2001). Social Network Analysis: introduction and resources. Online paper. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/TSEportal/analysis/social-network-analysis/ Hanneman, R. and Riddle, M. (2005). Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside, CA: University of California. (Online book). http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ Haythomwaite, Caroline (2005). Social Network Methods and Measures for Examining E-Learning. Presentation in the WUN/ESRC Seminar Series, Southhampton, April 15, 2005. http://www.wun.ac.uk/elearning/seminars/ seminars/seminar_two/papers/haythornth waite.pdf

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Jordan, K., Hauser, J., and Foster, S. (2003). The augmented social network: building identity and trust into the next-generation Internet. First Monday, 8(8), August. http://asn.planetwork.net/AugmentedSocia lNetwork.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson, Eva (2003). We-Learning: Social Software and E-Learning. Learning Circuits, Dec. 15. (in 2 parts) > > http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/d ec2003/kaplan.htm http://www.learningcircuits.org/2004/j an2004/kaplan2.htm

http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/11 /02.html Pollard, David (2005d). Rescuing social networking. How to Save the World Blog, June 16, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/06 /16.html Ravid, G. and Raefali S. (2005). Asynchronous Discussion Groups as Small World and Scale Free Networks. First Monday, 9(9), September. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_ 9/ravid/ Rocha, Luis M. (1998). Selected SelfOrganization and the Semiotics of Evolutionary Systems. In: S. Salthe, G. Van de Vijver, and M. Delpos (eds.). Evolutionary Systems: The Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self- Organization, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 341-358. http://informatics.indiana.edu/rocha/ises.h tml. Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. http://www.sagepub.com/booksProdDesc.n av?prodId=Book209124 Sessums, Christopher (2006a). Social Software presentation. Elgg: Community Learning Space, Jan. 23, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/6238.ht ml Sessums, Christopher (2006b). Synthesizing Social Software: Working the Wide Web. Teaching, Learning and Computing, May 5, 2006. http://elgg.net/csessums/weblog/13748.h tml Shirky, Clay (2003). Social software and the politics of groups. Clay Shirky’s Writings about the Internet, March 9, 2003. http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_polit ics.html Siemens, George (2005). Connectivism: learning as network creation. Learning Circuits, Nov. http://www.learningcircuits.org/2005/nov2 005/seimens.htm Tosh, D. and Werdmuller, B. (2004). Creation of a learning landscape: weblogging and social networking in the context of e-portfolios. Draft paper online.

Kleiner, Art (2003). Karen Stephenson’s Quantum Theory of Trust. Booz-Allen’s strategy+business, No. 29. http://www.netform.com/html/s+b%20artic le.pdf Levine, Allan (2006). Social software in action (No real software required). CogDogBlog, Feb. 21, 2006. http://cogdogblog.com/2006/02/21/social -software-in-action-no-real-softwarerequired/ Liebeskind, J., Oliver, A., Zucker, L. and Brewer (1994). Social Networks, Learning and Flexibility: Sourcing Scientific Knowledge in New Biotechnology Firms. Research Report, Institute for Social Science Research. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewconten t.cgi?article=1003&context=issr Owen, M., Grant, L., Sayers, S. and Facer, K. (2006). Social Software and Learning. Research Report, Bristol, UK: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/download/pdfs /research/opening_education/Social_Softw are_report.pdf Pollard, David (2005a). Seven Principles of Social Networking. How to Save the World Blog, July 14, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/07 /14.html Pollard, David (2005b). Social network analysis: what to map. How to Save the World Blog, Aug. 11, 2005. http://blogs.salon.com/0002007/2005/08 /11.html Pollard, David (2005c). The social networking landscape. How to Save the World Blog, Nov. 2, 2005.

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http://eradc.org/papers/Learning_landscap e.pdf Ulanoff, Lance (2005). Six degrees of “who cares?” PCMagazine (Online), Aug. 8, 2005. http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1895,18 42806,00.asp Wood, Molly (2005). Five reasons social networking doesn’t work. CNET, June 2, 2005. http://www.cnet.com/4520-6033_16240543-1.html

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Telepresence Technologies
Related terms
Instant messaging, presence, presentation tools, transparent telepresence

Presence information lets users change their location and have phone calls and emails follow them. "Always on" videoconferencing lets users find colleagues online and convene real-time meetings, as if they were in the same room. There are several subcategories in the field of telepresence, including the following: > > > Telemanipulation devices and telerobotics with live interaction Haptic telesensation Telementoring and Teleteaching

Description
The Internet is a form of technology that can separate humans from each other or can bring them together. A person generally responds better to another person if they have more sensory contact that reveals the humanity of the other person. That is the theory behind telepresence applications. This category of software is designed to reveal the human characteristics of, and the sense of contact with, another person while communicating via the Web. When it is fully successful, the experience is like another person at a remote location being fully present in the live real world location. In 2000, the Internet Society’s Network Working Group suggested that presence “is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g., "online" or "offline") of other users.” The most commonly used presence technology today is “instant messaging,” but other more elaborate technologies, such as remotely operated vehicles (ROV), are also available. In spite of a growing research literature on the phenomenon of “telepresence” in networked environments, most online learning environments are bereft of anything representing the bodily features of teachers or fellow learners. It is not surprising that a two-year study of 169 Internet users found that they were more isolated and depressed at the end of the study than when they started (cited by Dreyfus, 2001). Telepresence systems have three essential sub-systems: a home site with technology that interfaces with the local user, a communication link between the home site and a remote site, and remote site technology that interfaces with the communication link and the person at the remote site.

Selected Examples
The Halo Collaboration Studio is a system of carefully placed plasma televisions, cameras, and microphones that allows two groups of up to six people to hold a live meeting in two separate locations. Conceived by Dreamworks as a response to travel concerns after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, Halo allows meeting participants to make eye contact, share files and documents, and shout over each other to try to be heard, just like during a real meeting. > > http://www.hp.com/halo/index.html http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/newsroom/f eature_stories/2005/05halotale.html

KMi Stadium is the generic label for a suite of activities and software tools that have been evolving since mid-1995 at the UK Open University's Knowledge Media Institute. The common goal of these activities is to stage large-scale live events and on-demand-replays while giving remote participants anywhere on the Internet a sense of 'being there.' http://cnm.open.ac.uk/projects/stadium/ The goal of the Transparent Telepresence Research Group (TTRG) at the University of Strathclyde is to produce the world's first telepresence system where the technology is totally transparent to the user. This would enable the user to experience being fully present, in every sense, at a physically remote real world site. http://telepresence.dmem.strath.ac.uk/ind ex.htm PERCRO is an Italian group with a variety of telepresence projects. Their tag line is

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html http://www.fakespace. Network Working Group (2000). http://gaim.“Simultaneous Presence.php IBM Lotus Sametime – Enterprise instant messaging and conferencing software.berkeley. 6.html Goldberg.nsf/wdocs/homep age GAIM – Gaim is a multi-protocol instant messaging (IM) client for Linux.org/teleimmersio n2. and Windows.pdf Knudsen. Video Mediated Communication: producing a sense of presence between individuals in a shared virtual reality. with controls and video screens that show the remote environment. MacOS X.txt Knudsen.org/ Windows Live Messenger (aka MSN Messenger) – All the main features of instant messaging software.yahoo. Presence applications poised for takeoff. Presence Production in a Distributed Shared Virtual Environment for Exploring Mathematics. The production of presence – distance techniques in education.com/software/swlotus/products/product3. A. http://www-142. Cambridge. Online memo. Fakespace has the world’s first fully immersive visualization system.unizar. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Computer Systems (ACS 2001). the CAVE.ietf. Instant Messaging/Presence Protocol Requirements.jabber.com/ Online Resources Virtual-Presence. C. http://laimuz.hig. Telepresence and Virtual Presence.net/ Jabber – An open.) (2000). http://www.html Yahoo Messenger – Instant messaging software with voice chat.kth. J. http://www.ibm. (Eds. In Soldek. history. http://www. 44-49.edu/~goldberg/art /tele/ Internet Society.) ACS 2000 Proceedings.se/papers/TelePresenc e/CJKPresenceProd.nada.org/teleimmersio n. Hubert (2001).es/teledrive/ Tele-Immersion technology is designed to enable users in different locations to collaborate as if they were in the same room. http://www.com/ eBuddy – A site listing all the major instant messaging tools.advanced. L. and Naeve. secure.org/rfc/rfc2779. http://get. Keynote address at the ISEC conference.pd f Fontana. Nils (2000). http://www. (2002). http://messenger. 2004.org is dedicated to all aspects of virtual presence. > > http://www. http://www. Ken (Ed.advanced. The Robot in the Garden: Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet.percro. On the Internet. and other software that enhances a sense of being at a remote location. http://www2. Sept. Naeve. The driver sits in a box. J. John (2004).com Instant Messaging Tools: AOL AIM – The instant messaging software from America Online.amazon.org/ Teledrive is a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that produces the feeling of “being there” for the driver.live. BSD.com/messenger/overview Do not reproduce 187 .aim. The site contains an extensive bibliography on the topic.com/gp/product/0415 228077/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Enlund.ieor. as well as news. http://www. and Handberg." http://www.no/at/nmm/enlund. (2001).sourceforge.com/news/2004/ 090604specialfocus. Network World.virtual-presence.com/index. and Pejas.acs. C.org Bibliography Dreyfus. A. plus the ability to hook up a Webcam and chat with a video feed between computers. http://www. London: Routledge.. and descriptions of systems for virtual presence.networkworld. http://www. http://kmr. MA: MIT Press.ebuddy. ad-free alternative to consumer instant messaging services.

. Jon (2005). Wired News. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. L.. effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. D. A.Banff. Abbott. and Handberg. and Rusbridge.com/news/culture/0.650 64-0. Donnelly.html 188 © Brandon Hall Research .. (2005).com/article/05/01/2 8/05OPstrategic_1.infoworld.. Calgary. Davide. Ins and outs of teledildonics. 28. (2001). W. C. Dobreva. Jan. S. Regina (2004). H. Being There: Concepts. et al. M. G. http://www.swedishlearninglab.digicult. (Eds. H.se/pdf/CID-206.) (2003). When time-shifting and telepresence collide. Knudsen. http://www. New learning modes in the production of presence – distance technique for education.wired.. A. June 1. http://www..) The Future of Learning – Learning for the future: Shaping the Transition. Alberta. Germany: Hagen. Amsterdam: IOS Press. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3.com/gp/product/1586 033018/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 Ross.pdf Sponberg.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. McHugh. January 2005. http://cid. In Hoyer. F. 2002. September 24. http://www. M. and IJsselsteijn.kth. (Eds.nada.amazon. InfoWorld.pdf Udell.pdf Lynn. http://www.org/docume nts/Sponberg.Learning.html Riva.modes.

television. videocasting. is an essential part of learning in today’s world. Internet companies like Google and Yahoo are developing video search engines. the largest Internet telephone service. IPTV introduces a level of flexibility compared to traditional broadcasting. 2005). video on the Internet is not readily searchable. is emerging as a strong competitor to broadcast and cable television. A new version of television. although new tagging technologies may soon solve this problem. sending television over the Web (IPTV) is already big in Japan and gaining steam in the rest of the world. entitled Emerging ELearning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. there is a lot of movement in the field of online video. My first report in this series. Do not reproduce 189 . BT. Video blogging has become common. Video is coming at us from all sides – from Webcams. 2002). However. reviewed video as an online content format. vodcasting. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing educational video and IPTV. In spite of the limitations. vlog > > Interactive Advertising E-learning Atwere and Bates (2003) say that the technology needs sufficient flexibility to address the following pedagogical considerations: > > > > How to turn a passive viewer into an active learner How to make learning opportunities more accessible in the home How to bridge the gap between ‘edutainment’ and ‘engaged learning’ How to integrate learning support systems (human and electronic) to enable engaged learning within a TVbased learning environment The types of interactivity needed to enhance the learning experience through interactive digital TV (interaction through a return channel) Description Video. cell phones. bandwidth becomes an issue. screencasting. Once video goes on the Internet. even a video plug-in for Skype. Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). and video publishing and peer-to-peer sharing of videos are the norm.Video and IPTV Related terms Internet television. Further. games Tax payment Information services Shopping > Despite the high quality of many productions. recently launched its own entertainment division to send video content over phone lines. PDAs. telepresence. It is usually necessary to keep the video window small and have just acceptable image quality to accommodate the huge files sizes needed by digital video (although quality is rapidly improving). tlearning. according to Foroohar (2006). IPTV. As the following examples show. streaming video. with a great potential to impact e-learning in the near future. Video is used everywhere in television and is common on the Internet. amateur and professional video cameras. Britain's largest telecom firm. educational broadcasting has generally failed to have a major impact on the quality of learning experiences in schools. in all its formats. video blogging. Examples of the services IPTV can offer include the following: > > > > > > > > > > > Unlimited channels of digital TV and music Personal video recording (PVR) Pay-per-view Caller ID on screen Video-on-demand (VOD) VOD by subscription (SVOD) E-mail Internet. making videos can be an engaging and empowering form of education (Goldfarb.

asp?Arti cleID=8104 On2 Technologies produces advanced video compression tools that give great results on the Web. http://www.com/default.com/ veotag allows users to upload videos.com/ Brightcove allows users to publish and syndicate video content to the Web.uk/index. or set-top box.dmeurope. http://participatoryculture.com/ The XstreamEngine2 from Winnov is the only encoding solution on the market to process up to eight distinct video inputs in a single unit and then simultaneously stream multi-format broadcasts in real time at various bit rates to thousands of users at the most optimized resolution for their device.concord. which allowed users to create a short animated cartoon on a Web site and email it to friends.org/ At YouTube. improves the satisfaction of the client. see Rocketboom. http://www.html Dialcom Networks. low bandwidth video stream.rocketboom. tag them. and maintains loyalty.Selected Examples Media Logic’s iSee communications technology enables organizations to deliver live audio.com The Rocketboom creators describe all the hardware and software tools needed to produce their program. with IPTV.bittorrent.youtube.htm Google Video contains amateur videos as well as offerings from the major television networks.” which allows uploading of videos to its Web site.” Users can upload video clips for free.com/ BitTorrent. and multimedia content to customers. the Internet telephone service. See examples at: http://www.com.org/ Google has started to digitize historically significant video from the National Archives of the USA. has launched a plug-in providing high-quality video capabilities for Skype. See the current selection at: http://video.com/nara. Recently Google signed a deal with MTV to offer music video clips as part of Google Ads.on2.htm According to Axor Corporation of Argentina. desktop. users can tag their own videos and post them to the Web. See samples at: http://www. partners. DFILM launched the MovieMaker. video.bittorrent. voice.apple. http://www.org Ourmedia calls itself a “global home for grassroots media.dfilm. plus see thousands of video clips posted by others. a three-minute videoblog.medialogic.veotag.com Apple’s iTunes site is a major distributor of downloadable video for playback on an iPod or a computer screen. http://www.com For an example of a video blog.com/index_about. whether dial-up.xstreamengine.org/ In 1999.ar/iptv_en. http://www.ourmedia.org is the site for BitTorrent developers to meet and work on future developments of this open source protocol.com/ 190 © Brandon Hall Research . a Spanish specialist in software applications for video communication solutions and remote team-working in real time. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/pressrelea ses.brightcove. http://www. PDA. or students through a high quality. http://www.co.html VideoPaper Builder 3 is a multimedia creation tool for users of any level of technology skills. http://www.axor. http://www.com/itunes/videos/ The Participatory Culture Foundation released its “Democracy Internet TV Platform.php BitTorrent is popular peer-to-peer video sharing software.google. It is still going strong at: http://www. http://www. and data services increases the profits by subscriber. cellular.addictingclips.google. http://vpb.rocketboom. and divide them into chapters or segments.com/extra/video_t ools/ Addicting Clips allows a user to upload a video clip for sharing with others. the “triple play” of video. employees. http://video.

lsda. Wi-Max.upenn. The site already contains nearly 6. http://www. http://www.masternewmedia. by alphabet.” Bibliography Atwere. video.com The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) has a recent set of resources and interviews on audio and video file distribution with BitTorrent. https://www.com/seeds/index. Dec.uk/tlearning/contents.masternewmedia.veoh. but business models are fuzzy.org/mobile_te levision/mobile_television_trends/mobile_t elevision_coming_20051019.hpc. http://www.h tm Mefeedia is a no frills portal devoted to video blogger feeds.com Knowledge@Wharton has an article entitled “Online Video: the market is hot.as p?id=8954&c=6 Bates.” http://www. and by tags.pdf Bardia.masternewmedia. read “Ten video sharing services compared.com David Woolley collects and posts links on videoconferencing on his Web site.educause.A study into TV-based interactive learning to the home: Final Report.Veoh allows individuals to broadcast their own television shows on the Internet or watch video posted by others.com/article. http://eduscapes.uk/eclipse/Resources/str eaminglearning. termed “mobile television.ht m EDUCAUSE has published a brochure entitled “7 things you should know about…Videoblogging. Robin Good Blog.ht m Canali De Rossi. Peter (2003). P. www.” http://www.mil/index.cfm?articleid=1519 Online Resources “Multimedia Seeds” is a Web site devoted to audio.” Subtopics include video and streaming media. and visual resources.pjb.htm The US Navy’s Human Performance Center Web site has an extensive listing of resources on digital video.html The e-Learning Centre in the UK supplies a major listing of online resources for educational uses of streaming media. through the Prodigem peer-to-peer content site. For example. Online article at: http://www. Wi-Fi.500 vlogs organized by popularity. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.ht m The elearnspace blog by George Siemens has a page devoted to “Media. t-learning Study . Luigi (2005b).” http://www.com/webconf/video.wharton.co. Wi-Bro: Do not reproduce 191 . and Bates. http://www. http://www.htm The Robin Good blog (by Luigi Canali De Rossi) also has an article on using video taken with cell phones.cfm? RID=TTE_OT_1000021 DV Guru offers advice on all aspects of digital video.org. Luigi (2005a).elearnspace. Beyond Wireless Broadband.uk/files/pdf/1443. which users can submit.co.navy.htm A third useful article from the Robin Good Blog on the impact of changes in television and streaming video is entitled “Watch TV Stations From The World Around: Online TV Player. Pradeep (2004). 1.mefeedia.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7005.elearningcentre. Industry Perspectives: emerging video apps need programmability and flexibility. D. Beyond WiMax: Wi-Bro Coming.streamingmedia.org/news/20 05/12/01/beyond_wimax_wibro_coming.com/ http://www.com/2006/04/07/tenvideo-sharing-services-compared/ or http://dvguru.htm Canali De Rossi.dvguru.org/news/20 05/03/26/watch_tv_stations_from_the. (2003).pdf The IPTV Industry blog has vast resources on this topic.masternewmedia.edu/articl e.spider. 2005.” http://knowledge.iptv-industry. http://www. http://www.thinkofit. http://www. Interactive TV: a learning platform with potential.org/doing/media. http://www.org/video/vid eo_publishing/video_distribution_via_p2p_ online_service_Prodigem_20050706.

Asensio. April 26. http://www2.com/adcinstitute/ wpcontent/Missouri_Podcasting_White_Paper. IAT Services White Paper.ibm.com/showAr ticle. Telcos face tough road deploying IPTV. IBM Institute for Business Value study.XMax Goes The Distance. C. Brian (2002). Manchester. (2005). Durham. http://www. Brian (2005). Streaming Media in Higher Education: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Nov. Tom (2005). University of Missouri. P.pdf 192 © Brandon Hall Research .php Taplin. (2003). NC: Duke University. Campus Technology.). 2005. http://edmarketing. 2005. 2005.com/gp/product/0822 329646/104-03124348042331?v=glance&n=283155 IBM (2006). June 6. Video/Audio Production for Internet-Based Courses: An Overview of Technologies for Use on both Desktop and Handheld Devices. discussions and implications. Podcasting and VODcasting: definitions. L.campustechnology. Video Streaming: a guide for educational development. Networking Pipeline. http://www. M. Newsweek (International Ed.cfm?fuse action=Reader. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom. Mon. Proceedings of E-Learn 2003 (pp. pdf Nolle. and Swenson.apple.uk/isd/lwt/clickgo/th e_guide/Video_Streaming-The_Guide.org/newdl/index.jhtml?articleID=161600153 Goldfarb. http://www. UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.networkingpipeline.) (2002). Dec. Feb.com/id/8018601/ site/newsweek/ Friedman. http://www. G.amazon.com/bcrmag/2005/02/p08 . In Richards. http://www. Matthew (2005). http://www-rcf. 417-419). and Young. 7.com/article.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge5106248-end-of-tv-full.org/news/20 05/12/02/beyond_wireless_broadband_wif i_wimax. Changing Channels. S.ViewAbstract&paper_id=149 66 Foroohar.pdf Klass.msn.masternewmedia. http://www1..).aace.umist. 2005. The IPTV Revolution.usc. http://www. Peter (2005).edu/~jtaplin/IPTV. The end of TV as we know it: a future industry perspective.asp?id=7769 Meng. 8-9. Jonathan.msnbc. Robin Good Blog. 2. Rana (2005). Online paper.ac.htm Curtis. http://www. (Eds.bcr. What’s the real future of video? Business Communications Review.pdf Thornhill. (Ed. 2005.

http://www1. http://www. Near Eastern.ca/index. To do this. http://solipsis. mixed reality. and the aim of the virtual experience.html Equator is a six-year interdisciplinary research collaboration to explore the integration of physical and digital realities.htm A collaborative project at Columbia University between the Graphics and User Interfaces Lab in the Computer Science Department and the Building Technologies Group in the Graduate School of Architecture applies augmented reality in the construction industry. > > > > > > > Selected Examples Solipsis is an open source peer-to-peer system for a massively shared virtual world. distributed virtual environments. http://ancient.html Kahootz is a powerful set of 3-D multimedia tools that allows students and teachers to be creators. Creed. skin color. inventors.edu/graphics/proj ects/arc/arc. The ability to inhabit any type of body and to customize one's own look gives many people the opportunity to express themselves as they truly feel and not as society forces them to.html Description Virtual reality allows worlds to be created that simply do not exist except as computer creations.org. http://www.Virtual Reality Related terms Augmented reality.shapedc. and re-experiencing or reusing past events.org/highlights/augur.p hp/Main_Page The Ancient Spaces Web site from the University of British Columbia allows users to reconstruct and play with historical properties. a portable mixed reality interface for outdoor use. and storytellers. Virtual 3-D spaces allow full recording of any activity.uk/showcase/sav annah/savannah.ac. By using aspects of game play. they must successfully adopt strategies used by lions. Canali De Rossi (2004) lists 10 advantages of collaborating or learning inside a 3-D virtual immersive workspace: > > > The space is persistent.columbia.netofpeers.kahootz. simulation. It aimed to bring experiential and game-based learning to the highly traditional curricula of the Classical.uk/ In collaboration with the Equator project (part of the EU's Disappearing Computer initiative). interaction. Video from an onboard camera is embedded into this virtual environment. Children ‘play’ at being lions in a savannah. exchange enabling. Shape has developed the augurscope. The augurscope consists of a tripod-mounted display that can be wheeled to different locations and then rotated and tilted to view a virtual environment that is aligned with the physical background.futurelab.equator. http://www. virtual reality can be a powerful e-learning tool or a colossal waste of time. designers. There are no central servers at all: it relies Do not reproduce 193 . Exploration and discovery are enabled. Fantasy and imagination can be unleashed.cs. http://www. and Religious Studies department. virtual environments only on end-users' machines. augmented virtuality. desktop virtual reality. Videoconferencing is not required.ubc. and look do not count much in virtual spaces. Depending on the level of realism achieved. Savannah challenges children to explore and survive in the augmented space.com Savannah is a strategy-based adventure game where a virtual space is mapped directly onto a real space. A user's learning experience can be designed to fit specific task needs with a flexibility and immediacy impossible in real life. Risks are reduced for dangerous and unorthodox explorations of new spaces. People with major physical handicaps appear as capable and beautiful as anyone else.net/wiki2/index.arts.

activeworlds. https://www. Triantafillou. T.net/ Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory of the College of Education. and Tsiatsos. Research report. > http://vads.. http://www.com The Web site of the Virtual Reality Lab at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology is an outstanding place to learn more about creating virtual reality.hpc. (2006).htm Active Worlds is a virtual reality community that is appealing to educators.uk/guides/using_g uide/sect34.cfm ?PostID=19660 > http://vads.gr/ru6/publications/8981624 .ahds.healthdatamanagement. http://www.secondlife. http://www. Navy’s Human Performance Center has a Web page of Virtual Reality References and Links. C. One is called “Creating and Using Virtual Reality: a guide for the arts and humanities. Technology Area . http://ru6.pdf Campus Technology Magazine (2006). Hornig. http://ru6. G. 3D virtual spaces for learning and collaboration.S. http://www. http://vrlab. 175-199. Philopoulos. http://ru6..ahds.html The U. A. Paper presented at ICALT 2001.as p The CREATE tool provides the ability to author training and performance enhancement solutions that are scalable from classrooms to mobile context aware and mobile augmented reality environments. C.ecu. Its Active Worlds Educational Universe has been designed for teachers and students. Journal of Network and Computer Applications.ac. T.cti.co m/html/current/CurrentIssueStory. Robin Online Resources The Arts and Humanities Data Service has two guides to good practice.ErgoNetz is the Internet service of the Virtual Reality laboratory at the Institute for Occupa-tional Physiology at the University of Dort-mund in Germany. maintains a list of links on using virtual reality in educational settings.navy. (2001).com/article.edu/vrel.cti.asp?id=18952 Canali De Rossi.gr/ru6/publications/9579523 .ergonetz.ch/About/about_index. Learning and Research in the Visual Arts” (see the case study of a Virtual Reality Multi-User Environment). C.uk/guides/vr_guid e/index.com/edu/index. The Network includes 58 partners and it is being coordinated by the Institute of Communication and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens in Greece.epfl.cti. 24. Educational Virtual Environments: Design Rationale and Architecture.org/index.de Second Life is a virtual reality environment with many uses.ac. T. http://vr.com http://www.opencroquet. an island for people with Asperger’s Syndrome teaches them to socialize in the safety of a virtual community.html Croquet is a new open source software platform for creating deeply collaborative multi-user online applications. For example. Luigi (2004).” and the other is called “Using Digital Resources in Teaching. (2001).cfm? RID=POL_OT_1000274 INTUITION is a Network of Excellence focused on virtual reality and virtual environments applications for future workspaces. > > http://www.intuition-eunetwork.. 2006.coe. e-Learning through distributed virtual environments.campustechnology.informationinplace. including education. http://www. The site includes usability guidelines for developing virtual reality and examples of how it is used in training.pdf Bouras.html Bibliography Bouras. and Tsiatsos. V. and Tsiatsos.spider.pdf Bouras. http://www.mil/index. Campus Technology. East Carolina University. August 9.Virtual and Immersive Learning Innovators: Appalachian State University & Purdue University.gr/ru6/publications/6168107 7.html 194 © Brandon Hall Research . Architectures Supporting e-Learning Through Collaborative Virtual Environments: the Case of INVITE.

S.au/uicee/worl dtransactions/WorldTransAbstractsVo1No2 /06_Liarokapis10.p df Prasolova-Førland...unt.. http://www.cs. 2005. and Seyedarabi. Sept. Conlan.Good Blog. and White. F. (Section on Virtual Reality). http://www.com/Reference.learningcircuits.pdf Kaplan-Leiserson.actapress.it/Journal/Pape rs/Queen.com/PaperInfo. M. 35. World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education. Petridis. and Hicks. http://www. http://www. Guardian Unlimited. Proceedings.icc2005. Web-based Education 2005 conference. (2005). Virtual teaching aids become a reality.unibo.actapress. International Archives of Photogrammetry. P.org/conferences/OLN2003/ papers/Dickey3DVirtualWorlds. 1(2). Dec.pdf Katterfeld.tcd. F. Prometeus Journal of e-Learning. Istanbul.com/PaperInfo.10577. Paper presented at the eLearn 2004 conference. Donnelly. http://www. 27. G.monash.1314022. Dobreva. A. Stephen (2004). 2004. Bertolotto. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector.edu. Paper presented at the OLN 2003 conference. (2005).masternewmedia. (2002).aspx? PaperID=19676 For bibliography see: http://www. Virtual Landscapes: An Interactive E-Learning Environment Based On Xml Encoded Geodata. Desktop virtual reality in e-learning environments. E. Michelle (2003)..aspx ?paperId=20697 Monthienvichienchai. 3D Online Learning Environments for Emergency Preparedness and Homeland Security Training.pdf Hoare. C. Monahan. http://www. Trend: augmented reality check. C. Proceedings.ikg.pdf Do not reproduce 195 . Multimedia Augmented Reality Interface for E-learning (MARIE). (2004). Abbott. http://www.Conlan/public ations/CELDA05_monthienvichienchai_B. 28.pdf McArdle. (2004). Learning Circuits. 2004. Conceptual Agent Models for a Virtual Reality and Multimedia E-Learning Environment. http://www. Gerard (2002). P.. Lister.guardian. Proceedings of 22nd International Cartographic Conference.html Liarokapis.elearning. Ekaterina (2005).pdf Ross.html Jones.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 2004. http://www. A.. Eva (2004). No.htm Katterfeld.edu/gjones/pdf/Jone s_elearn04. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3..htm Dickey. M. (2005). July 9-16. O.aspx? PaperID=19716 Queen..ie/Owen.actapress. Place metaphors in educational CVEs: an extended characterization.org/htmleng/english.. https://www. Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. http://www. (2005). Rationale for the deployment of virtual reality technologies in schools. G.org/2004/09 /27/3d_virtual_spaces_for_learning. & Sester.org/2004/dec2 004/0412_trends. ISPRS. J.00. La Coruna/Spain. D. 3D Virtual Worlds: An Emerging Technology for Traditional and Distance Learning. http://courseweb.eng. R.de/publikationen/publikationen/ 2004/istanbul_Katterfeld.uk/elearning/ story/0.unihannover.digicult. T. Sept.co. 2004. M. and Mangina. January 2005. and Sester. 1. M. and Rusbridge. http://education. Vol. McHugh.oln. M. M. Can Museum Exhibits Support Personalised Learning in Collaborative Classroom Activities By Using Augmented Reality? Paper presented at the CELDA 2005 conference. Web Based Education 2005 conference.

entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research.net/omnigator/models/ index. http://www.ontopia. Seeing a picture works with our unconscious in that the brain processes pictures much faster than it analyzes data. location based systems. graphics. A good visualization can give an improved understanding or “big picture” view of a complex phenomenon. My first report in this series. such as a blog.semagix. allowing for innovation or new understandings. data mapping. learners and educators by providing a way to connect data with curricula and tools to guide and facilitate meaningful and appropriate use of the data. cognitive collage. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing visualizations. cybercartography. et al. Complex visualizations and the tools that create them can also cost a lot of money. The VGEE consists of four elements: > > > An inquiry-based curriculum for guiding student exploration A learner-centered interface to a scientific visualization tool A collection of concept models (interactive tools that help students understand fundamental scientific concepts) A suite of El Niño-related data sets adapted for student use (http://www. visualization can represent alternative points of view. reviewed visualization as an online content format. See some amazing demos at: http://www. For an example.com/solutions. geographical information systems. data filtering. Selected Examples The Visual Geophysical Exploration Environment (VGEE) addresses the needs of data users. dynamic displays. http://www. pattern recognition.com/products/vizserver/ Semagix’s Freedom is one platform that combines semantic representations with visualization techniques. On the other hand. The ability to see and move through “the big picture” will be a commonplace educational objective in the near future.” There are four primary stages to creating visualizations: data input. see ZoomClouds. images. Flash.jsp Unified Field shows examples of 4-D dynamic data visualization for the financial sector. Finally. As complexity theory develops as an approach to education. http://www.zoomclouds. Humans analyze visual information better than written text. and data rendering. mapping.com 196 © Brandon Hall Research . Another is the category of “artificial life simulators.unifiedfield. new ways of modeling complex phenomena are emerging that will require tracking.ucar.dpc. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) require a lot of explanation. GIS.Visualization Technologies Related terms Cognitive maps. 2003).com/ Ontopia’s Omnigator 007 is a free topic map navigator.inxight. a bad visualization can often be very confusing or misleading and > Vizserver is a product from Inxight that shows visualizations using hyperbolic startree maps. Mapping of thoughts (“mind maps”) or pathways is one example of this genre of educational materials. which showcases their potential.edu/vgee) Description Visualization is the process of representing abstract information in the form of images that can assist in the understanding and analysis of the data (Ross. 2005). http://www. so purchase decisions in this field need to be taken seriously.html “Tag Clouds” are clusters of social bookmarks that relate to a specific site. The educational advantages of visualization are many. They are visual representations of the relative frequencies of various topics discussed.

Museum Edition. Especially take a look at Newsmap as a fresh way to view the headlines. Be sure to explore the “zoo. http://esapub.nasa.ul. a young graphic designer. http://www. Sample the collection at: http://svs. 2004. Texas uses VRCO Full Circle.0 authoring system. VR.com/infographics/ Visualize the history of Manhattan through the interactive time maps at the Manhattan Timeformations project.skyscraper.lecielestbleu.com Web site in Tokyo. http://news.” http://richie. http://www. which allow models and information from various sources to be virtually exhibited.edu/index. has a Weblog devoted to the visualization of information. http://www.idc.medibolt.” http://www. and display (without glasses!). Sample their efforts Do not reproduce 197 .in English or Spanish.stm The visualization of scientific data is also available from the Grok-It Science Web site. Free demo at: http://www.ddd. http://www.org/ AutoStitch is the world's first fully automatic 2-D image stitcher.com “Type is an organism” with intelligence and a life on the Web.mit.esrin.html Le Ceil Est Bleu Web site from France is an amazing collection of visualizations and animations.bbc.pdf Dynamic Digital Depth provides expert stereo 3-D solutions for 3-D content creation.media. Explore a series of visualization experiments at: http://www. See his list of resources at: http://www.org/timeformations/ intro.ppt Visualize the conversations in a chat room with “chat circles. These include the NPAC/OLDA Visible Human Viewer. See: http://www. allowing users to access complex geophysical data in their preferred mode.asp NASA maintains a “Scientific Visualization Studio” at the Goddard Space Flight Center. and visualization applications.edu/ Paul Nixon.”’ BBC News.marumushi. Capable of stitching full view panoramas without any user input whatsoever.typorganism.ie/eoin/presentations/In formation%20Visualisation%20in%20Inform ation%20Retreival.uk/2/hi/science/nature /3608385. http://www.html For a practical application of visualization.vista. http://www. delivery.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.gov/index.html VRCO is a company specializing in producing advanced visualizations.bham.com A lot can be learned from a 3-D visualization of the human body .nih.medtropolis.ac.vrco. see ‘Scientists seek “map of science.com FeedTank is a collective of digital artists using new technologies to create playful interactive spectacles.it/eoq/eoq68/Envi View_68.utexas. April 7th. Java applet tool that allows users to select and view 2-D slices of bodies. http://chatcircles.nlm.uk/ A number of visualization techniques are outlined and demonstrated by Eoin Brazil of the University of Limerick in his presentation “Information Visualisation in Information Retrieval.com/ Program 3-D graphics using the Alice v2.com/VBody.nixlog. http://www.com Extraordinary visualizations come from Marcos Weskamp and his marumushi. a visualization system comprising immersive 3-D display and dedicated software.html The Texas Memorial Museum in Austin. http://www. http://www.alice.cs.com/ Numerous software visualization products for the Visible Human Project that aims to create complete 3-D representations of male and female human bodies. AutoStitch can be used for panoramic photography.ubc. It has images of space and the earth from space.esa.co.” which use colors and geometric forms to convey presence and activity.The European Space Agency’s EnviView gateway has been introduced to facilitate the visualization of satellite information.gsfc.ca/~mbrown/autostitch/ autostitch.tmm.html The University of Birmingham has a Visual and Spatial Technology Centre with many examples of the use of visualization.

idashboards.com/ The Visible Human Project is the creation of complete.html The Omnigator from Ontopia is a technology showcase and teaching aid designed to demonstrate the power of Topic Maps.mccrackendesign. http://www. and information presentation. http://www. http://www. http://www.unifiedfield.jsp VRVis is an Austrian company promoting the use of visualization through virtual reality.corda.umd.vicodi.gfdl.edu/~hanson/ Check out the fascinating changes in the art of map design described in the online article Experiments with Territories: Post Cartographic Map Design.com CenterView http://www.com/applicati on.com TimeMap is a novel mapping applet that generates complete interactive maps with a few simple lines of HTML code.nih.htm How do users visualize very large data sets.owu.noaa. one million items.html Top Tier http://www.com/ OmniGlobe allows visual displays that are best mapped onto a sphere. http://www.com/cat/dashb oard/index.org/about. http://www.indiana.com/index.html Semagix’s Freedom platform combines semantics with visualization for knowledge representation.edu/hcil/millionvis/ Using time as an added dimension.ibm.ambientdevices.ontopia. http://www.at/home.microsoft.edu/postcartoaag06.xcelsius. Professor Andrew Hanson does work in this area and has written a book about quaternions. http://www.html Visualizations of developing weather systems have been produced by NOAA.arcscience.com/index. The VICODI Contextualisation Environment addresses how to manage search. anatomically detailed.html “Executive dashboards” that aggregate and summarize large amounts of business data from within a corporation are available from several vendors. http://research.gov/products/vis/gall ery/ The objective of VICODI is to enhance human comprehension of digital content on the Internet.com Digital Dashboard http://msdn. 3dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. http://makingmaps. This objective is reached by introducing a novel visualization and contextualization environment for digital content.cs.net/omnigator/models/ index.spotfire. http://www.html XCelsius http://www. in the U.html Spotfire DecisionSite is software to visualize data to make decisions. http://clustrmaps.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.vrvis.semagix.cs.html Quaternions are the key tool for understanding and manipulating orientations and rotations in 3-D Cartesian space.at: http://www. See their tool set and examples of their work. retrieval. http://www.org/mif/scivizgallery/ galleries.htm The American Museum of Natural History has produced interesting visualizations and animations of a variety of natural objects. http://www.feedtank. Techniques for solving this problem have been developed at the University of Maryland.S.nlm. for example.com/omni.com WorkPlace http://www. United Field produces 4-D visualizations of financial data.com/msdnmag/issu es/0700/Dashboard/ iDashboard http://www. See this technology in action. including the following: Ambient Dashboard http://www. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.com/solutions.amnh. It provides a way of easily enriching Web pages with historical or contemporary information that 198 © Brandon Hall Research .htm ClustrMaps locates all visitors to a Web site and displays them on a world map.

for 3-D modeling. http://research.com Pixologic is 2. http://www. for well log and borehole plotting. cfm Do not reproduce 199 . especially for displaying and analyzing geospatial data.visualcomplexity. for 3-D data visualization.com The Visual Thesaurus allows users to input a word and then watch while the software builds a set of dynamic visual links to related terms. It works with the leading brands of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Geological Survey (USGS) to create the Web's first interactive topographical map of the entire United States.5-D modeling and rendering software. http://www.com Golden Software produces and sells a variety of mapping software packages.edu/ Intergraph is a world leader in delivering software and services for managing and visually representing complex information. networks. for 3-D landscaping and animation. Carrara. http://www.media. for 2-D and 3-D graphing. http://www. http://www. http://www.advizorsolutions. and rendering. Grapher. and anomalies in data.pixologic.com Visualization Tools: ESRI is a leading geographical information systems and mapping software company. and DAZ|Studio with pre-built 3-D characters.golden. and rendering software.html Microsoft’s Visualization and Interaction for Business and Entertainment (VIBE) team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays. They have worked with the U.visualanalytics.com links to several hundred visualizations of complex data sets.” http://www. http://www. Strater.visualthesaurus. http://www.daz3d.oziexplorer.com Accurender developed Raytrace and radiosity rendering software for architectural applications. for digitizing and coordinate conversion. http://www.com/vibe/ OziExplorer GPS Mapping Software runs on a PC or laptop. many of which are unique.timemap.S.softill. Didger. including the following: Voxler.com Online Resources Visualcomplexity.com Music Animation Machine turns music into a set of visualizations. modeling. trends.com Mapland has mapping software that is based on data in Microsoft Excel.topozone.com Okino makes visual simulation data translation. http://www. associations. including the following: Bryce.com Mapinfo gives business intelligence information about a specific geographical location.com/vc/index.esri. http://www. http://www. http://www. MapViewer.com/ ADVIZOR’s Visual Discovery software enables people to make better decisions from their business data. Clicking a related term extends the process.intergraph. http://tangible. and.com VisualAnalytics’ product VisuaLinks is the premier analytical tool for "connecting the dots" by extracting and visually analyzing data to uncover patterns. Over 30 are “knowledge networks.musanim.com/ form·Z is an award winning general purpose solid and surface modeler with an extensive set of 2-D/3-D form manipulating and sculpting capabilities. http://www.accurender.com/mam/mam.microsoft.formz.mapinfo. http://www. animation. Try a demo at: http://www.goes far beyond static JPG map images.com DAZ3D offers several visualization packages.okino.com/ Tangible Media Group is part of the MIT Media Lab and focuses on the seamless couplings between the physical world and the virtual world.mit. http://www. for thematic and analytical mapping.net/ TopoZone is the Web's center for professional and recreational map users.

Readings in Information Visualization: using vision to think.pdf Course outlines with links for several different university courses on visualization are available on the Web. EXYSTENCE network.editlib.org/cs/NoE/ Roadmapworkingpaper_vfinal1.php?rec=lli bre&lang=2#SemiologieGraphique Bertin. together with their estimated depth of influence. M. P.sdsu.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview A section on visualization is regularly updated on the Robin Good blog. A comprehensive list of Web resources on topic maps is found at: http://www. http://www.mit. K.edwardtufte. Following are two: > > http://graphics.) (1999). Paris: La Haye. Jacques (1983). and Shneiderman. and Woodill. http://www. J.. as part of his doctoral work at MIT.com/ Bibliography Alpert. It is also a visual discovery engine that searches for favorite movies.ac.ViewAbstract&paper_id=17759 Anderson.topicmaps. les réseaux.media.ualbert a. Conference on Complexity Science and Educational Research. http://www.media. > http://www. (2003). > > http://acg. is available online.liveplasma.pdf Bergmann. 14(1). Towards a Roadmap of Complexity Research Using a Bibliometric Visualisation Tool.iu.gvu. Proceedings.gatech. The Semiology of Graphics. Sémiologie Graphique: les diagrammes.The Pervasive Technology Labs at Indiana University researches “visualization and interactive spaces.htm The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology has 11 articles on visualization techniques. J.pdf Some beautiful visualizations of the human genome have been produced by Ben Fry.complexityscience. http://www. San LivePlasma links album covers and song titles to each artist.gvu.htm 200 © Brandon Hall Research . les cartes.vrco.net/printRec. B.topicmap. and Resetarits. A Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences..ca/conferences/2004/Documents/CSER 2_AndersonWoodill. http://www.ca/~tmm/courses/i nfovis/ > http://www. http://www. A. > > http://www.org/index.edu/people/fry/thesis /thesis-0522d.cfm?fuseactio n=Reader. Mackinlay. http://coe. both visualization companies.org/informati on_design_and_data_visualization.cs.com/ Topic Map developers will be interested in a more technical site than the one above.com/bboard/qand-a-fetchmsg?msg_id=0000S0&topic_id=1 Card.agocg.complexityandeducation. J. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Sherman (2003).edu/index.mit.edu/courses/c s448b-04-winter/ http://www.stanford.pdf Bertin. G.masternewmedia.ubc. He finished his PhD.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey.” http://vis. in June 2004 and now has his own Web site.com/ Topic Maps is an XML-based technology for visualizing large data sets.gatech. http://www. Abstraction in Concept Map and Coupled Outline Knowledge Representations.com/ http://www.org/ Mechdyne Corporation has acquired VRCO and Fakespace. http://www. Jacques (1967).edu/eet/ Ell. (2005) Using Information Visualization to Teach about Complexity: support from the neurological sciences.edu/gvu/softviz / Ben Fry’s Master’s thesis on “Organic Information Design” applies dynamic visualization techniques to understanding complex systems. (Eds. http://acg.infovis. 31-49 http://www. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. to become one of the largest companies in the visualization field.com The GVU Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta carries out research projects on visualization and graphics.fakespace. Working Paper.edu/people/fry/ http://benfry.” See their “Interactive Visualization and Data Analysis Tools. Paier.edu/research/r esearch..

Use of relational and conceptual graphs in supporting e-learning tasks.com/publications. K. Siggraph.DownloadF ullText&paper_id=5994 Clark.html Ross.fr/CanJ/CanJ. 329-351.pdf?fuseaction=Reader. available online at http://www.net/botturil/web/e 2ml/ Botturi. Visual Pedagogy: Media Cultures in and beyond the Classroom.html Rhyne. A. DigiCult Technology Watch Report 3. K.com/article. June 1.siggraph..psycho. http://www.org/Journal/jan_06/article02.ac. January 2005.Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Vol. (1998). August. Arns.ht m O'Regan. G. Dobreva. 3-Dimensional online learning environments: examining attitudes toward information technology between students in Internet-based 3-dimensional and face-toface classroom instruction. 185–213 http://www. http://www.. (1992). P. (2005). (2001). Creating Concept Maps: Integrating Constructivism Principles into Online Classes. 46: 461-488. Ruth (2003).com/gp/product/0201 Do not reproduce 201 . External cognition: how do graphical representations work? International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. More than just eye candy: graphics for e-learning. 42. S. http://nivea. L. No. Brent (2006). Theresa (1998). Yvonne (1996). Durham. http://www. http://www. Collaborative Computing & Integrated Decision Support Tools for Scientific Visualization. and Bertoline.K. eLearning Developers’ Journal. E2ML: Educational Environments Modeling Language. Inside Purdue’s Envision Center.slis. Reading. Campus Technology.amazon. http://www. http://www. A. Harlow.agocg.com/gp/product/1558 605339/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Botturi. Abbott.pdf Goldfarb. A framework for the evaluation of visual languages for instructional design: the case of E²ML.digicult. Luca (2003). and Pagalthivarthi.cfm/fuseacti on/ViewPaper/id/16951/toc/yes Muirhead.asp?id=11222 Metros.cfm/files/pape r_5994.aace.indiana. Solving the "real" mysteries of visual perception: the world as an outside memory. 2. and Knezek. 69-82. K. http://www.educause. EDUCAUSE Review.info/downloads/TWR3lowres. 4th Edition. 2005. 1-34. http://www. NC: Duke University. http://www.cfm?action=viewonly2&id=29& referer Ell. DigiCULT: core technologies for the cultural and scientific heritage sector. J. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective HumanComputer Interaction. J. May/June... (2006). Educational Media International. Canadian Journal of Psychology. 16(4). August 11.com/articles/abs tracts/index. Visual Literacy: an institutional imperative. (Section on Visualization). (2005).edu/apps/er/erm06/ erm0638. Donnelly. Brian (2002). (2004). McHugh. International Journal on E-Learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Spence. A. G.asp Mittal. Mike and Rogers. http://itdl. MA: Addison Wesley Longman.org/dl/index. Luca (2005). C. No. http://www.editlib. 45.amazon.html Madhavan. Survey of Visualisation Tools in the Social Sciences. Morales..pdf Shneiderman.istituti. and Rusbridge. D.usilu.com/gp/product/0822 329646/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Jones. pp.pdf Scaife. (2005). September.univparis5. http://createdrealities.. and Woolsey.org/education/materia ls/HyperVis/misc_topics/nsf2. England: AddisonWesley. 4(1). 3(1). M.org/index. (2005). Switzerland: University of Lugano. Information Visualization. pp. 41(3). M.edu/faculty/yrogers /papers/externalcognition.campustechnology. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. Lugano. Vol. http://www.amazon. 17-30. Journal of Interactive Learning Research.elearningguild.uk/reports/visual/surv ey/visurvey. S. B. 3. Robert.

edwardtufte. David (2002). M. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.com/gp/product/0765 610957/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Staley. http://www. Envisioning Information. 2nd Ed. Edward (2001). (2004).edwardtufte. Cheshire.ciconline. Fall. CT: Graphics Press. CT: Graphics Press. Cheshire.amazon. and History: How new technology will transform our understanding of the past. Threshold. Colin.edwardtufte.E. CT: Graphics Press.amazon. Digital Information Graphics.amazon. Edward (1997).org/threshold Tufte. Cheshire.com/tufte/index Tufte. Visual Explanations: images and quantities. Information Visualization: perception for design. Computers. http://www. http://www.com/tufte/index Ware. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. evidence and narrative.com/tufte/index Tufte. Sharpe. http://www. From multimedia to multisensory education.com/gp/product/0823 013537/sr=83/qid=1149946826/ref=sr_1_3/1044406419-7257534?%5Fencoding=UTF8 202 © Brandon Hall Research . http://www. Edward (1990).com/gp/product/1558 608192/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Woolman. http://www. Matt (2002). David (2005). Visualization.596261/002-46096590461665?v=glance&n=283155&n=50784 6&s=books&v=glance Staley. http://www.

http://www.elearningcentre.com/ Jajah allows the user to make a free VoIP call but uses a telephone handset at each end.skype. March 2005. Consumers like VoIP because of the low cost of long distance calls and the flexibility of sending digital voice mail messages to anywhere for later listening.avaya. The Use of VoIP in Online Game Playing: implications for collaborative e-learning. a practice known as audio-graphic teleconferencing (Ottoson.voipreview. http://www. Join the discussion at: http://voip. An electronic blackboard can be used along with VoIP for synchronous teaching. Using VoIP.com/article/06/02/2 8/75939_HNbloggingphone_1.uk/eclipse/vendors/chat.susx. in remote communities. IEEE Spectrum Online.org/mar05/253 8 Fitzpatrick.infoworld. The quality of Internet phone calls is currently not as clear as with dial-up longdistance telephone. Schools have begun to use VoIP for teacherparent communications and for parents to monitor their children’s progress at school. A high speed Internet connection is recommended.org Bibliography Cherry. and a microphone.jajah. Internet telephony is relatively simple.htm&Filter=Pillar:IP%20T elephony.com Description Conversation is usually a major part of most learning experiences. 1996). and to children who must remain at home or in a hospital. Internet telephony will be used for making intercultural connections between schools around the world and will greatly facilitate foreign language teaching and practice.uk/interact/paper s/pdfs/Technology%20Mediated%20Comm unication/PACCIT_05. Online Resources The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a listing of online telephony applications in elearning. http://www. Skype See a set of case studies on how Avaya Corporation has deployed its VoIP solutions in education. You go to the Jajah web site and have it dial both your number and the number you are trying to reach. Internet telephony. but it is rapidly improving. http://www.VoIP and Telephony Related terms Broadband phones.ieee. communications tools. requiring an Internet hookup. VoIP is also extending access to education in countries without adequate educational facilities.com/ VoIP Review has listings and consumer reviews for over 180 Internet calling plans. Seven Myths about Voice over IP. http://www.pdf Selected Examples Sony Ericsson has developed a “blogging phone” that integrates with Google’s Blogger software. htm The VoIP Weblog covers all aspects of VoIP and Internet telephony.ac.com/gcm/masterusa/enus/resource/filter. http://www. Steven (2005). http://www. Presentation at the BT/PACCIT Conference. with unlimited free computer to computer calling and low charges for computer to phone connections.html Do not reproduce 203 .Industry:Education Envision offering online coaching using VoIP with its “Click2Coach” software.co.com/ Skype is the best known VoIP service. http://www. http://www.spectrum. While the telephone has been around for well over 100 years. headphones or speakers.weblogsinc. bloggers using the equipment can see and hear each other while they are blogging.cogs. the emerging technology of “voice over internet protocols” (VoIP) has opened up a new world of possibilities for using live voice messaging as an e-learning activity. In the near future.envisioninc. Geraldine (2005).

nald. September. A Literacy Practitioner’s Guide to Audiographic Teleconferencing.pdf 204 © Brandon Hall Research . and O’Droma. Robert (2005). http://www. http://ieeexplore.org/xpl/freeabs_all.Ganchev. (2005).. M.msu. Stojanov. 9(3). I.pdf Ottoson.js p?tp=&arnumber=1508764&isnumber=32 317 Godwin-Jones. Language Learning and Technology.ca/fulltext/audiogfx/audio gfx. 9-12. Project Report – funded by the National Literacy Secretariat. Paper presented at the 2005 ICALT conference. Mobile distributed e-learning center.ieee. Meredith (1996). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. S. http://llt.edu/vol9num3/pdf/emerging .

uk/1/hi/business/4601 690. Selected Examples In Europe.uk/ eXact Mobile is the first professional Mobile Learning and Wearable Training Content Management Solution for creating. http://www.cmu. The goal of the MIThril project involves developing and prototyping new techniques of human-computer interaction for bodyworn applications.co.stm The Bristol Wearable Computing Project explores the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and personal as clothes or jewelry.checkpointelearning. Do not reproduce 205 .edu/design/VuMan. It is attentive to the surrounding environment. including wearable computing.edu/design/Ion. In January 2006.ices. especially for comercial airlines.hubuska.html The vu-man wearable computer was developed to improve the maintenance process on complex machines. It is observable by the user 4. training. http://wearables.ht ml SportBrain has a wearable device that tracks physical activity. http://killer.learnexact.ices.Wearable Computing Related terms Ambient computing. Supervisors at a remote location can see and listen to what they are doing. http://www.bbc.ac.cf m MIThril is a next-generation wearable research platform developed at the MIT Media Lab. weighs less than three pounds. It is communicative to others Wearable computing is used by workers who need just-in-time information and training while they are on the job. the automotive industry.cs.cmu. This can extend professional training in to remote areas. including batteries.com/eXact_iTuto r_MoMo/eXactiTutor. healthcare workers in training can wear tiny earphones and microphones and cameras hidden in glasses as they move about a hospital.sportbrain. or repairing complex machines. It is unrestrictive to the user 3. thereby promoting weight loss and improved fitness.ppt > Description A wearable computer is a small portable computer that is designed to be worn on the body during use. Wearable computers are usually either integrated into the user's clothing or are attached to the body through some other means. like a wristband or jewelry. In the same way that a Walkman allowed stereo components to be portable. and other organizations involved in inspecting. For example. anytime. managing. Giunti Labs is a leader in researching and developing “ambient” technologies. It is controllable by the user 5.bris. and give advice in real time on how to handle a situation as it arises. 1998): 1. BBC News reported that Levi was manufacturing jeans with iPods already fitted into their pockets. 6. http://killer.com/?aID=2157 ION is a Walkman-sized wearable computer that allows information to go anywhere. The entire system. where local expertise on training in a specific area is not available. Wearable computing pioneer Steve Mann at the University of Toronto has identified six informational flow paths associated with this technology (Mann. ubiquitous computing > http://www.pdf http://www. Their voice and gaze controlled wearable computing technology is used in industrial training situations.com/Docs/worksh op_hu/Cardinali_Towards_Ambient_Lea rning.com/Home/Home. the size of the computer and input and output components has been reduced. http://news. and delivering SCORM content to market-leading mobile devices and wearable computers. training to do their jobs. It is unmonopolizing of the user's attention 2.

toronto. JISC Technology and Standards Watch Report. Evaluating the development of wearable devices. Wearable Computing as a Means of Personal Empowerment.ethz. and Levene. http://isd.uoregon. and Niedzviecki. Simson (2004). S.cs. Dec. Applying a Wearable Voice-Activated Computer to Instructional Applications in Clean Room Environments.com/technology/ content/mar2005/tc2005038_5955_tc11 9.mit.ca/exec/obidos/ASIN/ 0385658257/702-2331721-7033653 Mann. 2006. Keynote address for the First International Conference on Wearable Computing. http://www. http://wearcam. Wearable Computing for the Commons. Toronto: Anchor Books.ht ml http://www. and Lupisella. 2004. 1.cfm?name=tec hwatch_report_0305 Ejiofor.http://www. especially in the area of wearable cameras. March 24. C.ac.html Garfinkel.com/news/culture/0.wired.eyetap.uk/index. http://www. (2004).ac.” including computers built into underwear.jisc.edu/wearables/mithr il/index.704 81-0.com/read_arti cle.eecg.businessweek. is described by Mmoma Ejiofor in Wired News. March 8.org/icwckeynote. http://about. M.html Wear-IT Project at the University of Birmingham is developing new applications of wearable computing technologies.org/index_graphical.org is a rich source of references. Mmoma (2006).toronto.com/news/culture/0. Technology Review (Online).wired.edu/research/wear ables/index. Wired News. H. Olga (2005).technologyreview.html The design of “smart clothing.gov/Papers/DOC/Lupis ellaWVAC.html Online Resources Professor Steve Mann of the University of Toronto is a leading scholar in the field of wearable computing. http://www. http://www. http://www. Business Week Online. See: > > > http://genesis.amazon. What you’ll wear in 10 years.eee.uk/wear-it http://www. (2003). http://www. 2005.704 81-0.nasa. http://www. M. Cyborg: digital destiny and human possibility in the age of the wearable computer.html The Wearable Computing site from Eyetap. Fairfax.ch/ Bibliography de Freitas. VA.bham.gsfc. S. http://www. (2002).htm Mann. Steve (1998). personal data assistants and the use of other mobile devices in further and higher education institutions.org/index.edu/~mann/ The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the University of Oregon has several projects on wearable computing applied to learning.edu/ http://wearcam.shtml The Wearable Computing Laboratory at the ETH Zurich has many research projects.wearable. Proceedings of the Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering Conference (KSCE 2004).eecg.aspx?id=14008&ch=infotech Graves. ICWC98.media. Wearable computers that you can slip into. 206 © Brandon Hall Research .pdf Kharif. May 12-13.

enabling it to find the Web feed in the future. Aggregators are programs that gather favorite Web feed enabled Web sites and present them in one. Attensa http://www. this method of finding out what is new is spam free. basic text format for quick review. (The development of Atom was motivated by perceived deficiencies in the RSS 2.html 2. Those sites usually have a small orange XML graphic ( ) that links to the feed. and laptops. and then “picked up” by multiple subscribers. Both RSS and Atom are written in XML.php?id=2 Do not reproduce 207 .com/ampheta desk 3. This method of content syndication allows users to poll a site that has a Web feed and see if there are any updates since they last visited. photo collections. feeds. BlogExpress http://usablelabs. The owner of the aggregator gets a short description of all Web sites with feeds that have changed. syndication Web feeds can send content to many kinds of devices.org/Aggie. listings of the latest books. The content of the Web site that sends the notice is said to be “syndicated.com/ 8.brightcove.” as its content is changed by the author. > For learners and teachers. no spam) Improved client relations for marketers Description Instead of having items e-mailed to you.bloglines. Brightcove http://www. and course offerings. Because the content is entirely controlled by the person who owns/ manages the feed enabled site.com/ 5.Web Feeds Related terms Atom.bloglet. Aggie http://bitworking. TV guides.html 6. The URL associated with the orange graphic is put into a user's Web feed aggregator. The most common types of sites with Web feeds are news sources. Web feeds allow you to “subscribe” to a Web site that then automatically sends an alert and a short description to your computer when the Web site has been updated. a user must have a Web feed reader or “aggregator.attensa. Here is a list of 48: 1. and Atom is the second. Web feeds are an efficient way to keep abreast of a changing topic and to have the latest information available without going through the trouble of searching. Only those sites that have RSS or Atom feeds can be read by an aggregator. with all the potential for viruses and spam. Amphetadesk http://www. PDAs. The most common form of Web feed is RSS (“Rich Site Summary”).disobey.awasu. When changes are made to a Web site. social bookmarking. each with its own features.com/ 4. MediaThink (2004) lists the following benefits of Web feeds (specifically RSS): > > > > Fast updating Less time “surfing” Avoids extraneous information on a company’s Web site No need to provide an e-mail address to receive information (therefore. including cell phones. CompleteRSS http://neosmart.0 format). job searches. Many blogs contain a Web feed button that allows users to subscribe to their content.com/productBlog Express. podcasts. Awasu http://www.net/dl. BlogLines http://www.com/ 7.” Aggregators connect with multiple Web feeds. Really Simple Syndication (RSS). information about that change is sent to the desktop of everyone who subscribes to the “feed” for that Web site.com 9. Selected Examples There are many Web feed aggregators. blogs. To read content from a Web feed. Bloglet http://www. CDs. and electronics.

ca/edurss02.com 40.com 14.puremis. feedbeep http://feedbeep.rssreader.10.com/rss2exc hange/ 38.org/blogs/archives/main/ 000877. Feedtier http://feedtier. Just follow the 208 © Brandon Hall Research .mozdev.rssreader.com/today/ 36. Sage http://sage.mozilla.feedburner.org/ 37. RSS2Exchange http://www. RSSReader http://www. RSS Bandit http://www. RSSCalendar http://www.com/ 19. Videora http://www.co m/products/pulpfiction/ 35. Newsgator http://www.newsgator. Project D.hexamail. PubSub http://www.org/ 44. To have a blog aggregated. Reader http://www.feedzilla. FeedPublish http://www.com 28.bytescout.feedster.projectdu.protopage.feed-directory.com/ For a list of more aggregators. see: http://www.com 18.downes.sh tml 41.com/ 15.com/ 30.com 32.rss-to-javascript. Pluck http://www.onfolio. Feedroll . FeedReader http://www. OnFolio http://www.com/ 22. Rojo http://www.net/ 24. Protopage http://www.net/excel/soft /EaZyRss.rsscalendar.com/v2 33. RSS Orbit http://www.ru/projects/syndirella/ 47. RSS-to-Javascript http://www. LearningFeeds http://www. RSSify at Wytheville Community College currently offers the service for free.com/thunderbir d/ 48.topix.rojo.videora.co. Syndirella http://yole. FeedBurner http://www.2 http://www.blogplanet. My RSS Toolbar http://www. Feedster http://www.com/ 13.ht ml 20.rssbandit. FeedForAll http://www.com/ 21.com/ 16.U. PulpFiction http://freshlysqueezedsoftware. Edu_RSS 0.com/ 43.feedreader.net/ 45.net/ 26.sharpreader.shtml 11.php.learningfeeds.hebig.uk/rssreader / 23. Gregarius http://gregarius.feedroll.feedforall.h tm 12.com/ 46. EaZy RSS reader http://www.com/feedscout. StepNewz http://www. Feed-Directory http://www.com/rss/ 39.com/ 42. RSS Software http://www.feedpublish.fuzzyd. Fuzzy Duck http://www.com/ 34.com/myrssto olbar. Thunderbird http://www. Topix http://www.com/ 17.http://www.com/ 29.newsisfree.pubsub. NewsIsFree http://www.com/ 31.html 27. FeedScout http://bytescout. including listings for various electronic devices.com/ 25. SharpReader http://www.somee.net/index.pluck.

eLearning Developers’ Journal.ca/edu_rss. RSS Ideas for Educators. Stephen (2002). 2005. Oct. http://www. http://www. USA Today (online).elearningguild.usatoday. and Why Should You Care?” http://blog.downes.ca/files/RSS_Educ. maintains a long list of RSS resources.org/news/20 04/10/31/the_personal_rss_newsreader_p roject.teachinghacks. (2003).wcc. May 2004. http://www.com/news/showS tory. Luigi (2004).com/tech/news/2005 -08-01-rss-research_x.cfm?ArticleID=5211 Downes. July/August 2003. Version 1.htm Levine..learningcircuits.org/article/rss/ Kaplan-Leiserson. 31. a Web site that aggregates Web feeds from educational Web sites. D. http://www.downes.maricopa.lo. Bill (2003).ca/files/RSS_Educ. University of North Carolina. 2003.pdf Canali De Rossi.mcli. Learning Circuits. Learning Circuits.downes. Online paper. http://technologysource. Do not reproduce 209 . 1.org/2004/may 2004/0405_Trends. Online paper. http://www.com/gems/weblog ged/RSSFAQ2. http://www. senior research officer for the National Research Council of Canada. Brian Lamb. Aug. RSS feeds college students’ diet for research. Aug. 2004.htm Harrsch.contentious. and D’Arcy Norman. B. http://www. 3.com/pdf/2/051 903DEV-L.edu/show/n mc1003/ The Fuss. http://www. Quentin (2006). eSchool News. The Personal RSS NewsReader: Project DU And RSS Publishing .redjupiter. The Technology Source Archives. Anh (2005). http://careo.htm Downes.1.eschoolnews.com/wiki/doku.htm David. Stephen (2004).mcli.edu/services/rssify/rs sify. Dan (2004). has been an early advocate and promoter of the use of Web feeds in e-learning.org/2004/jun2 004/downes.php 2003. Aug. http://www. Lamb. Brian Lamb. RSS: a learning technology.vccs.dist. RSS: grassroots support leads to mass appeal. Robin Good Blog. RSS could transform online communications.htm D’Sousa.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111.php?id=lists: thingsyoucandowithrss Bibliography Brandon. June 2004. 5-8. A.elearning.instructions to add the appropriate information to your blog template. RSS: the next killer app for education. Mary (2003).htm Stephen Downes has also set up Edu_RSS.dist.masternewmedia. Using RSS and Weblogs for e-Learning: an overview. http://www.doc An excellent visual and audio presentation on using RSS in education by Alan Levine.htm Will Richardson provides RSS: A Quick Start Guide for Educators.Possible Future Evolution. BC. a blog by Alan Levine.pdf Tim Yang has a large list in Wiki format of things that can be done with RSS.edu/show/m erlot03/ Online Resources Stephen Downes. Presentation to the MERLOT International Conference.maricopa.ca/cgibin/wiki. Syndicating Learning Objects with RSS and Trackback.pl?TheFuss An online tutorial on Webfeeds by Amy Gahran entitled “What Are Webfeeds (RSS). http://www.com/archives/2003 /10/18/what-are-webfeeds-rss-and-whyshould-you-care Quentin D’Sousa has published an electronic book on the variety of educational uses of Web feeds.com/wpcontent/uploads/2006/01/RSS%20Ideas% 20for%20Educators111. http://timyang. Eva (2004). 2004. and D’Arcy Norman is available http://www. An Introduction to RSS for Educators. http://www.pdf Gannett. Read his article written specifically for educators. Vancouver. and Norman.ubc.learningcircuits. May 19. http://www.teachinghacks. http://www.

T. The Shifted Librarian. Aug.com/ pub/a/2002/12/18/dive-into-xml. 2005. InfoWorld. RSS: the next big thing online. 2005.pdf Parparita. M.oreilly. O’Reilly Network. Alexandra (2005).html Powers.infoworld. July 7. http://www. Using RSS for data integration. http://www. Shelly (2005). http://www. 10 ways RSS can help build online communities.theshiftedlibrarian. March 23.com/rss/mediathin k_rss_white_paper. 2006. http://www.html?CMP=ILCJ04X34597568&ATT=http://www.html MediaThink (2004). 2005.com/catalog/syndicationf eeds/index.html Samuel.Levine. http://www. MediaThink White Paper.com/2006/08 /namespaced-extensions-in-feeds.mediathink. 2006. June 18. Why RSS and Folksonomies are becoming so big. 13.xml. Otherwise Engaged.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki.com/article/05/03/2 3/13OPstrategic_1. http://googlereader. What Is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects).html 210 © Brandon Hall Research . Mihai (2006).oreillynet.com/archive s/2005/06/18/why_rss_and_folksonomies _are_becoming_so_big.blogspot.alexandrasamuel. What are Syndication Feeds? O’Reilly eDoc. Jon (2005).html?page=1 Udell. http://www. Sept. 3. Jenny (2005). Namespaced extensions in feeds.com/200509 13/10-ways-rss-can-help-build-onlinecommunities-6 Stafford. Google Reader Blog. (2006). and Webb.

Do not reproduce 211 . These can be shared or peer reviewed and changed by fellow students.com/ There are "wiki farms" (places where you can set up a wiki without needing your own server) such as SeedWiki. http://wikipedia. time-less.Wiki Tools Related terms Collaboration tools. Single-user wiki: Allows a person to collect and edit his or her own thoughts using a Web-based environment.com/ There are hundred of “wiki engines. an image gallery. features. the online encyclopedia that has been built with tens of thousands of volunteer contributors.net/features.” Essentially. and never finished. My first report in this series.tikiwiki. For wikis to work.seedwiki. anyone can read or add content to a wiki site. the software used to run Wikipedia. approaches.php?title =SourceWatch Tiki for Education is a wiki being set up to develop shared knowledge on all aspects of education. social networking Selected Examples The best known wiki is Wikipedia.sourcewatch. 2.usemod.org/tiki-index. entitled Emerging E-Learning: New Approaches to Delivering Engaging Online Learning Content (Brandon Hall Research. http://www.wikipedia. Lab book wiki: For students to keep notes online. http://www.usemod.000 articles in English in Wikipedia.sourceforge. See the progress at: http://edu. With some basic instructions. Wikis use simplified hypertext mark-up.gilbane. can be used by a team for joint writing. 4. and projects. http://www.php UseModWiki is the software used to set up the first ever wiki. http://www. 3. custom permissions. There are now over 1.” The most complete listing is at the following site: http://c2. Content is ego-less.h tml SourceWatch is a wiki that tracks political comments in the USA.300. it is a platform for open collaborative software development.com/cgibin/wiki. The term wiki (derived from the Hawaiian word for “quick”) is applied to a diverse set of systems. is available for other applications.10.p df Jotspot is an “application wiki. http://www. Knowledge base wiki: A place to collect all the knowledge within a group.org/ Description Wikis are fully editable Web sites. Anyone can add to it. Some fundamental principles include the following: > > > Anyone can change anything. wikis can be important tools for educational collaboration.schtuff.pl?UseModWiki Schtuff is a free wiki service that allows tagging. See why it is Tomkins (2005) identifies four different forms of educational wikis: 1. 2005). Collaborative writing wiki: With a page locking system.com/cgi/wiki?WikiEngines MeatballWiki is a community of active practitioners striving to teach each other how to organize people using online tools. Now in this report I look at the tools available for developing wikis. and email notification. reviewed wikis as a separate online content format. Wikis are great tools for online collaboration on any topic. RSS.pl?MeatballWiki Frank Gilbane has an article on the enterprise applications for blogs and wikis. http://www. it is important to have several contributors.org/index. http://www.com/cgibin/mb.com/artpdf/GR12. Wiki Tools: MediaWiki.

Phantom authority. 212 © Brandon Hall Research .ascilite. 5-8.. Perth. http://en.html Bibliography Aronsson. L. and Zhou. Especially useful is the article “For Teachers New to Wikis.ca/documents/ITBL_stud entwikis.uk/eclipse/vendors/wikis.html Ciffolilli.wikibooks. Australia. http://www. Operation of a Large Scale. self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia. (2004).48. http://aronsson. Dec. http://www. http://weblog.com/ WWWTools for Education has an extensive list of resources for wikis in education.ucalgary. Twiki.infotoday.org/wiki/SA_NC_Saaste :Technology Elliott Masie has a LearningWiki devoted to supporting his work with the e-learning community and his annual conference.37/teresadeca/webheads/ online-learning-environments. See the account of one educator’s “brilliant failure” using wikis in his classroom.ubc. http://64.nu’s first nine months in service.infoworld. http://whiplash.org The e-Learning Centre in the UK maintains a long list of Wiki Tools. Andrea (2003). http://www.shtml Brian Lamb.pbwiki. htm The Learning Commons project at the University of Calgary has a brochure for faculty on “Supporting Student Collaboration through the use of Wikis.71. http://kairosnews.different. maintains an extensive list of wiki sites. that she updates regularly. as well as an analysis of how they work. Teaching and learning online with wikis. http://radio. http://www. http://www. is provided by David Mattison.org has lots of resources on wikis.” http://writingwiki. Swiki. 8(12). http://m. First Monday. http://www.learningwiki. http://careo. an archivist with the British Columbia Archives. His article. http://www. Proceedings of the 2004 ASCILITE Conference.html SocialText Wiki is designed for work groups in corporate environments.socialtext. N. of the University of British Columbia. “Quickiwiki.html Augar.” is a rich source of information on wikis.se/wikipaper. Paper presented at the ELPUB 2002 conference.fasfind.org/?item=wikiversitytime-to-vote The South African Association of Science and Technology Educators has developed a set of free online electronic textbooks using wiki technology.com/udell/gems/u mlaut.dicole.elearningcentre.com/ Jon Udell.co.org.org/ Whiplash is a series of ten-minute screencasts on various wikis. General Purpose Wiki Web site: experience from susning.com Not all uses of wikis in education work well.htm#Wikis Stewart Mader. Raitman. a columnist for Infoworld Magazine.jot. including a section on wiki tools.ca/~blamb/wikir adio/ James Farmer has a sample lesson plan using a Wiki. using the example of the “Heavy Metal Umlaut” article in Wikipedia. A free trial is available. including wikis.com/wwwtools/m/25242. R.pdf Teresa Almeida d'Eça in Portugal has posted a list of various Web teaching tools.Weblogs. http://flosse. Dec. produces a blog devoted to the use of wikis in education. Zwiki and the Plone Wars Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool.au/conferences/per th04/procs/augar.org/node/view/3794 Wikiversity is a project “to build an electronic institution of learning” based on the wiki model.com/0120501/catego ries/wikis/2004/02/16.com/ WritingWiki.” http://tlc.ikiw. gives an online talk on how a wiki can change over time. an Instructional Technologist for Sciences and Math at Brown University. (2002).elearning. W. cfm?x=0&rid=25242 Online Resources A huge source of links to wikis.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.

com/article2/0. Emma (2005).html Stafford. Brian (2004). O’Reilly Network. L.com/pub/a/network/ 2006/07/07/what-is-a-wiki. Searcher.uk/issue42/ Udell. UniversityWiki.irrodl.00.Wiki as a PIM and Collaborative Content Tool. Blogs & Wikis: Technologies for Enterprise Applications? Gilbane Report.. http://www. Educause Review.shtml Rubenking.org/content/v5. Online paper. 7 Things you should know about…Wikis. Bo & Cunnin. Wiki pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.pdf Kulisz.. Ariadne. Educational wikis: features and selection criteria. Lauren (2005).pcmag. April 2004.http://firstmonday.profetic. Issue 42.pdf Do not reproduce 213 .com. Profetic: dossiers pratiques. David (2004). What is a Wiki (and How to Use One for Your Projects). April 2003.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI 7004. and Webb.asp Schmitt.html Tomkin.com/artpdf/GR12.com/searcher/apr03/ mattison.. Jon (2004). The wiki way. S.de/ijie/ijie/no002/ijie _002_09_ebersbach.14 02872. Anja (2004). T. Twiki. http://gilbane. Oct. Wiki Tools.1/technot e_xxvii.Oct. J. http://Weblog. Neil (2003).. Nov. The Wiki Way: Collaboration and Sharing on the Internet. W. 2006. Online article. July. (2001). 19. http://container. Online article at PCMag. Richard (2003). Wide Open Spaces: wikis ready or not.infoworld. Sept. January.ac. http://www.10. Why Wikis Work Not.educause. http://www.ariadne. Online article at: http://www.infotoday.amazon. http://www. Online article. http://www. Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: Wikis. and Rudolph.4149.oreillynet. (2006). Zwiki and the Plone Wars . 36-48. 2.edu/ir/library/pdf/ER M0452. http://www.com/udell/2004/1 0/19. Quickiwiki.pdf Leuf.zkm. Making the case for a wiki. Cossarin. http://c2. 2004.educause. 2005. http://www. http://www. Clark. Addison-Wesley Professional http://www. July 7. International Journal of Information Ethics.pl?UniversityWiki Schwartz. 12(10).com/gp/product/0201 71499X/103-24969408161425?v=glance&n=283155&s=books& v=glance Mattison.org/issues/issue8_12/ci ffolilli EDUCAUSE (2005). Renée (2005).pdf Fountain. M.com/cgibin/mb. InfoWorld.html Wood.php3?id_rubrique=110 Glaser. M. Swiki. David (2003).com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorksNot Lamb.org:16080/dossiers/do ssier_imprimer.usemod. (2004).

which can then lead to inventions. and computer-based training (CBT) using a timesharing computer.Part III: Innovation in E-Learning – Where We Are Heading This research report demonstrates that the field of e-learning technologies is rapidly growing. The process of developing and deploying technologies (sometimes called the technology adoption cycle) is part of a larger operation – the knowledge life cycle. Inventions may or may not be turned into commercial products. I have not described declining e-learning technologies such as DVD-ROMs. with over 50 distinct tool sets available to developers of online learning and teaching systems. CD-ROMS. Because this report is about emerging elearning technologies. there are then spinoffs and incremental changes until the product either becomes absorbed into the taken-for-granted landscape of everyday life or declines in use and disappears. After a product has been successfully launched. may or may not be adopted by the significant population. which. These changes in available online technologies introduce new possibilities not even considered a few years ago. Knowledge starts with new ideas and insights. in turn. floppy disks. However. adding them to the 52 technologies described in this report allows me to divide the e-learning technologies in this report into the following five groups: > > > > > > > Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies Haptics Mashups and Web Services Personal Learning Environments Smart Labels and Tags Telepresence Technologies Wearable Computing Ascending technologies Technologies that have been recently turned into products and are enjoying increasing demand: > > > > > > > > > > > > > Social Networking Tools Web Feeds Simulation Tools Social Bookmarking Personalization Semantic Web Mobile Technologies Wiki Tools Location Based Technologies Gaming Design and Development Tools Blogs Agents Robotics Peaking technologies Technologies that are dominating the market at the current time and in the next year: > > > > Collaboration Tools Search Engines Artificial Intelligence Visualization Technologies o Maturing technologies – Technologies that have considerable history in the market and are now only ubject to incremental changes: Developing technologies Technologies at the earliest stages of experimentation and prototyping: > > > > > Affective Computing Avatars Classroom Response Systems Data Mining Decision Support Software > > Animation Software Assessment Tools 214 © Brandon Hall Research .

Further. and Taxonomies Natural Language Processing Peer-to-Peer Technologies Portals Presentation Tools Rapid E-Learning Tools Video and IPTV Virtual Reality VoIP and Telephony failure. both in classrooms and online. and computers. But not all technologies will travel this road. Not only has the software evolved to manage each individual’s learning needs and desires. peak. many of the technologies in the developing phase will become products. ascend the curve. This has been made possible by dynamic databases and software that simply did not exist twenty years ago. some will never leave the development stage. without clear guidelines on how to proceed. Part of what drives change is the early learning experiences of a younger generation of media-savvy workers who demand a different way of operating and learning in the workplace. Some will die quickly. The trend is towards individualization in all learning activities and in the pace of learning. mature. in both formal and informal settings. video games. The pressure of networked digital communications technology to move learning from passive receptive modes of learning to active inquiring modes of learning opposes the tendency of formal Declining technologies Technologies that have significantly dropped out of the marketplace: > > > > > CAI – Computer Assisted Instruction CBT – Computer Based Training CD-ROM DVD-ROM Floppy Disks In time. and decline. The technology of e-learning. For a variety of reasons. The experience of younger learners with television. dynamic mix of factors and influences that cause a product to be a successful innovation or a Do not reproduce 215 . means that they actually think differently. There does seem to be a distinct difference in how the under40-year-old generation learns compared with older adults. change itself seems to be inevitable. demands that they get actively involved in the learning experience. Teaching in Western societies has generally been carried out by a teacher (instructor. In any field. There is a move away from a few “linear” teaching formats to a rich variety of “nonlinear” teaching strategies. We are living in a complex multi-channel world of information abundance. The old models of teaching and learning simply do not work. learners have gone from passively receiving content to doing activities that lead them in many different directions. in part. 2003). to the complex. However. while others will last for decades. because it resembles the media familiar to younger learners. or may never become commercially viable. professor) presenting materials from an approved curriculum to a group of learners (students) in a classroom. this approach is now rapidly changing. it is next to impossible to accurately predict patterns of change. Ontologies. This has been accompanied by a move from instructor led teaching to learner controlled learning – again. but the types of software have exploded in terms of variety and choice. with a corresponding reduction in the amount of time spent reading. This is due. The resulting shift is a change from receptive learning to active learning (Raschke.> > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > Audio and Podcasting Tools Authoring Tools Browsers Communications Tools Competency Tracking Software Content Management Systems Display Technologies E-Portfolio Tools Graphics Tools Learning Management Systems Learning Objects and Repositories Metadata.

commercials. mobile phones. we will see the restructuring of education and training. We also learn by being challenged or questioned about our decisions. results in an action by the other participant. ecological disasters. the learner. and a sexual revolution brought on by birth-control pills. designers of Sesame Street. the computer. especially when compared with the interact-ivity of video games. In contrast. Schooling is often about learning “facts” and not about learning about “life” or integrating all of one’s experiences into an illuminating and generative world view. experienced the growing gadgetry of the 1950s. Generally. Their children. Then even more movement. the civil rights movement. The last 35 years have also brought AIDS.” while those of us who are over 40 and have ventured into the computer world have been called “digital immigrants. and were impacted by such experiences as the Depression and World War II. huge data wall displays.” Prensky (2001) describes the younger generation as operating at “twitch speed” because of its training on video games and the requirements of a high-speed world to produce at a faster and faster pace. With feedback. For the older generation. as we finally realize the advantages of these new technol-ogies.” But much of what passes for interactivity in e-learning is minimal compared to what it could be. the ability to read well is at the heart of a good education. terrorism. whereby the action of one participant. were the first generation to be raised with widespread access to personal computers. interactivity in elearning consists of turning pages by clicking hyperlinks. and digital ink and electronic paper. the words on the page disappear as we enter a world of reflection and imagination. movie theaters. born in the 1970s. The speed of change increases with each passing year. learners reflect on what is happening by seeing the results of their actions or decisions. 28). The under-40 generation has been described as “digital natives. Witness the rise of the sophisticated models of “artificial life. There is little of this level of interactivity in today's elearning content.schooling to convert “dynamic knowledge into static information” (Beaugrande. the baby boomers. and personal digital assistants. Within the next five years. digitization of smell. 2002. in a back-and-forth exchange. Wellwritten description can take us into a dream world far away from where we are sitting (Birkerts. It works for a time. For example. the space race. This rapidly changing world makes it necessary to obtain the ability to both unlearn and relearn throughout one's life. Networked computer technology is emerging as a multi-sensory learning environ-ment. that is all about to change. Networked Computer Technology is now able to simulate complexity in a way that was never possible before in human history. global warming. touch and taste. Because of this. until we become habituated. To keep our attention. But they are usually disap-pointed. p. Our early experiences orient us to ways of thinking and to learning interests later in life.” the dynamic visualization of chaos and complexity at the sub- 216 © Brandon Hall Research . The children of the baby boomers. True interactivity is based on feedback loops. the under-40 generation has high expectat-ions due to their experience with video and computer games. wearable computers. surprise. generally went to work earlier. elec-tronic media tends to be on the surface. However. libraries. people now over 80 were raised in much simpler material conditions. Once we master the art of reading. television. In North America. mind-altering drugs. sex. is not surprising that each has its own interests and ways of learning. or violence is needed to keep our attention. and the globalization of corporate capitalism. In approaching electronic educational media. much of the hype gen-erated by e-learning providers is about the amazing results of “interactivity. Given the differences in the experiences and environments of the three generations described above. with such innovations as information visualization and auralization. 1994). and video games use quick animations and jump-cut editing to revoke instinctual "orienting responses" to movement and novelty. video games. Prensky suggests that “digital game-based learning” is most appropriate for the under-40 group. gaming consoles.

Dallas. http://www. http://www. none of which involve needing a guide (although guided tours are still one option). Gary (2006). FutureHype: the myths of technology change. http://www. Digital Game-based Learning. At the individual level. Rushkoff. creative products.com/Get-Back-BoxInnovationInside/dp/B000IU3E50/ref=sr_11_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Seidensticker. It will also be the ultimate library of ideas. With the addition of the Semantic Web or similar schemes. the multitude of new technologies and on-line content make it possible to take cont-rol of one’s own learning journey.” Today we have multiple methods and an infrastructure to get there. Get Back in the Box: innovation from the inside out. or can be more bound up by the technologies. Douglas (2005). In the next wave. it will be a giant collaborative workspace. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Clayton (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: when new technologies cause great firms to fail. Emerging e-Learning: innovative content. and the mapping of everything. networked computers will mirror a form of collective intelligence that is much more able than the problem-solving capabilities of any individual. New York: Collins. technologies and services for the next 5 years.atomic and cosmic levels of phenom-ena.amazon. Marc.com/Digital-GameBased-Learning-MarcPrensky/dp/0071454004/sr=11/qid=1160624770/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Do not reproduce 217 . Paper presented at the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) International Conference and Exhibition. Likewise. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.amazon.com Bibliography Christensen. (2001). portfolios. New York: McGraw-Hill. the result of all this power and choice is that individual learners either can be potentially freer to follow their own goals because of the flexibility of learning paths.amazon. The problem is that we have not figured out what to do with that amount of power. May 2006. Texas. and the modeling of complex systems like nuclear reactors or the human body. San Francisco:Berrett-Koehler. Guides are optional. http://www. the entire Internet will reflect group intelligence of the human race.amazon. which have also greatly increased the possibilities of surveillance and control.amazon.com/MasteringDynamics-Innovation-JamesUtterback/dp/0875847404/sr=11/qid=1160624848/ref=pd_bbs_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Woodill.com/Future-HypeMyths-TechnologyChange/dp/1576753700/ref=sr_11_1/10 4-8608784-5591139?ie=UTF8 Utterback. http://www. http://www. Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation. Bob (2006).operitel. It is already a place for massively multiple player games.com/InnovatorsDilemma-Revolutionary-BusinessEssentials/dp/0060521996/sr=11/qid=1160624690/ref=sr_1_1/1048608784-5591139?ie=UTF8&s=books Prensky. Two hundred years ago. you needed a guide to take a wagon train from the East-ern seaboard of North America to the “Wild West. James (1994). shortly.

informatik.ailive.ac.se/~muse/hom e. Germany Tel: +49-681-302-5303 http://emotion-research. Den Dolech 2 P. Via San Senatore 6/1 Milan.Portugal Tel.it Nielsen Norman Group 48105 Warm Springs Boulevard Fremont. UK http://www. +1 (415) 682-0688 http://www.: +351 265 520 184 Fax: +351 265 520 186 http://www. Manuel I. 27A 2º esq. Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom Tel: +44 121 414 3744 Fax: +44 121 414 4281 http://www. Alabama 36849 USA Tel: (334) 844-4000 http://www. CA 94539-7498 USA Tel.cs.net Q-Life Department of Informatics Umeå University SE-901 87 UMEÅ Sweden Tel: +46 90 786 6771 Fax: +46 90 786 6550 http://www.html Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) c/o Association for Computing Machinery 1 Astor Plaza.de/link/affective_port al. L69 7ZF.1 D-66123 Saarbrücken. 3400 Hillview Avenue.org/ AiLive Inc.agentlink. CA 90292 USA 218 © Brandon Hall Research . New York.auburn. D. Boulevard du Pont-d'Arve CH-1205 Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41-22-379-9215 Fax: +41-22-379-9219 http://www.edu/ Center for Advanced Research for Technology in Education (CARTE) c/o USC Information Sciences Institute 4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001 Marina del Rey.media. Marc Schröder. 5600 MB Eindhoven Tel: +31 (0)40 247 5175 Fax: +31 (0)40 247 5376 http://www.org/ Agents Agentlink c/o Peter McBurney Department of Computer Science University of Liverpool Liverpool .edu Affective Computing Portal Eindhoven University of Technology Department of Industrial Design Room HG 2.org MYSELF Project c/o Massimo Balestra ACSE SPA.com/ WEBIST Av.html Cognition and Affect Project c/o School of Computer Science The University of Birmingham Edgbaston.bham. Italy Tel: +39/02 88129731 Fax: +39/02 88129752 http://www.ch/fapse/emotion Humaine Project c/o Dr. Box 513.51. Administrative Secretary Department of Psychology University of Geneva 40.umu. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: +1-212-869-7440 Toll free: +1-800-342-6626 http://sigchi. 17th Floor. DFKI GmbH Forschungsbereich Sprachtechnologie Stuhlsatzenhausweg 3 / Building 43. 2910-595 Setúbal .uk/~axs/cogaff/ Geneva Emotion Research Group c/o Sylvie Staehli.O. CA 94304 USA http://www.mit.bartneck.unige. Palo Alto.Part IV: List of Companies and Organizations Affective Computing Affective Computing Group c/o The Media Laboratory. MA 02139-4307 USA Tel: (617) 253-5960 Fax: (617) 258-6264 http://affect. 1515 Broadway.myself-proj.webist.net/ Auburn University Auburn. MIT Building E15 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge. Building 5.nngroup.

Inc 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino.com/ Animation Factory c/o Jupiterimages 2000 W. W Toronto. IN 47406 USA Tel: (812) 856-1377 Fax: (812) 856-1995 http://www. Edmonton. DC 20036-1992 USA Tel: +1-202-371-0101 Fax: +1-202-728-0884 http://www. L69 7ZF.animats.adobe.edu/fil/ Multi Agent Bio-Robotic Lab (MABL) c/o Dr. VT 05402 USA Tel: (802) 893-6657 Fax: (802) 893-6659 http://www.edu/~mabl/dr_sahin.csc. CA 94026-2124 USA Tel: (650) 327-1106 Fax: (940) 234-6089 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 475-2175 Fax: (585) 475-5845 http://www. CA 94025 USA Tel: (650) 326-9109 http://www.com IEEE Computer Society 1730 Massachusetts Avenue.O.jsp Indiana University School of Informatics c/o Filippo Menczer.mindworkshop.com/ Apple Computer. CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.com/ Australian Society for Computers in Learning In Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) c/o Robyn Debbes. P.apple.O.php/Main_ Page Autodesk. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www. Inc.rit.edu/isd/carte/ CodeBaby Corp. Bloomington.liv. Box 2124 Menlo Park.com/en/ Animats 999 Woodland Avenue Menlo Park. CEDIR University of Wollongong NSW 2522 Tel: (612) 4221-4895 Fax: (612) 4225-8312 http://www.informatics. 42nd Street Suite C Sioux Falls. Box 527. 111 McInnis Parkway Do not reproduce 219 . 1900 East Tenth St.educause.indiana. Burlington.ascension-tech.html Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.W. Inc. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.org/portal/site/ieeec s/index. Huntsville. CO 80301-2538 USA Tel: (303) 449-4430 Fax: (303) 440-0461 http://www. Secretariat. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www. 10004-104 Avenue. #1910. Tennessee 37235 USA Tel: (615) 322-7311 http://teachableagents. SD 57105 USA Tel: 1 (605) 339-4722 Fax: 1 (605) 335-1554 http://www. N.ac.computer. UK Tel: (+44 151) 795 4272 Fax: (+44 151) 794 3715 http://www.uk/~mjw/ Educause 4772 Walnut Street.animationfactory.com Teachable Agents Group c/o Vanderbilt University 2201 West End Avenue Nashville.au/index. Ontario P1H 2K6 Canada Tel: 1 (705) 789-5238 Fax: 1 (705) 789-7781 http://www.com Department of Computer Science c/o Professor Michael Wooldridge University of Liverpool Liverpool. Washington. Ferat Sahin 79 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester.org.Tel: (310) 822-1511 Fax: (310) 823-6714 http://www.extempo.com Ascension Technology Corporation P. O.edu Extempo Systems.ascilite. Suite 206 Boulder.isi. Box 5200.com Alchemy Mindworks P.org/ Animation Software Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose.redwoodelearning.codebaby.

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ucalgary.com/index. Stuart Building 235 Chicago.umuc.com Illinois Institute of Technology Computer Science Department 10 West 31st Street.stottlerhenke.com Do not reproduce 221 . Suite K. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 632-4388 Fax: ( 650) 632-4389 http://www.eden-online.licef. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 2500 University Drive N. MA 01609-2280 USA Tel: (508) 831-5000 http://web.edu/Research/trg University of Calgary c/o Behrouz Homayoun Far Dept. Calgary.org/eden. CA .ke-corp. 100 Sherbrooke St.cmu. Alberta Canada T2P 5G3 Canada Tel: (403) 263-8649 Fax: (403) 261-4688 http://www. Hungary Tel: + 36 1 463 1628 Fax:+ 36 1 463 1858 http://www.ca/People/far University of South Australia School of Computer and Information Science GPO Box 2471 Adelaide South Australia 5001 Australia Tel: +61 8 8302 6611 Fax: +61 8 8302 2466 http://www.European Distance and E-Learning Network Budapest University of Technology and Economics.au/~netsys/researc h/current_computer_science_education_re search.edu Intelligent Tutoring Systems Research School of Information Technologies Madsen Building F09.10th Street S.enel.com Tutor Research Group Worcester Polytechnic Institute 100 Institute Road Worcester. T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-5806 Fax: (403) 282-6855 http://www2. 94404 USA Tel: (650) 931-2700 Fax: (650) 931-2701 http://www.au Virtuel Age International (Main Office) 75 Queen Street. Suite 1500 Montreal.W. Chantilly.edu.ca/eng/inde x.unisa.wpi. PA 15213-3891 Tel: (412) 268-8808 Fax: (412) 268-1266 http://pact.htm Licef Research Centre Télé-Université.cs. Quebec H3C 2N6 Canada Tel: (514) 393-0880 Fax: (514) 393-0881 http://www.edu Brainbench Employment Testing 14100 Parke Long Court. PA 15668 USA Tel: (724) 733-8603 Fax: (724) 325-2062 http://quantumsimulations. 5275 Sardis Road Murrysville. Egry J. VA 20151 USA Tel: (703) 437-4800 Fax: (703) 437-8003 http://www.brainbench. H-1111 Budapest.edu Quantum Simulations. Calgary.uquebec.edu. IL 60616 USA Tel: (312) 567-5150 Fax: (312) 567-5067 http://www. u. Suite 360 San Mateo.htm Pittsburgh Advanced Computer Tutoring Project Human Computer Interaction Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh.virtuelage.iit.teluq.com Stottler Henke Associates 951 Mariner's Island Blvd.it. University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia Tel: +61 2 9351 3423 Fax: +61 2 9351 3838 http://www.htm Knowledge Engineering Suite 600. Inc. Alberta. East Adelphi.cs.com Assessment Tools Assessment Resource Center University of Maryland University College 3501 University Blvd.cis. 303 Twin Dolphin Drive Redwood City. 1. West Montreal. Quebec H2X 3P2 Canada Tel : (514) 843-2015 Fax : (514) 843-2151 http://www.php Gemini Performance Systems 2nd Floor 683 . Maryland 20783 USA Tel: (800) 888-8682 http://www.W.gemini.cs.usyd..

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CA 92024 Tel: (800) 690.com/coursegen.seminar. FL 33611 USA Tel: (813) 831-8181 Fax: (813) 831-8221 http://www. Edmonton.com TurboDemo c/o Bernard D&G. Inc. 70 Mitchell Street Glasgow G1 3LX UK 228 © Brandon Hall Research . CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 Fax: (408) 907-4808 http://www.83 01 616 http://www.Seminar Learning System Burleigh House. USA 29063-9688 USA Tel: (803) 749-8980 Fax: (803) 781-7149 http://www.maxit. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 Fax: (904) 998-0221 http://www.cxjsp?pos=ibtAuthorin g Thinkingcap Studio c/o Agile.hunterstone. 55 South Market St.codebaby.com/products/study mate. #1910. +49(0)721.com time4you GmbH communication & learning Maximilianstr. Ste 202 Encinitas.shtml SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.83 01 60 Fax +49(0)721.com XplanaWorkbook c/o Xplana.com SmartBuilder c/o Suddenly Smart 523 Encinitas Blvd.com Thesis c/o HunterStone 10628 C Broad River Rd Irmo.uk Sensa e-Learning 4465 W..xplana.respondus. WA 98052 USA Fax: (425) 881-3329 http://www.funeducation. 4.sensalearning.syberworks. 15 Newmarket Road Cambridge CB5 8EG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 312227 Fax: +44 (0)1223 310200 http://www.5709 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www..htm StudyMate c/o Respondus 17127 NE 83rd Ct.percepsys. Massachusetts 02115 USA Tel: (617) 262-0202 http://www. AB T5J 0K1 Canada Tel: (780) 432-522 http://www.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. Germany Tel.com DA Group The Lighthouse. 76133 Karlsruhe.turbodemo.toolbook.de/ibt/main/en/site/t ime4you/ibt/en/start.com ViewletBuilder c/o Qarbon. Birnenweg 15 72766 Reutlingen Germany Tel: + 49 7121 1688-0 Fax: 212 937 5201 http://www. 250 The Esplanade Toronto.com Trainersoft FunEducation. Gandy Blvd.qarbon. SC.com Avatars CodeBaby Corp. Suite 200 Tampa. Inc.info ToolBook 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View. ON M5A 1J2 Canada Tel: 1 (416) 977-4675 Fax: 1 (416) 599-1441 http://www.com Snap! Studio c/o Percepsys 4686 Rosebush Road Mississauga ON L5M5H3 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 719-4789 http://www. CA 92101 USA http://www. Suite 1550 San Jose.suddenlysmart. Redmond.co.time4you. 323 Newbury Street Boston.thinkingcap. 110 West C Street Suite 2200 San Diego. 10004-104 Avenue.4259 Fax: (760) 635.

com GTCO CalComp.com Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive Building K Mountain View. Ontario M5V 1E7 Canada http://www.com Second Life Tel: (415) 243-9000 http://secondlife..O. NY 10010 USA Tel: (646) 253-1900 http://blogpulse.mozilla.cramersweeney.qelix.com Browsers Flock 100 View Street.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St.com CramerSweeney Instructional Design Moorestown Office Center 110 Marter Avenue. Dale Mabry Hwy. 219 Tampa.com/applications/o mniweb Opera Software ASA P.uk/chatbots.com OmniWeb Omni Development. Moseley.oddcast. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 Fax: (022) 2372-9177 http://qube. Nesbit Rd. USA http://www. Ste. Suite 260 Orlando. WA 98105-3118 USA Tel: (206) 523-4152 x0 Fax: (206) 523-5896 http://www.co. Mumbai 10. W Toronto. Inc.O. 5858 Horton Street Suite 250 Emeryville.com WaveMarket.com Oddcast 589 8th Ave.com/v2/index.wavemarket. NJ 08057 USA Tel: (856) 787-9100 Fax: (856) 787-0707 http://www.active-learning-site. Charles Bonwell Active Learning Workshops.flock.htm Blogging BlogBurst c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 2707 NE Blakeley Street Seattle.com Redwood E-learning Systems 479A Wellington St.opera. Suite 100 Mountain View CA 94041.redwoodelearning. Suite 209 Classroom Response Systems Active Learning Site c/o Dr... INDIA. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.Tel: +44 (0) 141 582 0600 http://www. United Kingdom Tel: 0 (121) 247-3628 http://www. Mary Apts. Birmingham.blogburst. 6th Flr. Inc.com TelSim Software Learning Technology 0012 N. B13 9SG. Inc. Suite 900 Austin.telsim.com Moorestown. 11th Floor New York. P.knowledgeenvironments.omnigroup. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 375-6290 http://www. FL 32817 USA Tel: (407) 737-7310 Fax: (407) 737-6821 http://www. Box 2648 St Hanshaugen NO-0131 Oslo NORWAY Tel: +47 24 16 40 00 Fax: +47 24 16 40 0 http://www. CA 94608 USA http://www.vcom3d..html Knowledge Environments.com Blogpulse c/o Nielsen Buzzmetrics 56 West 22nd Street Third Floor New York.tmmy. Mazgaon. 7125 Riverwood Drive Do not reproduce 229 . TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.uk Daden Chatbots 103 Oxford Rd. CO 80819 Tel: (719) 684-9261 http://www.daden. Box 407 Green Mountain Falls.com Vcom 3d 3452 Lake Lynda Drive.co. Inc. FL 33618 Tel: (813) 868-1661 Fax: (813) 908-3559 http://www. Tel: (413) 458-5611 http://www.

Inc. UT 84020 USA Tel: (801) 303-2525 http://www.edu Batipi 11 St.com 404 Fifth Avenue. Inc.avecomm.caucus. 12617 Meridian E.com Breeze c/o Macromedia. 4631 Dandelion Circle Marietta. Inc.com BlueTie.com Pearson Education Australia Tel: (02) 9454 2222 http://www. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.umass. Pleasant St.com/centra-saba Central Desktop.pearsoned. Inc.com Caucus Care 2630 Lillian Road Ann Arbor. 1050 Pittsford Victor Rd.gtcocalcomp.com Brightidea.com Univeristy of Massachusetts Physics Education Research Group c/o Dr. Puyallup. MD 21046 Tel: (410) 381-6688 Fax: (410) 290-9065 http://www. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 594-4500 http://www. Amherst.aspx Qwizdom.batipi.physics. Suite 101E Falls Church. 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. NJ .Columbia. FL 32811 Tel: (407) 872-3333 Fax: (407) 872-3330 http://www. NY 14534 USA Tel: (800) 258-3843 http://www.com Bantu 8110 Gatehouse Rd.com Smartroom Learning Solutions. Inc.saba.com/ Blenks int bv Postbus 75310 1070 AH AMSTERDAM Tel: 0900-468 326 48 Fax: (+31) 84-7161430 http://www.optiontechnologies. Jospeh Street. #205 Pasadena. SW.telnetz. Somerset.backpackit.bantu. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 Fax: (650) 581-2581 http://www. Canada M4Y 3G4 Tel: (416) 840-3476 http://www.com/products/breeze/ Brevient Tel: 414. 1192 East Draper Parkway.au/ELearning/A udienceResponseSystems/Home.com 230 © Brandon Hall Research . Ian Beatty Lederle Graduate Tower B-416 University of Massachusetts 710 N. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com Centra c/o Saba. Draper.inteam. MA 01003-9305 USA Tel: (413) 545-9483 http://umperg.brevient.smartroom.0162 http://www.com. GA 30067 USA Tel: (404) 419-6060 http://www. MI 48104 USA Fax: (734) 973-6915 http://care. Ontario. CA 91101 Collaboration Tools aveComm c/o Atinav 100 Franklin Square Drive.qwizdom.944. 6th Floor New York.com Backpack c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. Suite 103 Toronto.bluetie.adobe.com Bridgepoint c/o TelNetZ. WA 98373 USA Tel: (253) 845-7738 http://www. Orlando. VA 22042 Tel: (703) 766-4577 http://www. 100 North Lake Avenue.08873 USA Tel: (732) 412-3000 Fax: (732) 412-2145 http://www. Suite 522. Pittsford.brightidea. Suite# 401.com Open Technologies Interactive 399 36th Street.

com Elluminate USA 6301 NW 5th Way Suite 3600 Ft. Inc.com Communique 8280 Greensboro Dr. CA 95134 USA Tel: (408) 526-4000 http://www.com Digi-Net Technologies. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale.citrix.cisco. Inc.W. LLC 501 West Franklin Street.communiqueconferencing. Suite 600 Ottawa.comotivsystems.com Edufolio c/o Terra Dotta. MA 01810 USA Do not reproduce 231 . CA 95066 Tel: +1 (831) 600-1400 Fax: +1 (831) 600-1405 http://www. 170 West Tasman Dr. Sanibel FL. OR 97201 USA Tel: (503) 224-7496 Fax: (503) 222-0185 http://www. MA 01748 USA Tel: (508) 435-1000 http://software. 795 Folsom Street.com/en/US/products/sw/ ps5664/ps5669/index. 57th Street Gainesville. Inc.com CourseForum Technologies 67 King Street Guelph.com Cisco Systems.html Citrix Systems.com/ EPAM Systems Princeton Pike Corporate Center 989 Lenox Dr. 82 Pioneer Way.digite.epam-pmc. Florida 33309-6197 USA Tel: (954) 229-2622 Fax: (954) 337-0330 http://www.com EMC Corporation 176 South Street Hopkinton.Tel: (626) 593-7007 http://www. NJ 08648 USA Tel: (609) 844-0400 http://www. 1034 N.digi-net. FL 32605 USA Tel: (352) 333-3042 Fax: (352) 333-1117 http://www.engineering.com Collaboration Loop CMP Media LLC. Suite 305 Lawrenceville. VA 22102 USA Tel: (202) 266-0058 Fax: (703) 471-1621 http://www.com Comotiv Systems 111 SW Columbia St. Inc.emc. Suite # 102 Mountain View CA 94041 USA Tel: (650) 210-3900 Fax: (650) 210-3901 http://www.com Exact Software 300 Brickstone Square Andover. Suite 630 McLean.com Community Zero c/o Ramius 294 Albert Street.com LLP PO Box 325.communityzero.com Digité.elluminate. Canada L4Z 1V9 Tel: (905) 273-9991 Fax: (905) 273-6691 http://collaboration.collaborationloop. 6th Floor San Francisco.com eStudio c/o Same-Page.com 40 Village Centre Place Mississauga.same-page. San Jose. NC 27516 USA Tel: (919) 929-8400 Fax: (919) 883-5093 http://www.courseforum.com/ Covenos 100 Enterprise Way Mod A-1 Scotts Valley. Ontario. 232 http://www. Lauderdale. Ontario K1P 6E6 Canada Tel: 13-230-3808 ext..centraldesktop.convenos. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 http://www.com Engineering. Ontario Canada N1E 4P5 Fax: (519) 837-8017 http://www. Suite 105 Chapel Hill. 33957 USA Tel: (239) 395-7655 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 905-2300 http://www.edufolio. Suite 950 Portland.

4517 http://www.com Groupwise c/o Novell. Maryland 20852 USA Tel: (301) 255-0018 http://www.com/products/groupwise hotComm c/o 1stWorks Corporation 30 Noon Hill Avenue Norfolk. North Somerset BS21 6EL UK Tel: +44 (0)1275 345100 Fax: +44 (0)1275 345132 http://www. Inc.org Gordano 18 Kenn Road.com Glance Networks. avenue Jean Mermoz 34000 Montpellier.com HP Virtual Classroom Tel: (919) 595-4243 http://education.com Grapevine Software 33532 Atlantic Ave. France Tel: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 67 Fax: +33 (0) 4 99 13 27 50 http://www. Dana Point lCA 92629 USA Tel: (949) 697-. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www.horizonwimba. NY 10018 USA Tel: +1 (212) 533-1775 Fax: +1 (212) 533-6041 http://www. Ste.com c/o Citrix Systems. #115 Rockville.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco. CA 95120 Tel: 1 (408) 333-9368 http://www.com Horizon Wimba 520 8th Avenue.forumone. El Camino Real.com Forum One Communications 2200 Mount Vernon Avenue Alexandria.com GoToMeeting. 395 Encinitas.exactamerica. 3100 Steeles Avenue East. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 232 © Brandon Hall Research .glance.net Global School Net 132 N.com B. ON.com Lotus QuickPlace c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.hyperoffice.hotcomm.groove.hp.com Flypaper c/o Marq Systems 1140 Whitemarsh Court San Jose.facilitate.net Groove Networks. CA 92024 USA Tel: (760) 635-0001 Fax: (760) 635-0003 http://www.gordano. Inc. MA 02056 USA Tel: (508) 541-6781 http://www. Florida 33309 USA Tel: (954) 267-3000 Fax: (954) 267-9319 https://www.com eZmeeting Tel: (318) 449-9900 http://www.flypaper. Suite 2300 New York.globalschoolnet.grapevinesoftware.net GroupSupport.gotomeeting. PO Box 340 5500 AH Veldhoven Tel: +31 (0) 40 258 21 60 Fax: +31 (0) 40 258 21 61 http://www.groupsupport. Clevedon. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Inc. 1167 Massachusetts Avenue Arlington.com Genesys Conferencing Immeuble L’Acropole 954-980.ezmeeting.com HyperOffice 6101 Executive Blvd.Tel: (978) 474-4900 http://www.novell. MA 02476 USA Tel: (781) 646-8505 Fax: (781) 646-8508 http://www. VA 22301 USA Tel: (703) 548-1855 Fax: (703) 995-4937 http://www. Suite 500 Markham. 851 West Cypress Creek Road Fort Lauderdale. CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.genesys. L3R 8T3 Canada Tel: (905) 940-2670 Fax: (905) 940-2688 http://www.V.

Suite 1401 Denver. Suite 412 Cambridge.http://www03.inquesttechnologies. Suite #150 Herndon. MA 01801 USA Tel: (781) 438-6611 http://www.jdhtech. 25 First Street.onproject.com MITRE 202 Burlington Road Bedford.com iLinc Communications 2999 N. AZ 85705 USA Tel: (520) 670-7100 Fax: (520) 670-7101 http://www. CO 80202 USA Toll Free: 1-866-523-1137 http://www. MA 02141 USA Tel: +1 (617) 475-2200 Fax: +1 (617) 621-3922 http://www.com MeetingOne 999 Eighteenth Street North Tower. 44th St. Suite 225 Cedar Knolls. WA 98362 USA Tel: (360) 460-3093 http://myworldchat.com/servers/eserver/iseries/quickp lace IceWeb 205 Van Buren St. Fordham Blvd.ivocalize. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 Fax: (425) 936-7329 http://www. France Tel : +33 1 46 22 07 00 http://www.com ivocalize Tel: 206-388-3706 http://www.com/uc/livemeeting/ default.com Netspoke 600 West Cummings Park. Suite 300 Torrance.com LiveMeeting c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. Corp 2780 Skypark Drive. MA 01730-1420 USA Tel: (781) 271-2000 http://collaboration.interwoven.meetingone. Suite 6500 Woburn.ibm.mspx LiveOffice.mayeticvillage.near-time.linktivity.com Near-Time. 11th floor New York.com Interwoven 803 11th Avenue.ilinc. Sunnyvale. NY 10018 USA Tel: (212) 543-7700 Fax: (212) 543-7978 http://www.htm MyWorldChat/Raissa Publishing PO Box 295 Port Angeles.org/tools.liveoffice. Inc. Virginia 23606 USA Tel: (757) 873-4747 Fax: (757) 873-8484 http://www. Phoenix. MA 01772 USA Tel: (508) 787-1090 Fax: (508) 787-1097 http://www. NJ 07927 USA Tel: (973) 971-9970 http://www.interwise.com Interwise.iceweb.com IntraLinks 1372 Broadway.microsoft..mitre.netspoke.com Do not reproduce 233 .intralinks. VA 20170 USA Tel: (703) 964-8000 Fax: (703) 964-0160 http://www. Suite A-410 Chapel Hill.com JDH Technologies Suite 302 12388 Warwick Boulevard Newport News. 3 Wing Drive. CA 94089 USA Tel: + 1 (408) 774-2000 Fax: +1 (408) 774-2002 http://www. Suite 100 Tucson.com Linktivity 3760 North Commerce Drive. Inc. NC 27514 USA Tel: (919) 360-7343 http://www.com onProject. Inc.com Mayetic 249 rue Saint-Martin 75003 – Paris.com inQuest Technologies 144 Turnpike Road Southborough. AZ 85018 Tel: (602) 952-1200 Fax: (602) 952-0544 http://www. CA 90505 USA Tel: (800) 251-3863 http://www. 1289 N.

New No.com Selden Integrated Systems. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.sitescape. CO 80634 USA Tel: (970) 336-5960 http://www.com project-open Ronda de Sant Antoní. Inc.O.cyber-grad.opentext.TamilNadu India – 600020 Tel: +91 44 – 39181110 http://www.com ProjectDox c/o Informative Graphics Corporation 4835 E. P. MA 01754 USA Tel: (978) 450-2200 http://www. Box 3325 York. 1157 Century Drive Louisville. London W1B 4DA England Tel: +44 (0)870 760 5521 http://www. Suite 210 Maynard.ht ml Parlano 10 S. Arizona 85254 Tel: (602) 971-6061 Fax: (602) 971-1714 http://www. Ca 94941 USA 234 © Brandon Hall Research .radvision. 35.com Performance Solutions Technology PO Box 2157. Suite 1450 Chicago. VA 22043 Tel: (877) 751-2200 Fax: (877) 751-2200 http://www.projectdox.com Oracle Collaboration Suite 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Riverside Plaza.parlano.mspx SiteScape 12 Clock Tower Place. NJ 07410-2819 USA Tel: (201) 689-6300 http://www.project-open. 17-17 State Highway 208. Suite 200 Greeley. CA 95110 USA Tel: (408) 436-6170 Fax: (408) 436-7508 http://www. 1o 2a E-08011 Barcelona Tel: +34 (933) 250-914 Fax: +34 (932) 890-729 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. 51.Open Text Corporation 275 Frank Tompa Drive Waterloo.com/collabsuite/index. Suite 440 San Jose.seldensystems.com OPM Creator Limited Mayfair House 14-18 Heddon Street Mayfair. Inc.raindance. ON N2L 0A1 Canada Tel: (519) 888-7111 http://www.com Stalker Software c/o CommuniGate Systems 655 Redwood Hwy.q2learning.microsoft.Adyar Chennai. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.photoninfotech. Ste 275 Mill Valley.com PeopleCube Corporate Headquarters 411 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.com RADVISION Inc.com ShareMethods Tel: 1 (877) 742-7366 http://www.com SpiderWeb Communications. OR 97415 USA Tel: (877) 487-3001 http://www.performancesolutionstech.com Projistics c/o Nagarro 226 Airport Parkway. First Main Road Gandhi Nagar. Suite B.sharemethods. 1175 58th Avenue. Cactus Rd.opmcreator.peoplecube. Suite 300 Fair Lawn.oracle.com Photon Infotech Inc. CO 80027 USA Tel: (303) 928-2400 http://www. IL 60606 USA Tel: (312) 655-8330 http://www. Suite 445 Scottsdale.com/windowsserver2 003/technologies/sharepoint/default.com Q2Learning LLC 2686 Hillsman Street Falls Church. Inc. Harbor. PA 17402 US Tel: (717) 757-2679 http://www. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 530-2600 http://www. 3679 Concord Road.nagarro.com Raindance Communications.

usabilityfirst.tomoye. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 251-2000 http://www.webcrossing.webasyst. Suite 100 Austin. Inc.O.wave3software.com WebAsyst PO Box 25331. Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6151 13097-0 http://www.O.com Teamspace c/o 5 POINT AG Heidelberger Straße 55-61 64285 Darmstadt. Box 135 FIN-00381 Helsinki. Chicago IL 60622 USA http://www.com TeamDynamix Tel: (877) 752-6196 http://www. P. PA 19428 Tel: (610) 828-2877 http://www. AZ 85254 Tel: (480) 735-5900 Fax: (480) 735-5901 http://www.com Xcolla c/o Axista Tel: (917) 438-7087 http://www.com Writeboard c/o 37 Signals 400 North May Street #301. DC 20006 USA Tel: (202) 223-1800 Fax: (202) 223-5890 http://www. Canada http://www. Quebec J8X 2K1 Canada Tel: +1 (819) 246-9007 http://www.net Tomoye 86 Promenade du Portage Gatineau.com Trichys WorkZone 701 East Elm Street Conshohocken. Suite 810 Toronto.net WebEx Communications.Box 2900 Alameda.webex.webtrain.com Do not reproduce 235 . FL 33306-1637 USA Tel: (954) 566-0992 http://www.com Vignette 1301 South MoPac Expressway.com/content/default.stalker.com Web Crossing.com/groupware/in dex.com Tacit 2100 Geng Road Palo Alto.teamspace. Suite 950 Washington.com Teamware P. Delaware 19899 USA Tel: +1 (302) 351-4649 http://www.viack. CO 80303 USA Tel: (303) 449-0202 Fax: (303) 265-9286 http://www.vignette.tacit. Kierland Blvd.com Wave3 c/o wireless logix group 2755 E Oakland Park Blvd Fort Lauderdale. CA 94001 USA Tel: (415) 771-7099 http://www. BC V6B 4M9 Canada Tel: (604) 408-0027 http://www.backpackit. TX 78746 USA Tel: (5 2) 741-4300 Fax: (512) 741-1537 http://www.com WebOffice c/o L & W InterLab 77 Finch Avenue East. 3979 Freedom Circle Santa Clara.com WebTrain Communications 475 West Georgia Street. Inc.teamware.webofficepoint. 1100 Lovering Avenue Wilmington. CA 95054 USA Tel: (408) 435-7000 http://www. Finland Tel: +358 (0)207 515 300 http://www.vodium.com Usability First c/o Foraker Design 5277 Manhattan Circle Suite 210 Boulder. Suite 1050 Vancouver. CA 94043 USA Tel: +1 (650) 934-9500 Fax: +1 (650) 962-9411 http://www.trichys.txl Viack 14811 N.ht ml SumTotal 1808 North Shoreline Boulevard Mountain View.com Vodium 1629 K Street NW.sumtotalsystems.. Suite 100 Scottsdale.axista. Ontario M2N 6H8.teamdynamix.Tel: (415) 383-7164 http://www.

Zoho Virtual Office c/o AdventNet, Inc., 5200 Franklin Dr, Suite 115 Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA Tel: (925) 924-9500 http://www.zoho.com

SyberWorks Competency Management Module Tel: (888) 642-7078 Fax: (781) 891-1994 http://www.syberworks.com

Communications Tools
The Learning Place c/o Department of Education and the Arts PO Box 15033, City East QLD 4002 Australia Tel: 61-7-3237-0111 http://education.qld.gov.au/learningplace/ Live Video Santa Cruz Networks, Inc. 1684 Dell Avenue Campbell, CA 95008 USA Tel: (408) 871-1713 http://www.santacruznetworks.com

Content Management Systems
ATutor c/o Adaptive Technology Resource Centre J.P. Robarts Library, First Floor University of Toronto, 130 St. George St. Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5 Canada Tel: (416) 978-4360 http://www.atutor.ca AuthorIT Software Corporation PO Box 300-273 Albany 0752, Auckland NEW ZEALAND Tel: +64 (9) 915 5070 http://www.author-it.com e-Learning Centre Learning Light Ltd., Sheffield Technology Parks, Cooper Buildings. Arundel Street, Sheffield, S1 2NS UK http://www.e-learningcentre.co.uk Plone Foundation 4617 Montrose Blvd, Suite C215 Houston, TX. 77006 USA Tel: (302) 397-2132 http://plone.org

Competency Tracking
Carr Performance Group Tel: (281) 798-3791 http://www.cpgvision.com Desire2Learn Inc. 72 Victoria Street South Suite 401, Kitchener-Waterloo Ontario, Canada N2G 4Y9 Tel: (519) 772-0325 Fax: (519) 772-0324 http://www.desire2learn.com HRSG 402-1355 Bank Street Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8K7 CANADA Tel: (613) 745-6605 Fax: (613) 745-4019 http://www.hrsg.ca LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 Fax: (866) 279-1248 http://www.learnflex.com Oracle 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.com

Data Mining
Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna, VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 Fax: (703) 761-1990 http://www.convera.com KDNuggets Tel: (617) 264-9914 Fax: (325) 204-7702 http://www.kdnuggets.com

Decision Support Software
BNH Expert Software Inc. 4000 Steinberg Street St. Laurent, QC, Canada H4R 2G7

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Tel: (514) 745-4010 http://www.bnhexpertsoft.com Facilitate 4323 23rd Street San Francisco, CA 94114 USA Tel: (805) 682-6939 http://www.facilitate.com GrassGro c/o Assoc. Prof. Jim Scott Decision Support Systems Agronomy and Soil Science UNE NSW 2351 Australia http://www.une.edu.au/dss/grassgro/index .html Meetingworks 46 Village Way PMB 107 Port Ludlow, WA. 98365 USA Tel: (206) 467-1234 Fax: (206) 467-1238 http://www.meetingworks.com

ePortfolio Tools
ANGEL Learning 7601 Interactive Way, Suite 100 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Tel: (317) 333-7300 http://www.angellearning.com Chalk and Wire 19 Leawood Avenue St. Catherines, ON L2T 3R5 Canada Tel: 1 (877) 252-2201 http://www.chalkandwire.com FolioTek c/o LANIT Consulting, Inc. 5900-B North Tower Drive Columbia, MO 65202 USA Tel: 1 (888) 365-4639 http://www.foliotek.com/ LiveText 1 S. La Grange Road, Second Floor La Grange, Illinois 60525-2455 USA Tel: 1 (866) 548-3839 edu-solutions@livetext.com Nuventive 3996 Mount Royal Blvd Allison Park, PA 15101-3518 USA Tel: (412) 487-8700 http://www.nuventive.com Pebble Learning e-Innovation Centre University of Wolverhampton Shifnal Road, Telford, TF2 9NT UK Tel: +44 (0) 1952 288300 http://www.pebblepad.co.uk/

Display Technologies
FogScreen Inc., Helsinki Tammasaarenkatu 1 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel: +358 (0) 20 7118 610 http://www.fogscreen.com IO2Technology 310 Shaw Road S. San Francisco, CA 94080 USA Tel: (650) 583-5230 http://www.io2technology.com NTERA 100 Four Falls Corporate Center 1001 Conshohocken State Rd, Suite 606, West Conshohocken, PA 19428 USA Tel: (484) 534-2150 http://www.ntera.com ProVision 9253 Eton Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311 USA Tel: (818) 775-1624 http://www.provisionentertainment.com Silicon Light Machines 3939 North First Street San Jose, CA 95134-1506 USA Tel: (408) 240-4700 Fax: (408) 456-0708 http://www.siliconlight.com

Gaming Design and Development Tools
Clickteam France 69 rue Ampère 75017 Paris France Tel: +33 472 39 94 59 http://www.clickteam.com Freescale Semiconductor Inc 6501 William Cannon Drive West Austin, Texas 78735 USA Tel: 1 (800) 521-6274 http://www.freescale.com Magnetar Games 5775 Toronto Road PH4 Vancouver B.C. V6T-1X4 Canada Tel: (604) 224-4620 http://www.magnetargames.com

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Microsoft XNA c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://www.microsoft.com/xna/ Programmers Heaven Synchron Data Av. Clemente Diaz Ruiz Urb. Puebla Lucia local 7, 12-20 296 40 Fuengirola Spain http://www.programmersheaven.com The Serious Games Initiative Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20004-3027 USA Tel: 1 (888) 286-3541 http://www.seriousgames.org Softimage Solutions c/o Avid Technology, Inc Avid Technology Park, One Park West Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA Tel: (800) 800-2843 http://www.softimage.com/solutions/game s/default.aspx Thinking Worlds Caspian Learning, St Peter's Gate Sunderland Science Park Charles Street, Sunderland Tyne and Wear, SR6 0AN UK http://www.thinkingworlds.com

Fax: (781) 890-828 http://www.avs.com Autodesk, Inc. 111 McInnis Parkway San Rafael, CA 94903 USA Tel: (415) 507-5000 http://usa.autodesk.com AUTO-TROL Technology Corporation 12500 N. Washington Street Denver, CO 80241-2400 USA Tel: (303) 452-4919 http://www.tech-illustrator.com Blender c/o Stichting Blender Foundation Frederiksstraat 12-2 1054 LC Amsterdam Netherlands http://www.blender3d.org Broderbund c/o Riverdeep, Inc. 100 Pine Street, Suite 1900 San Francisco, CA 94111 Tel: (415) 659-2000 http://www.broderbund.com Corel Corporation 1600 Carling Avenue Ottawa, Ontario K1Z 8R7 Canada Tel: (800) 772-6735 http://www.corel.com IBM Corporation 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.ibm.com/us/ ITEDO Software LLC SeaBreeze Plaza 111 Anza Boulevard, Suite 300 Burlingame, CA 94010 USA Tel: (650) 558-3840 http://www.itedo.com Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www.microsoft.com SmartDraw.com 9909 Mira Mesa Blvd., Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92131 Tel: (858) 225-3300 http://www.smartdraw.com

Gesture and Facial Recognition Technologies
Machine Perception Laboratory University of California, San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive, Dept. 0445 La Jolla, CA 92093-0445 USA http://mplab.ucsd.edu

Graphics Tools
Adobe Systems Incorporated 345 Park Avenue San Jose, CA 95110-2704 Tel: (408) 536-6000 Fax: (408) 537-6000 http://www.adobe.com Advanced Visual Systems Inc. 300 Fifth Avenue Waltham, MA 02451 USA Tel: (781) 890-4300

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Haptics
Force Dimension PSE-C CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Tel: +41 21 693-1911 http://www.forcedimension.com HandshakeVR 564 Weber Street North, Unit 9 Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 5C6 Tel: (519) 747-3969 http://www.handshakeinteractive.com Immersion 801 Fox Lane San Jose, California 95131 USA Tel: +1 (408) 467-1900 http://www.immersion.com MIRALab Centre Universitaire d'Informatique 24 rue du General Dufour CH-1211, Geneve-4 Switzerland http://haptex.miralab.unige.ch MPB Technologies Inc. Tel: (514) 694-8751 http://www.mpb-technologies.ca Robotics Group of the University of Pisa Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Pisa Via Diotisalvi, 2-56126 Pisa, Italy Tel: +39 050 2217050 Fax: +39 050 2217051 http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it SenseGraphics AB Electrum Q. Office Isafjordsgatan 22 C5 16440 Kista, SWEDEN Tel: +46-8 750 8070 http://www.sensegraphics.se SensAble Technologies, Inc. 15 Constitution Way Woburn, MA 01801 Tel: +1 (781) 937-8315 Fax: +1 (781) 937-8325 http://www.sensable.com

E Ink Corporation 733 Concord Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138 USA Tel: (617) 499-6000 http://www.eink.com Fujitsu Limited Shiodome City Center 1-5-2 Higashi-Shimbashi Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-7123 Japan Tel: 81-3-6252-2220 http://www.fujitsu.com Logitech Inc. 6505 Kaiser Drive Fremont, CA 94555 USA Tel: (510) 795-8500 http://www.logitech.com National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities National Institute of Building Sciences 1090 Vermont Ave., NW Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA Tel: (202) 289-7800 http://www.edfacilities.org/rl/interactive_w hiteboards.cfm SMART Technologies Inc. 1207 – 11 Avenue SW, Suite 300 Calgary, AB T3C 0M5 CANADA Tel: (403) 245-0333 http://www.smarttech.com Wacom Technology Corporation 1311 SE Cardinal Court Vancouver, WA 98683 USA Tel: (360) 896-9833 (Dial 4) http://www.wacom.com

Learning Management Systems and Virtual Learning Environments
Allen Communication Learning Services 175 W. 200 South, Ste. 100 Garden Level Salt Lake City, UT 84101 USA Tel: (801) 537-7800 Fax: (801) 537-7805 http://www.allencomm.com Cornerstone OnDemand, Inc. 1601 Cloverfield Blvd. Suite #620 Santa Monica, CA 90404 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 http://www.cornerstoneondemand.com CourseMill LMS c/o Trivantis Corporation 311 Elm Street, Suite 200

Interface Devices
Anoto Inc. 7677 Oakport Street, 12th Floor Oakland, CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 777-0071 http://www.anotogroup.com

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Cincinnati, OH 45202 USA Tel: (513) 929-0188 http://www.trivantis.com DOTS - Dynamic Online Training System WebRaven Pty Ltd Suite 404 303 Adelaide St Brisbane QLD 4000 Australia Tel: +61 7 3220 2229 http://www.webraven.com Ed Training Platform c/o Strategia 1010 de Serigny, Suite 660 Longueuil, Quebec, J4K 5G7 Canada Tel: (450) 679-8239 http://www.strategia.ca element k c/o 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester, NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.elementk.com Enterprise Knowledge Platform (EKP) c/o NetDimensions 10/F, Siu On Centre 188 Lockhart Road Wan Chai, Hong Kong Tel: +852 2122 4500 http://www.netdimensions.com Generation21 Learning Systems 17301 W. Colfax Avenue Building 200, Suite 225 Golden, CO 80401 Tel: (888) 601-1300 http://www.gen21.com GeoMaestro GeoLearning, Inc. 4600 Westown Parkway, Suite 301 West Des Moines, IA 50266 USA Tel: (515) 222-9903 http://www.geolearning.com IBM Workplace Collaborative Learning c/o IBM, 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains, New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks.ns f/RedpieceAbstracts/sg247254.html?Open InfoSource, Inc. 6947 University Blvd. Winter Park, FL 32792 Tel: (407) 677-0300 http://www.howtomaster.com

iPerform c/o Integrated Performance Systems, Inc. 111 Water St., East Dundee, IL 60118 USA Tel: (847) 836-1800 http://www.ips-inc.com Intellinex LMS c/o Intellinex LLC, Huntington Building, 925 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-1476 USA Tel: (216) 685-6000 http://www.intellinex.com intraLearn XE c/o IntraLearn Software Corporation 276 West Main Street Northboro, MA 01532 Tel: (508) 393-2277 http://www.intralearn.com KnowledgePlanet Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road, Suite 112 Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.knowledgeplanet.com KnowledgeBridge Websoft Systems Inc. 1 West Front Street Red Bank, NJ 07701 Tel: (732) 212-1933 http://www.websoft.com Learn Enterprise LMS Compendium Corporation 10890 Nesbitt Avenue South Minneapolis, MN 55437 Tel: (952) 881-1608 http://www.compendiumcorp.com LearnCenter c/o Learn.com, Inc. 14000 NW 4th Street Sunrise, FL 33325 USA Tel: (954) 233-4000 http://www.learn.com LearnFlex c/o Operitel Corporation 160 Charlotte St, Suite 201 Peterborough, Ontario K9J 2T8 Canada Tel: (866) 849-3630 http://www.learnflex.com Isoph Blue c/o LearnSomething Inc. 2457 Care Drive Tallahassee, FL 32308 USA Tel: (850) 385-7915 http://www.learnsomething.com

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CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 951-7913 http://www. 550 Queen St.com TeraLearn LCMS c/o TeraLearn. Suite 2200 Chicago.com/solutions/businesssuite/erp/hcm/learningsolution/index.com/applications/huma n_resources/learning.oracle. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.epx SSA Learning Management c/o SSA Global Technologies Inc.com. 100 Foxborough Blvd. East . CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www.oracle.teralearn. Ontario M5A 1V2 Canada Tel: (416) 364-5390 http://www. West.wizdom. Glebe Road.com Oracle Learning 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.syntrio.com LMSLive Wizdom Systems Inc.com Saba Enterprise Learning Suite c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores.sap. 500 West Madison. 1300 Iroquois Avenue Naperville. LTD 671 N. Suite 260 Foxborough. Inc.com mGen Enterprise mGen. VA 22203-2110 USA Tel: (703) 292-0200 http://www. CA 95628 USA Tel: (916) 536-1279 http://www.htm SAP Learning Solution SAP America Inc 3999 West Chester Pike Newtown Square.html Outstart Evolution c/o Outstart Studios 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www.outstart.html Plateau Learning Management System Plateau Systems.Suite 350 Toronto. CA 94065 USA Tel: (650) 506-0024 http://www. Inc. Chantilly.teds. IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 258-6000 http://www. Fifth Floor Montreal.ssaglobal.com Meridian KSI Knowledge Centre c/o Meridian Knowledge Solutions. PO Box 100 Fair Oaks.maxit. 77 West Port Plaza Suite 500. St.LearnerWeb MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. VA 20151 USA Tel:1 (703) 322-9565 Fax: 1 (703) 322-9568 http://www. Suite 1280 San Francisco.plateau.com Syntrio Enterprise LMS Syntrio 33 New Montgomery Street.com/products/saba/learni ng/index. Inc. Quebec H3A 3C8 Canada Tel: (514) 287-1561 http://www.meridianksi. MO 63146 Tel: (314) 439-4700 http://www.mgen.sselearn. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com/applications/people soft/hcm/ent/module/learning_mgmt. MA 02035 USA Tel: (508) 549-0970 Fax: (508) 549-0979 http://www.technomedia. 1001 De Maisonneuve Blvd. 4465 Brookfield Corporate Drive Suite 201.saba. Suite 700 Arlington.com SSElearn Portal c/o SSE. IL 60563 USA Tel: (630) 357-3000 http://www.com PeopleSoft Learning Management 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores.com TEDS Inc. PA 19073 USA Tel: +1 (610) 661-1000 http://www.isnewmedia.com TM SIGAL c/o Technomedia Training Inc.com On-Tracker LMS c/o Interactive Solutions New Media Inc.ca Do not reproduce 241 . Louis.

com WebMentor LMS Avilar Technologies.vuepoint. Laurent Blvd.xstreamsoftware. Suite 101 Houston.sir.com Vuepoint Learning System Vuepoint Corp.com Western Cooperative For Educational Telecommunications (WCET) P.fldata. The University of Arizona 1515 East First Street Tucson. 11577 USA Tel: (888) 883-7646 http://www. 240 Bay Street. MD 21046 USA Tel: (410) 290-0008 http://www. Inc. Colorado 80920 USA Tel: (719) 548-1110 http://www.com Training Partner c/o Geometrix Data Systems. 6760 Alexander Bell Drive.uwm. Texas 77566 USA Tel: (979) 285-3650 http://www. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9300 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. 4 Expressway Plaza. CA 94612-2901 USA Tel: (510) 987-0425 http://www.gyrus. 17041 El Camino Real.com Learning Objects and Repositories California Digital Library University of California Office of the President 415 20th Street.O. Inc.trainingpartner.cdlib. CO 80301-9752 USA Tel: (303) 541-0231 http://www. 563 Southlake Boulevard Richmond.com Training Wizard MX/SST c/o Gyrus. Alberta T5J 3N9 Canada Tel: (780) 462-6365 http://www.arizona.jsp?pj=1 XStream RapidShare LMS XStream Software Inc.risc-inc. Park West Business Park Nangor Road Dublin 12 Ireland Tel: + 353 (0)1 620 4900 http://www.com Tracker.Net Platte Canyon Multimedia Software Corporation 8870 Edgefield Drive Colorado Springs. WI 53211 USA Tel: (414) 229-3757 http://www. Inc. Suite 200 Roslyn Heights.Milwaukee 2441 East Hartford Avenue Garland Hall 138 Milwaukee. 1808 North Shoreline Blvd Mountain View. 122 West Way. Inc.wbtsystems.com TRACCESS c/o TTG Systems Incorporated #2100.com WBT TopClass LMS Horizon Technology Group plc 14 Joyce Way.avilar.xtention.Total LMS c/o SumTotal.info/index. 4th Floor Oakland. Ontario. 10130-103 Street Edmonton.edutools.sumtotalsystems.ttg-inc.edu/Dept/CIE/AOP eduSource c/o Netera 242 © Brandon Hall Research . Victoria.net Virtual Training Assistant c/o RISC. Box 9752 Boulder.com Xtention Learning Management System c/o Xtention Inc. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www.vbtrain. SC 29201 USA Tel: (803) 732-3080 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 934-9500 http://www. Virginia 23236 USA Tel: (804) 320-1414 http://www. Texas 77058 USA Tel: (281) 480-7910 http://www. NY.org Digital Library of Information Science and Technology c/o School of Information Resources & Library Science. 1619 Sumter Street Columbia .edu Center for International Education University of Wisconsin . Suite 401A Lake Jackson. 2280 St. Arizona 85719 USA Tel: (520) 621-3565 http://dlist. Suite # 105 Columbia..com Training Mine c/o Frontline Data Solutions.

aspx? tabindex=0&tabid=1 LoLa Exchange c/o Wesleyan University Wesleyan Station Middletown.plos.merlot. TX 77005-1892USA Tel: (713) 348-2954 http://lester. Hertfordshire. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 624-1200 http://www.ht m LRC project University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 Australia Tel: +61 2 9385 1000 http://www.lornet.geocomm. Norton Road. ETRAC.dist.edu.cf m ESRI Suite 300.llearn.org LORNET Research Network TÉLUQ 100 Sherbrooke West.au:8010 Maricopa Center for Learning & Instruction Maricopa Community Colleges 2411 West 14th Street Tempe.goenc.thegateway.rice. Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada Tel: (403) 220-6778 http://edusource.clarklabs. 1275 Kinnear Road Columbus.University of Calgary BI 530 2500 University Drive Calgary. Fondren Library.com Do not reproduce 243 .ca ENC Learning Inc. 85711 USA Tel: (520) 881-3317 http://www.cadcorp.org Earth Observation System University of Montana c/o Jeff Crews Tel: (406) 243 2644 http://www.org National Science Digital Library (NSDL) P.4464 Markham Street Victoria. FL 32578 Tel: (850) 897-1002 http://www. OH 43212 USA Tel: (800) 471-1045 http://www. Box 1892. Rice University. SG1 2JY. MS 44.org/eng/scientifiques.com GeoCommunity c/o Qlinks Media Group 1161 John Sims Pkwy E Niceville. 5151 East Broadway.org Location Based Technologies Cadcorp Ltd. Sterling Court. Houston. AZ 85250 USA http://www.com Clark Labs Clark University 950 Main Street Worcester.O. P.lrc3.lolaexchange.org Public Library of Science 185 Berry Street.com/gis4mt/index.com Gateway to 21st Century Skills Administered by the GEM Exchange c/o JES & Co. CT 06459 USA http://www.edu/mix MERLOT CSU Long Beach 1250 Bellflower Boulevard Psy-100 Long Beach CA 90840-0901 USA Tel: (562) 985-2348 http://taste.O.mcli.eoscenter. Montreal (Quebec) H2X 3P2 Canada Tel: (514) 843-2015 http://www.net LESTER c/o Lisa Spiro. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road Danvers. Suite 3100 San Francisco. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www. UK Tel: +44 (0) 1438 747996 http://www. Stevenage. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Suite 1600 Tucson.unsw. CO 80307 USA Tel: (303) 497-2940 http://nsdl.maricopa.edu/DesktopDefault.esri. Box 3000 Boulder. AZ.netera.org Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 . MA 01610-1477 USA Tel: (508) 793-7526 http://www.

com MOBILearn c/o Dr.org/aitopics/html/natlang. PMB #112 Lake Mary.pangonetworks. Suite 501 Portland.se Knowledge Pulse Leopoldskronstraße 30 5020 Salzburg.stockholmchallenge. html ELSNET Trans 10. Inc.com Metadata. California 94025 USA Tel: (650) 328-3123 http://www. FL 32746 USA Tel: 1 (407) 362-7783 Fax: 1 (407) 284-1265 http://www.smm. 3512 JK UTRECHT The Netherlands 244 © Brandon Hall Research .edu.asp KLIV project c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.uk/guides Dublin Core Metadata Initiative OCLC Online Computer Library Center. 6565 Frantz Road Dublin.org/ Spotlight Mobile.cetis.cancore. Tino Johansson University of Helsinki. Oregon 97214 USA Tel: (503) 224-1630 Fax: (503) 231-8425 http://spotlight-mobile.mobilearn.imsglobal.ac.org Tel: (614) 764-6000 http://dublincore. Dept.bham.org IMS 801 International Parkway 5th Floor. MA 01701 USA Tel: (508) 626-8900 http://www.30670 Intergraph Corporation P.ac. Ontologies and Taxonomies Cancore Norm Friesen.com Museum of Vertebrate Zoology 3101 Valley Life Sciences Building University of California Berkeley. BL3 5AB UK http://metadata. Austria http://www.5372.eee.O. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. of Geography.mapinfo. Electrical and Computer Engineering. Giancarlo Bo GIUNTI Interactive Labs Tel: +39-0185-42123 http://www. CA 94720-3160 USA http://mvz.intergraph. Box 240000 Huntsville. Suite 100 Framingham. Inc.fi/english/page. Ohio 43017-3395 USA Natural Language Processing American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) 445 Burgess Drive.org Mobile Technologies HandLeR Project Education Technology Research Group Electronic.knowledgepulse. V4B 2Z6 Canada Tel: (604) 535-6243 http://www. 17 SE 3rd Avenue.O. Suite 100 Menlo Park.com MapInfo One Global View Troy. 959 Concord Street. MN 55102 USA Tel: (651) 221-9423 http://www. Director 14083 Blackburn Ave White Rock BC. AL 35824 USA Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www.berkeley. University of Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom http://www.com Science Museum of Minnesota 120 West Kellogg Boulevard Saint Paul.ca CETIS Metadata and Digital Repositories University of Bolton Deane Road Bolton .Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Applications for Schools c/o Mr. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden http://www. BOX 64 (Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2) FIN-00014 University of Helsinki.edu PanGo Networks. P.uk/handler/defaul t. Finland Tel: +358 9 191 51045 http://www.asp?path= 500.aaai.

groove.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246. CA 94306 USA Tel: (650) 331-0244 Fax: (650) 384-0002 http://www.net internet2.com Groove Networks.stockholmchallenge. TX 77098 USA Tel: (713) 333-1724 http://www.advancedreality. PA.com MoveDigital. MA 01915 Tel: (978) 720-2000 Fax: (978) 720-2001 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 961-6633 http://www.it Victoria. Suite 300. 947 Ilima Way Palo Alto.movedigital.net LOCKSS c/o Victoria Reich.sun.org/lockss/Home Overnet 45 W 21th St #6D New York. Director Tel: (650) 725-1134 http://www.4464 Markham Street Personal Learning Environments CETIS c/o Prof.Tel: +31 30 253 6050 http://www. 10010 USA http://www. 4150 Network Circle Santa Clara. 3000 Richmond Rive Houston.elena-project. 19104-2653. CA 94102 USA Tel: (415) 581-3500 http://www. 1st Floor A . Inc. 18 I-38050 Povo-Trento. Whisman Road Mountain View.itc. Bolton BL3 5AB UK Tel: 01204 903660 http://www.com Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market Street Suite 810 Philadelphia.llearn. Italy http://tcc.edu jxta c/o Sun Microsystems.asp?c=ktJ2J9M MIsE&b=179086 Peer-to-Peer Technologies Advanced Reality Inc. NY.lockss.uk/members/ple Personalization Asian Art Museum 200 Larkin Street San Francisco.lexxe.Project Coordinator CSI .upenn.com Seti@Home SETI Institute 515 N.internet2.edu TCC Division Cognitive and Communication Technologies Via Sommarive.org/site/pp. Ann Arbor MI 48104 USA Tel: (734) 913-4250 http://p2p. 100 Cummings Center Suite 535Q Beverly. Inc.com/software/jxta KLIV c/o Stockholm Challenge DSV.1150 Wien Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Oleg Liber University of Bolton. Deane Rd.asianart.overnet. USA Tel: (215) 898-0464 http://www. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www. British Columbia V8Z 7X8 Canada Tel: (250) 658-8238 Toll Free: (866) 479-7627 http://www. Inc.ldc.ac.org National Museum of Ethnology Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde Postbus 212.org Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.cetis.se Language Learning Environment and Resource Network (LLEARN) Suite 2301 .edu 1000 Oakbrook Drive. 2300 AE Leiden The Netherlands Do not reproduce 245 . CA 95054 Tel: (650) 960-1300 http://www. Forum 100 SE 164 40 Kista Sweden Fax: +46 8 594 400 06 http://www.org ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger .elsnet.seti.

com ProQuest 789 E.Tel: +31 (0)71-5168800 http://www.com ExecuTrain 2500 Northwinds Parkway.edu Liberty Science Center 251 Phillip Street Liberty State Park Jersey City. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.apreso.com World Wide Learn Suite 100.com iCampus Tel : (617) 253-5856 http://icampus. Quebec K1A 0M5 Canada Tel: 1 (819) 994-1200 http://www.com 50 S.proquest. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 Fax: (415) 832-2020 http://www. Eisenhower Parkway P.com Genesys Conferencing Tel: (303) 267-1059 http://www. T2T 0B2 Canada Tel: (403) 802-6116 http://www. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www.com SharePoint c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond.elearningeuropa.mit.elluminate.com Portals CyberU.com Elluminate Canada Suite 304. NE Calgary.worldwidelearn. NJ 07305 USA Tel: (201) 200-1000 http://www. Ninth St.nl Virtual Museum of Canada 15 Eddy Street.saba.6526 http://www.com Presentations. Alberta. T2A 6K4 Canada Tel: (403) 204-7896 http://www.teach-nology. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 www. 3016 5th Ave. 15-4-A Gatineau. CA 90405 USA Tel: (310) 752-0200 Fax: (310) 752-0199 http://www. NY 14623 USA Tel: (585) 240-7500 http://www.com Teachnology.microsoft.virtualmuseum. 3º 08021 Barcelona.com Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 2850 Ocean Park Boulevard.com Elearningeuropa c/o Pau Education Muntaner 262. Suite 225 Santa Monica.trainingregistry.executrain.saba. MN 55402 USA Tel: 612.com Centra c/o Saba 2400 Bridge Parkway Redwood Shores. 3333 http://www. Suite 600 Alpharetta.presentations.info Element K 500 Canal View Boulevard Rochester.elementk. Incorporated: Consulting Services County Route 93 Presentation Tools Anystream Apreso Tel: (703) 450-7030 http://www.rmv. Alberta.O.17th Avenue SW Calgary.macromedia. Georgia 30004 USA Tel: (770) 667-7700 http://www. Inc.jsp 246 © Brandon Hall Research . New York 10973 USA http://www. Minneapolis. CA 94065-1166 USA Tel: (650) 581-2500 http://www. MI 48106-1346 USA Tel: 34 761-4700 ext.lsc.cyberu. Box 172 1039 .org Macromedia. ES Tel: +34 93 367 04 00 http://www. Inc.com/presentatio ns/index.ca Slate Hill.genesys.333.com The Training Registry Tel: (919) 847-0331 http://www. Box 1346 Ann Arbor.

edu Woods Hole Marine Systems. NY 10001 Tel: 1 (800) 861-4880 www. PA 15201 USA Tel: (412) 681-7160 Fax: (412) 681-696 http://www-education.com Scate Technologies 40 Engelwood Dr. CA 94040.gov. Lindsey Bldg.com General Robotics Corporation 760 South Youngfield Court Lakewood. Michigan.botball. Suite B Orion. Centre for Autonmous Systems.evolution. Deputy Coordinator Tel: (650) 269-2787 http://robotics.ac. 1761 Pilgrim Avenue Mountain View.hp.aad. OK 73069 USA Tel: (405) 579-4609 http://www. Henrik I Christensen.html Norman.com ReadyGo Inc.nasa.. Kingston Tasmania 7050 Australia Tel: +61 3 6232 3209 http://www. Inc.readygo.atr. BA3 4JE United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1761 239 267 http://www. WA 98073 USA Tel: (425) 861-8400 http://www.org Euron c/o Prof. USA Tel: (650) 559-8990 Fax: (650) 559-5950 http://www. Redmond. CA 91103 USA Tel: (626) 229-3199 http://www.com Intelligent Robotics Laboratory 2-1 Yamada-oka Suita Osaka 565-0871 Japan Tel: +81-6-6879-4180 http://www. Ten 40th Street Pittsburgh.ife. 130 W.com/halo/index.scate.generalrobotics. 100 Do not reproduce 247 .org Evolution Robotics.com Raptivity P.active-robots.org NASA Robotics Alliance Project c/o Cassie Bowman.eng.whmsi.jp Australian Antarctic Division Channel Highway. Radstock Somerset. Box 2827.gov Robotics Academy The National Robotics Engineering Consortium Carnegie Mellon University.rec.com Rapid e-learning Tools Articulate 244 5th Avenue Suite 2960 New York. O.osaka-u.ri. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.com ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai Keihanna Science City Kyoto 619-0288 JAPAN Tel: +81-774-95-1405 http://www.cmu. Colorado 80228-2813 USA Tel: 1 (303) 988-5636 http://www. D. SWEDEN.articulate. SE-100 44 Stockholm. CT 06355-1997 USA Tel: (860) 572-5955 Fax: (860) 572-5969 http://www. Inc. Chilcompton.euron.ed.au Botball c/o KISS Institute for Practical Robotics 1818 W.com Robotics Active Robots Limited 10A New Rock Industrial Estate New Rock.ams. Ste. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 Fax: (650) 857-5518 http://www. Union St.Virtual Classroom c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto. Numerical Analysis and Computer Science. (WHMSI) PO Box 164 Woods Hole Massachusetts 02543 USA Tel: (508) 548-6665 Fax: (508) 540-1036 http://www.irc.raptivity. Tel: (+46) 8 790 6792 http://www.jp Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration 55 Coogan Blvd Mystic. Pasadena. USA 48359 Tel: 248-371-0315 http://www.

QC G1P 4N3 Canada http://www.convera.findlaw.gigablast.6100 http://www. CA 94043 USA Tel: (650) 253-0000 http://www. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com Google (including Froogle. CA 94129-0141 Tel: (415) 561-6900 http://www.koders. Google.com IAC/InterActiveCorp 152 West 57th Street.com 229 West 43rd Street New York.about. CA 94607 Tel: (510) 985-7400 http://about.uk Ixquick Tel: +31 23 5325888 http://www. Chicago.alexa.icerocket.intute. Manchester M13 9PL UK Tel: 0161 275 0620 http://www.net Koders Inc.com Exaclibur c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 42nd Floor New York. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201.com dmoz AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles.ac. 601 108th Avenue NE Suite 1200 Bellevue.ixquick. 831 3rd St #101 Santa Monica.ask. Germany Tel: 040-200 45 36 http://www. Box 1133 Washington.google.dogpile. Google Book Store and Google Scholar) 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway Mountain View.com FindLaw 610 Opperman Drive Eagan.net/ Healthfinder P.gov Ice Rocket Tel: (214) 658-7161 http://www. MN 55123 USA Tel: (651) 687-7000 http://lawcrawler.org/ Dogpile c/o InfoSpace.be 6433 Topanga Canyon Blvd #210 Canoga Park.O.com 150 North Michigan Avenue Suite 2800. DC 20013-1133 http://www. Suite 60 Quebec.com Krugle Tel: (650) 853-1986 248 © Brandon Hall Research . Inc.com Ask.Search Engines About. Box 29141 San Francisco. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://dmoz.com Gada.com Copernic 360 Franquet Street.com/ KartOO Tel: +33 4 73 44 56 21 http://www. CA 90403 USA Tel: (800) 653-1423 http://www.info.excite.com/ Alexa Internet Presidio of San Francisco Building 37 P.com Intute MIMAS Manchester Computing The University of Manchester Oxford Road. NY 10036 USA Tel: (212) 204-4000 http://www. Scheideweg 39b 20253 Hamburg.kartoo. Gnoosic c/o Marek Gibney.healthfinder. CA 91303 USA Tel: (888) 472-0604 http://tagjag.com Info. Illinois 60601 USA Tel: (312) 624-7727 http://www.com excite.gnod.copernic.com Headquarters 555 12th Street.com Gnod.O. Suite 500 Oakland.com Gigablast Tel: (505) 797-3913 http://www. NY 10019 USA Tel: (212) 314-7300 http://www.

ibm.krugle. Mumbai 10. 2400 N.com QBIC c/o IBM 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.W.com/ Netscape AOL LLC. 23rd Oklahoma City. Mazgaon. 601 108th Avenue NE. Suite 1200 Bellevue.com Seekport Internet Technologies GmbH Fraunhoferstraße 17 D . An AOL Company 333 Bush Street.nyu.cs. Inc.com Metacrawler c/o InfoSpace. CA 94303 USA Tel: (650) 354-1360 http://www.com/v2/index. Nesbit Rd. Concord NSW 2137 Australia Tel: +61 2 8765 1108 http://www.cfm?doid=10 56808.com Proteus Project 715 Broadway. 64 Fulton Street.netscape. Suite 207 San Francisco. 360 22nd Street. USA Tel: (212) 998-3497 http://nlp.acm.almaden.http://www.htm Raw Sugar 1900 Embarcadero Road.seekport.biz Truveo.com LitLinker c/o ACM.1057022 LookSmart.com/ MSN Search One Microsoft Way Redmond.pandora. VA 22182 Tel: (703) 761-3700 http://www.com RetrievalWare c/o Convera 1921 Gallows Road Suite 200 Vienna. 17th Floor New York.pubsub. West Chatswood NSW 1515 Australia Tel: +61 2 9325 5900 http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://search. 7th floor. Oklahoma 73107 USA Tell: (405) 231-1911 http://www. NY 10003.com Lexxe Pty Ltd PO Box 235.org/citation. Mary Apts.lalisio. NY 10038 Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.metacrawler.W.com VisualSEEK Department of Electrical Engineering Columbia University 1312 S.. 6th Flr.convera. Inc. Suite 211 Palo Alto .qelix. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 896-3000 http://www. New York.mooter.truveo. CA 94104 Tel: (415) 844-9000 http://www. Inc.looksmart. New York 10036-5701 USA Tel: (212) 869-7440 http://portal. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://search.edu/ PubSub Concepts. Inc. Mudd 500 West 120th Street Do not reproduce 249 .com Lalisio GmbH Puschkinstraße 1 99084 Erfurt Germany http://www.lexxe. INDIA. 23rd Floor San Francisco. Inc.msn. 625 Second Street San Francisco. WA 98004 USA Tel: (425) 201-6100 http://www. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://wwwqbic.82152 Martinsried http://www.. Suite 390 Oakland CA 94612 USA Tel: (510) 451-4100 http://www.com SearchKing.com Pandora Media. Ltd.com Technorati 665 3rd Street. One Astor Plaza 1515 Broadway.searchking.com Mooter Media Limited PO Box 5159. Seventh Floor New York.com Qube c/o Qelix Technologies St. Tel: (022) 2371-2194 http://qube.rawsugar. 22000 AOL Way Dulles.technorati.

com Intermezzon Box 173 SE-402 26 G öteborg. Suite 112 Mechanicsburg. Yahoo http://www. M5X 1C9 Canada Tel: (416) 516-0071 http://www.stt-global.intermezzon.columbia.net Biographix 1st Canadian Place 100 King Street West Toronto.Centre for Social Innovation Linke Wienzeile 246.elena-project. PA 17055 USA Semantic Web ELENA c/o Barbara Kieslinger . Berkshire RG2 6UG United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 118 921 2070 http://www. 10 Old Bailey. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco.macromedia. 1st Floor A .knowledgequest. CA 94089 USA Tel: (408) 349-3300 Products: Altavista.org IBM Integrated Ontology Development Toolkit 1133 Westchester Avenue White Plains.com Experience Builders LLC 836 Custer Avenue Evanston.O.assima.macromedia. Inc.yahoo. Inc. Ontario.com 250 © Brandon Hall Research .New York. Illinois 60202 USA Tel: (847) 475-4400 http://www.com Flash c/o Macromedia.com Kaplan IT Learning 250 South Oak Way.com Assima Ltd. 601 Townsend Street San Francisco. MA 02452 USA Tel: (781) 693-7500 http://www.experiencebuilders. 701 First Avenue Sunnyvale. CA 94103 USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www. EC4M 7NG London.edu/dvmm/resear chProjects/MultimediaIndexing/VisualSEEk /VisualSEEk.com Captivate c/o Macromedia.ibm.com Forio Business Simulations 365 Brannan Street San Francisco. CA 94103USA Tel: (415) 832-2000 http://www.biographix. New York 10604 USA Tel: (800) 426-4968 http://www. GreenPark Reading.tkk. CT 0684 USA Tel: (203) 966-8572 http://www.atghome.com Knowledge Planet 5095 Ritter Road.1150 Vienna Tel: +43 1 495 04 42 31 http://www. Sweden Tel: +46 (0) 31-40 84 50 http://www.ee. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)207 038 1702 http://www.forio.htm Yahoo! Inc.fi Simulation Tools Access Technologies Group P. NY 10027 Tel: (212) 854-3105 http://www. Professor Tel: +358 9 451 3362 http://www. CA 92651 Tel: (949) 376-8150 http://www.com/tech/sem anticstk Personal Reader c/o Nicola Henze ISI .AG Semantic Web Appelstrasse 4 30167 Germany Tel: +49-511-762-19716 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 440-7500 http://www.zoominfo. 307 Waverley Oaks Road Waltham.com/ Knowledge Quest 301 Forest Avenue Laguna Beach.de Semantic Computing Research Group c/o Docent. Box 1558 New Canaan.seco.com Zoom Information Inc.alphaworks.Project Coordinator CSI .personal-reader.

com Tactic! c/o EDU-PERFORMANCE CANADA 7900 Boul. PO Box 397 Saratoga Springs. 55 South Market St. GA 30350 USA Tel : (678) 277-3231 http://www. Schaumburg. The University of Birmingham Birmingham.com Virtual Control Room c/o Jørgen Bøegh.stottlerhenke. CO 80305-3328 USA Tel: (303) 497-5487 http://www.bham.Tel: (717) 790-0400 http://www.teds.virtualcontrolroom. 2280 St.ac. J4X 1C2 Canada Tel: (450) 466-7275 http://www. 94404 USA Tel: +1 (650) 931-2700 http://www.knowledge-director.com/English/t 6essai.gov RapidBuilder c/o XStream Software. Newburyport. CA 94010-4212 USA Tel: (650) 599-0399 http://www.learning2005.maxit. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-9099 http://www.. Suite 300 Wichita.com Knowledge Director Pte Ltd 88 Joo Chiat Road Levels 3 and 4 Singapore 427382 Main Line: +65 63444 765 / 63444 903 http://www. Laurent Blvd. Ontario.html Viewlet Builder c/o Qarbon. Suite 360 San Mateo. BC V9A 3K5 Canada Tel: (250) 361-9497 http://www.com Visual Course Builder c/o MaxIT Corporation 2771-29 Monument Road MS-355 Jacksonville. CA .html SimBionic c/o Stottler Henke 951 Mariner's Island Blvd. Suite 240 Atlanta. 3 Bunhill Row London EC1Y 8YZ UK Tel: +44 (0) 20 7847 4087 http://www. Kansas 67202 USA Tel: (316) 265-2170 http://www. Venlighedsvej 4 DK-2970 Hørsholm.noaa. Suite 1550 San Jose.com Stagecast Software.com/products SimCorder c/o TEDS Inc. Light & Acoustics..com/learnland Muzzy Lane Software 44 Merrimac St.org Wizard Training Suite c/o Assima. ASH Project Manager DELTA Danish Electronics.qarbon.nexlearn.com SimAgent TOOLKIT School of Computer Science.cs. K1G 4K1 Canada Tel: (613) 731-9443 http://www. Taschereau Ouest.stagecast. Tel: (276) 783-6991 http://www.outstart.fsl. NY 12866 – USA Tel: (518) 350-2216 http://www.com Softsim Outstart Studio. Inc. Québec. 1325 Howard Avenue #705 Burlingame.uk/research/projec ts/poplog/packages/simagent.eduperformance.com MASIE Center. 1821 Walden Office Square.com NexLearn. England http://www.net Do not reproduce 251 . Suite 400. LLC 100 South Main Street. Denmark Tel: +45 72 19 43 97 http://www.assima.com KnowledgePresenter c/o GeoMetrix Data Systems 240 Bay Street Victoria.com NOAA/ESRL 325 Broadway Boulder. CA 95113 USA Tel: (408) 907-4800 http://www.stt-global. Suite A-207 Brossard.xstreamsoftware.muzzylane.knowledgeplanet. Inc.knowledgepresenter. IL 60173 USA Tel: (800) 608-5373 http://www. Suite 200 Ottawa. B15 2TT. FL 32225 USA Tel: (904) 998-9520 http://www.com STT Trainer c/o Kaplan IT Learning 500 Northridge Road.. Inc.

. 701 First Ave Sunnyvale.com Visualization and Interactive Spaces Lab c/o Pervasive Technology Labs 501 N. Inc 9191 Towne Centre Drive.nolia Tel: (415) 364-0070 http://ma.classmates.com Network c/o The TechnoCentre.com Social Software Alliance c/o Social Text. 568 Howard Street San Francisco.icio. Klapparstigur 28 IS-101 Reykjavik.com Classmates Online. VA 20166 USA Tel: (703) 265-1000 http://www. 795 Folsom St. Puma Way Coventry CV1 2TT United Kingdom Tel: (+44) 024 7623 6891 http://www. Iceland Tel: +354 860 3800 http://www. Suite 500 Renton. 94025 USA Tel: (650) 234-9629 http://www.O.com Shadows c/o Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 655 High Street Palo Alto. MA 02139 USA http://tabblo. 1772J Avenida de los Arboles PMB #374 Thousand Oaks.com Friendster. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 855-4810 http://vis.com Social Bookmarking del. Inc.us Eventful c/o EVDB.zvents.com/ mag. CA 91362 USA Tel: (805) 529-9374 http://jots.shtml?prim=lab_ove rview San Francisco.us c/o Yahoo! Inc. 625 Second Street San Francisco.com FURL c/o LookSmart.Smart Labels and Tags Checkpoint Systems.edu/index.com Spurl ehf. Suite 125 San Diego. Inc.. California 92122 USA Tel: (858) 964-0697 http://eventful. Inc. Suite 900 Austin. Inc.com Netscape c/o AOL LLC 22000 AOL Way Dulles. Box 920089 Needham. Morton Street. Inc.networkltd. CA.net/ssa SocioSite c/o Albert Benschop Nieuwe Jonkerstraat 16 252 © Brandon Hall Research .tagzania. 2001 Lind Ave.rojo.spurl.icio.. California 94301 Tel: (650) 323-0800 http://www.socialtext. MA 02492 USA Tel: +1 (781) 453-7372 http://www.shadows. Ltd.net Jots c/o VPOP Technologies.eu Rojo Networks. 101 Wolf Drive. First Floor Social Networking Tools Analytic Technologies P. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.netscape. CA 94105 USA http://www.checkpointsystems.gnolia. Thorofare.furl.com Tagzania c/o CodeSyntax Azitaingo Industrialdea 3K E-20600 EIBAR Tel: (+34) 943 82 17 80 http://www.com Zvents 2108 Sand Hill Rd.iu. Menlo Park. WA 98055 USA http://www. CA 94089 USA http://del.analytictech.friendster. SW. Suite 224 Bloomington. NJ 08086 Tel: (856) 848-1800 http://www.net Tabblo 810 Memorial Dr Cambridge. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www. CA 94107 USA Tel: (415) 348-7000 http://www.

P 3285 Scott Boulevard Santa Clara. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) .apple. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Inc 1 Infinite Loop. Suite 115 San Diego. D-44139 Dortmund Germany Tel: +49 (231) 1084-303 http://www. 12601 USA Tel: (845) 795-2090 http://www.hp.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.advanced. MA 02143 USA Tel: (617) 921-0185 http://www.hpc.com iTunes Apple Computer. 34 56025 Pontedera (PI) . CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.com/halo/index.net Sparta Social Networks.mil Information in Place Indiana University Research Park Video DFILM 7095 Hollywood Blvd.jabber. LLC 15 Skehan Street Somerville. Inc. Box 1641 Denver.bittorrent.html Jabber Software Foundation P.1011 CM Amsterdam. Suite 44-193 Poughkeepsie . CA 90028 USA http://www. Suite 900 San Francisco. Church Street. Bristol BS1 5UH Tel: 44 (0)117 915 8200 http://www.xstreamengine. CO 80201-1641 USA http://www.O.com Do not reproduce 253 . CA 94105 USA http://www. One Cambridge Center Cambridge.com Erg Netz Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universität Dortmund (IfADo) Ardeystrasse 67.ergonetz. 7220 Trade Street.brightcove.percro.org Fakespace 11 E.de Futurelab 1 Canons Road Harbourside. New York.org Veoh Networks.jabber.activeworlds. Iowa 50158-5011 USA Tel: (641) 754-4649 http://www.com Halo c/o Hewlett-Packard Company 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto.sociosite. 95 Parker Street Newburyport.fakespace. CA 94304-1185 USA Tel: (650) 857-1501 http://www.futurelab.com Jabber Software Foundation P. 4th Floor Marshalltown.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www. VA 23461-1924 https://www.spartasocialnetworks. MA 01950 USA Tel: (978) 499-0222 http://www. Inc.spider.navy.veoh.dfilm. Box 1641 Denver.O.org PERCRO Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna Via Rinaldo Piaggio.Italy Tel: +39 050 883 287 http://www.uk Human Performance Center (HPC) Spider Commanding Officer: CAPT Matt Peters 2025 Tartar Avenue Virginia Beach.org Virtual Reality Activeworlds Inc.percro. CA 92121 USA http://www.com Telepresence Technologies Advanced Network & Services 2600 South Road. CA 95014 Tel: (408) 996-1010 http://www.com Brightcove.com BitTorrent 201 Mission Street.org. Netherlands Tel: +31 (0) 612120759 http://www.com XstreamEngine2 c/o Winnov L. CA 95054-3014 USA Tel: (408) 207-4400 http://www. Suite 1001 Los Angeles. Cupertino.

O. Williams Building College Park.intergraph. UT 84020 USA 254 © Brandon Hall Research . 350 South 400 West. Draper.com HCIL/UMIACS University of Maryland A.uk/ iDashboards 5750 New King Street.accurender. Colorado 80401-1866 USA Tel: (303) 279-1021 http://www. Suite 280 Downers Grove. CA 95378 USA Visualization Technologies Accurender c/o Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Ave N Seattle.htm Tel: 1 (801) 495-1777 http://www. Irron Politechniou str GR-157 73 Zografou.com Ambient Devices One Broadway 14th Floor Kendall Square.com/ MapInfo One Global View. CA 92121 USA Tel: (866) 437-2171 http://www. 809 14th Street. WA 98103 USA Sales Tel: (206) 545-7000 http://www.com ESRI Suite 300.vista. Golden. Athens-Greece Tel: +30 210 7721663 http://www.V. Tracy. IN 47404 USA Tel: (812) 856-4202 http://www.informationinplace.bham.feedtank.net Virtual Reality Lab EPFL.edu/vrel. MD 20742 USA Tel: (301) 405-2769 http://www. Station 14 CH-1015 LAUSANNE.xcelsius. Suite 100 Lindon.intuition-eunetwork.cs.com FeedTank 590 Grand St.epfl.501 North Morton Street. Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: +44 (0)121 414 5513 http://www.ch Virtual Reality and Education Laboratory College of Education. Troy. 1333 Butterfield Rd.coe.com Golden Software. Box 240000 Huntsville. MA 01923 USA Tel: (978) 777-4543 http://www.com Intuition 9. Switzerland Tel: +41-21-693-5215 http://vrlab.com Formz 2011 Riverside Drive. NY 11211 USA Tel: (718) 384-2202 http://www. IL 60515 USA Tel: (630) 971-5250 http://www.corda.mapinfo.com DAZ3D 12637 South 265 West #300.com CSXcelsius 10509 Vista Sorrento Parkway. Box 884. OH 43221 USA Tel: (614) 488-8838 http://www. UT 84042 Tel: (801) 805-9400 http://www.formz. Cambridge. Inc.idashboards.com/ Intergraph Corporation P.com/ ADVIZOR Solutions.golden. East Carolina University Tel: (252) 328-6621 http://vr.edu/hcil/millionvis/ HP Visual and Spatial Technology Centre Metallurgy and Materials Building University of Birmingham Edgbaston. NY 12180 USA Tel: (518) 285-6000 http://www. Inc.ambientdevices. Suite 317 San Diego. 1 Corporate Place 55 Ferncroft Road.O.ecu.ac. MI 48098 USA Tel: (248) 952-0840 http://www. Suite 110 Troy.esri.com Mapland c/o Software Illustrated P.. AL 35824 Tel: (256) 730-2000 http://www. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 758-4129 http://www. Inc.daz3d. IC ISIM VRLAB.advizorsolutions.com CenterView c/o CORDA Technologies. Suite 206 Bloomington.umd. Columbus. Suite 3 Brooklyn. Danvers.

com JAJAH Inc. CA 94085 USA Tel: (408) 738-6200 Fax: (408) 738-6203 http://www. CA 94712 USA http://www. Inc.html Visual Thesaurus c/o THINKMAP.jajah. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research.spotfire. Inc. Unit # 1 Mississauga. 500 Macara Avenue Sunnyvale.nih.com VRVis Research Center for Virtual Reality and Visualization.sportbrain. Ltd. NY 10012 USA http://www.com Unified Field.Tel: (209) 832-7353 http://www.vicodi.skype.com Ontopia AS Waldemar Thranes gate 98 N-0175 Oslo.pixologic.com Music Animation Machine Post Office Box 13622 Berkeley.com Vicodi Edvins Snore. CA 90007 USA Tel: (888) 748-5967 http://www. MA 01863 USA http://www.com Wearable Computing SportBrain Holdings Inc. NY 10016 USA Tel: (212) 532-9595 http://www. Suite 305 North Chelmsford. Riga. Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zurich Do not reproduce 255 .okino. 2513 Charleston Road. 320 West 31st Street Los Angeles.vrvis. Unit A2 Naples.musanim.visualanalytics. 155 Spring Street. U.S.ontopia. Norway Tel: +47 23 23 30 80 http://www.gov/research/visible/vi sible_human.com Top Tier Tel: (415) 225-5840 http://www. MD 20837 Tel: (301) 407-2200 http://www. 73 Princeton Street.com VIBE c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. MA 02144 Tel: +1 (617) 702-1600 http://www. LV-1012 LATVIA Tel: +371-7-378155 http://www.com Spotfire.topozone. 212 Elm Street Somerville. 3 East 28th St.com Visible Human Project c/o Reference and Web Services National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda.mccrackendesign. MD 20894 USA Tel: (301) 594-5983 http://www. Inc. RIDemo Brivibas 183. Austria Tel: +43(1)20501 30100 http://www.net Pixologic. ETZ H Electronics Lab. Suite 102 Mountain View. A-1220 Vienna.unifiedfield. Ontario L4V 1T8. 869 97th Ave N. 94043 USA http://www.microsoft.com Wearable Cumputing Lab ETH Zentrum.inxight.nlm.softill. 20010 Fisher Avenue. W1T 1AN United Kingdom http://www. FL 34108 USA http://www. 2nd Floor Poolesville.com Okino Computer Graphics 3397 American Drive. California.visualthesaurus. Suite 3A New York. Inc.at Vizserver c/o Inxight Software. Donau-City-Strasse 1. Inc. Canada Tel: (905) 672-9328 http://www.org Visual Analytics Inc. 9th floor New York.com Topzone c/o Maps a la carte.com VoIP and Telephony Skype Technologies 2 Stephen Street London.

com Pluck Corporation 720 Brazos St. 303 Potrero #40E Santa Cruz CA 95060 USA Tel: (877) 742-7786 http://feedbeep.feedreader.715135858 http://www.. TX 78701 USA Tel: (512) 457-5220 http://www.bloglines.com FeedBurner World Headquarters 549 W Randolph.attensa. Inc.com FeedBeep c/o Santa Cruz Tech. BC V6H 4E4 Canada http://bytescout.com Feedster.microsoft. Inc. Rue Guillaume-Tell 10.com Rojo Networks. South #358 St.com Feedscoute c/o Bytescout. 111 SW Fifth Avenue. Inc. CA 94301 USA Tel: (650) 323-3225 http://www. MA 02142-1406 USA Tel: (617) 679-0909 http://www.. CA 95008 USA http://www.com Thunderlizard c/o Mozilla Corporation 1981 Landings Drive. P. Estonia http://www.rssreader. FL 33701-431 USA Tel: (727) 231-0101 http://wikimediafoundation. 200 2nd Ave. Switzerland http://www. WA 98052-6399 USA Tel: (800) 642-7676 http://research. Kruisstraat 2 2312 BH Leiden.com RSS Reader c/o Ykoon B.V.. MA 02142 USA Tel: (617) 500-4947 http://www. Inc. Valdeku 100.1001 W.com Feedreader / i-Systems Inc.ethz.org JotSpot.com Onfolio Four Cambridge Center.com Windows Live c/o Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond. OR 97204 USA Tel: (503) 973-6060 http://www. 3rd Floor Cambridge. 11211. Coldbrook Business Corp. CA 94043-0801 USA http://www.wearable. San Francisco.brightcove.com PubSub Concepts.pubsub. Inc. Suite 605 San Francisco. 167 Hamilton Ave. 116 New Montgomery Street. 64 Fulton Street.jot. 795 Folsom St. MA 02339 USA Tel: (781) 829-0500 http://www. NY 10038 USA Tel: (212) 227-4101 http://www.mozilla. Inc. Broadway. Suite 900 Austin. Seventh Floor New York.onfolio. Suite 381 Vancouver.com FeedForAll PO Box 296.feedforall. CA 94105 USA Tel: (415) 348-9119 http://www.com Wiki Tools Wikimedia Foundation Inc.feedster.com Brightcove. 6th Floor Chicago IL 60661 USA Tel: (312) 756-0022 http://www.feedzilla.pluck. One Cambridge Center Cambridge. 2nd Floor Palo Alto.com StepNewz c/o Feedzilla. CA 94107 Tel: (415) 848-2468 http://www.com Bloglines 655 Technology Parkway. Petersburg.Fax: +41-1-632 12 10 http://www. Building K Mountain View. Hanover. California 94301 USA 256 © Brandon Hall Research .feedburner. Pacific Business Centre #101 . Nederland Tel: +31. Suite 100 Campbell.rojo. First Floor. Suite 2260 Portland.O Box 1909 CH-1211 Geneva.com Socialtext 655 High Street Palo Alto.ch Web Feeds Attensa. Tallinn.

com Do not reproduce 257 .socialtext.Tel: +1 (650) 323-0800 http://www.

258 © Brandon Hall Research .

29. 160. 199. 121. 72. 80. 85. 80. 70. 112. 63. 18. 89. 197. 68. 112. 165 Air display. 27. 58. 113. 67. 100. 78. 201 Adaptive systems. 177. 137. 52. 177. 23. 53 barcodes. 207. 91. 90. 66. 34. 27. 127. 39. 59. 89. 114. 42. 196 cognitive maps. 66. 191. 132. 116. 44. 189. 170. 170. 209. 128. 93. 26. 137. 47. 170. 93. 211. 165. 100. 129. 27. 81. 198. 46. 47. 145. 219. 180. 196. 21. 65. 231. educational. 45. 197. 194. 46. 25. 49. 27. 50. 218 Agents. 5. 49 AJAX. 196. 35. 93. 159. 162. 136. 70. 57. 211. 74. 160. 139 assessment. 46. 48. 31. 178. 48. 74. 174. 84 Adobe. 226 Authorware. 146. 100. 109. 37. 45. 12. 128. 67. 36. 84. 184. 26. 130. 180. 216 Affective computing. 46. 109. 216 Computer based assessment. 23. 122. 101. 203. 71. 127. 69. 93. 23. 72. 201 cognitive collage. 43. 217 Collaboration. 26. 121. 85. 64. 196. 18. 95. 171. 146. 63. 149. 67. 81. 27. 140. 149. 69. 4. 56. 35. 138. 176. 28. 20. 6. 85. 203. 127. 67. 78. 119. 161. 50. 39. 196. 158. 123. 21. 80. 15. 8. 97. 238 Advantages of e-learning. 165. 125. 40. 69. 52. 110. 112. 36. 199 Architectures. 193. 22. 23. 64. 77. 33. 50. 196 Dashboards. 75. 18. 141. 29. 209. 193. 174 Bayesian probability. 91. 21. 21. 145. 192 Browsers. 194. 127. 208. 194. 74. 21. 66. 137. 85 Blogs. 25. 59. 146. 101. 198 Data mining. 180 Competency Tracking. 148. 74. 30. 91. 193. 50. 190. 156. 84. 66. 165.Index 3-D graphics. 24. 181. 74. 45 Avatars. 203. 45. 43. 28. 35. 41. 55. 191. 150. 127. 11. 35 Content management. 135. 16. 176. 88 Aircraft Industry CBT Committee (AICC). 88 cybercartography. 69. 60 Clickers. 191. 18. 93. 59. 83. 65. 140. 54. 69. 66. 90 Assessment. 24. 70. 196 collaboration. 15. 72. 180 Artificial Intelligence. 180. 39. 159. 189. 57. 211 Communications Tools. 171. 24. 145 Conversational learning. 170. 60 Cognition. 4. 181. 46. 16. 94. 50. 29. 190. 65. 169. 20. 63. 63. 65. 158 Brandon Hall Research. 171. 184. 71. 189. 7. 203. 145. 86. 190. 52. 16. 177. 4. 116. 223. 170. 158 Do not reproduce 259 . 211. 82. 180. 50. 48. 233 Collaborative writing wiki. 79 Complexity theory. 139. 200. 47. 209. 159. 48. 62. 35. 23. 15. 70. 193. 2. 17. 172 Audio. 74. 42. 13. 193. 160. 205 Animation. 51. 22. 24. 117. 179. 122. 83. 196. 128. 209 Augmented reality. 215 Communities of practice. 28. 118. 212 Boolean searches. 176 Cell phones. 122. 5. 153. 144. 46. 110. 109. 211 Broadband. 127 Cooperation. 36. 47. 122 Ambient computing. 169. 174. 65. 94. 44. 207 Classroom response systems. 103. 97. 15. 125. 57. 195 Authoring tools.

54. 122. 37. 88. 196. 26. 26. 187. 33. 88. 196. 85. 131. 23 Human-computer interaction (HCI). 191 Games. 23. 25. 25. 158. 119. 203. 166. 34. 106. 24 e-Portfolios. 107. 198. 153. 18. 16. 49. 164. 127. 97. 16. 139. 165 Handwriting recognition. 60. 45 Displays. 206 Digital Ink and Paper. 65. 134. 15. 69. 169 Expert systems. 80. 106 Haptics. 174. 162. 94. 8. 184 e-Science. 11. 7. 35. 155. 204 Dreamweaver. 33. 27. 20. 124. 80. 31. 80. 120. 152. 109. 63. 217 Instant messaging. 25. 197. 158 Design. 72. 94. 193. 48. 178. 125. 110. 196 e-Commerce. 120. 47. 84. 57. 63. 58. 215. 214 Human-centered computing. 134. 4. 103. 196. 42. 93. 196 Graphics. 12. 199. 74. 215 Informal learning. 83. 6. 100. 169. 106. 189. 215. 80. 57. 22. 193. 110. 25. 197. 93. 5. 119. 152. 196. 219 Infrared tags. 169. 153 Facial recognition. 154. 183. 95. 106. 13. 94. 173. 97. 69. 7. 119. 35. 238 Geocaching. 109. 9. 11. 193. 52. 170 Federated searches. 28. 66. 88. 162. 70. 5. 67. 23. 89. 202. 216 Director. 166. 107. 149. 26. 146. 30. 101. 201 Grid computing. 109. 180. 45 Fuzzy Logic. 100. 134. 175 Innovation in e-Learning. 124. 46. 158. 152. 63. 30. 64. 137. 27. 123 Hype in e-learning. 75. 175. 45. 47. 45. 121. 184. 20. 108. 19. 243 Geographic Positioning System (GPS). 201 FrontPage. 79. 180. 78. 134. 162 History. 52. 194. 20. 141. 196. 101. 116. 3. 100. 26. 106. 154. 163 Findability. 26 Emotional design. 4. 26. 217. 122. 159. 48. 15. 120. 174. 89. 75. 106 Head mounted displays. 35 Frameworks. 216. 57 Flash. 161. 250 Folksonomies. 170. 121. 114. 190. 9. 34. 32. 85. 149. 119 Geographic Information System (GIS). 201. 114. 139 260 © Brandon Hall Research . 84. 88. 225. 162. 3. 156. 45 dynamic displays. 81. 71. 91. 97. 11. 64. 125. 170. 59. 205 Hybrid systems. 106 Healthcare applications. 85 Extreme learning. 23. 132. 86 Deep Web. 104. 11. 189. 24. 172. 187. 49 Google. 17. 158. 151. 68. 90 Experiential learning. 86. 74. 198. 59. 25. 49. 37. 160. 199. 197. 146. 163. 205. 29. 90. 5. 169. 152. 199 Gesture recogntion. e-learning. 158 Informatics. 27. 133. 60. 187 Intelligent tutoring. 217 images. 5. 186. 248 graphics. 176. 122. 70. 176. 86. 119 FireFox. 200. 197. 239 Individualization. 178. 11. 89. 98 GIF graphic format. 9. 200. 193. 74. 13. 49. 193. 8. 216 Distributed systems. 210 formative assessment. 47. 16.Decision support systems. 137. 53. 88. 170. 66. 16. 134. 210. 91. 88. 107. 127. 70. 51. 196 Immersive environments. 21. 119. 103. 93. 9. 55. 123. 4. 13. 179. 167 evaluation. 103.

165 Microlearning. 217 Live Presentations and Webinars. 172. 192. 189. 23. 66. 135. 206. 137. 150. 128. 100. 140. 150. 114. 46. 121. 8. 249. 190. 35 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). 21. 77. 34. 139. 93. 20 Museums. 111. 23. 240. 191. 80. 178. 207 Personal learning environments (PLE). 125 Lab book wiki. 81. 22. 86. 45. 241. 244 Meta-search engines. 143. 63. 114. 122. 234. 175. 149. 122. 223 Portals. 4. 189. 213. 74. 145. 144. 120. 129. 205 Macromedia. 137. 49. 128. 80. 82. 113. 165. 16. 44. 80. 190. 127. 180. 179 Optical tags. 112. 17. 49. 149. 46. 114 Learning Objects. 45. 45. 145. 42. 65. 114 learning object repository. 116. 15. 114. 128. 226. 6. 196 Mashups. 216. 95. 182. 127. 136. 103. 7. 30. 32. 116. 191. 119. 238. 29. 5. 211 latent semantic analysis. 113. 246. 25. 65. 79. 42. 138. 54. 4. 230. 176. 130. 120. 7. 165. 135. 149. 146. 130. 139. 137. 48. 148. 43. 159. 130 Mobile computing. 129. 237. 89. 166. 109. 40. 180. 112. 176. 183. 155. 121. 255. 133 Learning Content Management Systems. 26. 109. 116. 246 Location based tools. 124. 125. 193. 139. 124. 191. 156 Legacy materials. 115. 153. 250 mapping. 146. 134. 137. 140. 204. 120. 114.Interface devices. 26. 211 Personal digital assistants (PDAs). 68. 11. 190. 47. 205. 65. 45. 107. 161. 152. 152 Networks. 42. 107. 145. 123. 134. 215 Interoperability. 119. 54. 144 Navigation. 170. 7. 147. 69. 141. 148. 45 Do not reproduce 261 . 134. 35. 156. 106. 26. 58. 80. 43. 108. 174. 48. 171 M-learning. 45. 125. 18. 100. 241 Learning Management Systems. 128. 146. 138. 36. 115. 176. 26. 63. 134. 122. 131. 162. 191. 129. 196 Pedagogy. 153 Microsoft. 163 Microformats. 174. 160. 122. 199 Neural networks. 43. 111. 69. 152 Lecturing. 139. 81. 47. 189. 119. 196 Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). 161. 127. 109. 145. 140. 53. 146. 180. 85. 24. 2. 90. 6. 166 Pervasive computing. 93. 119. 186. 194. 34. 110. 199. 127. 190 Knowledge base wiki. 123 Medical applications. 180. 134. 42. 193. 145. 244 Motion Graphics. 187. 47. 148. 142. 215. 97 Ontologies. 233. 127. 246. 110. 4. 68. 165. 165 pattern recognition. 211 Knowledge management. 31. 91. 216. 220. 125. 141. 26 Metadata. 114. 119. 60. 169. 6. 26. 20. 124 iPod. 65. 189. 98. 124. 139. 183. 239. 213 Peer to peer technologies (P2P). 27. 143. 62. 66. 47. 135. 78. 80. 48. 78. 199. 107. 101. 6. 62. 174. 174 OWL – Web Ontology Language. 178. 6. 15. 64. 21. 36. 171. 57. 124. 76. 152 Libraries. 196. 124. 60. 174. 23. 192. 139 Personalization. 85. 143. 17. 154. 242 learning object model. 77. 54. 97. 90. 160. 25. 42. 171 Metacognition. 26. 109. 59. 80. 7. 70. 127 Podcasting. 166 PowerPoint. 140. 158. 256 Microworlds. 65. 172. 181. 127. 178. 35. 135.

165. 59. 149. 9. 171 Science. 182. 40. 152. 196 Serious games. 191 Tours (online). 175 Rapid e-learning. 115. 153. 35 Quizzes. 46. 177. 174 Social bookmarking. 181. 170. 131. 20. 159. 49. 247 Role-playing. 47. 47. 174. 47. 227. 35. 191. 74. 116. 110. 176. 4. 22. 189 Search engines. 47. 122 Tagging. 93. 11. 141. 180. 148 Smart labels and tags. 166. 189 Television. 110. 205 Shockwave. 45. 169. 97. 156. 88. 179. 27. 4. 211 Social networking analysis (SNA). 137. 176 Team management. 133. 124. 176. 9. 64 Telephony. 52. 37. 35 Semantic Web. 167. 138. 54. 174. 15. 212 Radio frequency identification tags (RFID). 148. 216 Tests. 48. 124. 199 Single-user wiki. 36. 46. 119. 77. 91. 9. 177. 199 Taxonomies. 38. 155. 65. 203 Telepresence. 83. 5. 193. 27. 129. 124. 211 Tags. 114 Screencasting. 26. 119. 171. 26. 66. 5. 199 Turing Test. 122. 74. 81. 165. 8. 170. 184 Resource Description Framework (RDF). 221 SCORM. 50. 89. 119. 131. 70 Radio. 119. 174. 57 T-Learning. 246 Privacy. 55. 189. 169. 82. 141. 119 quizzes. 48. 94. 125. 169. 57. 109. 122 sharable content objects. 124. 87. 50. 40. 207 Social networking. 21 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). 80. 189. 47. 54. 62. 179. 165. 161. 34. 203. 95. 154. 90 Reusability. 174 Project management. 35. 94. 114. 135. 150. 35 Symbology tags. 144. 68. 125. 30. 176. 115. 190. 37. 91. 189. 173. 217 Translation. 132 Streaming video. 177. 134. 116. 26. 166. 184. 225. 211 Skypecasting. 178. 152 Thin clients. 122. 54. 109. 186. 71. 131. 88. 114. 185. 6. 197. 83. 174. 178. 134. 38. 172. 162. 160. 174. 114 Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM). 49. 114. 178. 118. 86. 191 summative assessment. 125. 114 Repositories. 95 Service oriented architectures (SOA). 159. 93. 215. 163. 168. 188. 75. 116. 39. 106 Proximity tools. 69. 93. 167 reusable learning objects. 48. 163. 35. 150. 156. 141. 64. 36. 150. 57. 137. 170. 209. 114 Robotics. 174 self-evaluation. 189 Security. 106. 11. 153. 54. 50. 158. 46. 35. 155. 35. 48. 191 Tangible computing. 9. 160. 46. 26. 36. 48. 177. 172. 7. 47. 215. 179. 42. 36. 148. 16. 117. 152 Projectors. 154. 125. 84. 175. 39. 52. 247 rapid learning. 62. 141. 49. 134. 183. 123 Simulations. 180. 215. 189. 120. 11.Presentation tools. 168 résumés. 175 Tag clouds. 171 Scenarios. 158. 161. 112. 23 262 © Brandon Hall Research . 139. 175. 21. 155. 72. 180. 181 Speech recognition. 74.

90. 43. 203. 7. 109. 81. 165. 212. 65. 191. 206. 11. 119. 150 Web feeds (Atom and RSS). 106. 9. 174. 148. 215. 216. 150. 148. 123. 60. 69. 121. 130. 193. 127. 187. 210. 113. 57. 67. 98. 88. 210. 154 Virtual learning environments. 213. 74. 193 Visualization. 22. 106. 123. 200. 189 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). 205 Usability. 182. 182. 79. 149. 108. 255 Web conferencing. 57. 137 Virtual reality. 164. 91. 74. 176. 200. 148 Whiteboards. 148. 211. 106. 89. 66. 211. 199. 212 Wikis. 64. 100. 190. 256 Woodill. 148 Virtual classrooms. 40. 255 Wearable computing. 5. 45. 207. 107. 209. 187. 216 Vlogs. 253 Videocasting. 56. 80. 160. 189 virtual classroom. 209. 214. 124. 51. 217 Word. 194 Video. 177. 189 Vodcasting. 9. 189. 177. 49. 159. 150 Webinars. 211. 208. 192. 46. 44. 205. 256 Webcasting.Ubiquitous computing. 108. 45 World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). 112. 68. 196. 3. 62. 74. 239 Wikipedia. 215. 198. 197. 145. 131. 168 Do not reproduce 263 . Gary. 236. 137. 4. 13.

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